Kruit Plot

Die kruitplot van 1605 was 'n mislukte poging van pro-Katolieke samesweerders om op 5 November die Engelse parlement op te blaas en koning James I van Engeland (r. 1603-1625) en die hele adel saam met hom dood te maak. Die komplot is ontdek toe een van die samesweerders 'n anonieme brief gestuur het waarin 'n familielid wat in die parlement sou wees, gewaarsku is.

Om middernag op 4 November is Guy Fawkes onder die Westminster -paleis aangekeer voordat hy die kans gehad het om die 35 vate buskruit wat in die paleis se kelders gestoor is, aan te steek. Onder brutale marteling in die Tower of London het Fawkes die name van sy mede -samesweerders onthul en hul planne om so 'n chaos te veroorsaak dat 'n staatsgreep deur magte wat gunstig is vir die Katolieke saak moontlik sou wees. Die skuldige partye, insluitend Guy Fawkes, is afgerond en ook gemartel deur die grusame metode om gehang, getrek en in kwartiere te word, 'n lot wat voorbehou is vir diegene wat skuldig is aan verraad teen die Kroon. Vuurvure is die aand van 5 November aangesteek om die mislukking van die plot te vier en hierdie tradisie gaan vandag voort op 'n geleentheid op daardie datum, ook bekend as 'Bonfire Night', 'Guy Fawkes' Night 'of' Fireworks Night '.

Katolisisme in Engeland

Elizabeth I van Engeland (r. 1558-1603) het die Protestantse godsdiens in haar koninkryk aangemoedig, en hierdie beleid is voortgesit deur haar opvolger James I van Engeland, wat ook James VI van Skotland was (r. 1567-1625). James is as Protestant grootgemaak, maar 'n verdere slag vir ekstreme katolieke in die hoop om die geloof as die primêre godsdiens in Engeland te herstel, is op 18 Augustus 1604 behandel. Op daardie datum is 'n vredesverdrag in Londen onderteken wat uiteindelik die oorlog tussen Engeland en Katolieke Spanje. Die laaste strooi was 'n nuwe golf wette teen praktiserende Katolieke, of liewer die hervatting van sulke wette wat tydens Elizabeth se bewind van krag was. Beperkings op Katolieke sluit die verbod in om massa te hou en 'n verpligting in om Anglikaanse nagmaalsdienste by te woon of 'n strawwe boete opgelê te word.

Guy Fawkes het die stadium van die geskiedenis binnegegaan met 'n rol wat dalk net 'n cameo was, maar dit was 'n berugte wat al vier eeue lank sou duur.

'N Groep ekstremiste het nou besluit om 'n laaste dobbelsteen te gooi om Engeland terug te keer na die Katolieke godsdiens. Hulle plan was niks anders as 'n massamoordgebeurtenis wat die monargie en die regering sou uitwis nie, wat 'n politieke leemte sou skep wat pro-Katolieke magte dan kon benut om die staat oor te neem. Die ringleier van die sameswering was sir Robert Catesby, 'n kwaai Katolieke edelman. 'N Bende is noukeurig saamgestel, bestaande uit Catesby, Christopher en John Wright, Robert en Thomas Winter (ook bekend as Wintour), Thomas Percy en Thomas Bates. Al hierdie mans was Catesby se familielede, behalwe sy dienaar Bates. By die groep was twee ywerige Jesuïetpriesters - Vader Garnet en Vader Greenaway - om die vreemde projek 'n wafeldun fineer van kerklike steun te gee.

Die plan was pragtig eenvoudig: blaas die hele Engelse parlement op toe die koning die sitting op 5 November 1605 open. Teenwoordig sou die parlementslede, die here, regters, die koningsraad en die monarg self wees. Wat dan nodig was, was 'n massiewe hoeveelheid kruit en 'n bykomende lid van die bende: 'n deurwinterde, strydgeharde Katolieke huursoldaat om die lont aan te steek. Guy Fawkes, die regte naam Guido Fawkes, was die man, en hy het die stadium van die geskiedenis binnegegaan met 'n moontlik rol, maar dit was 'n berugte wat vir vier eeue lank voortduur en tel.

Die kelders van die parlement

Die samesweerders moes op die een of ander manier onder die parlementsgebou kom en hul kruit daar plant vir maksimum plofbare effek. Eers is 'n klein huisie bewoon, en daaruit is 'n tonnel gegrawe na die Westminster -paleis, maar die bende het gou besef dat dit eintlik baie makliker was om onder die Westminster -paleis te kom as wat hulle gedink het. Dit was moontlik om 'n leë steenkoolkelder in die dieptes van die gebou te huur, en dit het hulle gedoen, terwyl hulle een onder die kamer van die Here neem. Binne hierdie kelder is 35 (of 36) vate buskruit neergelê, weggesteek as 'n ekstra voorsorgmaatreël onder 'n massiewe stapel gekapte brandhout.

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Na 'n moeilike kinderjare van regente, komplotte en een ontvoering, was die koning vir ewig op sy hoede vir pogings om sy lewe te beveg.

Buskruit was destyds nog 'n relatief nuwe wapen in Europa, en 'n deskundige was nodig om geskikte smeltmiddels voor te berei om die vate tot die verwoestendste effek te bring. Guy Fawkes was net so 'n man met sy lang ervaring om vir die Spaanse weermag as huursoldaat in Nederland te veg. Om te verseker dat die ontploffing nog dodeliker was as om net poeier te gebruik, is honderde metaalstawe by die vate gevoeg, wat deur die struktuur van die gebou sou skeur. Fawkes sou die poeier bewaak tot by die oerknal.

Die brief

Alles gaan vir die samesweerders beplan totdat een van hulle, een Francis Tresham, en miskien een of twee van die ander, begin wonder het of dit moreel aanvaarbaar is om goeie katolieke eweknieë saam met almal op te blaas. Byna sekerlik was dit Tresham wat besluit het om 'n anonieme brief aan sy swaer, die Katolieke Lord Mounteagle, te skryf. Dit was die aksie waarop die hele skema in duie gestort het. Die brief, wat onder die aandag van sy meester aan een van Mounteagle se bediendes gelewer is, was 'n kriptiese waarskuwing: "Hulle sal 'n vreeslike slag hierdie parlement kry, en tog sal hulle nie kan sien wie hulle seermaak nie" (Jones, 280).

In plaas daarvan om op die waarskuwing te luister en sy eie vel te red, het Mounteagle die brief aan Lord Robert Cecil gewys, wat dit weer aan King James gewys het. Mounteagle sou later 'n ruim pensioen ontvang vir sy dade. Na 'n moeilike kinderjare van regente, komplotte en een ontvoering, was die koning vir ewig op sy hoede vir pogings om sy lewe te doen - hy het dikwels spesiaal gevoerde klere gedra as 'n bewys teen 'n mesaanval - en daarom het hy nie veel nodig gehad om te oortuig dat die die plot was werklik en het onmiddellike ondersoek vereis. Dit was nog tien dae voordat die samesweerders beplan het om hul kruit te ontplof, maar die owerhede wou nie toelaat dat die ringkoppe aan die reg ontkom nie, en wag tot die 4 November om die paleiskelders te deursoek. Die samesweerders het van die brief uitgevind, maar Tresham het sy genote probeer oortuig dat hy dit nie gestuur het nie. Terwyl die dae tot die 5de afgesak het, was daar nog geen reaksie van die owerhede nie, en die bende het dus geglo dat die brief óf verkeerd verstaan ​​is óf as 'n bedrogspul afgemaak is. Die samesweerders het toe Tresham en Fawkes met die kruit verlaat en uit Londen vertrek om voor te berei op die opstand wat hulle in die Midlands beplan het nadat die parlement vernietig is.

Die ontdekking

Die middag van 4 November het die koning gemagtig dat die soektog van die paleis se kelders begin. Die steenkoolkelder is genader, en by die deur was 'n man met 'n lamp, Guy Fawkes (sy lamp is vandag in die Ashmolean Museum in Oxford). Op 'n vraag oor wat hy daar doen, het Fawkes gesê dat sy naam John Johnson was (eintlik die dienaar van die samesweerder Thomas Percy). Fawkes het die kelder oopgesluit en die soekers toegelaat. Die soekers het die stapel hout gesien en nie die moeite gedoen om dit deeglik na te gaan nie, maar het elders gegaan. Nadat hulle niks ontdek het nie, het die soekgeselskap die koning behoorlik aangemeld. John Johnson en sy stapel hout word genoem, en vir 'n beskrywing word Fawkes beskryf as ''n baie slegte en desperate mede ... tot niks goeds' (Jones, 280). James het nie daarvan gehou nie, en hy het beveel dat 'n ander soektog later die aand uitgevoer moet word, en hierdie keer met 'n aantal soldate teenwoordig. Toe die steenkoolkelder omstreeks middernag op 4 November vir 'n tweede keer ondersoek word, het Guy Fawkes nog rondgehang. Weereens gevra om die kelder oop te sluit, het die soekgeselskap hierdie keer diep in die houtstapel gegrawe en die vate buskruit gevind. Fawkes is self deursoek, en in sy sakke was 'n horlosie, 'n stadig brandende koord om as 'n lont te dien, en 'n raakhout om 'n vlam te skep; dit was inderdaad inkriminerende getuienis.

Marteling en dood

Fawkes is na 'n gehoor saam met die koning in Whitehall geneem, waar hy erken het waarom hy met sy kruit in die kelders was, hoewel hy geweier het om sy mede -plotters te noem. Fawkes is daarna na die Tower of London geneem en in 'n klein kamer gehou om verdere ondervraging af te wag. Hy sou binnekort kennis maak met die toring se vreesaanjaende luitenant, sir William Wade, 'n man met lang ervaring om inligting uit sy gevangenes uit te haal op die manier wat hy goedvind. In hierdie geval het die koning Wade spesifiek toestemming gegee om martelingsmetodes te gebruik, begin met die sagteres en eindig met die rek. Daar volg tien dae van marteling, waarvan die bewyse gesien kan word deur die handtekening van die samesweerder aan die begin en einde van sy beproewing te vergelyk. Fawkes bly berouvol en verklaar dat die verspreiding van protestantisme 'n "desperate oplossing vir 'n desperate siekte" vereis (Jones, 279). Dit is waarskynlik dat Fawkes eers manakels moes verduur wat sy beweging beperk het, dan beenbreuke - plate wat die bene vergruis het, en miskien duimskroewe. Fawkes is vermoedelik steeds verset en is toe op die rek gelê waar sy ledemate stadig gestrek en sy ligamente uit die been geskeur is.

Intussen het die koning 'n kommissie gereël om die plot te ondersoek, uit te vind wie daaragter sit en hul vrees te organiseer. Gelukkig vir die monarg het die samesweerders gebrekkig geblyk aan praktiese intelligensie wat 'n gewapende opstand betref. Catesby het na Holbeche House in Staffordshire gereis, waar hy buskruit aan sir Everard Digby afgelewer het, wat beloof het om 50 gewapende mans bymekaar te maak vir die taak om die regering oor te neem. Die buskruit is toegelaat om klam te word, sodat Catesby dit uitdroog voor 'n brand. Dit was nie verbasend nie dat die vuur die kruit ontvlam en die samesweerders erg verbrand het; die kruitplotters het tog hul ontploffing gekry. Sommige van die samesweerders het nou van die toneel gevlug terwyl diegene wat oorgebly het, insluitend Catesby, op 8 November omring is deur regeringsmagte. In 'n veldskietery is baie van die skuldige mans dood, waaronder Catesby, terwyl ander ernstig beseer is. In die lig van wat sou kom, was diegene wat deur 'n muskietbal doodgemaak is, gelukkig.

Terug in die ingewande van die Tower of London breek Fawkes se weerstand, en uiteindelik het hy die name van die samesweerders bekend gemaak. Dit alles is afgerond, insluitend die twee Jesuïete priesters, en slegs een, Hugh Owen, het Engeland en geregtigheid vrygespring. Almal is na die toring geneem en gemartel net soos Fawkes was. Tresham het tydens sy beproewing gesterf, maar vir die res sou erger binnekort volg. Maar eers nadat hulle hul skuld erken het, is die samesweerders in Januarie 1606 in Westminster Hall tereggestel. Almal was berouvol oor hul voorgestelde misdaad, behalwe Bates. Sin is uitgespreek; die verskriklike straf wat voorbehou is vir diegene wat skuldig bevind is aan verraad: om opgehang, getrek en in kwarte ingeneem te word.

Die doodvonnisse is op 30 November en 1 Desember oor twee dae uitgevoer. Elkeen is deur die hakke agter 'n perd deur die strate van Londen gesleep. Elke man is daarna gehang tot 'n kort asem van die dood. Elke man, wat uit die steier geneem is en nog gelewe het, is toe gekastreer, sy ingewande is uit sy liggaam getrek en hy is onthoof. Die laaste daad was om die lyk in kwarte te sny. Sommige het probeer om die laaste deel van die teregstelling te vermy deur van die steier te spring in 'n poging om hul eie nek te breek. Guy Fawkes het daarin geslaag om presies dit te doen, maar sy lewelose liggaam het nietemin die volle behandeling gekry.

Nalatenskap

Die kruitplot het misluk en het die anti-Katolieke en anti-poppery sentiment in Engeland aangewakker. Net soos die anti-kommunistiese gevoel in die VSA na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, het die plot verseker dat Protestante paranoïes raak oor Katolieke en Anglikaanse kerkleiers vasbeslote gemaak het om daardie geloof te onderdruk. Skilderye van die geleentheid, tesame met die nederlaag van die Spaanse Armada, is in kerke gehang en jaarlikse dankdienste gehou.

Om die verwerping van die plot te vier, het die owerhede die gewone mense aangemoedig om op die aand van 5 November vreugdevure aan te steek. Nou genoem 'Bonfire Night', 'Guy Fawkes' Night 'of' Fireworks Night ', word vreugdevure aangesteek en vuurwerke word elke 5 November laat vaar. Daar was 'n jarelange tradisie om 'n voorbeeld van Guy Fawkes te maak, wat bloot 'n 'ou' genoem word, en kinders sou probeer om hul bes te doen en mense 'n skenking te vra deur hul man in die straat aan te bied of deur mense se huise te besoek en vra vir 'n sent vir die ou '. Toe word die beeld in die aand op die vreugde gegooi. Die tradisie om 'n man te maak, word deesdae minder algemeen, maar Guy Fawkes leef op ander maniere voort, veral in uitdrukkings soos '' 'n harde man '' na sy lang weerstand teen marteling in die Tower of London. Uiteindelik het 'n masker wat lyk soos Guy Fawkes die afgelope paar jaar gewild geraak deur lede van sekere protes- en anti-establishment-groepe.


Omstreeks middernag op Maandag 4 November 1605 word sir Thomas Knyvett beveel om die kamers onder die gang te ondersoek waarin die parlement, propvol parlementslede en here, die volgende dag deur King James geopen sou word. Daar ontmoet hy 'n man wat uit 'n kamer vol brandhout kom en sy naam John Johnson noem. Knyvett het hom gearresteer en die hout deursoek om 36 vate buskruit daarin weggesteek te vind, genoeg om die hele paleis van Westminster en almal daarin op te blaas. Johnson het sekeringe en 'n timer ingedra. Hy is reguit na die Tower of London geneem om ondervra te word.

Die manne van King James het besluit om die paleis te ondersoek weens 'n brief wat Lord Monteagle 'n paar dae tevore ontvang het. Monteagle het die brief direk na die regering geneem.

Kyk na die brief en ander dokumente hieronder en kyk of u hierdie kruitplot kan ontrafel.

Take

History Hook - Aanvangsaktiwiteit

1. Dit is die brief wat 'n paar dae voor die parlement aan Lord Monteagle gestuur is.

  • Watter twee stappe wil die skrywer hê dat Lord Monteagle moet neem?
  • Waarom stel die skrywer voor dat Lord Monteagle hierdie raad moet volg?

2. Dit is 'n afskrif van die ondersoek van John Johnson.

  • Wie dink jy kan John Johnson wees?
  • Wat was Johnson van plan om aan die parlement te doen?
  • Noem een ​​van die ander plotters wat Johnson noem
  • Was Johnson bekommerd oor enige Katolieke wat moontlik daar was?

3. Dit is 'n afkondiging (koninklike eis) wat gemaak is nadat die plot ontdek is.

  • Waarom wil die regering hê dat Thomas Percy lewend gevange geneem moet word?
  • Wie anders het Thomas Percy probeer opblaas, afgesien van die koning en die parlement?
  • Waarom dink jy sou die plotters hierdie ander mense wou doodmaak?
  • Lees die beskrywing van Thomas Percy. Dink u dat dit genoeg inligting is om hom te vind?

4. Soldate het Thomas Percy opgespoor na Holbeach House in Staffordshire. Dit is 'n verklaring deur Thomas Wintour, nog een van die plotters wat daar was:

  • Wie was die plotters by die huis?
  • Wat het gebeur toe die ‘ -onderneming die huis omring het (soldate aangeval het)?

5. Guy Fawkes/John Johnson is ondervra en meer inligting gegee. Lees hierdie uittreksel en beantwoord die volgende vrae:

  • Wat was die planters se plan vir prinses Elizabeth?
  • Ondersteun dit die getuienis in Bron 2?
  • Waarom, dink jy, lyk dit asof Fawkes sy verhaal verander het?
  • Kyk ten slotte weer na al die bronne en skryf 'n verslag oor die plot, insluitend die volgende:
    • Wie was betrokke?
    • Wat was die plan?
    • Het dit enige swakhede gehad?
    • Wat was die uitkoms?

    Agtergrond

    Tydens die bewind van koningin Elizabeth I het aanhangers van die Rooms -Katolieke godsdiens in Engeland ernstige probleme ondervind, waaronder harde boetes en die risiko van gevangenisstraf of geweld. Katolieke priesters, wat noodsaaklik is vir die beoefening van die godsdiens, is verbied en spioene van die regering het hard probeer om diegene wat in die geheim in die koninkryk werk, bymekaar te kry.

    Toe James I op die troon kom, het Katolieke in Engeland gedink dat dit met hulle beter sou gaan, maar James het al die streng wette van Elizabeth teen Katolieke nagekom. Baie vroeg in sy bewind het 'n groep Katolieke edelmanne besluit dat die koning doodgemaak moet word voordat dinge verander.

    Op 26 Oktober 1605 kry Thomas Ward, 'n bediende van die Katolieke Lord Monteagle, 'n brief deur 'n onbekende man om aan sy meester te gee. Toe Monteagle die brief lees, was hy 'n waarskuwing om binne 'n paar dae weg te bly van die opening van die parlement. Hy het die brief direk aan die Privy Council en die King in Whitehall gegee.

    Alhoewel die samesweerders geweet het dat die brief aan die regering deurgegee is, het hulle besluit om voort te gaan soos beplan, met die vertroue dat hul plofstofkenner aan die owerhede onbekend was. Die plot het nie geslaag nie.

    Onderwysers se notas

    Hierdie les is geskik vir Geskiedenis Sleutel stadium 3 eenheid 1: Afdeling 1: Wie is die belangrikste persoon van wie ek in die geskiedenis weet? Of eenheid 22: eenhede 1- 6: Die rol van die individu ten goede of kwaad?

    Bykomende vereenvoudigde transkripsies word verskaf om alle leerlinge te ondersteun, aangesien die taal wat in die dokumente gebruik word, dikwels uitdagend is. Onderwysers kan hierdie les aanpas as hulle 'n groepsaktiwiteit wil uitvoer. Klein groepies kan aan gedrukte weergawes van die verskillende bronne werk en aan die res van die klas voorgee. Hulle kon ook in klein groepies by 'n witbord werk en so aan die klas voorgee. Alternatiewelik wil onderwysers die onderwerp alleen deur die laaste taak (5d) benader.

    Uitbreidingsaktiwiteite

    Onderwysers kan die bewyse gebruik om 'n rolspelaktiwiteit te bou wat die plot ondersoek met die sleutelkarakters: King James, Lord Monteagle, ‘Johnson ’, Percy en ander.

    Na die ontploffing was die plan dat sommige van die plotters 'n opstand in die Midlands sou lei. Hulle sou prinses Elizabeth, James ’ negejarige dogter, uit haar huishouding in die Coombe Abbey ontvoer om as 'n boegbeeld te gebruik waardeur hulle die land kon regeer en die regte van Katolieke kon herstel. Hulle plofstofkenner is egter versteur toe hy opdaag om die lont aan te steek

    Die verhoor van die agt oorlewende samesweerders is gehou in dieselfde kamer wat hulle probeer opblaas het: Westminster Hall, binne die parlementsgebou. Al agt is skuldig bevind en teen einde Januarie 1606 is al agt tereggestel. Die plotters is opgehang, geteken en in kwarte gesny. Hulle koppe is toe op pale gesit as 'n waarskuwing aan ander. Onderwysers wil dalk met hul leerlinge bespreek wat sou gebeur het as die plot geslaag het.

    As gevolg van die plot het James I meer gewild geword nadat hy 'n poging tot sy lewe oorleef het. Dit het egter vir Katolieke moeiliker geword om hul godsdiens te beoefen of 'n rol in die samelewing te speel. Uiteindelik is daar geen twyfel dat Guy Fawkes verkeerd onthou word as die hoofplotter, 'n mite wat voortbestaan ​​terwyl geslagte kinders Bonfire Night vier.

    Bronne

    Die dokumente in hierdie les is almal geneem uit SP 14/216, die ‘Gunpowder Plot Book ’, 'n versameling in drie volumes, van die belangrikste regeringsdokumente rakende die plot.

    Die beeld van James I en VI wat gebruik word, is van KB 27/1522.

    Eksterne skakels

    Die kruitplot
    Meer agtergrond en hulpbronne oor die plot wat deur die parlement vervaardig is.


    Guy Fawkes

    Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

    Guy Fawkes, (gebore 1570, York, Engeland-oorlede 31 Januarie 1606, Londen), Britse soldaat en bekendste deelnemer aan die Gunpowder Plot. Die doel daarvan was om die paleis in Westminster tydens die staatsopening van die parlement op te blaas, terwyl James I en sy hoofministers daarbinne vergader het, in weerwraak vir die toenemende onderdrukking van Rooms -Katolieke in Engeland.

    Wie was Guy Fawkes?

    Guy Fawkes was 'n Engelse samesweerder in die 17de-eeuse buskruitplot, 'n onsuksesvolle plan om die Westminster-paleis op te blaas met koning James I en die parlement binne. Hy het by hierdie plot aangesluit as weerwraak vir James se toenemende vervolging van Rooms -Katolieke.

    Hoe word Guy Fawkes onthou?

    Voor die 20ste eeu het baie Britse onderdane Guy Fawkes as 'n skurklike verraaier beskou. Guy Fawkes -dagvieringe in die Verenigde Koninkryk behels soms die verbranding van sy beeld. In die 1980's het sommige egter vir Fawkes begin beskou as 'n simbool van weerstand teen onderdrukking deur die staat.

    Hoe is Guy Fawkes dood?

    Die nag van 4–5 November 1605 het die Londense owerhede die kruitplot ontbloot, wat Guy Fawkes en vier kokospirators betrek het. Fawkes is op die rek gemartel voordat hy in Januarie 1606 weens hoogverraad verhoor is. Hy is skuldig bevind en tereggestel deur ophang, teken en kwartier, maar sy nek is gebreek nadat hy van die galgtrap gespring of geval het en sodoende die ontduiking van die volle straf.

    Hoe word Guy Fawkes -dag gevier?

    In Januarie 1606 het die Britse parlement opdrag gegee om Guy Fawkes Day op 5 November te onderhou om die mislukking van die kruitplot te herdenk. Die vakansie word gevier in die Verenigde Koninkryk en in sommige lande van die Statebond en behels aktiwiteite soos parades, vuurwerke, vreugdevure en kos. Kinders dra gereeld strooi -afbeeldings van Fawkes, wat later in vreugdevure gegooi word. (Die vakansie word ook Bonfire Night genoem.) Kinders kan ook verbygangers 'n sent vir die ou vra "en rympies oor die intrige opgee.

    Hoe is Guy Fawkes in populêre media verteenwoordig?

    In die 1980's het die Britse skrywer Alan Moore en illustreerder David Lloyd gepubliseer V vir Vendetta, 'n grafiese roman na 'n anargistiese opstandeling met die naam V wat 'n Guy Fawkes -masker dra terwyl hy werk om 'n fiktiewe fascistiese regering van die Verenigde Koninkryk omver te werp. Die grafiese roman ontvang later 'n filmbehandeling met dieselfde naam (2005), wat deur James McTeigue geregisseer is en deur die Wachowskis geskryf is. Die Guy Fawkes-masker word sedertdien deur baie protesoptogte teen die regering gedra en word verbind met die aanlyn hacktivistiese organisasie Anonymous.

    Fawkes was lid van 'n prominente Yorkshire -gesin en het hom tot die Rooms -Katolisisme bekeer. Sy avontuurlustige gees, sowel as sy godsdienstige ywer, het daartoe gelei dat hy Protestantse Engeland (1593) verlaat het en in die Spaanse weermag in Nederland aangesluit het. Daar het hy 'n reputasie gewen vir groot moed en koel vasberadenheid. Intussen was die aansteller van die komplot, Robert Catesby, en sy klein groepie Katolieke dit eens dat hulle die hulp nodig het van 'n militêre man wat nie so maklik herkenbaar sou wees as hulle nie. Hulle het in April 1604 'n man na Nederland gestuur om Fawkes te werf, wat sonder kennis van die presiese besonderhede van die plot teruggekeer het na Engeland en by hulle aangesluit het.

    Die plotters het 'n kelder gehuur wat onder die paleis strek, en Fawkes het daar 36 (sommige bronne sê minder) vate buskruit geplant en dit met kole en stokke gemokamuleer. Maar die plot is ontdek en Fawkes is in hegtenis geneem (die nag van 4–5 November 1605). Eers nadat hy op die rek gemartel is, het hy die name van sy makkers bekend gemaak. Fawkes, wat voor 'n spesiale kommissie (27 Januarie 1606) beproef en skuldig bevind is, moet oorkant die parlementsgebou tereggestel word, maar hy val of spring van die galgtrap en sterf as gevolg van sy nekbreuk. Nietemin is hy in kwartaal.

    Die Britse viering van Guy Fawkes -dag (5 November) sluit vuurwerke in, gemaskerde kinders wat 'n sent vir die ou smeek ', en die verbranding van klein sketse van die samesweerder.


    Waarom het die kruitplot van 1605 misluk? 9 groot vrae oor die sameswering om die parlement op te blaas

    John Cooper en Hannah Greig, historiese adviseurs oor die BBC -drama van 2017 Buskruit, beantwoord die grootste vrae oor die Katolieke sameswering om koning en parlement in 1605 uit te wis.

    Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

    Gepubliseer: 4 November 2020 om 06:05

    Was Guy Fawkes die brein agter die kruitplot?

    Guy Fawkes was moontlik die man wat daarvan beskuldig is dat hy die lont aan die buskruit in die Paleis van Westminster aangesteek het, maar hy was nie die leier van die plot nie - en was ver van 'n eensame wolf. Daar was altesaam 13 plotters - baie afkomstig uit elite Engelse gesinne - en die brein van die sameswering was Robert Catesby en sy neef Thomas Wintour.

    Catesby was reeds onder verdenking as 'n Katoliek en 'n voorstander van die graaf van Essex se mislukte rebellie teen Elizabeth I in 1601. Fawkes, aan die ander kant, was onbekend aan die owerhede, en dit is een van die belangrikste redes waarom hy so 'n kritieke rol in die plot. As dienaar kon hy toegang tot die paleis van Westminster verkry en met die hulp van sy mede-samesweerders in die 36 vate buskruit wat hy van plan was om onder King James VI en I se voete te ontplof, in die kar kom.

    Die groot ironie van Guy Fawkes se lewe is dat dit begin het in 'n konvensionele en gerespekteerde Protestantse gesin - hy was die seun van 'n amptenaar van die Kerk van Engeland - maar eindig met 'n berugte poging om die politieke establishment in die naam van die Katolieke geloof uit te neem.

    Fawkes is in 1570 in York gebore, in 'n huis net 'n entjie van York Minster af. Hy het moontlik 'n handelaar geword soos sy oupa, maar toe sy pa in 1579 sterf, het Fawkes by die ma se nuwe man, 'n toegewyde Katoliek, gaan woon. Toe hy volwassenheid bereik het, verkoop hy sy klein erfenis en veg op die vasteland vir die magte van die Katolieke Spanje.

    'N Skoolvriend wat 'n Jesuïet -priester geword het, beskryf Fawkes as godsdienstig vroom, lojaal aan sy vriende en' hoogs bekwaam in oorlogsake ' - presies wat die kruitplotters gesoek het.

    Waarom het die samesweerders die parlement as hul teiken gekies?

    Nadat die samesweerders ooreengekom het dat hulle die koning en sy regering wil uitwis, was die parlementshuise die voor die hand liggende teiken. Catesby se regverdiging vir die uitwissing van die parlement was ontsettend eenvoudig: "Op daardie plek het hulle ons al die onheil aangedoen, en dit is moontlik dat God die plek vir hulle straf ontwerp het."

    Die 'onheil' waarna Catesby verwys het, dateer terug na die parlemente van koningin Elizabeth I, wat 'n reeks streng statute aangeneem het wat daarop gemik was om Katolieke te dwing om aan die Kerk van Engeland te voldoen. Katolieke recusants (uit die Latynse recusare, om te weier) is beboet, geïntimideer en gevangenisstraf opgelê. Priesters en Jesuïete wat na Engeland gestuur is in 'n poging om die Katolieke geloof te handhaaf, het marteling en teregstelling tot gevolg.

    Engelse Katolieke het James I se toetrede tot die troon in 1603 verwelkom in die hoop dat dit 'n tydperk van groter verdraagsaamheid sou inlui. Tog sou dit 'n valse dagbreek wees. Twee jaar later het dit al hoe duideliker geword dat die nuwe koning bereid was om Katolieke min toegewings te gee. Dit was die agtergrond vir die planters se besluit om die staatsopening van die parlement te rig, toe die here, Commons en die koning self bymekaar sou kom. Die feit dat Katolieke adellikes in die ontploffing vasgevang kon word, is deur Catesby aanvaar as kollaterale skade: vir hom was dit 'ateïste, dwase en lafaards'.

    Hoe het die plotters die paleis van Westminster binnegedring?

    In 1605 was die Paleis van Westminster 'n verwoestende kompleks van omgeboude koninklike woonstelle en ontbinde kerklike geboue, baie anders as vandag se hoë sekuriteitsgeboue. Westminster Hall was propvol mense wat die howe van King's Bench en Common Pleas bywoon. Tavernes met die naam 'Hemel' en 'Vagevuur' het hul handel 'n klipgooi van die Commons en die here afgelê. In die tyd van Henry VIII het 'n bordeel openlik in die paleise se gebied gebruik.

    Die plotters het geweet dat hulle 'n goeie kans het om onopgemerk deur hierdie nabygeveg te gaan. Hulle aanvanklike plan was om 'n eiendom langs die House of Lords te bewoon en van die een kelder na die ander te tonnel, maar die mynbou was te tydrowend. Toe huur hulle 'n steenkoolkelder onder die kamer van die Here. Dit het hulle in staat gestel om die kruit in te bring sonder om uitgedaag te word.

    'N Veiligheidsopsporing het nie die betekenis van die stapel brandhout en vate wat in die kelder opgehoop het, raakgesien nie. Maar toe ontvang die Katolieke eweknie, baron Monteagle, 'n brief van 'n anonieme bron waarin hy hom waarsku om op 5 November uit die Paleis van Westminster te bly, omdat 'hulle 'n vreeslike slag hierdie parlement sal kry'. Die brief het James I bereik, wat 'n tweede soektog beveel het. Toe eers word die komplot onthul, wat verhoed dat byna 'n ton buskruit deur die parlement skeur.

    Luister: Hannah Greig en John Cooper verken die verhaal van die poging om die koning en die parlement in 1605 op te blaas in hierdie episode van die HistoryExtra -podcast:

    Het buitelandse moondhede hulp verleen aan die kruitplot?

    Die houding van die Spanjaarde was 'n belangrike rede vir die mislukking van die sameswering. Engelse Katolieke het sedert die bewind van Elizabeth I. na Spanje gesoek vir steun. In 1569 het 'n opstand van die noordelike grawe gehoop om Elizabeth met Spaanse vlootsteun te ontslaan - alhoewel die skepe nooit aangekom het nie. Later het Engelse Katolieke vlootvlieëniers met die Spaanse Armada gevaar.

    Maar 'n generasie hierna het die politieke landskap verander. En toe Guy Fawkes in 1603 na Spanje gaan om militêre hulp van Philip III te soek, het hy gevind dat die Spanjaarde minder geneig was om hul steun te bied. Vir hulle het die toetreding van James I 'n geleentheid gebied om die duur oorlog met Engeland te beëindig - en in Augustus 1604 het Spaanse en Engelse afvaardigings by Somerset House in Londen vergader om 'n vredesverdrag te onderteken. Twee Spaanse adellikes, Don Juan de Tassis en die konstabel van Kastilië (wat albei in die BBC -drama Gunpowder verskyn), kan gesien word in die portret van die Somerset House -konferensie wat in die National Maritime Museum hang (sien hieronder). Die verlating van Engelse Katolieke in Spanje het die plotters gelaat om dit alleen te doen.

    As die plot suksesvol was, sou dit Engeland in die hande van 'n Katolieke regime gelewer het?

    Om dit te kan doen, sou die plotters 'n nuwe regering moes stig, die Tower of London neutraliseer en die hawens van Engeland beveilig. Hulle planne om dit alles te bereik was op sy beste wasig.

    Brittanje was 'n monargie, so koninklike bewind moes onder 'n nuwe Katolieke regime voortgesit het. Die koning se seun, Henry, prins van Wallis, was 'n sterk protestant en sou in elk geval waarskynlik in die ontploffing gesterf het. Een van die plotters, Thomas Percy, wou prins Charles (die toekomstige Charles I) ontvoer. Maar Catesby was bevoorreg om die negejarige prinses Elizabeth vas te trek, 'n beskermer aan te stel en die marionetmonarg met 'n Katolieke man te trou.

    Die prinses se huishouding was in die Coombe Abbey in Warwickshire, 'n vinnige rit van die Catesby -gesinshuis in Ashby St Ledgers af. Catesby het die plaaslike Katolieke heersers genooi om op 5 November saam met hom te jag in die hoop dat hulle dit as bedekking kan gebruik. Maar toe die kruitplot misluk, het sy ondersteuningsnetwerk weggesmelt. Catesby en Wintour het vlugtelinge geword tussen die een katolieke huis en die ander. They made their last stand at Holbeach House, advancing with swords against the sheriff’s men armed with guns. Catesby and Percy died from the same bullet, while Wintour was captured to face trial.

    How was Guy Fawkes punished for his crimes?

    The burning of effigies of Guy Fawkes on bonfire night might suggest that Fawkes was burnt at the stake. However, for men, the sentence for high treason was to be ‘hanged, drawn and quartered’, and that’s the grisly fate that awaited Fawkes.

    Prior to his execution, brutal torture was used to extract Fawkes’s confession, including manacles – which were secured tightly around wrists and used to hang the accused by their hands for many hours – and, most likely, the notorious rack, which stretched the body, tearing tendons, ripping joints and fracturing bones.

    It would have been a wretched Fawkes who was tied head-down to a hurdle and drawn to Old Palace Yard outside the Palace of Westminster, along with three fellow plotters. As the last to be executed, he would have witnessed the others being hanged, removed while still alive, and then dying during the physical mutilation that followed. First, the genitals were cut off and burned. The body was then disembowelled and decapitated, and finally quartered, with body parts displayed across the country.

    Fawkes was spared the pain of the final stages because his neck broke as he hanged, bringing instant death on the gallows.

    How alive were the authorities to the threat of Catholic conspiracies?

    The gunpowder plot was the latest in a string of conspiracies aimed at re-establishing Catholic rule in England. For years, radical Catholics had been hoping to co-ordinate an uprising of recusant families with military support from sympathetic foreign powers. Yet few English Catholics had ever supported armed action against the Protestant regime.

    The state had developed powerful weapons against insurgency. Elizabeth I’s principal secretary, Sir Francis Walsingham, recruited an extensive network of informers and agents, penetrating the Catholic underground and infiltrating the continental seminaries where missionary priests were trained. This had enabled him to thwart previous attempts on the monarch’s life, such as the Babington plot of 1586, which aimed to assassinate Elizabeth and replace her with her Catholic cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots. After his death, Walsingham’s secret service was maintained by his successor, Robert Cecil, who served both Elizabeth and James I.

    Given the sophistication of the network that Walsingham bequeathed Cecil, it’s perhaps surprising that the gunpowder plot came so close to achieving its objective. After all, Fawkes was only discovered at the 11th hour, allegedly as he hovered over the powder, ready to ignite a fuse.

    How did Catholics practise their faith without attracting unwanted attention?

    The need for Catholicism to be pursued in secret put domestic houses at the very heart of this community. Catholics disguised the symbols and accoutrements associated with their worship, sometimes in plain sight, among everyday furnishings. A dining table might double as an altar, a priest’s vestments could be folded up and buried amid the household linen, and a chalice reserved for mass might be placed on shelves and rendered indistinguishable from ordinary drinking cups. A number of houses famously had ‘priest holes’, secret spaces behind fireplaces, staircases and walls in which not just the sacred vessels but also priests themselves could be hidden.

    So the home – and, by extension, the women who kept those homes – were critical to keeping the faith alive. This can be seen in the life of Anne Vaux (played by Liv Tyler in Gunpowder), a Catholic gentlewoman who was arrested on suspicion of being connected to the gunpowder plot. Like other women of her rank and religion, Vaux played a high-stakes role in maintaining Catholic underground networks, orchestrating meetings, acting as a gatekeeper and, crucially, supporting priests in rented safe houses and in her own home.

    Why do we call 5 November ‘bonfire night’?

    When the gunpowder plot was discovered, Londoners were encouraged to light bonfires in celebration. Before long, 5 November had entered the calendar as a reminder of England’s deliverance. Mingling with the older traditions of fire-making and feasting, it became a day of national rejoicing.

    English settlers in America carried their anti-Catholicism across the Atlantic. Known as Pope’s Day in colonial Boston, 5 November saw rival gangs fighting over effigies of the pontiff, and throwing them into the fire. You can witness something similar today in Lewes in Sussex, where bonfire societies parade through the town and hurl good-natured abuse at a volunteer dressed up as a cardinal.

    But bonfire festivities are changing. As recently as the 1980s, huge numbers of families congregated in neighbours’ back gardens to eat soup and cinder toffee and watch dad set off fireworks, while streets across the land resonated to the sound of children asking for a ‘penny for the guy’. Today, these traditions are rapidly disappearing.

    The American import of Halloween has largely usurped bonfire night, firework sales are more heavily regulated, and villages wishing to host bonfire events have to raise eye-wateringly large sums for insurance, threatening their long-term future.

    Will the next generation be able to recite the old rhyme, ‘Remember, remember the fifth of November, gunpowder, treason and plot?’ And what will the original story of the gunpowder plot mean to Britons in 100 years’ time if we no longer make Guys and build bonfires?

    John Cooper and Hannah Greig are senior lecturers in early modern history at the University of York.


    Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot was one of the most famous attempts to kill a king in British history. A group of men, including one named Guy Fawkes, planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament. They were caught before they could carry out the plot, however. Every year on the anniversary of the plot, people in the United Kingdom celebrate the fact that the plot failed. The celebrations include bonfires and fireworks.

    Reason for the Plot

    The men who planned the Gunpowder Plot were Roman Catholics who were unhappy with the way they were being treated. James I, the first of the Stuart kings of England, came to the throne in 1603. At the time, there were many conflicts between Protestants and Roman Catholics. James succeeded Elizabeth I, a Protestant, who did not allow Catholics to practice their religion as they wished. Roman Catholics in England expected James to treat them well because his mother was a Catholic. Instead, he ordered all Catholic priests to leave England. The men were furious that their hopes of religious tolerance had been dashed.

    Die sameswering

    The men plotted to kill not only the king but also the queen, their son Prince Charles, and every member of the government during the state opening of Parliament on November 5, 1605. The leader of the group was a man called Robert Catesby. Cellars beneath the Houses of Parliament were rented out as storage spaces to people such as coal merchants, and the gang leased one of these cellars. They gradually moved in 36 barrels of gunpowder and hid them there. It was enough gunpowder to blow up hundreds of people.

    Failure of the Plot

    The night before the opening of Parliament, soldiers caught Guy Fawkes in the cellar. They arrested him and took him to the Tower of London. After three days of torture, Fawkes told his captors the names of his fellow plotters. They were all arrested for treason—plotting against the king and the country—and were imprisoned in the Tower.

    On January 30–31, 1606, the whole gang was executed as hundreds of people watched. Afterward their heads were cut off and displayed on poles throughout London, to warn others what would happen to them if they plotted against the king. In celebration of his survival, James ordered that the people of England should have a great bonfire on the night of November 5, which is now known as Guy Fawkes Day.


    The Gunpowder Plot

    On November 5, 1605, a secret plot to blow up the British Parliament on opening day and kill both King James I and as many members of parliament as possible was discovered and stopped. An anonymous letter that tipped off an advisor to the king made it possible to stop the planned mass murder from happening, and the perpetrators were captured, tried, and then executed for treason.

    This historical event is known as the “Gunpowder Plot” because of the 36 barrels of gunpowder found in the basement of the parliament building, gunpowder intended to be used in a massive and deadly explosion.

    Geskiedenis

    In 1603, after Britain’s Queen Elizabeth I dies, her cousin James IV of Scotland takes the throne and the title of King James I. Although James is a protestant, he is also the son of the devout Catholic Mary of Scots, so Catholics are hopeful that this king will be more sympathetic towards them than his predecessor.

    But in early 1604, the king shows that his loyalty belongs solely to the Church of England by ordering all Catholic priests to leave the country. Going even further, he continues the practice of imposing fines on Catholics who refuse to attend the Church of England services.

    Meanwhile, Catholic Robert Catesby, whose father had been persecuted for their religion during Elizabeth’s reign, meets with his cousin Thomas Wintour and John Wright to begin plotting their attempt to kill James I. As part of the plan, Wintour goes to Spanish-ruled Flanders to ask for Spain’s support in their effort, but is turned down because Spain wants peace with England and refuses to help the plotters.

    While he is in Flanders, Wintour meets and recruits fellow Englishman Guy Fawkes, who is an explosives expert and a mercenary. Fawkes is also a Catholic convert and has been fighting with the Catholic army in Spain against the government. Meanwhile, in England, more anger towards James is stirred up when he and the Parliament rule that Catholics no longer have the right to makes wills or receive rent.

    Fawkes and Wintour return to England to meet with Catesby, Thomas Percy, and John Wright it is these five men who form the core of the rebellious group and who swear a religious oath of secrecy. With help from the influential and zealous Fawkes, eight more conspirators join the effort. The conspirators devise a plan to blow up the House of Lords on opening day, and to begin a popular urising that will eventually restore the throne to a Catholic monarch.

    Around June 1604, unaware that Thomas Percy is plotting against the throne, his patron, the Earl of Northumberland, secures Percy a position as a royal bodyguard. Percy moves into a house close to Parliament accompanied by Guy Fawkes, who poses as his servant and goes by the name John Johnson. Because of Percy’s new position, he and Fawkes are able to move around Parliament easily and without any suspicion being aroused.

    At the same time, Robert Catesby and newcomer Robert Keyes (cousin to both Wintour and Wright) begin to obtain and store gunpowder in Catesby’s house, which is across the river from Parliament. The plotters disperse for the summer after it’s announced that the opening of Parliament has been postponed until February. When they come back together in October they begin digging a tunnel from underneath Percy’s house to the House of Lords.

    But once again, the opening of the House of Lords is postponed, this time due to fears about the plague it is rescheduled for October, 1605. In March 1605, the tunnelers are able to stop their labor-intensive tunneling efforts because Thomas Percy manages to rent the cellar directly beneath the House of Lords. Still posing as Percy’s servant, Guy Fawkes attends the cellar and the 36 barrels of gunpowder that have been moved there from their storage spot at Catesby’s house. The barrels of gunpowder are hidden under piles of coal and wooden sticks which are legitimately intended to be used as fuel during the winter.

    The conspirators need more money to support the armed uprising that they plan for after the explosion at Parliament. Catesby’s cousin Francis Tresham helps fund them, as does wealthy Ambrose Rookwood. The uprising in the Midlands is supposed to be led by Sir Everard Digby, who is a Catholic convert. Father Henry Garnett, the head of the Jesuit mission in England, learns of the plot in the confessional and tries, unsuccessfully, to persuade Catesby to give the plan up. Meanwhile, the opening of Parliament is pushed back yet again, this time until November.

    The lengthy time between the start of the plot and the actual opening of Parliament gives some of the plotters time to have second thoughts about what they are involved in, especially since there will be Catholics present in the Parliament on opening day – and that means Catholic casualties. Ten days before the scheduled November 5 opening date, Francis Treshim’s brother-in-law Lord Monteagle, is delivered an unsigned letter that warns him not to attend the opening although it does not go into specifics, it is clear that being there will be dangerous, perhaps deadly.

    A Catholic who is loyal to the crown, Lord Monteagle takes the letter to the king’s chief minister, Robert Cecil. One of Monteagle’s servants informs the plotters about what has occurred, and Catesby – who immediately suspects his cousin Francis Tresham, of penning the letter – confronts him. Tresham denies having had any part in it, but uses the opportunity to try to persuade Catesby to completely abandon the idea. Catesby refuses and has Guy Fawkes check the cellar to see if the gunpowder has been seized. It has not.

    Meanwhile, Robert Cecil has shown the letter to King James, who immediately hones in on the phrase “terrible blowe.” He makes the connection to gunpowder and orders a search. The first search of the cellar is unsuccessful, as the attendant (Guy Fawkes posing as John Johnson), assures them that the cellar is rented to his master Thomas Percy, a royal bodyguard.

    The searchers are satisfied with the explanation, but the king is not. He orders another search, and this time, just after midnight on November 5, the searchers return to the cellar. This time they find Fawkes dressed for travelling and in possession of matches and fuses. Further searching turns up the 36 barrels of gunpowder.

    Fawkes is taken into custody and then taken to the king. He is interrogated, but refuses to talk until he has been tortured. He finally admits his real identity and confesses to the plot to destroy England’s Protestant reign and replace it with a Catholic monarchy.

    Catesby is shot and killed, and Fawkes and the other surviving conspirators are sentenced to be publicly hanged, drawn and quartered. On January 31, 1606, the day of the intended execution, Fawkes jumps from the ladder leading up to the gallows, breaking his neck and dying.

    Guy Fawkes Day

    Guy Fawkes Night (also called Guy Fawkes Day or Bonfire Night) was established that same year, 1606, by Parliament in remembrance of the foiled Gunpowder Plot. It is now celebrated every year on November 5, when people across England set off fireworks, light bonfires and burn effigies of Guy Fawkes.

    List of Important Facts

    1. The Gunpowder Plot is the name of a foiled effort in England in 1605 by Catholic rebels to kill the non-Catholic king and many members of parliament by blowing up the House of Lords.
    2. The plot was scheduled to take place on the opening day of the House of Lords, ensuring the presence of the king and most if not all of the members of Parliament.
    3. The hostility and bitter history between the Catholics and the Church of England protestants dates back to to the reign of Henry 8, who instituted the legality of divorce by separating from the Catholic church.
    4. The leader of the rebels was Robert Catesby, a Catholic whose father had been imprisoned for his beliefs. After the plot and explosives were discovered, Catesby was shot and killed, holding a picture of the Virgin Mary.
    5. The most famous of the rebels was Guy Fawkes, a Catholic convert, mercenary and explosives expert, who was in charge of – and captured with – the gunpowder. After being tortured, Fawkes gave up the plot and the names of his co-conspirators.
    6. Fawkes avoided being hanged, drawn and quartered by leaping from the scaffolding leading up to the gallows, breaking his neck and dying.
    7. 36 barrels of gunpowder were kept in the cellar right below parliament while opening day kept being postponed.
    8. An anonymous letter was sent to Lord Monteagle warning of the impending attack.
    9. It took two searches of the cellar to discover the gunpowder.
    10. Guy Fawkes Day is celebrated in England every year on November 5 all across England with bonfires, fireworks and hanging effigies of Fawkes.

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    FINIS.

    Verdere leeswerk:

    Fraser, Antonia, The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605, (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1996)

    Wickham, Glynne, Shakespeare’s Dramatic Heritage: Collected Studies in Mediaeval, Tudor and Shakespearean Drama, (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969)

    Wickham, Glynne, ‘From Tragedy to Tragi-comedy: ‘King Lear’ as Prologue’ in Shakespeare Survey 26, edited by Kenneth Muir, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973)


    A Legend Is Born

    Later that day, Sir Thomas Knyvett, a minor but trustworthy royal official, oversaw a second search of the buildings around Parliament. The same storeroom likewise attracted his attention, as did the man Knyvett found guarding it. He was not dressed like a watchman instead he was wearing a cloak, boots, and spurs—clothes more suited, it seemed, for making a quick getaway on horseback.

    Knyvett’s men shifted the firewood and found 36 barrels of gunpowder hidden behind it. The man, who gave his name as John Johnson, was found to have “matches” (long fuses) on his person. Knyvett had uncovered an astonishing conspiracy to blow up the members of both Houses of Parliament, the king, most of the royal family, and leading officers of state. The aim was to set up a Roman Catholic regime in Protestant England, with James I’s daughter Elizabeth—who would not be in attendance—as its puppet ruler.

    Arrested and tortured, John Johnson revealed that he was from Yorkshire in northern England and that his real name was Guy Fawkes. He was one of several Catholic conspirators in what became known as the Gunpowder Plot. While not the ringleader himself, Fawkes became the best known member of the most famous conspiracy in English history. His capture has been illustrated in countless schoolbooks, novels, popular works of history, and movies: a tall, bearded figure in boots, dark cloak, and dark, wide-brimmed hat. It is his figure that is still burned in effigy on bonfires around England every year on November 5.


    The Stuarts – The Gunpowder Plot

    A small group of Catholics, Robert Catesby, Guido (Guy) Fawkes, Thomas Winter, John Wright and Thomas Percy decided to blow up the King on the State opening of Parliament. They hoped that this would lead to a Catholic King coming to the throne. Guido (Guy) Fawkes was an explosives expert who had served with the Spanish army in the Netherlands.

    The group rented a cellar beneath the Houses of Parliament and stored 20 barrels of gunpowder, supplied by Guido Fawkes. The date for the deed was set for November 5th. They recruited others sympathetic to their cause including Francis Tresham whose brother-in-law, Lord Monteagle, was a member of Parliament. Concerned for his brother-in-law’s safety, Tresham sent him a letter advising him not to attend Parliament on November 5th.

    Monteagle alerted the authorities and a search of the Houses of Parliament led to the discovery of Guido Fawkes standing guard over the barrels of gunpowder. He was tortured and revealed the names of the conspirators. Catesby and Percy and two others were killed resisting arrest. The others were tried for treason and executed.

    The Protestant View – The Conspirators were Guilty

    This picture shows the conspirators hatching the plot to blow up the King and parliament. They are grouped close together which shows that they are hatching a secret plot.

    Robert Catesby, Guido (Guy) Fawkes, Thomas Winter, John Wright and Thomas Percy were known to be Catholics.

    Guido Fawkes was an explosives expert. He had only recently returned to England maybe specifically to set the explosives.

    Francis Tresham was only thinking of his brother-in-law’s safety when he sent the letter.

    Gunpowder was not normally kept in the cellars under the Houses of Parliament. It was obviously put there by the conspirators.

    Guido Fawkes revealed the names of the conspirators.

    The Catholic View – The Conspirators were framed by the Protestants

    Many historians today agree with the Catholics of the time that the Gunpowder Plot conspirators were framed by James I’s chief minister, Robert Cecil.

    Cecil hated the Catholics and wanted to show them to be against the country. It is believed that Francis Tresham, who sent the warning note to his brother-in-law, may have been working for Cecil. There is evidence to support this view:

    This picture showing the conspirators, was made by a Dutchman who had never seen the conspirators.

    Cecil is quoted as saying ‘..we cannot hope to have good government while large numbers of people (Catholics) go around obeying foreign rulers (The Pope).’ This shows how much he hated the Catholics and wanted rid of them.

    Lord Monteagle received the warning letter at night. The night he received it was the only night in 1605 that he stayed at home. Could he have been waiting for it?

    All available supplies of gunpowder were kept in the Tower of London.

    The cellar was rented to the conspirators by a close friend of Robert Cecil.

    All of the conspirators were executed except one – Francis Tresham.

    The signature on Guy Fawkes’ confession did not match his normal signature.

    This article is part of our larger resource on the Stuarts culture, society, economics, and warfare. Click here for our comprehensive article on the Stuarts.


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    (1) Guy Fawkes was arrested on the 4 November, 1605. After being tortured in the Tower of London, Guy Fawkes confessed to planning to blow up Parliament. (17th November 1605)

    Catesby suggested. making a mine under the upper house of Parliament. because religion had been unjustly suppressed there. twenty barrels of gunpowder were moved to the cellar. It was agreed to seize Lady Elizabeth, the king's eldest daughter. and to proclaim her Queen.

    (2) Thomas Wintour was arrested on 8 November, 1605. After being tortured in the Tower of London, Wintour confessed to planning to blow up Parliament. (23rd November 1605)

    Mr. Catesby. said he had a plan to deliver us from all our troubles and - without any foreign help - to replant again the Catholic faith. He said his plan was to blow up the Parliament House with gunpowder. He asked me if I would give my consent. I told him "Yes".

    (3) Everard Digby, letter sent to Robert Cecil while in captivity.

    If harsh measures are taken (against Roman Catholics) within a brief time there will be massacres, rebellions and desperate attempts against the King and State. It is hoped that the King that now is would have been at least free from persecuting, as his promise was before coming into his Realm, and as divers his promises have been since his coming, saying that he would take no soul money nor blood.

    (4) Everard Digby statement in court on 27 January 1606.

    I request that all my property might be preserved for my wife and children. I also request that I be beheaded instead of hanged.

    (5) James Oliphant, A History of England (1920)

    Some of the Roman Catholics, in the hope of bringing about a violent change. tried to blow up King and Parliament with gunpowder. After this it was necessary to adopt sterner measures with the Roman Catholics.

    (6) Philip Sidney, A History of the Gunpowder Plot (1905)

    Guy Fawkes refused to name his friends. he was speedily put to torture. he was compelled to confess. The conspirators met their fate with courage, considering the terrible nature of their punishment. Tied to separate hurdles, they were dragged, lying bound on their backs, through the muddy streets to the place of execution, there to be first hanged, cut down alive, drawn, and then quartered.

    (7) Robert Crampton, The Gunpowder Plot (1990)

    If Guy Fawkes case came up before the Court of Appeal today, the. judges would surely. acquit him. First, no one has ever seen the attempted tunnel. Builders excavating the area in 1823 found neither a tunnel nor any rubble. Second, the gunpowder. In 1605, the Government had a monopoly on its manufacture. The Government did not display the gunpowder and nobody saw it in the cellars. Third, these cellars were rented by the government to a known Catholic agitator. Fourth, the Tresham letter. Graphologists (handwriting experts) agree that it was not written by Francis Tresham.

    (8) The Weekly News (31st January 1606)

    Last of all came the great devil of all, Guy Fawkes, alias Johnson, who should have put fire to the powder. His body being weak with the torture and sickness he was scarce able to go up the ladder, yet with much ado, by the help of the hangman, went high enough to break his neck by the fall. He made no speech, but with his crosses and idle ceremonies made his end upon the gallows and the block, to the great joy of all the beholders that the land was ended of so wicked a villainy.

    (9) Camilla Turner, Die Daily Telegraph (5th November, 2014)

    The traditional death for traitors in 17th-century England was to be hanged from the gallows, then drawn and quartered in public. But, despite his role in the Gunpowder Plot - which the perpetrators hoped would kill King James and as many members of parliament as possible - it was not to be Fawkes's fate.

    As he awaited his grisly punishment on the gallows, Fawkes leapt to his death - to avoid the horrors of having his testicles cut off, his stomach opened and his guts spilled out before his eyes. He died from a broken neck.
    His body was subsequently quartered, and his remains were sent to "the four corners of the kingdom" as a warning to others.


    Kyk die video: Plotting through a Chain (November 2021).