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Mikronesië Nuus - Geskiedenis

Mikronesië Nuus - Geskiedenis



Mikronesië Nuus

MIKRONESIE

In die nuus


Federale state van Mikronesië

Die Federale state van Mikronesië ( / ˌ m aɪ k r oʊ ˈ n iː ʒ ə / (luister) afgekort FSM) of eenvoudig Mikronesië, is 'n eilandland in Oseanië. Dit bestaan ​​uit vier state - van wes na oos, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei en Kosrae - wat oor die westelike Stille Oseaan versprei is. Saam bestaan ​​die state uit ongeveer 607 eilande ('n gesamentlike oppervlakte van ongeveer 702 km2 of 271 vierkante myl) wat 'n lengte -afstand van byna 2700 km (1,678 myl) net noord van die ewenaar aflê. Hulle lê noordoos van Indonesië en Papoea -Nieu -Guinee, suid van Guam en die Marianas, wes van Nauru en die Marshall -eilande, oos van Palau en die Filippyne, ongeveer 2900 km noord van die ooste van Australië, 3,400 km (2,133 myl) suidoos van Japan, en ongeveer 4 000 km (2,485 myl) suidwes van die belangrikste eilande van die Hawaiiaanse eilande.

  • 48,8% Chuukese
  • 24,2% Pohnpeian
  • 6,2% Kosraean
  • 5,2% Japannees
  • 4.5% Buiten -Yapese
  • 1,8% Asiër
  • 1,5% Polinesies
  • 6,4% Ander
  • 1.4% Onbekend

Alhoewel die FSM se totale oppervlakte redelik klein is, beslaan die waters van die land meer as 2 600 000 km2 van die Stille Oseaan, wat die land die 14de grootste eksklusiewe ekonomiese gebied ter wêreld gee. [7] Die hoofstad van die soewereine eilandland is Palikir, geleë op Pohnpei -eiland, terwyl die grootste stad Weno is, geleë in die Chuuk -atol.

Elkeen van sy vier state is gesentreer op een of meer belangrikste hoë eilande, en almal behalwe Kosrae bevat talle afgeleë atolle. Die Federale State van Mikronesië is versprei oor 'n deel van die Caroline -eilande in die groter gebied van Mikronesië, wat bestaan ​​uit duisende klein eilande wat onder verskillende lande verdeel is. Die term Mikronesië kan verwys na die Federale State of na die hele streek.

Die FSM was voorheen deel van die Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI), 'n Verenigde Nasies se Trustgebied onder Amerikaanse administrasie, maar dit het op 10 Mei 1979 'n eie konstitusionele regering gevorm en 'n soewereine staat geword nadat onafhanklikheid op November verkry is 3, 1986, onder 'n Compact of Free Association met die Verenigde State. Ander naburige eilandentiteite, en ook voormalige lede van die TTPI, het hul eie grondwetlike regerings geformuleer en die Republiek van die Marshall -eilande (RMI) en die Republiek Palau (ROP) geword. Die FSM het 'n setel in die Verenigde Nasies en is sedert 1983 lid van die Stille Oseaan -gemeenskap.


Guam -podcast om verhale van die moderne Micronesiese geskiedenis te vertel

HAGATNA, Guam en mdash 'n Podcast wat fokus op die geskiedenis van Guam en rsquos, is daarop gemik om 'n groter begrip te gee van die mense en idees wat gehelp het om die moderne Mikronesië te vorm.

Die vervaardigers van Memoirs Pasifika hoop om die belangstelling te verhoog vir gebeure wat die hedendaagse Guam, die Noordelike Mariana -eilande, die Marshall -eilande, Palau en die Federale State van Mikronesië beïnvloed het, berig Pacific Daily News Sondag.

Die podcast beplan ook om die impak van Micronesia en rsquos op die wêreldwye verhoog te oorweeg.

Elke episode ondersoek 'n ander moderne geskiedenisonderwerp, grootliks vertel deur onderhoude met mense wat getuies was of aan geleenthede deelgeneem het.

& ldquoMicronesia is 'n groep klein eilande met 'n groot geskiedenis, het Tony Azios, vervaardiger van die produksie, in 'n verklaring gesê. Ondanks die oorvloed van fassinerende verhale, bespreek baie min podcasts die unieke geskiedenis van Micronesië en rsquos of maak gebruik van die argiefversamelings van die streek.

Memifiërs Pasifika word gekonsolideer in die onlangse Micronesiese geskiedenis en het stem gegee aan die mense wat dit geleef het, 'het Azios gesê.

Die vertoning werk saam met kundiges, waaronder professore in geskiedenis en mikronesiese studies aan die Universiteit van Guam en amptenare van plaaslike argieforganisasies, soos die Micronesian Area Research Center.

Die eerste episode, & ldquoChristmas Odyssey in Vietnam, & rdquo vertel die verhaal van die Guam Gov.Carlos Camacho & rsquos 1969 reis om troepe uit die Amerikaanse gebied te besoek wat in Viëtnam diens doen.

Die Memoirs Pasifika -podcast is beskikbaar vir aflaai en streaming op musiek- en sosiale media -webwerwe, het die vervaardigers gesê.


Die Federale State van Mikronesië -YAP, CHUUK, POHNPEI, KOSRAE-

Die Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is 'n groepering van 607 klein eilande in die Westelike Stille Oseaan, ongeveer 2500 kilometer suidwes van Hawaii, net bokant die ewenaar. Oor die algemeen bestaan ​​die FSM uit die sogenaamde Wes- en Oos -Karolina -eilande.
Alhoewel die land se totale oppervlakte slegs 270,8 vierkante myl beslaan, beslaan dit meer as 'n miljoen vierkante kilometer van die Stille Oseaan en strek dit 1,700 myl van Wes (Yap) tot Oos (Kosrae). Elkeen van die vier state sentreer rondom een ​​of meer 'hoë eilande', en almal behalwe Kosrae bevat talle atolle.

Die staat Yap bestaan ​​uit 4 groot eilande, 7 klein eilande en 134 atolle, met 'n totale oppervlakte van 45,6 vierkante kilometer. Die staat Chuuk het 'n totale oppervlakte van 49,2 vierkante myl en bevat sewe groot eilandgroepe. Die grondgebied van die staat Pohnpei het 133,4 vierkante kilometer, waarvan 130 deur die eiland Pohnpei, die grootste in FSM, verantwoordelik is. Kosrae is in wese een hoë eiland van 42,3 vierkante myl.

Die eilande van die FSM is die gevolg van vulkaniese aktiwiteit miljoene jare gelede, wat lei tot eilande en atolle van ongelooflike verskeidenheid. Sommige is punte van bergpieke wat bo die oppervlak stoot en nou omring word deur riwwe. Ander is atolle - eilande wat onder die oppervlak gesink het, wat 'n ring van koraalrif -rif en klein eilandjies laat omring wat 'n koraal- en sandmeer omring. En nog ander is mengsels van atolle en hoogliggende tuine in 'n strandmeer.

Klimaat

Die FSM geniet 'n tropiese klimaat, met relatief egalige, warm temperature deur die jaar.
Die klimaat in die FSM is jaarliks ​​gemiddeld 80 ° F, met hoogtepunte in die hoë 80's en laagtepunte in die hoë 70's. Reënval is die swaarste gedurende die somermaande. Die reënval op elke eiland wissel egter, dus kontak die plaaslike besoekersowerheid vir verwagte droë en nat seisoene. Handelswinde kom hoofsaaklik uit die noordooste van Desember tot Junie. Ligte tropiese klere is die hele jaar deur in die FSM.

Pohnpei is na bewering een van die natste plekke op aarde, en sommige plekke aan die binnekant van die eiland kry tot 330 duim reën per jaar. Die handelswindseisoen vind gewoonlik van Desember tot Maart plaas.

Landskap

Geologiese landvorme in die FSM is uiteenlopend, mooi en ongerep. Besoekers vind 'n wye verskeidenheid natuurlike kenmerke, insluitend bergtoppe van 2.000 voet, diep verslote riviervalleie, golwende heuwels, oop grasveld, welige mangrovewoude, beskermde strandmere en afgesonderde en dikwels ongerepte sandstrande.

Deur die skoonheid en oorvloed van die land en die see te erken, het die inwoners van die FSM vestigingspatrone ontwikkel in ooreenstemming met hul omgewing. Elke bewoonde eiland is verdeel in munisipaliteite, dorpe (gedeeltes van munisipaliteite) en plaasopstalle (kleinste grondeenheid in 'n dorp). Die manier waarop mense oor die landskap gereël het, wissel van uitbetaalde nedersettings tot netjies, maar nie oorvol dorpe nie.

Vanweë die tekort en die tradisionele belangrikheid daarvan word grond in Mikronesië geheg. Baie stukke grond word deur families of geslagte gehou. Tog het besoekers toegang tot belangstellingsgebiede in die land, en onderweg kry hulle 'n blik op die daaglikse aktiwiteite van die mense in die land.

Taal

Engels is die amptelike taal van die regering en handel.
Agt groot inheemse tale wat gepraat word: Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaians, Chuukese, Pohnpeians, Kosraeans, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi.
Baie bejaardes is Japannees magtig.
Enkele algemene frases vir elk van die hooftale is hieronder beskikbaar:

Mense

Die mense van die FSM word as Micronesiërs geklassifiseer, hoewel sommige inwoners van die staat Pohnpei van Polinesiese oorsprong is. Dit is eintlik 'n heterogene mengsel met verskillende gebruike en tradisies wat saamhang deur die onlangse geskiedenis en algemene strewe.

Die kulturele diversiteit word gekenmerk deur die bestaan ​​van agt groot inheemse tale, hoewel Engels die amptelike handelstaal bly. Die kulturele ooreenkomste word aangedui deur die belangrikheid van tradisionele uitgebreide familie- en stamstelsels wat op elke eiland voorkom.

Elkeen van die state het unieke kulturele kenmerke ontwikkel wat belangrik is vir die potensiële buitestaanders, veral diegene wat belangstel om die eilande te besoek of te belê. In die staat Kosrae speel die Congregational Church 'n uiters belangrike rol in die alledaagse lewe, terwyl clan -verhoudings in Chuuk 'n belangrike faktor bly. Yap gaan voort as die mees tradisionele samelewing in die FSM met 'n sterk kastestelsel.

Gedurende die afgelope 15 jaar het Pohnpei vinnig ontwikkel as die mees verwestigde staat in die land. Dit lei tot 'n groot mate omdat die nasionale regering hier geleë is. Terselfdertyd speel tradisionele leierskap steeds 'n belangrike rol.

Gedurende 'n groot deel van die afgelope 40 jaar het die bevolkingsgroeikoers van die FSM meer as 3% per jaar oorskry en die huidige tempo van nasionale toename bly hoog. Aangesien die Compact of Free Association egter onderteken is, word ongeveer 2% van die bevolking elke jaar oorgedra, wat die groeikoers effektief tot ongeveer 1% verlaag.

Die bevolkingsstruktuur word swaar geweeg ten gunste van die jeug, en die verwagting is dat die ouderdomsgroep 15-24 jaar in hierdie dekade 50% van die bevolkingsaanwas sal uitmaak.

Kultuur

Die mense van die FSM is kultureel en taalkundig Mikronesies, met 'n klein aantal Polinesiërs wat hoofsaaklik op Nukuoro- en Kapingamarangi -atolle van die staat Pohnpei woon. Die invloed van Europese en Japannese kontakte word ook gesien.

Daar kan gesê word dat elk van die vier state hul eie unieke kultuur en tradisie vertoon, maar daar is ook gemeenskaplike kulturele en ekonomiese bande wat eeue oud is. Byvoorbeeld, kulturele ooreenkomste word bewys in die belangrikheid van die tradisionele uitgebreide familie- en stamstelsels wat op elke eiland voorkom.

Alhoewel dit verenig is as 'n land, is die mense eintlik 'n heterogene mengsel met verskillende gebruike en tradisies wat saamhang deur die onlangse geskiedenis en algemene aspirasies. Die kulturele diversiteit word gekenmerk deur die bestaan ​​van agt groot inheemse tale, en sy volke handhaaf steeds sterk tradisies, folklore en legendes.

Die vier state van die FSM word geskei deur groot uitgestrekte water. Voor Westerse kontak het hierdie isolasie gelei tot die ontwikkeling van unieke tradisies, gebruike en taal op elk van die eilande.

Engels is die amptelike taal, en daar is agt groot inheemse tale van die Maleis-Polinesiese taalfamilie wat in die FSM gepraat word: Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Kosraean, Nukuoro en Kapingamarangi.

Daar is 'n ryk mondelinge geskiedenis. 'N Deel van hierdie geskiedenis is 'n unieke musikale erfenis. Die tradisionele musiek word van geslag tot geslag oorgedra, hoewel die besoeker na die inskakeling by die plaaslike radiostasie baie meer geneig is om die kenmerkende klanke van Micronesiese popmusiek te hoor, wat ook sy eie karakter van staat tot staat ontwikkel het. Onder invloed van tradisionele musiek kom die FSM se popmusiek ook uit invloede so uiteenlopend soos Amerikaanse country en western, reggae en moderne europop.

Die basiese bestaansekonomie is gebaseer op die verbouing van boomgewasse (hoofsaaklik broodvrugte, piesang, klapper en sitrus) en wortelgewasse (hoofsaaklik taro en garing) aangevul deur visvang. Kleinskaalse landbou en verskeie tradisionele visvangpraktyke gaan vandag voort.

Deel, gemeenskaplike werk en huldeblyk aan die tradisionele leiers is uiters belangrik vir die bestaansekonomiese stelsel en die kultuur van die eilandgenootskappe van die FSM. Die basiese ekonomiese eenheid is die huishouding, wat hoofsaaklik uit uitgebreide gesinne bestaan. Groter eensame sosiale groepe wat op die meeste van die FSM -eilande voorkom, is matrilineêre stamme. Tradisionele politieke stelsels, soos die Nahmwarki Political System on Pohnpei en die Council of Pilung on Yap, speel vandag steeds 'n belangrike rol in die lewens van die mense van die FSM.

Godsdiens

Godsdiens is oorwegend Christelik, verdeel tussen Rooms-Katolieke en Protestantse ander kerke, insluitend Heiliges van die Laaste Dae, Sewendedag Adventiste, Vergadering van God, Jehovah se Getuies en die Baha'i Geloof.

Kerke van baie denominasies kan op die eilande gevind word.

50 persent is Rooms -Katoliek
47 persent is Protestant
3 persent is ander:
- Mormone
- Baptiste
- Vergadering van God
- Sewe dae Adventiste
- Appostoliese Kerk
- Pinksterkerk
- Jeovah se Getuies
- Oorwinningskapel

Geskiedenis

Die FSM het 'n ryk geskiedenis wat etlike duisende jare terugdateer. Die eilande is oorspronklik gevestig deur ou mense wat oos van Asië en noord van Polinesië vaar. Latere ontdekkers en setlaars het die Spanjaarde, Duitsers en Japanners ingesluit, en bewyse van hul voormalige teenwoordigheid word op die eilande gevind. Na die trusteeskap onder Amerikaanse administrasie nadat W.W. II, die FSM is nou onafhanklik en selfregerend.

Die meeste taalkundige en argeologiese bewyse dui aan dat die eilande tussen twee en drie duisend jaar gelede die eerste keer ontdek en gevestig is. Die eerste setlaars word dikwels beskryf as Austronesiese sprekers wat tuinbouvaardighede en hoogs gesofistikeerde maritieme kennis besit. Daar word vermoed dat hierdie eerste setlaars ooswaarts van Suidoos -Asië na Yap gemigreer het. Van daar af trek sommige suid na Papoea -Nieu -Guinee, Salomonseilande en Nieu -Caledonië, en later na Kiribati en die Marshall -eilande.

Die mondelinge geskiedenis van die Micronesiese volk dui op noue verbintenisse en interaksies in die verlede tussen die lede van die eilandgenootskappe wat die huidige FSM behels. Die Lelu -ruïnes in Kosrae (1400 nC) en die Nan Madol -ruïnes van Pohnpei (1000 nC) is indrukwekkende herinneringe aan die prestasies van hierdie vroeë mense.

In 1525 het Portugese seevaarders op soek na die Spice Islands (Indonesië) op Yap en Ulithi afgekom. Spaanse ekspedisies het later die eerste Europese kontak met die res van die Caroline -eilande gemaak. Spanje het sy koloniale regering op Yap gevestig en het soewereiniteit oor die Caroline -eilande geëis tot 1899. Destyds het Spanje hom uit die Stille Oseaan -insulêre gebiede onttrek en sy belange aan Duitsland verkoop, behalwe Guam wat 'n Amerikaanse insulêre gebied geword het.

Duitse administrasie het die ontwikkeling van handel en produksie van copra aangemoedig. In 1914 eindig die Duitse administrasie toe die Japannese vloot die Marshall-, Caroline- en Noord -Mariana -eilande militêr in besit geneem het.

Japan het sy formele administrasie begin onder 'n Volkebond wat in 1920 gemagtig was. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het uitgebreide skikking gelei tot 'n Japannese bevolking van meer as 100,000 in Mikronesië. Die inheemse bevolking was toe ongeveer 40 000. Suikerriet, mynbou, vissery en tropiese landbou het die belangrikste nywerhede geword.

Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog bring 'n skielike einde aan die relatiewe welvaart wat tydens die Japannese burgerlike administrasie ondervind is. Teen die gevolgtrekking van die oorlog is die meeste infrastruktuur deur bombardemente verwoes en die eilande en mense is deur die Japannese weermag uitgebuit tot verarming.

Die Verenigde Nasies het die Trustgebied van die Stille Oseaan -eilande (TTPI) in 1947 gestig. Pohnpei (voorheen Ponape), Kosrae (voorheen Kusaie, en destyds 'n deel van Pohnpei), Chuuk (voorheen Truk), Yap, Palau, Marshall Eilande en die Noordelike Mariana -eilande vorm saam die TTPI. Die Verenigde State aanvaar die rol van trustee hiervan, die enigste trustees van die Verenigde Nasies wat aangewys is as 'sekuriteitstrusteeskap', waarvan die uiteindelike gesindheid deur die VN se Veiligheidsraad bepaal moes word. As trustee sou die VSA 'die ekonomiese vooruitgang en selfvoorsiening van die inwoners bevorder'.

Die Amerikaanse president het 'n hoë kommissaris van die TTPI aangestel, en hy het op sy beurt 'n administrateur aangestel vir elk van die "distrikte" hierbo genoem. Die TTPI het tot 1951 onder die burgerlike administrasie van die Amerikaanse vlootdepartement gebly, toe die gesag aan die departement van binnelandse sake oorgedra is.

Op 12 Julie 1978, na 'n grondwetlike konvensie, het die mense van vier van die voormalige distrikte van die Trustgebied, Truk (nou Chuuk), Yap, Ponape (nou Pohnpei) en Kusaie (nou Kosrae) in 'n referendum gestem om 'n Federasie ingevolge die Grondwet van die Federale State van Mikronesië (FSM). Waarnemers van die Verenigde Nasies het hierdie referendum as 'n wettige daad van selfbeskikking gesertifiseer. Daardeur bevestig die mense hul inherente soewereiniteit wat dormant maar ongeskonde gebly het gedurende die jare van rentmeesterskap deur die Volkebond en die Verenigde Nasies.

By die inwerkingstelling van die FSM -grondwet op 10 Mei 1979 het die voormalige distrikte deel van die Federasie geword en mettertyd hul eie staatsgrondwette aangeneem. Landwye demokratiese verkiesings is gehou om amptenare van die nasionale en vier staatsregerings te kies. Agbare Tosiwo Nakayama, die voormalige president van die Kongres van Mikronesië, het die eerste president van die FSM geword en sy kabinet gevorm. Die nuwe kongres van die FSM het byeengeroep, die agbare Bethwel Henry as speaker verkies, en begin wette vir die nuwe Nasie opstel. 'N Regstelsel is ingevolge die nasionale en staatsgrondwette ingestel. Daarop het die Verenigde State 'n tydperk (1979 86) aangegaan van ordelike oordrag van regeringsfunksies in ooreenstemming met die bepalings en bedoeling van die VN -trusteeskapsooreenkoms.

By die implementering van die FSM -grondwet erken die VSA die stigting van die FSM nasionale en staatsregerings. Die FSM, die republiek van die Marshall -eilande en die Republiek van Palau het elkeen 'n Compact of Free Association met die Verenigde State beding. Die Compact is op 1 Oktober 1982 onderteken en goedgekeur deur kiesers in die FSM in 1983. Na goedkeuring deur die Amerikaanse kongres het die Compact op 3 November 1986 in werking getree. Op 17 September 1991 word die FSM lid van die Verenigde Nasies.

Regering

Die FSM -grondwet maak, net soos dié van die VSA, voorsiening vir drie afsonderlike regeringsvertakkings op nasionale vlak - uitvoerend, wetgewend en geregtelik. Dit bevat 'n verklaring van regte soortgelyk aan die Amerikaanse handves van regte, wat basiese standaarde van menseregte spesifiseer wat ooreenstem met internasionale norme. Dit bevat ook 'n bepaling wat tradisionele regte beskerm. Anders as die Amerikaanse stelsel word die meeste regeringsfunksies, behalwe die uitvoering van buitelandse sake en verdediging, egter deur die staatsregerings uitgevoer.

Die kongres van die FSM is eensaam met veertien senatore-een uit elke staat wat vir 'n termyn van vier jaar verkies is, en tien wat twee jaar dien, waarvan die setels deur die bevolking verdeel word. Tans het Chuuk ses sitplekke, Pohnpei vier en twee elk deur Yap en Kosrae. Die president en vise-president word deur die kongres uit die vierjarige senatore tot vier jaar verkies, en die vakante setels word dan in spesiale verkiesings gevul.

Die geregtelike tak van die nasionale regering word gelei deur die FSM Hooggeregshof, wat tans bestaan ​​uit drie regters wat in die verhoor en appèl appelleer. Op die oomblik is daar geen ander nasionale howe nie. Regters word deur die president benoem vir 'n lewenslange aanstelling en bevestig deur die kongres.

Die staatsregerings onder hul grondwette is struktureel soortgelyk en gebruik almal drie takke, uitvoerend, wetgewend en geregtelik. Hul make -up wissel volgens hul verskillende omstandighede.

FSM Besoekersraad
Posbus PS-12 Palikir, Pohnpei FSM 96941
Tel: +691 - 320 - 5133 Faks: +691 - 320 - 3251
E-pos: [email protected]

Kopiereg en kopie 2012 Besoekersraad van die Federale State van Mikronesië. Alle regte voorbehou.


Amerikaanse betrekkinge met die Federale State van Mikronesië

Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die eilande van die huidige Federale State van Mikronesië (FSM) deel geword van die Verenigde Nasies se strategiese trustgebied, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands onder administratiewe beheer van die Verenigde State. Die FSM het in 1986 onafhanklik geword, met die inwerkingtreding van die Compact of Free Association met die Verenigde State, wat 15 jaar aansienlike ontwikkelingshulp ingesluit het. 'N Amended Compact het in 2004 in werking getree en bevat nog 20 jaar finansiële bystand, maar die verhouding van gratis assosiasie duur onbepaald voort.

Die FSM is 'n soewereine nasie. Die Verenigde State en die FSM het volle diplomatieke betrekkinge en handhaaf diep bande en 'n samewerkingsverhouding. Terwyl die regering vry is om sy eie buitelandse betrekkinge te voer, doen dit dit wel volgens die bepalings van die gewysigde Compact. Onder die gewysigde Compact het die Verenigde State volle gesag en verantwoordelikheid vir die verdediging en veiligheid van die FSM. Geskikte FSM -burgers mag sonder visum in die Verenigde State woon, werk en studeer. FSM -burgers bied vrywillig diens aan in die Amerikaanse weermag teen tariewe per capita hoër as die meeste Amerikaanse state

Amerikaanse hulp aan die Federale State van Mikronesië

Ingevolge die gewysigde Compact bied die Amerikaanse regering ekonomiese en programhulp. Die Verenigde State bied jaarliks ​​meer as $ 110 miljoen hulp, tesame met 'n verskeidenheid federale toelaes en dienste, tot en met FY2023, insluitend 'n geleidelike toewyding van 'n deel van die jaarlikse hulp aan 'n gesamentlik bestuurde trustfonds. Die bystandsbepalings is daarop gemik om die FSM te help op sy pad na selfvoorsiening vir ekonomiese vooruitgang na 2023. Die regerings van die Verenigde State en die FSM het 'n gesamentlike komitee vir ekonomiese bestuur (JEMCO) gestig, bestaande uit verteenwoordigers van beide lande, wat verantwoordelik is om te verseker dat hulpfondse effektief en behoorlik verantwoord word, met die doel om goeie regering en ekonomiese selfstandigheid te bevorder. Verleen hulp onder die gewysigde Compact fokus op ses sektore: onderwys, gesondheid, infrastruktuur, kapasiteitsbou in die openbare sektor, ontwikkeling van die private sektor en die omgewing. Die JEMCO het 'n bykomende sektor vir Amerikaanse hulpverlening geïdentifiseer: verbeterde verslagdoening en aanspreeklikheid. Gewysigde Compact -toelaes word hoofsaaklik gefinansier deur en bestuur deur die Departement van Binnelandse Sake.

Baie Amerikaanse federale agentskappe, wat die sterk nalatenskap van trusteeskapsamewerking weerspieël, bedryf programme in die FSM. Dit sluit in die Federal Aviation Administration, US Postal Service, Small Business Administration, US Agency for International Development, Department of Energy, Department of Agriculture, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Education, Department of State, and the Department of the Interior .

Die FSM is hoogs kwesbaar vir natuurrampe en die moontlike gevolge van klimaatsverandering. Amerikaanse hulp fokus ook op die versterking van FSM se klimaatweerstand deur rampbestuur.

Bilaterale ekonomiese betrekkinge

Die FSM se nasionale regering speel 'n sentrale rol in die ekonomie as die ontvanger en verspreider van gewysigde Compact -fondse aan die state. Bestaansboerdery beslaan die helfte van die volwasse bevolking. Van die volwassenes wat in die kontantekonomie werk, werk meer as die helfte in die openbare sektor, wat 58% van die totale nasionale lone verdien. Werkloosheid is 16%. Die Verenigde State is die grootste handelsvennoot van FSM. Die totale uitvoer was slegs 24% van die invoer 2016, met 'n handelstekort wat ongeveer gelyk is aan al die hulp wat deur die VSA, China, Japan en Australië verleen word. Byna 8 000 Amerikaanse burgers het FSM in 2016 besoek.

FSM se lidmaatskap in internasionale en streeksorganisasies

Die FSM en die Verenigde State behoort aan 'n aantal dieselfde internasionale organisasies, waaronder die Verenigde Nasies, Asiatiese Ontwikkelingsbank, Internasionale Monetêre Fonds en Wêreldbank. Die Federale State van Mikronesië is op 17 September 1991 by die Verenigde Nasies toegelaat. Buiten die streek is FSM lid of deelnemer van die ACS (Cotonou -ooreenkoms), die Alliansie van Klein Eilandstate, die Ekonomiese en Sosiale Kommissie vir Asië en die Stille Oseaan (ESCAP), die Voedsel- en Landbou-organisasie (FAO), die G-77, die Internasionale Bank vir Heropbou en Ontwikkeling, die Internasionale Burgerlugvaartorganisasie, die Internasionale Rooi Kruis en Rooi Halfmaanbeweging, die Internasionale Ontwikkelingsvereniging, die Internasionale Finance Corporation, die Internasionale Olimpiese Komitee, die ITU, die NAM en die World Meteorological Organization.

FSM is 'n volledige lid van die Pacific Islands Forum, die Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) en die Pacific Community (SPC). Die FSM is ook lid van die Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), waarvan die hoofkwartier in die FSM geleë is. Boonop is die FSM een van die agt ondertekenaars van die Nauru-ooreenkoms oor samewerking in die bestuur van visserye van gemeenskaplike belang, wat gesamentlik 25-30% van die wêreld se tonynvoorsiening en ongeveer 60% van die westelike en sentrale Stille Oseaan-tonyn beheer aanbod.

Bilaterale verteenwoordiging

Die belangrikste amptenare van die ambassade word gelys op die lys van die departement se sleutelbeamptes.

Mikronesië het 'n ambassade in die Verenigde State by N Street NW 1725, Washington, DC 20036, tel: 202-223-4383. Die FSM -ambassadeur in die Verenigde State is Akillino Susaia.


Chamorros onder Duitse, Japannese en Amerikaanse bewind

Die gebrekkige Duitse administrasie van die Noordelike Marianas is deur die Eerste Wêreldoorlog ingekort. Toe Engeland in 1914 oorlog verklaar en sy bondgenoot Japan versoek om sy vloot te gebruik teen Duitse skeepvaart en militêre voorposte in die Stille Oseaan, sien Japan 'n kans om vergroot sy Stille Oseaan -ryk teen 'n lae prys. Die Japannese keiserlike vloot het vinnig nie net die Duitse vlootbasis in Tsingtao, China (nou Kiautschoubaai) ingeneem nie, maar ook die Duitse Mariana- en Caroline -eilande. Alle Duitse burgers is versamel en gedeporteer na krygsgevangenekampe in Japan. Die Northern Marianas Chamorros en Carolinians het vinnig die Japannese taal en regte bestudeer.

Skielik, net soos bevelvoerder Bradford in 1898 gevrees het, het 'n kommersiële mededinger in 1914 beheer oor Mikronesië gekry, wat Guam omring en die kommunikasiekanaal van Amerika na die Filippyne oorgesteek het. Alles was egter nie noodwendig verlore nie. Japan het aangekondig dat sy voornemens volkome eerbaar is en in ooreenstemming is met sy alliansie met Groot -Brittanje. Die Japannese premier graaf Shigenobu Okuma het 'n telegram gerig aan Die Onafhanklike as premier gesê dat Japan geen begeerte het om meer grondgebied te beveilig nie, geen gedagte gehad het om China of ander mense van alles te ontneem wat hulle nou besit nie. ”

In Januarie 1918 beveel die Algemene Raad van die Amerikaanse Vloot verkryging aan in die Marshalls, Carolines en Marianas:

Die Marianas was van uitstaande belang vanweë hul nabyheid aan Japan en die Amerikaanse eiland [Guam]. Hulle posisie in die onmiddellike omgewing van Guam kan ontwikkel tot duikbootbasisse op ondersteunende afstand van Japan, en in geval van oorlog sou dit hul voortgesette besit deur die land 'n ewige bedreiging vir Guam en vir alle vlootoperasies maak. vir die verligting van die Filippyne. ”

Aan die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het president Woodrow Wilson persoonlik die Vredesverdrag van Versailles opgestel, veral die afdeling wat die Volkebond gestig het. Vanweë partydige partypolitiek het die Republikeinse beheerde Amerikaanse senaat, onder leiding van die voorsitter van die senaatskomitee vir buitelandse betrekkinge, Henry Cabot Lodge, die vredesverdrag verwerp. Daarom het die Verenigde State nie 'n lid van die Volkebond geword nie. Toe Groot -Brittanje, Frankryk, Rusland en Italië daarna in Februarie 1919 hul geheime beloftes aan Japan nakom, het die Liga 'n klas C -mandaat oor Duits -Mikronesië aan Japan toegeken - oor president Wilson se besware. As nie-lede het Amerika geen stem in die Volkebond gehad nie.

Die Amerikaanse vloot het baie uitgespreek oor die noodsaaklikheid om Japan te verhinder om die Marianas te neem. Maar 'n paar belangrike vrae moet oorweeg word: Kan die gekombineerde Amerikaanse vloot die probleem gedwing het? Toe die senaat die verdrag nie bekragtig het nie, was hy nie verplig teenoor die noodlottige organisasie nie. Kon dieselfde “ geweerboot-diplomasie ” wat Perry en Roosevelt gehad het, 'n gesplete mandaat oor Mikronesië opgelewer het, terwyl die VSA die Marianas en Japan die res van Duits Mikronesië ingeneem het? Het Amerika nie daarin geslaag om die verdrag te bekragtig nie en het hy 'n lid geword van die Volkebond wat Japan en die VSA tot 'n oorlog om beheer oor die Stille Oseaan gelei het? As die Marianas en die Filippyne versterk is, sou Japan dalk besluit het om oorlog te kies met Rusland, hul eeue oue vyand in Asië, eerder as die VSA?

Soos Bradford in 1898 en die algemene raad in 1918 gevrees het, het Japan uiteindelik minder vriendelik geraak. Japan het in 1933 uit die Volkebond getrek na 'n afkeuring van hul inval in die Chinese provinsie Mantsjoerije in 1931, en het toegelaat dat die laaste van sy verdrae met die VSA in 1936 verstryk. Die Japanse vloot het 'n basis in die natuurlike hawe in Tanapag, Saipan, met ondersteunende lugbase op die natuurlike kalksteenvlakte by As Lito, Saipan en Hagoi, Tinian. Toe, op 8 Desember 1941, het Japannese vliegtuie van Saipan Guam bestorm en gebombardeer op 'n inval van 10 Desember. Japan herenig dus die Marianas met geweld, en die Guam Chamorros het gou die Japannese taal, regte en gebruike bestudeer.

Japannese vlootbeplanners het die probleme verwag om 'n regering in Guam te stig, insluitend die bestuur van die eiland se infrastruktuur - veral die kragsentrale, die waterstelsel en die kommunikasiestelsel - en begin met die assimilasie van die Guam Chamorros in die Japannese lewenswyse, net soos hulle met Northern Marianas Chamorros gedoen het. Die openbare werksisteme van Guam is deur kontrakteurs van die Amerikaanse vloot gebou en word deur militêre personeel van die Amerikaanse vloot en burgerlike personeel van Chamorro bedryf. Die voor die hand liggende oplossing was om die Amerikaanse vlootoperateurs met Japannese operateurs te vervang en lojale Chamorro-Japanners van die NMI te bring om vir die Guam Chamorro-burgers te vertaal totdat hulle Japannees kon leer.

Die Chamorros op Saipan, Tinian en Rota wat vir hierdie poste gekies is, het sedert 1914 op die Japannese staatsdiens leer opgetrek om tegnici en polisiebeamptes te word. Hulle is gebore en getoë tydens die Japannese administrasie en het hul uniform trots gedra. Vanweë die gebrek aan privaat ekonomiese ontwikkeling op Guam, het baie Guamaniërs na 1922 na die Noord -Marianas verhuis om voordeel te trek uit die bruisende Japannese ekonomie daar. Die Japannese het die Chamorros probeer oortuig dat hulle beter met die Japannese was en voorspel dat die Amerikaners nooit vir Asië sou veg nie.

In 1936 het die Amerikaanse kongres die wetsontwerp op onafhanklikheid van Filippyne aangeneem, wat die gebied van die Filippyne 10 jaar later onafhanklikheid verleen. Na aanleiding van hierdie wetgewing het die VSA min of geen moeite gedoen om Guam te ontwikkel nie. Meanwhile the Chamorros in the north were enjoying a much higher standard of living than their counterparts on Guam. Japanese administrators in the Northern Marianas again tried to convince the Chamorros that the Americans would eventually abandon the Marianas. By all outward appearances, the Japanese could demonstrate that they had done a better job of managing the Northern Mariana Islands than the US Navy had done managing Guam. It is no wonder then that when the Chamorro Police from the NMI arrived on Guam, they encouraged their Guam counterparts that it was best to learn how to deal with the Japanese, rather than resist assimilation.

The vast majority of NMI Chamorros who were sent to Guam to work for the Japanese administration were not police officers. Chamorro police were, in fact, only a small handful of the total. The larger number were civil service employees or employees of the Nippon Kokan K. K. (NKK), the company contracted to manage public utilities and economic development. Many of these northern Marianas Chamorros had relatives on Guam. Many were very sympathetic with the Guam Chamorros, providing them with secret information and food.

Yet, it is true that some of the NMI translators, particularly zealous police officers, informed on loyal Chamorro-Americans who were hiding flags or radios. Some Guam Chamorros were executed. Many were beaten. Even at the time of the reunification plebiscite in 1969, twenty-four years after war’s end, many bitter feelings remained. It was undoubtedly a factor in the final vote. (On a similar note, today’s Northern Marianas Chamorro tell stories about how some Guam Chamorros betrayed their roots and “sold their souls” to the Spanish conquest for blood money and prestige, particularly during the last stand at Aguiguan in 1695.)

Operation Forager, the Campaign for the Mariana Islands in June and August 1944, equally destroyed Saipan, Tinian, Rota and Guam. Out of the ashes, the US Navy reestablished its naval base in Apra Harbor and established advance naval and air bases on Saipan and Tinian. Guam returned to its prewar status as a US Territory, and the Guam Chamorros began campaigning for self-government and US citizenship. The Chamorros on Saipan began learning the English language, the principles of American democracy, and the workings of modern self-government. The American military established a rudimentary local government in Saipan, via elections.

After the battle ended, the people of the Northern Marianas were amazed at the massive military buildup on Tinian and Saipan. They thought the Japanese had been economically powerful, but the Seabee construction followed by the US Army-Air Force buildup was awe-inspiring. And, much to their relief, the Americans were not the animals portrayed by the Japanese, but some were rather hospitable and generous, especially after the Japanese defeat in September 1945.


Explore: Federated States of Micronesia

Crime levels are low. Most crime in the FSM is petty theft motivated by opportunity and impulse. There have been reported incidents of sexual assaults. Visitors should be vigilant, especially when alone.

Unexploded ordinance from World War II remains in some areas. It is dangerous, as well as illegal, to remove “souvenirs” from sunken WWII vessels and aircraft.

For travel advisories, see the following websites:

  • UK –www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice
  • USA –https://travel.state.gov/content/travel.html
  • Canada –www.voyage.gc.ca
  • New Zealand –www.safetravel.govt.nz
  • Australiëwww.smartraveller.gov.au

Specific Areas of Concern:

Crime rates are significantly higher in Chuuk than in the other states.

Some incidents of petty or opportunistic theft, but very few serious crimes against yachts have ever been reported.

Weer

Chuuk Lagoon photo courtesy of Ashley Thorington-Shippey

The islands are under the influence of the NE trade winds, which blow between October and May. January to March is the dry season, while rainfall can be heavy in the summer months. The SW monsoon lasts from June to September, when there are frequent periods of calm. Strong SW gales can occur during August and September. They appear to be caused by the typhoons which are bred in this region but usually move away from the islands. Occasionally the islands are affected by typhoons. Although typhoons can occur at any time of the year, the period 1 December to 30 April may be regarded as relatively safe. In some years, the typhoon season may start early, or last longer than usual, so the weather should be watched carefully at all times. Guam has the best forecasts for the area. (Thanks to Ashley Thorington-Shippey for this great photo taken from Chuuk).

Federated States of Micronesia Weather Forecast

The Pacific Region of the National Weather Service administers forecasts for FSM.

For links to free global weather information, forecast services and extreme weather information see the Noonsite Weather Page

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Historical Background: Colonization of Pacific Islands

Micronesia includes the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau (Belau), the U. S. Territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. Historically, Micronesians descended from seafarers who populated the island atolls between 2000 BC and 500 BC. Since the first contact with Westerners, starting with the Portuguese and Spanish explorers, the islands have been colonized by various European and Asian countries. For example, Pohnpei, an island state of the Federated States of Micronesia, was first “discovered” in 1526 when the Spaniards named it the “New Phillippines”. Spain later “claimed sovereignty” over most of Micronesia. Germany was the official colonizer for one year before Spain formally occupied Pohnpei in 1866. Germany “bought” the island from Spain in 1899 after the conclusion of the Spanish American War. Japan annexed the island in 1914 and Pohnpei became a US territory after the defeat of the Japanese empire during World War II.

In 1979, Pohnpei joined three other island states to become the Federated States of Micronesia. The country has had a compact of free association with the US since 1982 (Ashby, 1993). A similar political history occurred for the Republic of Palau. Palau was “discovered” in 1710 by Spain. It too was sold to the Germans, annexed by Japan and later became part of the US-managed Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands after World War II. Independence came to Palau in 1994 and it has had a compact of free association with the US since 1994 (Barbour, 1995).

The island of Guam, also a part of Micronesia, was ceded to the US by Spain in 1898. Captured by the Japanese in 1941, it was retaken by the US three years later and today remains, along with Saipan and other neighboring islands, an unincorporated US territory. In the 2000 Census, 37% of the Guam population is native Chamorro (Central Intelligence Agency, Accessed September 2, 2007).

A sad legacy of World War II is the nuclear weapons testing that occurred in the Marshall Islands starting in 1946. Whole atolls were destroyed or made uninhabitable, populations moved away from their ancestral homelands, and ways of life were changed as the people were involuntarily exposed to radiation. Residual effects initially included radiation sickness, but later increased rates thyroid cancer as well as lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, leukemia and lymphoma (Anderson et al., 2006). Today, these island nations struggle with the legacy of the colonization and westernization of their island homelands. Social structures and ways of life are changing and diseases associated with western lifestyles such as obesity, coronary artery disease and substance abuse are having devastating effects (Kermode & Tellei, 2005).

Polynesia

The Polynesia triangular region stretches from Fiji and Tonga to the west, Easter Island to the east, Hawaii to the North and New Zealand to the south. Samoans are the largest population of Polynesians in the US after Native Hawaiians. The Samoan islands were populated more than 2,000 years ago and subsequent migrations settled the rest of Polynesia further to the east. Contact with Europeans began in the early 1700s but did not intensify until the arrival of English missionaries and traders in the 1830s. At the turn of the 20th century, the Samoan islands were split into two sections. The eastern islands became territories of the United States in 1904 and today are known as American Samoa. The western islands became known as Western Samoa (now the Independent State of Samoa), passing from Germany to New Zealand in 1914. The New Zealand government administered Western Samoa under the auspices of the League of Nations and then as a UN trusteeship until independence in 1962. Western Samoa was the first Pacific Island country to gain its independence (US Department of State, Accessed September 2, 2007).

Melanesia

Tonga was settled about 500 BC. The Dutch explorers visited in 1643 after the islands were sighted in 1616. By 1845, all of the Tongan islands had been united by ancestors of the current dynasty. Under British protection by 1900, Tonga retained its independence and autonomy and became fully independent in 1970 (US Department of State, Accessed September 2, 2007).

Fiji was settled by both Polynesian and Melanesian people around 1500 BC. Europeans arrived in the early 1800s and Fiji was ceded to Britain in 1874. Fiji became an independent nation in 1970 and today continues to struggle with the large immigrant population from India who came to Fiji as servants.


The Art of Micronesia

Foreword by Albert J. Simone
Erkennings
Introduction by Leonard Mason
Form and Function in the Art of Micronesia by Jerome Feldman
Beyond Form and Function by Jerome Feldman
Fabric Arts and Traditions by Donald H. Rubinstein
Catalogue of the Exhibition
Bibliografie

This book was generously provided by Jerome Feldman, Donald H. Rubinstein, et al.

Statue of a female deity (profile). Images of deities were known as dinonga eidu and were kept in culthouses. Carved wooden images as ritual objects are extremely rare in Micronesia. Country of Origin: Caroline Islands. Culture: Oceanic. Date/Period: 18th -19th C. Place of Origin: Nukuoro island. Material Size: Wood Height 40cm. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive

Gable Figure (Dilukai) | Late 19th – Early 20th Century | Belau
The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Gift of Nelson A. Rockefeller, and Purchase, Nelson A. Rockefeller Gift, 1970 | 1978.412.1558a-d
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art | New York, USA

Statue of a female deity (profile). Images of deities were known as dinonga eidu and were kept in culthouses. Carved wooden images as ritual objects are extremely rare in Micronesia. Country of Origin: Caroline Islands. Culture: Oceanic. Date/Period: 18th -19th C. Place of Origin: Nukuoro island. Material Size: Wood Height 40cm. Credit Line: Werner Forman Archive

Carving of goddess. Kawe de Hine Aligi. | Nukuoro, Caroline Islands | 1970.39, 38740
© Auckland War Memorial Museum | Nieu-Seeland

Helmet | Mid 19th Century | Kiribati
© The British Museum | Verenigde Koninkryk

Deity Figure (Sope) | Nukuoro, Caroline Islands
© Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Ethnologisches Museum / Stiftung Humboldt Forum im Berliner Schloss, digitale Reproduktion: Jester Blank GbR

Wooden Mask | 19th Century | Caroline Islands | 18240 | Gift of William Pepper, 1891
© Penn Museum | Pennsylvania, USA

Lid and Bowl | 18th Century | Palau
© The British Museum | Verenigde Koninkryk

Wooden Mask (tapuanu) | Caroline Islands, Nomoi Islands (Mortlock Islands)
Purchased with funds provided by the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation with additional funding by Jane and Terry Semel, the David Bohnett Foundation, Camilla Chandler Frost, Gayle and Edward P. Roski, and The Ahmanson Foundation (M.2008.66.13)
© Los Angeles County Museum of Art | California, USA

Navigation Chart | 19th Century | Marshall -eilande
© The British Museum | Verenigde Koninkryk

Woman's Valuable (Toluk) | Late 19th – Early 20th Century | Belau | The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Burnett, 1960 | 1978.412.756
© The Metropolitan Museum of Art | New York, USA

Table | Late 18th Century - Mid 19th Century | Palau
© The British Museum | Verenigde Koninkryk

Necklace | 19th Century | Marshall -eilande
© The British Museum | Verenigde Koninkryk

Table | Late 18th Century - Mid 19th Century | Palau
© The British Museum | Verenigde Koninkryk

Photographic print | Micronesia | Printed by J Paine Photo | 1880 - 1900 | Yap
© The British Museum | Verenigde Koninkryk

Photographic print | Micronesia | Printed by J Paine Photo | 1884 | Yap
© The British Museum | Verenigde Koninkryk

Jerome Feldman

Jerome Feldman is a Professor of art history at Hawaiʻi Pacific University in Honolulu and lectures at the Department of Art and Art History at Mānoa during Summer sessions. His specialization is in the arts of Tribal Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. Feldman has conducted field studies in remote islands of Indonesia, and Polynesia. He has written many articles and books, has studied museum collections in Europe, Asia, the Pacific and America and has aided in several important exhibitions including The Eloquent Dead at the Fowler Museum at UCLA, Nias Tribal Treasures at the Volkenkundig Museum Nusantara in Delft, and Beyond the Java Sea, a Smithsonian sponsored traveling exhibition. In fall 2004 he was the Slade Visiting Professor at Kings College, Cambridge University, England.

PhD | Columbia Universiteit
M.A. | University of Hawai’i at Manoa
B.A. | City University of New York

Research Highlights

• “The Great Chief’s House at Baruyulasara, Pulau Tello, the Batu Islands, Indonesia” in Lehner, E., I. Doubrawa, Ikaputra. Insular Diversity Architecture, Culture, Identity in Indonesia, Vienna Institute for Comparative Research in Architecture, 2013: 119-128.
• “Art-Southeast Asia,” in Mcneill et al. Art in World History, Great Barrington: Berkshire Pub.: 130-135.
• With Gruber, P., M. Melcher, J Kurt-Nielsen, “Replacement of Tradition- Comparative View of the Architectural Development of the Village of Hilimondregeraya in Nias, Indonesia,” Cultural Heritage and New Technologies, 14th Congress . eBook edition, Vienna: 2010.


PART V: THE PAYOFF

The insidious plan was in motion. The Tribal Council stage was set. All that remained was the final act and to see if Erik would actually go ahead and hand over his immunity necklace. Each of the women had assigned roles to play to ensure that he did.

ELIZA ORLINS [juror]: I walked into Tribal Council with the jury thinking that Erik was definitely going to be voted out unless he won immunity. So we walk in and we see that he has immunity, and that means one of the girls is going to get voted out. So now I’m thinking that it was definitely going to be Natalie, and feeling kind of disappointed because the girls had really been playing a great game. But I looked over and there was a twinkle in Cirie’s eye, and she kind of gave me a wink. I was like, 𠇌irie has something up her sleeve.”

CIRIE FIELDS: I wanted Amanda and Parvati to just lambast Erik. I wanted them to say, in front of the jury, how terrible he was, and how he seems innocent but he’s running around trying to play all of us, telling all of us the same thing, how he turned on Natalie, how he didn’t take her on reward. I wanted Erik to think that he was mud in the jury’s eyes, because that would play right into what I’ve been telling him the whole time. That would just validate everything that we were saying, and push him further to my side of the redemption thought process in giving up the necklace and saving Natalie. “Look, everybody hates you! Amanda can’t stand you. Parvati’s telling the jury how terrible you are. You’re never gonna win this thing, not like this. You’ve got mud all over you. You’ve got to clean yourself up.”

JEFF PROBST [host, executive producer]: The conversations that happened on the beach before Tribal and then carried through into Tribal, if you watch them together, that is a master class in persuasion. It’s one of the most fundamental skills required to play Survivor, the ability to persuade somebody to do something. There are two big categories of persuasion: You can charm, or you can put the fear of consequence in somebody, and they did both.

AMANDA KIMMEL: We had to really play this out until the very end because even though you’ve done all this work before, it’s so different when you get Tribal Council. So I really wanted to carry the energy into Tribal, because if I don’t, there’s a slim chance that this was maybe going to happen.

PARVATI SHALLOW: My role was to be the bully. I took on that role because that’s already what Erik expected of me. He didn’t like me very much. And I thought, “You know, he thinks I’ve already betrayed a bunch of people, so he’s going to anticipate me being a bad guy. And I’m going to do that. I’m going to just bully him and then see how that works.” Amanda was good cop, I was bad cop, Natalie was the one who was the underdog who needed Erik’s help, and then Cirie was this motherly, nurturing, you-can-trust-me figure.

JEFF PROBST: It’s one of the most remarkable team efforts. Everyone had a role, and everyone delivered. It was like a bank heist. Everybody has to be on point. If one person is off, it’s over. If the getaway driver forgets to put gas in the car, you’re screwed. But everybody was right. And it truly is one of the greatest displays ever, because you watch what a beautiful combination of charm and consequence can do.

NATALIE BOLTON: I’ve got to say, those girls stepped up. I was kind of shocked with the attack by Amanda and Parv. They just went at him, and it was so good. And he was receptive and tender enough at that point for that to really, unfortunately, make an impact on him. And then Cirie peppered in the talk about needing redemption and it became this whole like murky what’s happening right now?! But I got to say, those three girls really showed up for me in that Tribal Council. And my job was to just sit back and let it all unfold the way it was supposed to unfold.

JEFF PROBST: First, Parvati said, “Nobody can trust him. He’s all over the map.” Then Amanda kind of said the same thing. That was predictable. They were gonna give it a shot. But there was a moment where Erik said, “They’re not wrong. I have been doing that.” And that admission in that moment caught my ear in the sense that Erik was actually listening. You didn’t know if he was gonna do it, but he was listening.

ERIK REICHENBACH: Parvati and Amanda had resting b—- face towards me. Tribal Council is almost always jovial, like an awkward jovial atmosphere. This one was cold. It was frozen over with ice, at least for me.

MATT VAN WAGENEN: Truthfully, it felt like they were piling on pretty hard. I was feeling bad for him because he was really looking to clear his name and they were piling on. For lack of a better word, they were mind-f—ing him.

ELIZA ORLINS: I remember that they were being really hard on him, and it did seem kind of performative, but a lot of the things that they did were very calculated, and so I figured this was a show for the jury to potentially earn votes later.

OZZY LUSTH [juror]: I didn’t really get it. It didn’t seem like he had done anything that bad, but for some reason he’s super vulnerable. I think there was a little bit of a delirium happening for him, because his body was eating itself and his mental state was affected by that, and they were able to see that weakness, and really exploit it. And they did a damn good job at it.

ERIK REICHENBACH: I was just playing Survivor, the same as them. It came down to me wanting to feel good. I am influenced by other people. I’m influenced by what other people think of me and especially people that I consider friends. They knew that, and they leveraged that. I really don’t think I did anything outside the norm that would be like a Russell Hantz or a Randy Bailey. There are other people that have done much worse things than me.

CIRIE FIELDS: I’ve done worse than that.

PARVATI SHALLOW: Erik did not do anything wrong. Let’s be 100 percent clear about that. I do not believe that Erik ever did anything wrong. All of it was totally made up.

AMANDA KIMMEL: We’re awful people. I don’t know what to say. It was awful! The stuff you have to do on the show is awful. We basically used the sweet parts of Erik and threw it back at him. He’s such a sweet guy and we just manipulated that part. The stuff you’re capable of, it’s pretty bad.

PARVATI SHALLOW: I could care less if Erik was breaking his word with everyone. It didn’t bother me. What really mattered to me was advancing my game and getting the people that I wanted to get to the end. And I realized the only way for us to do this was for everyone to step into their role that we had all agreed to play and play it to the best of our ability.

ELIZA ORLINS: Watching from the jury, I felt sorry for him. He seemed kind of in over his head with these very adept women. He was the kid from a tiny town in Michigan who had never even left the country before, let alone maybe even the state of Michigan, and he just seemed so in over his head. I just sat there shaking my head, feeling bad for him.

The last question Jeff Probst posed before going to voting was to ask Cirie if it matters if you redeem yourself in this game. It could not have been teed up any better.

CIRIE FIELDS: I remember saying, “Of course, it’s important for redemption!” which, one, I needed Erik to hear. And two, I needed Erik to hear. Because it just validated everything that was going on earlier in the day. Jeff just put so much value into my plan, by saying, “Redemption.” It just so happens you’re talking about redemption, and this is what I’m telling this kid he needs in order to make it to the end and win a million dollars. It was perfect for me.

ERIK REICHENBACH: They were putting a wall on each side of me. The only wiggle way out for me emotionally is to redeem myself by the path they want. So emotionally, they boxed me in. They’ve realized strategically, we might not be able to beat Erik, or in skill challenges, we might not be able to beat Erik. But we can box him emotionally in this way, which I wasn’t aware of until it was too late. It’s like throwing out a line, here’s what you grab on. I think the title of the episode is very apt: “If it Smells Like a Rat, Give it Cheese.” Redemption was the cheese.

CIRIE FIELDS: He didn’t quite understand that the necessity for redemption isn’t really a factor in this game. You redeem yourself when you get a chance to talk at the end. That’s when you do your redeeming. Right now, you just get to the end. When he opened himself to the conversation about redemption, that let me know that there was some wiggle room in there, and some mind games to be played, because, if not, he would’ve just been like, “Yeah, I’ll redeem myself when I talk at the end. No, I’m never gonna give up my necklace.” By him not just shutting it down, it let us know that there was an opening there.

ERIK REICHENBACH: It really is just them ganging up and hammering the iron, hammering the iron until I’m so malleable.

CIRIE FIELDS: Erik is a nice guy, and he didn’t really wanna upset anybody or anything, but by just merely playing the game, you’re gonna upset somebody. I guess his view of the game is go to the end with as many people that like you and support you to win, but it’s not really that all the time. That comes from experience. That comes from being older, living a little more, and playing the game a little more, �use things happen. People will cut your throat and attempt to blindside you, and the next thing you know, you’ll be saving them with your idol.

It was finally time to vote and Probst, as was customary, asked Erik if he would like to keep his necklace or hand his hard-won immunity over to someone else.

ERIK REICHENBACH: When Jeff says, “What do you want to do?” I feel I need to do something at that point. I feel like I need a release. I’m not thinking that there’s only three more days to put up with this I’m thinking that I’m trapped in this moment. The decision was made right then. That was the moment. And I did it. I gave it to Natalie.

JEFF PROBST: As a producer, all you’re thinking is, “I cannot believe this is happening. This is the greatest moment that’s ever happened on Survivor!” And I stood up to start the voting and all I’m thinking is “Oh my God. Ag my God. Ag my God. Ag my God. Ag my God. Ag my God. This is happening. This is happening. He’s going to be voted out. He has no idea. How does he not see this?!”

NATALIE BOLTON: It was an out-of-body experience, because he’s taking the necklace off and in no way shape or form should this have ever gone down like this. So he’s taking it off and handing it over to me and I’m putting it on. And I can’t throw too much energy at it because he could have retracted it had I had some sideways reaction. Then I could have tipped him off within that moment of saying, “You know what? Actually, I’m changing my mind.” Because you know how they say not until the ink’s dry on a contract do you believe anything? That’s kind of how it was. I needed it around my neck, latched, and then Jeff to continue talking and say, “We’re starting the voting process. So and so, you’re up.” I needed that segment to close out.

CIRIE FIELDS: Oh my God, when Erik said he was gonna give Natalie the necklace, I didn’t wanna turn around. I wanted to stay laser-focused on whichever direction I was looking, �use I didn’t wanna give him any reason to think, or to look at me, or catch a glance, or anything to make him change his mind, and I almost wanted to stay invisible until the act was over, until she actually had it around her neck, because people say things and change their minds in seconds at Tribal. I’m sitting there. I hear him saying this, but I can’t even breathe until the necklace is firmly placed around Natalie’s neck. I’m just sitting there, like, 𠇍on’t look at me. Don’t ask me no questions, Jeff. I’m not even here. Let the exchange take place.”

PARVATI SHALLOW: Ag my God. Ag my God. I don’t even hear the words, but I see him taking the necklace off of his neck. And I’m like, “No. Glad nie. No. He can’t … It’s not … No way! Oh, my God! Is he for real?” I was just in complete disbelief and shock. And then I watched him hand it over to Natalie and I’m like, “Woooow.” I was overwhelmed with the intensity of shock and disbelief and just like sheer… What?!

AMANDA KIMMEL: I was completely shocked. I couldn’t believe that he actually did it. Because there’s still that part of you that’s like, “No one’s actually going to do this.” But after the shock I was like, “Oh, my gosh! We still have to play this off.”

CIRIE FIELDS: Inside, there’s a party going on, like, “Oh, hell no!” But outside, I’m just trying to remain calm, because I wanted Erik to at least think maybe he didn’t just make the biggest mistake of his life. I had a good angel� angel on my shoulder. The good angel is like, �mn, he actually gave her his immunity. Now, you’re gonna vote him? Shame on you!” But then the other side was like, “Yes, we got him!” I had to contain all of that and just try to look straight ahead so we could get on with the vote. But the jurors are over there already passing out and gasping.

PARVATI SHALLOW: They’re all in total shock. I think Eliza’s mouth is the widest I’ve ever seen her mouth get, and she’s known for large facial expressions. Watching the jury’s reaction, I’m like, “Oh man. We got a live one. We did real good.”

OZZY LUSTH: I just was thinking: You’re a f—ing idiot!

ELIZA ORLINS: My mouth just dropped open at that point. I completely cannot believe that he has just gotten himself voted out of the game.