Geskiedenis Podcasts

Frank Crowninshield

Frank Crowninshield

Francis (Frank) Crowninshield, die seun van Frederic Crowninshield en Helen Suzette Fairbanks Crowninshield, is gebore op 24 Junie 1872. Sy vader was 'n skilder en het twee jaar gedien as direkteur van die American Academy in Rome. Crowninshield is in New York opgelei, waar Condé Nast een van sy medestudente was. Dit was die begin van 'n lewenslange vriendskap.

Soos sy pa, het hy 'n groot belangstelling in skilderkuns gehad, en uiteindelik het hy 'n kunskritikus geword Die Century Magazine. Gedurende hierdie tydperk bevorder hy die werk van moderne kunstenaars soos Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Jules Pascin, Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas en Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Hy het ook 'n paar van hul werk gekoop, en dit is later met 'n groot wins verkoop.

In 1909 koop Condé Nast 'n tydskrif met 'n klein genootskap genaamd Vogue. Hy het Crowninshield as redakteur aangestel, en in die volgende paar jaar het hy dit in die land se belangrikste mode- en leefstyltydskrif verander. Dit is ook gepubliseer in verskeie Europese stede, waaronder Londen en Parys, en dit het 'n baie winsgewende aspek van Nast se groeiende tydskrifryk geword.

Nast het ook besluit om 'n nuwe tydskrif te stig, Vanity Fair. Hy het Crowninshield om advies gevra. Hy antwoord: 'U tydskrif moet die dinge dek waaroor mense praat ... Partytjies, kuns, sport, teater, humor, ensovoorts.' Nast het besef dat Crowinshield die beste man was om die nuwe tydskrif wat in Januarie 1914 bekendgestel is, te redigeer. Crowninshield het aan sy lesers gesê: 'Ons het as 'n volk besef dat dit nodig is om meer vrolikheid te hê, om 'n plegtige gesig te verberg, vir 'n kermis mate van pluk, en vir goeie goeie humor. Vanity Fair beteken om so vrolik soos enigiemand te wees. Dit sal humor druk, dit sal kyk na die verhoog, na die kunste, na die wêreld van letters, na sport en na die hoogs vitaliseerde, elektriese en gediversifiseerde lewe van ons dag vanuit die eerlik vrolike hoek van die optimis, of, wat baie dieselfde is, vanuit die spotterige hoek van die satirikus. "

Crowninshield het 'n reputasie ontwikkel vir die identifisering van goeie skrywers. In 1916 publiseer hy die eerste gedigte van Dorothy Parker. Sy onthou later: 'Meneer Crowninshield, God rus sy siel, betaal twaalf dollar vir 'n klein vers van my en gee my 'n pos op Vogue teen tien dollar per week. "Twee jaar later vervang sy PG Woodhouse as die teaterkritikus van die tydskrif. Ander personeellede was onder meer Donald Ogden Stewart, Robert Benchley, Robert E. Sherwood en Helen Brown Norden. Crowninshield aanvaar ook die gedigte, kortverhale en artikels van sommige van die opwindendste jong skrywers in die 1920's. Dit sluit Alexander Woollcott, Aldous Huxley, Edmund Wilson, Gertrude Stein, TS Eliot, Ferenc Molnár, Djuna Barnes, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Noël Coward en Thomas Wolfe in . Teen 1917 het die tydskrif 'n oplaag van 90 000 gehad.

In 1919 begin Crowninshield middagete saam met 'n groep skrywers in die eetkamer in die Algonquin Hotel in New York. Die skrywer, Murdock Pemberton, onthou later dat die eienaar van die hotel, Frank Case, gedoen het wat hy kon om hierdie byeenkoms aan te moedig: "Van toe af ontmoet ons daar byna elke dag in die suidwestelike hoek van die kamer. meer as vier of ses het gekom, tafels kan saamgeskuif word om vir die nuwelinge te sorg. ons sit 'n hele paar maande in die hoek ... Frank Case, altyd skerpsinnig, het ons oorgeskuif na 'n ronde tafel in die middel van die kamer en gratis voorsien voorgereg. Dit sou ek kon byvoeg, was nooit 'n middel vir die byeenkoms nie ... Die tafel het hoofsaaklik gegroei omdat ons dan gemeenskaplike belange gehad het. Ons was almal teater- of bondgenote. ”Case het erken dat hy hulle na 'n sentrale plek by 'n ronde tafel in die Rose Room verskuif het, sodat ander kon sien hoe hulle mekaar se geselskap geniet.

Hierdie groep het uiteindelik bekend gestaan ​​as die Algonquin Round Table. Ander gereelde by hierdie middagetes was Robert E. Sherwood, Dorothy Parker, Robert Benchley, Alexander Woollcott, Heywood Broun, Harold Ross, Donald Ogden Stewart, Edna Ferber, Ruth Hale, Franklin Pierce Adams, Jane Grant, Neysa McMein, Alice Duer Miller, Charles MacArthur, Marc Connelly, George S. Kaufman, Beatrice Kaufman, Ben Hecht, John Peter Toohey, Lynn Fontanne, Alfred Lunt en Ina Claire.

Vanity Fair meer bladsye advertensies gepubliseer as enige ander Amerikaanse tydskrif. Gevolglik wou Crowninshield diegene wat die tydskrif gehelp het, nie ontstel nie. Dit sluit die teaterprodusent Florenz Ziegfeld in, wat beswaar aangeteken het teen 'n hersiening van 'n toneelstuk deur Dorothy Parker waarin sy vrou, Billie Burke, verskyn: 'Miss Burke is op haar beste in haar ernstiger oomblikke; in haar begeerte om die meisjes van die karakter oor te dra , speel sy haar ligter tonele asof sy 'n nabootsing van Eva Tanguay gee. " Parker het 'n reputasie ontwikkel om harde opmerkings in haar resensies te lewer, en op 12 Januarie 1920 is sy ontslaan deur Crowninshield.

Robert E. Sherwood en Robert Benchley bedank albei oor die afdanking. Soos John Keats, die skrywer van U kan net so goed lewe: die lewe en tye van Dorothy Parker (1971): "Dit is nou moeilik om 'n tydskrif van Vanity FairDit was toe belangrik vir Broadway -produsente, maar die koerante en tydskrifte van 1920 het dit gedoen, en dit was 'n seer punt vir die werkende koerante en teaterkritici by die Round Table. Hulle het geglo dat as 'n akteur hom skuldig maak aan 'n oordrewe optrede, dit nie meer as 'n kritikus se plig was om te rapporteer dat hy die vervaardigers was nie. Verder was die standpunt van Vanity Fair in hierdie geval blykbaar die aanvaarding van 'n klag van 'n adverteerder as 'n voldoende verskoning om 'n werknemer af te dank sonder om vrae gevra te word, en dit was die onreg van hierdie posisie wat daartoe gelei het dat Benchley en Sherwood aan mnr. Crowninshield dat as hy mev Parker gaan afdank, hulle ophou. "

In 1921 verhuis Crowninshield by Condé Nast. Crowninshield het gesê: 'Ek dink mense het gedink ons ​​is feetjies.' Amy Fine Collins het nog 'n verduideliking gegee: "die situasie wat die redakteur beter akkommodasie bied as wat hy andersins sou kon bied, en sy baas toegang tot Crowninshield se verre en omvattende sosiale verbindings." Crowninshield, wat nooit getroud is nie, het aan sy vriend, Alexander Woollcott, gesê: "Getroude mans maak baie arm mans."

Crowninshield ontmoet Clare Boothe in 1929. By die onderhoud vra hy haar om binne 'n week terug te kom met 100 voorstelle wat geskik is vir publikasie in Vanity Fair. Na aanleiding van hierdie oefening het hy haar 'n pos in die tydskrif gegee. Clare het gevra of dit beteken dat haar idees goed is. Crowninshield het geantwoord: "Nee, my kind. Sommige van hulle is heeltemal verskriklik. Maar twee is uitstekend. En 'n goeie idee per week is omtrent alles wat 'n tydskrif van 'n beginner -redakteur kan verwag."

Een van Boothe se eerste opdragte was om onderskrifte te skryf vir sy gewilde funksie, We Nominate for the Hall of Fame. Dit bevat artikels oor mense soos Thomas Mann, Ernest Hemingway, Walter Gropius, Louis Bromfield en Pablo Picasso. In Augustus 1930 stel sy 'n nuwe funksie bekend, We Nominate for Oblivion. Haar doelwitte het politici soos Reed Smott ingesluit ("omdat sy belangrikste kwalifikasies vir die pos as voorsitter van die Senaat se finansiële komitee is dat hy 'n apostel in die Mormoonse Kerk van Utah is en nie op sy vingers reken nie") en Smith W . Brookhart ("omdat hy politieke kapitaal gemaak het uit die sluipery van die van sy leërskare wat alkohol bedien").

Vanity Fair gely tydens die Groot Depressie as gevolg van dalende advertensie -inkomste. Condé Nast het in Desember 1935 aangekondig dat die tydskrif saamgesmelt sal word Vogue (sirkulasie 156 000) vanaf die uitgawe van Maart 1936. Amy Fine Collins het aangevoer: "Die tydskrif was 'n slagoffer van die depressie en het adverteerders verloor - wie se bestaan ​​Crowninshield in elk geval altyd geïgnoreer het. Maar Vanity Fair het ook nie in ooreenstemming met die tyd geval nie. Teen die dertigerjare, met die ekonomie en die fascisme in die voorpunt van die lesers, het intekenare meer na nuuskierige nuusdekking toegeslaan. "

Frank Crowninshield is op 28 Desember 1947 oorlede.

Robert Benchley het gesê dat Frank Crowninshield die oggend vir mev Parker by sy kantoor ingeroep het en haar meegedeel het dat 'n voorstel van die uitgewer, Condé Nast, na hom gekom het om haar te ontslaan. Die rede was, het mnr Crowninshield gesê, dat sy drie Broadway -toneelstukke gepan het, en die vervaardigers van hierdie toneelstukke het by die uitgewer gekla dat hulle onregverdig behandel is ...

Dit is nou moeilik om 'n tydskrif van Vanity FairDit was toe belangrik vir Broadway -produsente, maar die koerante en tydskrifte van 1920 het dit gedoen, en dit was 'n seer punt vir die werkende koerante en teaterkritici by die Round Table. Verder lyk dit asof Vanity Fair se standpunt in hierdie geval die aanvaarding van 'n klag van 'n adverteerder was as 'n voldoende verskoning om 'n werknemer af te dank sonder om vrae gevra te word, en dit was die onreg van hierdie posisie wat daartoe gelei het dat Benchley en Sherwood aan mnr. Crowninshield dat as hy mevrou Parker gaan afdank, hulle ophou.

Eens voor die inkomstebelasting, die Groot Oorlog en die verbod het mnr. Condé Nast 'n tydskrif gekoop met die naam Aantrek, 'n moontlike mededinger vir sy vierjarige Vogue. 'N Paar maande later, in 1913, betaal hy $ 3,000 vir 'n muwwe Britse sosiale, literêre en politieke resensie met die titel Vanity Fair, vernoem na beide die sondige plek in John Bunyan se 17de-eeuse allegorie Die pelgrim se vordering en William Makepeace Thackeray se 19de-eeuse satiriese roman. Deur sy twee verkrygings te kruis, het Nast geskep Aantrek en Vanity Fair, 'n hydra-kop flop. Om die situasie te red, het Nast advies ingewin by die mees gekultiveerde, elegante en innemende man in die uitgee van Frank Crowninshield, indien nie Manhattan nie.

Die estetiek van die boonste kors - wat vroeër dieselfde jaar gehelp het om die kenmerkende Armory Show, 'n suksesvolle skandaal wat die kubisme aan die Amerikaanse publiek bekend gestel het, te organiseer - het 'n baie eenvoudige oplossing gebied. 'U tydskrif moet die dinge bespreek waaroor mense praat,' het Crowninshield aan mnr. Nast gesê. "Partytjies, die kunste, sport, teater, humor, ensovoorts." Nast het onmiddellik Crowninshield -redakteur gesalf en ingestem om die eerste helfte van die ou titel te laat vaar, het die uitgewers -magnaat Vanity Fair in Januarie 1914 van stapel gestuur. moed, oorspronklikheid en genie is oral te ontmoet. ”

Van 1921 tot 1927 het Nast en Crowninshield eintlik saam in 'n Parklaan -dupleks geslaap - "Ek veronderstel dat mense gedink het ons is feetjies," het die uitgewer gesê - 'n situasie wat die redakteur beter akkommodasie bied as wat hy andersins sou kon bekostig, en sy baas toegang tot die verre en omvattende sosiale verbindings van Crowninshield ....

Wat dan doodgemaak is Vanity Fair, op 22 in die jaar 1936 dood? As 'n slagoffer van die depressie het die tydskrif adverteerders verloor - wie se bestaan ​​Crowninshield in elk geval nog altyd geïgnoreer het. Teen die dertigerjare, met die ekonomie en die fascisme aan die voorpunt van die lesers, het intekenare meer tot nuuskierige nuusdekking toegeslaan as na boog V.F. prentjies soos "Who's Zoo?", wat Mussolini se gesig met 'n aap gelyk het. Nast oorweeg dit om te verwoes Vanity Fair deur dit te omskep in 'n tydskrif genaamd Skoonheid. Maar in plaas daarvan vou hy dit saam met Crowninshield in Vogue. Hoe verstom sou die geleerde Crownie dit wees, nege dekades na sy installasie as redakteur - en ongeveer 20 jaar daarna Vanity Fairse opstanding in sy huidige inkarnasie - die lesende publiek van vandag is minder vertroud met Bunyan en Thackeray as met die tydskrif wat eens beloof het om ''n ete op vyftig meter aan te steek'.


Crowninshield -familie

Die Crowninshield -familie was onder die Boston Brahmin -samelewing van Boston: die mees gegoede en gevestigde gesinne van Boston. Die voorvader van die familie was Johann Casper Richter von Kronenshcheldt, wat saam met sy pa, Johann Casper Richter, uit die suide van Denemarke na Duitsland gekom het en hom in 'n klein dorpie gevestig het. Johann Casper Richter se seun is op pad na die Nuwe Wêreld en het in 1680 in Salem, Essex County, Massachusetts, Noord -Amerika aangekom.

  • Derby gesin
  • Boardman -gesin
  • Bradlee -gesin
  • Fairbanks familie
  • Hodges -gesin
  • Putnam familie
  • Welch gesin
  • Williams -gesin
  • Kapt George Crowninshield, Jr.
  • John Cronwinshield
  • Hon. Benjamin Williams Crowninshield
  • Brvt. Brig. Genl Casper Crowninshield
  • Rr. Adm. Arent Schuyler Crowninshield
  • Brvt. Kol. Benjamin W. Crowninshield
  • Frances "Frank" Welch Crowninshield

  • Kapt. Jacob Crowninshield   (1770-1808),  U.S. Verteenwoordiger
  • Kapt. Benjamin Williams Crowninshield   (1772-1851), 5de Amerikaanse sekretaris van die vloot
  • Kol. Francis Boardman Crownisnhield (1809-1877), speaker van die Huis van Verteenwoordigers van Massachusetts

Van dr Johann Kasper Richter von Kronescheldt en Elizabeth Allen [wysig | wysig bron]

Kapt George Crowninshield

Van kapt John Crowninshield en Anstiss Williams [wysig | wysig bron]

Kapt. Jacob Crowninshield

Van kapt George Crowninshield en Mary Derby [wysig | wysig bron]

Kapt Benjamin Crowninshield

Van kapt Benjamin Williams Crowninshield en Mary Boardman [wysig | wysig bron]

Kapt George Crowninshield, Jr.

Hon. Benjamin Williams Crowninshield

Van kapt Francis Boardman Crowninshield en Sarah Gool Putnam [wysig | wysig bron]

  • Kapt Francis Boardman Crowninshield (1809-1877)
    • m. Sarah Gool Putnam (c1809-1880)
      • Mary Crowninshield (1833-1834)
      • Sarah C. Crowninshield (1834-1840)
      • Kolonel Benjamin William Crowninshield (1837-1892)
        • m. Katherine M. Bradlee (-)
        • m. Kapt Josiah Bradlee III (1837-1902)

        Foto van eerw. Benjamin Williams Crowninshield

        Van George Casper Crowninshield en Harriet Elizabeth Sears [wysig | wysig bron]

        • George Casper Crowninshiel (ged. 1812-1857)
          • m. Harriet Elizabeth Sears (1814-1873)
            • Cora Crowninshield (1845-1919)
              • m. Charles Boyden (1840-1881)

              Rr. Adm. Arent Schuyler Crowninshield

              Van Fanny Crowninshield en John Quincy Adams [wysig | wysig bron]

                - md John Quincy Adams (1833-1894) (Sien ook Adams politieke familie:
                  , prominente kollege -atleet en sokkerafrigter aan die Harvard Universiteit. , 44ste sekretaris van die vloot, burgemeester van Quincy, Massachusetts.
                    , eerste president van Raytheon

                  Van Frederick Josiah Bradlee I en Elizabeth Whitwell Thomas [wysig | wysig bron]

                  • Frederick Josiah Bradlee I (1866-1951)
                    • m. Elizabeth Whitwell Thomas (1868-1952)
                      • Frederick Josiah Bradlee Jr. (1892-1970)
                        • m. Chevalier Josephine de Gersdorff (1896-1975)

                        Van Frederick Josiah Bradlee, Jr. en Chevalier Josephine de Gersdorff [wysig | wysig bron]

                        • Frederick Josiah Bradlee Jr. (1892-1970)
                          • m. Chevalier Josephine de Gersdorff   (1896-1975)
                            • Frederick Josiah Bradlee III (1919-2003)
                            • Chevalier Benjamin Crowninshield Bradlee (1921-2014)
                            • Constance "Connie" Bradlee (1924-1993)

                            Van majoor Edward Augustes Crowninshield en Caroline Marie Welch [wysig | wysig bron]

                            Francis "Frank" Welch Crowninshield, stigter en hoofredakteur van Vanity Fairb

                            • m. Caroline Marie Welch (1820-1897)
                              • Edward Augustes Crowninshield, Jr. (1841-1867)
                              • Frederic Crowninshield (1845-1918)
                                • m. Helen Suzette Fairbanks (1841-1921)

                                Van Chevalier Josephine de Gersdorff en Frederick Josiah Bradlee, jr. [wysig | wysig bron]

                                • Chevalier   Josephine de Gersdorff   (1896-1895)
                                  • m. Frederick Josiah Bradlee Jr. (1892-1970)
                                    • Frederick Josiah Bradlee III (1919-2003)
                                    • Chevalier Benjamin Crowninshield Bradlee (1921-2014)
                                    • Constance "Connie" Bradlee (1923-1993)

                                    Die geskiedenis van die Museum vir Moderne Kuns

                                    Aan die einde van die twintigerjare het drie progressiewe en invloedryke beskermhere van die kunste, mej Lillie P. Bliss, mev. Cornelius J. Sullivan en mev John D. Rockefeller jr. 'N behoefte om die konserwatiewe beleid van tradisionele museums en om 'n instelling te vestig wat uitsluitlik toegewy is aan moderne kuns. Hulle het saam met addisionele oorspronklike trustees A. Conger Goodyear, Paul Sachs, Frank Crowninshield en Josephine Boardman Crane die museum vir moderne kuns in 1929 geskep. Die stigterdirekteur, Alfred H. Barr, Jr. om mense te help om die visuele kunste van ons tyd te verstaan ​​en te geniet, en dat dit New York van 'die grootste museum vir moderne kuns ter wêreld' kan voorsien.

                                    Die reaksie van die publiek was oorweldigend entoesiasties, en in die loop van die volgende tien jaar het die museum drie keer na 'n steeds groter tydelike kwartaal verhuis en in 1939 uiteindelik die deure oopgemaak van die gebou wat dit steeds in die middestad van Manhattan beset. By sy aanstelling as die eerste direkteur het Barr 'n innoverende plan vir die ontwerp en organisasie van die museum voorgelê wat sou lei tot 'n multi-departementele struktuur gebaseer op verskillende vorme van visuele uitdrukking. Vandag sluit hierdie departemente argitektuur en ontwerp, tekeninge en afdrukke, film, media en performance, skildery en beeldhouwerk en fotografie in. Daaropvolgende uitbreidings het gedurende die 1950's en 1960's plaasgevind, beplan deur die argitek Philip Johnson, wat ook The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Garden ontwerp het. In 1984 het 'n groot opknapping wat deur Cesar Pelli ontwerp is, die museum se galeryruimte en besoekersgeriewe verdubbel.

                                    Die ryk en gevarieerde versameling van The Museum of Modern Art is een van die mees omvattende en panoramiese uitsigte op moderne kuns. Van 'n aanvanklike geskenk van agt afdrukke en een tekening, het die museum van moderne museum se versameling gegroei tot ongeveer 200 000 skilderye, beeldhouwerke, tekeninge, afdrukke, foto's, media- en uitvoerende kunswerke, argitektoniese modelle en tekeninge, ontwerpvoorwerpe en films. MoMA besit ook ongeveer twee miljoen filmprente. Die biblioteek en argiewe van die museum bevat die toonaangewende konsentrasie van navorsingsmateriaal oor moderne kuns ter wêreld, en elkeen van die kuratoriale departemente beskik oor 'n studiesentrum wat beskikbaar is vir studente, geleerdes en navorsers. MoMA's Library bevat meer as 320,000 items, insluitend boeke, kunstenaarsboeke, tydskrifte en uitgebreide individuele lêers oor meer as 90,000 kunstenaars. Die museumargief bevat primêre bronmateriaal wat verband hou met die geskiedenis van MoMA en moderne en kontemporêre kuns.

                                    Die museum handhaaf 'n aktiewe skedule van moderne en kontemporêre kunsuitstallings wat 'n wye verskeidenheid onderwerpe, mediums en tydsperiodes aanspreek, en beklemtoon belangrike onlangse ontwikkelings in die visuele kunste en nuwe interpretasies van groot kunstenaars en kunshistoriese bewegings. Kunswerke uit sy versameling word in roterende installasies vertoon, sodat die publiek gereeld kan verwag om nuwe werke te sien. Lopende programme van klassieke en kontemporêre films wissel van terugwerkende en historiese opnames tot inleidings van die werk van onafhanklike en eksperimentele film- en videomakers. Besoekers geniet ook toegang tot boekwinkels met 'n verskeidenheid publikasies en 'n ontwerpwinkel met voorwerpe wat verband hou met moderne en kontemporêre kuns en ontwerp.

                                    Die museum is toegewy aan sy rol as 'n opvoedkundige instelling en bied 'n volledige aktiwiteitsprogram wat bedoel is om die algemene publiek en spesiale segmente van die gemeenskap te help om die wêreld van moderne en kontemporêre kuns te benader en te verstaan. Benewens galerygesprekke, lesings en simposieë, bied die museum spesiale aktiwiteite vir ouers, onderwysers, gesinne, studente, voorskoolse kinders, tweetalige besoekers en mense met spesiale behoeftes. Boonop het die museum een ​​van die aktiefste uitgewersprogramme van enige kunsmuseum en meer as 2500 uitgawes in 35 tale verskyn.

                                    In Januarie 2000 het die Museum en P.S.1 Kontemporêre Kunssentrum (nou MoMA PS1) 'n memorandum van verstandhouding uitgeoefen wat hul affiliasie formaliseer. Die finale reëling lei tot 'n verbintenis waarin die museum die enigste korporatiewe lid van MoMA PS1 word en MoMA PS1 sy artistieke en korporatiewe onafhanklikheid handhaaf. Hierdie innoverende vennootskap brei die uitreik na beide instellings uit en bied 'n wye verskeidenheid samewerkingsgeleenthede in versamelings, uitstallings, opvoedkundige programme en administrasie.

                                    In 2006 het MoMA tot dusver die grootste en mees ambisieuse bouprojek in sy geskiedenis voltooi. Die projek het die ruimte vir MoMA se uitstallings en programme byna verdubbel. Die fasiliteit is ontwerp deur Yoshio Taniguchi en beskik oor 630.000 vierkante meter nuwe en herontwerpte ruimte. Die Peggy en David Rockefeller -gebou, in die westelike gedeelte van die terrein, huisves die belangrikste uitstallingsgalerye en The Lewis B. en Dorothy Cullman Education and Research Building - die eerste gebou van die museum wat uitsluitlik vir hierdie aktiwiteite gewy is - aan die oostelike deel van die bied meer as vyf keer meer ruimte vir klaskamers, ouditoriums, werkswinkels vir onderwysers en die uitgebreide biblioteek en argiewe van die museum. Hierdie twee geboue omskep die vergrote Abby Aldrich Rockefeller -beeldetuin. Die nuwe museum is op 20 November 2004 vir die publiek oopgemaak, en die Cullman -gebou is in November 2006 geopen.

                                    Om plek te maak vir die opknappings- en herbou -projek, het MoMA op 21 Mei 2002 in 53 Street in Manhattan gesluit en MoMA QNS in Long Island City, Queens, op 29 Junie 2002 geopen. MoMA QNS was die basis van die museum se uitstalling. program en bedrywighede tot en met 27 September 2004, toe die fasiliteit gesluit is ter voorbereiding van die heropening van The Museum of Modern Art in Manhattan. Hierdie gebou bied nou die nuutste bergingsruimtes vir die museum.

                                    Vandag verwelkom The Museum of Modern Art en MoMA PS1 miljoene besoekers elke jaar. 'N Nog groter publiek word bedien deur die nasionale en internasionale programme van MoMA vir uitstallings, leningsprogramme, film- en videobiblioteke, publikasies, biblioteke en argiewe, webwerwe, opvoedkundige aktiwiteite, spesiale geleenthede en kleinhandelverkope.


                                    Eeue oue roostuin gerestoureer in Marblehead

                                    Brian McCarthy wou die hele Crowninshield-landgoed van sewe en 'n half akker aankoop. Slegs twee hektaar is egter in 1996 te koop toe 'n vriend hom in kennis stel dat die Marblehead -eiendom op die mark is. Vyf en twintig jaar later sou baie sê dat Brian en Nancy McCarthy die beste twee hektaar van die pakkie gekoop het omdat Louise du Pont Crowninshield se roostuin begrawe en byna vergete op hul gedeelte van die landgoed gelê het. En almal is dit eens dat dit 'n gelukkige land was, want Brian McCarthy het 'n volledige en getroue herstel van die tuin begin met sensitiewe insig en al die herstelwerk vir sy ewige huis.

                                    /> Astilbe beklemtoon die taxus topiary in die formele tuin.

                                    Seaside Farm, soos dit genoem word, was die voormalige somerwegbreek vir die Crowninshields by Marblehead, waar die seiljagvaarder Francis (Frank) Boardman Crowninshield in die somer gevaar het. Nie net 'n huishouding nie, dit was 'n ware Amerikaanse weergawe van Upstairs Downstairs, kompleet met butlers, chauffeurs en verskeie tuiniers. Daardie tuiniers het beslis nie ledig gestaan ​​nie. Frank se vrou, Louise du Pont Crowninshield, was 'n standvastige bewaarder en stigter van die National Trust for Historic Preservation, maar sy het ook tuinmaak in haar bloedlyn gehad, nadat sy grootgeword het in Winterthur, haar vader se naturalisties aangeplante landgoed naby Wilmington, Delaware.

                                    Die roostuin wat sy in die vroeë 1900's by haar somerhuis in Marblehead geskep het, was elke sentimeter die wonderlike skouspel wat u sou verwag van 'n gesin wat van die land hou en die hulpbronne beveel het om 'n smaakvolle vertoning te laat gebeur. Haar styl was meer formeel as dié van haar pa, die somer was toe sy haar tuin moes laat skyn en rose was haar passie. Sy loop reguit bo-oor die ontwerp van 'n weelderige, rose-gevulde tuin.

                                    Ongelukkig het haar visie nie oorgebly toe die perseel van twee hektaar die domein van McCarthys geword het nie. Tussen Louise Crowninshield se dood in 1958 en 1996 is die oorspronklike landgoed onderverdeel en "daar is niks van die tuin oor nie," beweer McCarthy van sy erf van twee hektaar. 'Geen oorblyfsel, blom of muur het nog bestaan ​​nie.' Hy het dit sy missie gemaak om die toneel in al sy glorie terug te kry.

                                    'N Huis het ook nie meer gestaan ​​op die twee hektaar wat die McCarthys gekoop het nie. As gevolg hiervan was hulle die eerste paar jaar van eienaarskap onderdompel in die bou van 'n tipiese Georgiese huis met 'n leiklipdak, dertien dakkapels en talle kolomme, plus 'n wonderlike uitsig op Doliber Cove by Peach's Point. Toe die huis voltooi is, kon McCarthy sy volle aandag op die tuin vestig.

                                    Gelukkig het foto's bestaan. Verder het McCarthy 'n tuinier gevind wat eens op die landgoed gewerk het en die presiese rose en meerjariges onthou wat voorheen geplant is. "Hy het die rose, katmyn, heuning van bokshout en meerjariges rondom die swembad beskryf," onthou McCarthy. 'Dit was 'n wonderlike geskiedenisles vir ons.'

                                    Met die hulp van Doug Jones van die LeBlanc Jones Landscape Architects van Boston, het die restourasie begin in 1999. Wat gevolg het, was 'n paar jaar se intense werk, aangesien baie voet baksteenmure herskep is om te lyk asof dit oorspronklik was. Intussen was McCarthy gereeld op veilings om gepaste beeldhouwerk te vind om die nisse in die muur te vul. Buishoutheinings is geplant en in partytjies gesny. Honderd jaar oue wisteria-bome is gevind en geïnstalleer om onmiddellike ouderdom te gee. Skatte is opgegrawe.

                                    Tydens die herstelproses is 'n swembad van 60 by 30 voet gevind, begrawe onder 'n paar reuse sprinkaanbome en 'n paar meter grond. 'Dit is omstreeks 1910-1915 gebou, en as 'n getuienis van die oorspronklike vakmanskap was daar nie een kraak in die poel nie,' wonder McCarthy. 'N Koi-dam is ook geïnstalleer, en beide die swembad en die dam het 'n moderne UV-filtrasie-stelsel. Gietysterhekke is herhaal en 'n kweekhuis is bygevoeg om die versameling eerbiedwaardige jadeplante van McCarthy te beskerm.

                                    Die belangrikste is dat die tuin weer geblom het. Van die klimop wat teen die mure klim en in bloei kom tot die meerjariges wat in die parterre beddens borsel, spreek Seaside Farm sy waardering in blare. Roos bloei en herleef gedurende die somer om hul rooiheid in die wind te laat dryf. Die tuin asemhaal en het breedte.

                                    /> Die oorspronklike trap het uitgebreide opknapping vereis.

                                    En die verlede lewe. Gedurende hierdie proses is bestaande elemente behoue ​​gebly. Daar is sorg gedraai om weg te bly van 'n 175-jarige pers beukboom, een van die grootstes in die land. Die grond is gewysig en kompos is bygevoeg. Met 'n seevlak van 1,100 voet aan die oseaan, is seewalle herstel en stormvaste aanplantings langs die water geïnstalleer.

                                    Blokke siergrasse, Russiese salie, sedums en Montauk -madeliefies is ingesit vir 'n heeltemal ander draai as die formele tuin. Daardie aanplantings dans in die rukwinde, wat die uitsig na Brown's Island (nou Crowninshield Island) uitbeeld, wat mev Crowninshield aan die Trustees of Reservations geskenk het. 'Ek sing haar lof elke dag van die jaar', verklaar McCarthy. Vir een blink tuin in Marblehead bly die tradisie van rentmeesterskap en voortreflike tuinbou lewendig. "Ons gee om om 'n nalatenskap te laat," verduidelik McCarthy.


                                    Die Museum vir Moderne Kuns, toe en nou

                                    Toe die eerste uitstalling ooit in die Museum of Modern Art in New York 85 jaar gelede op 7 November 1929 geopen is, was die “museum ” nie presies die instelling wat besoekers vandag sou verwag nie. Destyds was die museumkroon van die stad onbetwisbaar in die hande van die Metropolitan Museum of Art. Die Met deel nie die kollig nie en die Met doen nie modern nie. In ruil daarvoor het kunstenaars van destyds hul neuse opgeduik in die heilige sale wat dit bekyk het, soos TIME dit destyds verwoord het, slegs as 'n proefplek vir winkelmeisies en hul mooiste, 'n skuiling vir verpleegsters en babas op reënerige dae , 'n ‘ interessante punt ’ vir inwoners wat buite die stad is. ”

                                    Wanneer sewe versamelaars en beskermhere & mdash insluitend mev John Davison Rockefeller Jr. en Vanity Fair redakteur Frank Crowninshield & mdash het aangekondig dat hulle in September 'n Museum of Modern Art sou open om die gaping te oorbrug, die museum was eintlik 'n paar kamers in die Heckscher -gebou, op die hoek van Fifth Avenue en 57th Street. Omdat dit nie oor 'n behoorlike museum beskik nie, het dit nie werklik 'n verskil gemaak nie: die daaropvolgende Maart het TIME berig dat 1,500 mense per dag die museum besoek het en dat die kurators van die instelling toegang tot 50 sent moes betaal kop, om die vloei van besoekers beter te bestuur.

                                    In 1932 verhuis die museum na 'n perseel in 53ste Straat wat deur die jare heen sou ontwikkel tot die gebou waar MoMA vandag woon, met ses verdiepings galerye in plaas van ses kamers.


                                    Geselekteerde lesings oor die geskiedenis van MoMA

                                    'N Onvolledige geskiedenis van MoMA en MoMA PS1, soos vertel deur voorwerpe in die argiewe. Spring in 'n hoogtepunt uit ons tydlyn of begin aan die begin.

                                    Argief hoogtepunte

                                    'N Klein voorbeeld van voorwerpe uit die argief.

                                    Tydskrif- en MoMA -blogposte

                                    Tydskrif

                                    Medium

                                    Inside/Out, 'n MoMA -blog

                                    Bibliografie oor die geskiedenis en versamelings van The Museum of Modern Art

                                    Bajac, Quentin, red. Modern wees: bou die versameling van die Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2017.

                                    Bajac, Quentin, Christophe Cherix, Stuart Comer, Rajendra Roy, Martino Stierli en Ann Temkin. MoMA nou: 375 werke uit die Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2019.

                                    Barr, Alfred H., Jr. "Chronicles." Skildery en beeldhouwerk in The Museum of Modern Art 1929–1967. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1977, 619-650.

                                    Barr, Margaret Scolari. "Ons veldtogte: Alfred H. Barr, Jr., en die Museum of Modern Art: A Biographical Chronicle of the Years 1930–1944." Die nuwe maatstaf, spesiale someruitgawe 1987, 23-74.

                                    Basilio, Miriam, red. Latyns -Amerikaanse en Karibiese kuns: MoMA in El Museo. New York: El Museo del Barrio en The Museum of Modern Art, 2004.

                                    Bee, Harriet Schoenholz en Michelle Elligott. Art in Our Time: A Chronicle of The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2004.

                                    Biesenbach, Klaus en Bettina Funcke, reds. MoMA PS1: 'n Geskiedenis. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2019.

                                    Butler, Cornelia H. en Alexandra Schwartz, reds. Moderne vroue: vrouekunstenaars by The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2010.

                                    Cahan, Susan. Mounting Frustration: The Art Museum in the Age of Black Power. Durham en Londen: Duke University Press, 2016.

                                    Elderfield, John. Die moderne tekening. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1983.

                                    Elderfield, John, red. Moderne skilderkuns en beeldhouwerk: 1880 tot hede by The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2004.

                                    Elderfield, John, red. Die Museum of Modern Art: Amerikaanse kuns van die 1960's. Studies in Moderne Kuns, nr. 1. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1991.

                                    Elderfield, John, red. The Museum of Modern Art: Essays on Assemblage. Studies in Moderne Kuns, nr. 2. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1992.

                                    Elderfield, John, red. Die Museum vir Moderne Kuns: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Studies in Moderne Kuns, nr. 3. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1994.

                                    Elderfield, John, red. Die Museum vir Moderne Kuns in die middel van die eeu: tuis en in die buiteland. Studies in Moderne Kuns, nr. 4. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1994.

                                    Elderfield, John, red. Die Museum vir Moderne Kuns in die middel van die eeu: kontinuïteit en verandering. Studies in Moderne Kuns, nr. 5. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1995.

                                    Elderfield, John, red. Die Museum vir Moderne Kuns: Philip Johnson en die Museum vir Moderne Kuns. Studies in Moderne Kuns, nr. 6. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1998.

                                    Elderfield, John, red. The Museum of Modern Art: Imagining the Future of the Museum of Modern Art. Studies in Modern Art, no.7. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1998.

                                    Elderfield, John. Henri Matisse: Masterworks from The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1996.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 1: Charting Modernism.” Esopus Magazine, no. 7, Fall 2006, 75-86.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 2: Dear Miss Miller…: Selected Correspondence between James Lee Byars and Dorothy C. Miller.” Esopus Magazine, no. 8, Spring 2007, 66-75.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 3: Tentative and Confidential: Documents Relating to Exhibition ‘X’.” Esopus Magazine, no. 9, Fall 2007, 132-144.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 4: Drawing Comparisons: The Sketches of René D’Harnoncourt.” Esopus Magazine, no. 10, Spring 2008, 131-151.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Early Registration: Selected Pages from the Museum of Modern Art Guest Book.” Esopus Magazine, no. 11, Fall 2008, 142-159.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 6: States of Grace: Materials in the Archives relating to Grace Hartigan (1922–2008).” Esopus Magazine, no. 12, Spring 2009, 141-151.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 7: Exhibition Number 13: Henri Matisse: A Retrospective.” Esopus Magazine, no. 13, Fall 2009, 98-115.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 8: The Art of Broadcasting: The Museum of Modern Art and Television.” Esopus Magazine, no. 15, Fall 2010, 146-163.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 9: One and the Same: Celebrating the Union of Democracy and Modern Art.” Esopus Magazine, no. 16, Spring 2011, 113-121.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 10: Rent to Own: The Art Lending Service of the Museum of Modern Art.” Esopus Magazine, no. 17, Fall 2011, 116-133.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 11: Creating ‘Spaces’: Documents from the Pioneering 1969 Exhibition.” Esopus Magazine, no. 18, Spring 2012, 106-123.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 12: From Body to Object: Documents Related to Scott Burton’s Performances.” Esopus Magazine, no. 19, Spring 2013, 105-121.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 14: Imagining Possibilities.” Esopus Magazine, no. 21, Spring 2014, 44–63.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 15: The Healing Arts.” Esopus Magazine, no. 22, Spring 2015, 117–128.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 16: The Living Garden.” Esopus Magazine, no. 23, Spring 2016, 26–40.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 17: Modern Renaissance.” Esopus Magazine, no. 24, Spring 2017, 143–158.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 18: The Young Turks.” Esopus Magazine, no. 25, Spring 2018, 18–36.

                                    Elligott, Michelle. René d’Harnoncourt and the Art of Installation. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2018.

                                    English, Darby and Charlotte Barat. Among Others: Blackness at MoMA. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2019.

                                    Goldberger, Paul. “The New MoMA.” Die New York Times Magazine, 15 April 1984, 36-49.

                                    Franc, Helen. An Invitation to See. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1992.

                                    Friedman, Samantha and Jodi Hauptman, eds. Lincoln Kirstein’s Modern. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2019.

                                    Goodyear, A. Conger. The Museum of Modern Art: The First Ten Years. New York: by the author, 1943.

                                    Harvey, Michelle. “Modern Artifacts 13: Seitz Specific: Re-locating the Work of Claude Monet.” Esopus Magazine, no. 20, Fall 2013.

                                    Hellman, Geoffrey T. “Profiles: Imperturbable Noble.” Die New Yorker, 7 May 1960. [profile of René d’Harnoncourt]

                                    Hellman, Geoffrey T. “Profiles: Last of Species.” Die New Yorker, 19 Sept. 1942, 22-26. [profile of Frank Crowninshield]

                                    Hines, Thomas S. Architecture and Design at The Museum of Modern Art: The Arthur Drexler Years, 1951–1986. Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2019.

                                    Hunter, Sam. Introduction to The Museum of Modern Art, New York: The History and the Collection. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1984. Reprint, New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1997.

                                    Kahn, E. J. Jr. “Profiles: Resources and Responsibilities, Part I.” Die New Yorker 40, no. 47, 9 Jan. 1965. [First of two-part profile of David Rockefeller]

                                    Kert, Bernice. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller: The Woman in the Family. New York: Random House, 1993.

                                    Lamster, Mark. The Man in the Glass House: Philip Johnson, Architect of the Modern Century. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2018.

                                    Lowry, Glenn D. The New Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2004.

                                    Lowry, Glenn D. The Museum of Modern Art in this Century. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2009.

                                    Lynes, Russell. Good Old Modern: An Intimate Portrait of the Museum of Modern Art. New York: Atheneum, 1973.

                                    MacDonald, Dwight. “Profiles: Action on West Fifty-third Street, Part I.” Die New Yorker 29, no. 43, 12 Dec. 1953. [First of two-part profile of Alfred H. Barr, Jr.]

                                    MacDonald, Dwight. “Profiles: Action on West Fifty-third Street, Part II.” Die New Yorker 29, no. 44, 19 Dec. 1953. [Second of two-part profile of Alfred H. Barr, Jr.]

                                    MoMA Highlights: 375 Works from The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2019.

                                    Reed, Peter. A Modern Garden: The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden at The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2007.

                                    Reed, Peter and Romy Silver-Kohn, eds. Oasis in the City: The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden at The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2018.

                                    Reed, Peter and William Kaizen, eds. The Show to End All Shows: Frank Lloyd Wright and The Museum of Modern Art, 1940. Studies in Modern Art, no.8. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2004.

                                    Ricciotti, Dominic. “The 1939 Building of the Museum of Modern Art: The Goodwin-Stone Collaboration,” The American Art Journal 17, no. 3, summer issue 1985, 50–76.

                                    Roob, Rona. “Alfred H. Barr, Jr.: A Chronicle of the Years 1902–1929.” The New Criterion, special summer issue 1987, 1-19.

                                    Rubin, William S. Picasso in the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1972.

                                    Rubin, William S. Miró in the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1973.

                                    Schulze, Franz. Philip Johnson: Life and Work. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.

                                    Szarkowski, John. Looking at Photographs. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1973.

                                    Szarkowski, John. Windows and Mirrors: American Photography Since 1960. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1978.

                                    Tomkins, Calvin. “Profiles: Forms Under Light.” Die New Yorker 53, no. 14, 23 May 1977. [profile of Philip Johnson]

                                    Tomkins, Calvin. “Profiles: The Modernist.” Die New Yorker 77 no. 34, 5 Nov. 2001. [profile of Kirk Varnedoe]

                                    Tomkins, Calvin. “Profiles: Sharpening the Eye.” Die New Yorker 61 no. 37, 4 Nov. 1985. [profile of William Rubin]

                                    Umland, Anne and Adrian Sudhalter with Scott Gerson, eds. Dada in the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 2008.


                                    History of Salem, Massachusetts

                                    Salem is a historic town in Massachusetts. The area was home to native people for thousands of years before being settled by the Massachusetts Bay colonists in the 17 th century.

                                    Salem is most famous for the being the site of the Salem Witch Trials in 1692 but also has a rich maritime history as well.

                                    The following is the history of Salem:

                                    • An epidemic breaks out in the Native-American villages in New England and hits the Naumkeag tribe hard, greatly reducing their numbers.
                                      and a group of settlers from the failed colony at Gloucester arrive in the area the natives call Naumkeag, which is modern-day Salem, and settle it. Conant serves as the settlement’s governor.
                                    • On June 20, John Endecott and a group of settlers from the New England Company for a Plantation in Massachusetts Bay arrive in Naumkeag with a patent to settle the area. Conant peacefully surrenders control of Naumkeag.
                                    • The Massachusetts Bay Colony charter is confirmed and the New England Company is renamed the Massachusetts Bay Company.
                                    • Naumkeag is renamed Salem, a hellenized version of the Hebrew word “Shalom” (which means peace) in honor of the peaceful agreement between Endicott and Conant.
                                    • On June 12, John Winthrop and the Massachusetts Bay Company reach the New World and land in Salem but the village can’t accommodate all of the new settlers so they continue on to Charlestown and eventually settle in Boston.

                                    Pickman House, Salem, Mass
                                    • The Ingersoll-Turner mansion, now known as the House of Seven Gables, is built by merchant John Turner.
                                    • Jonathan Corwin purchases a partially constructed house, now known as the Witch House, on Main Street (Essex Street) and completes construction on it.

                                    The Witch House, Salem, Mass, circa November 2015. Photo by Rebecca Brooks
                                    • On October 11, a group of selectman, John Ruck, John Higginson, Samuel Gardner, Timothy Landall, William Hirst, and Israel Porter, purchase Salem, Danvers and Peabody from the Naumkeag tribe for 20 pounds. Although the tribe had moved to Lowell after King Philip’s War ended, it still returned to Salem on a yearly basis until 1725 and camped on the side of Gallows Hill.
                                    • On March 1, the Salem Witch Trials begin when three women, Tituba, Sarah Good and Sarah Osbourne, are arrested on charges of witchcraft. Tituba confesses and declares that there are more witches in Salem which sparks a massive witch hunt.
                                    • On June 1, Bridget Bishop becomes the first person executed during the Salem Witch Trials when she is hanged at Proctor’s Ledge.
                                    • On July 19, Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, Sarah Good and Sarah Wildes are hanged at Proctor’s Ledge.
                                    • On August 19, 1692, John Proctor, George Burroughs, George Jacobs Sr, John Willard and Martha Carrier are hanged at Proctor’s Ledge.
                                    • On September 19, 1692, Giles Corey is pressed to death in a field on Howard Street after refusing to to continue with his trial.
                                    • On September 22, 1692, Martha Corey, Margaret Scott, Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Samuel Wardwell, Mary Easty, Wilmot Redd and Mary Parker are hanged at Proctor’s Ledge. These are the last executions of the Salem Witch Trials.
                                    • On May 10, 1717, Judge John Hathorne dies at the age of 76 and is buried in the Charter Street Cemetery.

                                    “Tombstone of Col. John Hathorne, the Witch Judge, ancestor of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Salem, Mass,” color printed postcard, published by the Rotograph Co, circa 1905
                                    • On June 9, Judge Jonathan Corwin dies in Salem at the age of 78 and is buried in the Corwin family tomb in the Broad Street Cemetery.
                                    • Philip English donates a section of land on the corner of Brown and St. Peter Street, and a small wooden church, called the St. Peter’s Episcopal Church, is built there.
                                    • The Salem Courthouse on Washington Street, where the Salem Witch Trials were held, is torn down.
                                    • Sometime between 1759 – 1760, the Nathaniel Bowditch House is built on North Street.
                                    • On August 24, 3,000 angry colonists storm Salem after members of the committee of correspondence are arrested for holding a town meeting.
                                    • On October 6, a fire destroys Judge John Hathorne’s mansion on Washington Street as well as a nearby meetinghouse, seven other homes and 14 stores.
                                    • General Thomas Gage moves the Massachusetts General Court from Boston to Salem.
                                    • On February 26, a skirmish known as Leslie’s Retreat takes place in Salem.
                                    • Fort Lee is established near Fort Avenue at Salem Neck.
                                    • Merchant Joshua Ward purchases George Corwin’s property on Washington street, razes Corwin’s house and builds a large Federal-style brick mansion, the Joshua Ward House, which still stands today.
                                    • The city transforms the swamp at Washington Square into a tree-lined park called Salem Common.
                                    • The Howard Street Cemetery is established on what is now modern day Howard Street.
                                    • On July 4, Nathaniel Hawthorne is born in Salem.
                                    • The Gardner-Pingree House is built for John and Sarah Gardner on Essex Street.
                                    • The Thomas March Woodbridge House is built for tannery owner Thomas March Woodbridge on Bridge Street.
                                    • On September 21, Sophia Peabody is born in Salem.
                                    • The Joseph Fenno House is built on Hawthorne Boulevard.
                                    • Bessie Monroe House is built on Ash Street.
                                    • The Joseph Story House is built for U.S. Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story on Winter Street.
                                    • In September, the Friendship is captured by the British warship the HMS Rosamond during the War of 1812.
                                    • The old Salem jail on Federal Street, where the accused witches were held in 1692, is abandoned and new jail is built on St. Peter Street.

                                    Salem Jail, St. Peter Street, Salem, Mass
                                    • The Battle of the Chesapeake and the Shannon takes place in Salem Harbor during the War of 1812.
                                    • Bowker Place is built on Essex Street.
                                    • On April 6, Captain Joseph White is murdered in his house, the Gardner-Pingree House, on Essex Street.
                                    • On May 5, 1830, a jury indicts Richard Crowninshield for the murder of Captain Joseph White. Three other men, Richard’s brother George, Frank Knapp and Joseph Knapp, are charged with abetting the crime.
                                    • On June 15, Richard Crowninshield hangs himself in his jail cell at the Salem jail.
                                    • In August, Frank Knapp’s trial ends in a mistrial and he is retried two days later and found guilty of hiring Richard Crowninshield to murder White.
                                    • On September 28, Frank Knapp is hanged in front of the Salem jail.
                                    • In November, Joseph Knapp is tried and found guilty of murder and George Crowninshield is tried and acquitted in the murder of White.
                                    • On December 31, Joseph Knapp is hanged in front of the Salem jail.
                                    • St. Peter’s Episcopal Church is torn down and a stone church is built in its place which still stands today. The stone church is much larger than the wooden church so it is built on top of some of the graves, including Philip English’s grave.
                                    • Abner Cheney Goodell purchases the old Salem jail, which still has the dungeon in the basement, and remodels it into a home.
                                    • Alexander Graham Bell holds the first public demonstration of the telephone at the Lyceum building.
                                    • The St. Nicholas Orthodox Church and Rectory is built on Forrester Street.
                                    • Caroline Osgood Emmerton purchases the House of Seven Gables and restores it to its original 17 th century appearance.
                                    • On June 17, a bronze statue of Roger Conant, which was designed by artist Henry H. Kitson and erected by the Conant Family Association, is dedicated on Brown Street.
                                    • Historian Alfred Putnam Goodell, son of Abner Cheney Goodell, begins running the Old Witch Jail tourist attraction at his home on Federal Street and allows visitors to tour the dungeon where the accused witches were kept.

                                    Interior of the old dungeon, old witch jail, Salem, Mass, circa 1935
                                    • Historic Salem, Inc. moves the Jonathan Corwin house about 35 feet to its current location, to avoid demolition when North Street is widened, and begins restoring it to its original seventeenth century appearance.
                                    • On Memorial Day weekend, the Jonathan Corwin house opens to the public as a historic house museum, called the Witch House, on Essex Street.
                                    • In the spring, playwright Arthur Miller spends a week in Salem researching the Salem Witch Trials court records for his play The Crucible.
                                    • On July 16, the Coast Guard spots and photographs unidentified flying objects over Winter Island.
                                    • The New England Telephone Company demolishes the Goodell home on Federal Street to construct its new headquarters and discovers the old dungeon underneath. The company donates two wooden beams from the old dungeon to the Peabody Essex Museum.

                                    Old Salem Jail, Historical Marker, 10 Federal Street, Salem, Mass
                                    • In June and July, several episodes of the popular television show, Bewitched, are filmed in several locations in Salem, such as the Witch House, the House of Seven Gables and the Hawthorne Hotel. The episodes sparks public interest in the trials and Salem soon becomes a popular tourist destination.
                                    • The City of Salem declares October 7 “Bewitched Day” in Salem.
                                    • The Salem Witch Trials Memorial is built on Liberty Street.
                                    • In October, scenes from the Disney movie Hocus Pocus are filmed in several locations in Salem, such as at the Ropes Mansion, Pioneer Village, Phipps Elementary School and the Old Town Hall.
                                    • On June 15, the newly built Bewitched Statue on the corner of Essex and Washington Street is dedicated.

                                    Bewitched Statue, Salem, Mass. Photo by Rebecca Brooks.
                                    • The Gallows Hill Project confirms that Proctor’s Ledge is the site of the Salem Witch Trials executions.

                                    For more info on Salem’s history, check out this article on the Salem Heritage Trail.


                                    Vanity Fair

                                    In 1914, Crowninshield – who was considered "the most cultivated, elegant, and endearing man in publishing, if not Manhattan" [3] – was hired by his friend Condé Nast to become editor of the new Vanity Fair. Crowninshield immediately dropped the magazine's fashion elements and helped turn the periodical into the preeminent literary voice of sophisticated American society, a position it held until 1935. As young adults, Nast and Crowninshield were roommates.

                                    During his tenure as editor, Crowninshield attracted the best writers of the era. In fact, Aldous Huxley, T. S. Eliot, Ferenc Molnár, Gertrude Stein, and Djuna Barnes, all appeared in the issue of July 1923, while some of F. Scott Fitzgerald's earliest works were published by the magazine. Dorothy Parker's first poem was bought for the magazine under Crowninshield's advisement, and the magazine was also the first to print reproductions of works by artists such as Picasso and Matisse.

                                    Crowninshield revised the magazine's policies on advertising. In 1915, Vanity Fair published more pages of ads than any other magazine in the country, though the number dwindled under Crowninshield's leadership. The magazine lost valuable revenue, especially during and following the Great Depression, when businesses purchased fewer ads in any case.


                                    Frank Crowninshield - History

                                    L. Frank Baum, author of The Wizard of Oz series writes a History of Mother Goose

                                    N. one of us, whether children or adults, needs an introduction to
                                    Mother Goose. Those things which are earliest impressed upon our minds cling to them most tenaciously The snatches sung in the nursery are never forgotten, nor are they ever recalled without bringing back with them myriads of slumbering feelings and half-forgotten images.

                                    We hear the sweet, low voice of the mother, singing soft lullabies to
                                    her darling, and see the kindly, wrinkled face of the grandmother as
                                    she croons the old ditties to quiet our restless spirits. Een
                                    generation is linked to another by the everlasting spirit of song the
                                    ballads of the nursery follow us from childhood to old age, and they
                                    are readily brought from memory's recesses at any time to amuse our
                                    children or our grandchildren.

                                    The collection of jingles we know and love as the "Melodies of Mother
                                    Goose" are evidently drawn from a variety of sources. While they are,
                                    taken altogether, a happy union of rhyme, wit, pathos, satire and
                                    sentiment, the research after the author of each individual verse
                                    would indeed be hopeless. It would be folly to suppose them all the
                                    composition of uneducated old nurses, for many of them contain much
                                    reflection, wit and melody. It is said that Shelley wrote "Pussy-Cat
                                    Mew," and Dean Swift "Little Bo-Peep," and these assertions are as
                                    difficult to disprove as to prove. Some of the older verses, however,
                                    are doubtless offshoots from ancient Folk Lore Songs, and have
                                    descended to us through many centuries.

                                    The connection of Mother Goose with the rhymes which bear her name is
                                    difficult to determine, and, in fact, three countries claim her for
                                    their own: France, England and America.

                                    About the year 1650 there appeared in circulation in London a small
                                    book, named "Rhymes of the Nursery or Lulla-Byes for Children," which
                                    contained many of the identical pieces that have been handed down to
                                    us but the name of Mother Goose was evidently not then known. In hierdie
                                    edition were the rhymes of "Little Jack Homer," "Old King Cole,"
                                    "Mistress Mary," "Sing a Song o' Sixpence," and "Little Boy Blue."

                                    In 1697 Charles Perrault published in France a book of children's
                                    tales entitled "Contes de ma Mere Oye," and this is really the first
                                    time we find authentic record of the use of the name of Mother Goose,
                                    although Perrault's tales differ materially from those we now know
                                    under this title. They comprised "The Sleeping Beauty," "The Fairy,"
                                    "Little Red Riding Hood," "Blue Beard," "Puss in Boots" "Riquet with
                                    the Tuft," "Cinderella," and "Little Thumb" eight stories in all. Aan
                                    the cover of the book was depicted an old lady holding in her hand a
                                    distaff and surrounded by a group of children listening eagerly. Mnr.
                                    Andrew Lang has edited a beautiful English edition of this work
                                    (Oxford, 1888).

                                    America bases her claim to Mother Goose upon the following statement,
                                    made by the late John Fleet Eliot, a descendant of Thomas Fleet, the
                                    printer:

                                    At the beginning of the eighteenth century there lived in Boston a
                                    lady named Eliza Goose (written also Vergoose and Vertigoose) who
                                    belonged to a wealthy family. Her eldest daughter, Elizabeth Goose (or
                                    Vertigoose), was married by Rev. Cotton Mather in 1715 to an
                                    enterprising and industrious printer named Thomas Fleet, and in due
                                    time gave birth to a son. Like most mothers-in-law in our day, the
                                    importance of Mrs. Goose increased with the appearance of her
                                    grandchild, and poor Mr. Fleet, half distracted with her endless
                                    nursery ditties, finding all other means fail, tried what ridicule
                                    could effect, and actually printed a book under the title "Songs of
                                    the Nursery or, Mother Goose's Melodies for Children." On the title
                                    page was the picture of a goose with a very long neck and a mouth wide
                                    open, and below this, "Printed by T. Fleet, at his Printing House in
                                    Pudding Lane, 1719. Price, two coppers."

                                    Mnr Wm. A. Wheeler, the editor of Hurd & Houghton's elaborate edition
                                    of Mother Goose, (1870), reiterated this assertion, and a writer in
                                    the Boston Transcript of June 17, 1864, says: "Fleet's book was partly
                                    a reprint of an English collection of songs (Barclay's), and the new
                                    title was doubtless a compliment by the printer to his mother-in-law
                                    Goose for her contributions. She was the mother of sixteen children
                                    and a typical 'Old Woman who lived in a Shoe.'"

                                    We may take it to be true that Fleet's wife was of the Vergoose
                                    family, and that the name was often contracted to Goose. But the rest
                                    of the story is unsupported by any evidence whatever. In fact, all
                                    that Mr. Eliot knew of it was the statement of the late Edward A.
                                    Crowninshield, of Boston, that he had seen Fleet's edition in the
                                    library of the American Antiquarian Society. Repeated researches at
                                    Worcester having failed to bring to light this supposed copy, and no
                                    record of it appearing on any catalogue there, we may dismiss the
                                    entire story with the supposition that Mr. Eliot misunderstood the
                                    remarks made to him. Indeed, as Mr. William H. Whitmore points out in
                                    his clever monograph upon Mother Goose (Albany, 1889), it is very
                                    doubtful whether in 1719 a Boston printer would have been allowed to
                                    publish such "trivial" rhymes. "Boston children at that date," says
                                    Mr. Whitmore, "were fed upon Gospel food, and it seems extremely
                                    improbable that an edition could have been sold."

                                    Singularly enough, England's claim to the venerable old lady is of
                                    about the same date as Boston's. There lived in a town in Sussex,
                                    about the year 1704, an old woman named Martha Gooch. She was a
                                    capital nurse, and in great demand to care for newly-born babies
                                    therefore, through long years of service as nurse, she came to be
                                    called Mother Gooch. This good woman had one peculiarity: she was
                                    accustomed to croon queer rhymes and jingles over the cradles of her
                                    charges, and these rhymes "seemed so senseless and silly to the people
                                    who overheard them" that they began to call her "Mother Goose," in
                                    derision, the term being derived from Queen Goosefoot, the mother of
                                    Charlemagne. The old nurse paid no attention to her critics, but
                                    continued to sing her rhymes as before for, however much grown people
                                    might laugh at her, the children seemed to enjoy them very much, and
                                    not one of them was too peevish to be quieted and soothed by her
                                    verses. At one time Mistress Gooch was nursing a child of Mr. Ronald
                                    Barclay, a physician residing in the town, and he noticed the rhymes
                                    she sang and became interested in them. In time he wrote them all down
                                    and made a book of them, which it is said was printed by John
                                    Worthington & Son in the Strand, London, in 1712, under the name of
                                    "Ye Melodious Rhymes of Mother Goose." But even this story of Martha
                                    Gooch is based upon very meager and unsatisfactory evidence.

                                    The earliest English edition of Mother Goose's Melodies that is
                                    absolutely authentic was issued by John Newbury of London about the
                                    year 1760, and the first authentic American edition was a reprint of
                                    Newbury's made by Isaiah Thomas of Worcester, Mass., in 1785.

                                    None of the earlier editions, however, contained all the rhymes so
                                    well known at the present day, since every decade has added its quota
                                    to the mass of jingles attributed to "Mother Goose." Some of the
                                    earlier verses have become entirely obsolete, and it is well they
                                    have, for many were crude and silly and others were coarse. dit is
                                    simply a result of the greater refinement of modern civilization that
                                    they have been relegated to oblivion, while the real gems of the
                                    collection will doubtless live and grow in popular favor for many
                                    ages.

                                    While I have taken some pains to record the various claims to the
                                    origin of Mother Goose, it does not matter in the least whether she
                                    was in reality a myth, or a living Eliza Goose, Martha Gooch or the
                                    "Mere Oye" of Perrault. The songs that cluster around her name are
                                    what we love, and each individual verse appeals more to the childish
                                    mind than does Mother Goose herself.

                                    Many of these nursery rhymes are complete tales in themselves, telling
                                    their story tersely but completely there are others which are but
                                    bare suggestions, leaving the imagination to weave in the details of
                                    the story. Perhaps therein may lie part of their charm, but however
                                    that may be I have thought the children might like the stories told at
                                    greater length, that they may dwell the longer upon their favorite
                                    heroes and heroines.

                                    For that reason I have written this book.

                                    In making the stories I have followed mainly the suggestions of the
                                    rhymes, and my hope is that the little ones will like them, and not
                                    find that they interfere with the fanciful creations of their own
                                    imaginations.


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