Geskiedenis Podcasts

Tarraco Amfiteater

Tarraco Amfiteater


Tarraco, Romeinse erfenis

Op hierdie roete stel ons 'n mantel voor en laat u 'n perdewa vang om in Tarragona te kom en deur die Romeinse nalatenskap meegesleur te word. Sommige Romeinse oorskot het die verloop van die jare oorleef en in 2000 verklaar UNESCO dit as wêrelderfenisgebied.

Maar na die Romeine sou baie ander kulture nog steeds deur hierdie land moes gaan, Visigote, Moslems, Jode. Hulle het hul merk gemaak in die vorm van taal, kultuur, monumente, eienskappe wat tans perfek geïntegreer is in die daaglikse Tarragona, en ons nooi u uit om te ontdek.

Route se dorpe


Kaart van Tarraco

Ongeveer 95 km suid van Barcelona, ​​ook aan die kus, lê die aangename stad Tarragona. Nadat ons ons motor in 'n parkeergarage gelos het, het ons sonder 'n kaart na die Romeinse oorblyfsels probeer soek. Dit was nie maklik nie, want die stad is langs die kuslyn versprei. Gelukkig het die vrou by die treinstasie wat al haar kaarte uitverkoop het, ons in die regte rigting gewys: die meeste besienswaardighede is in die noorde, in die boonste stad. Ons het daar gestap, in die middaghitte.

Die toeriste -inligting in hierdie deel van die stad het baie Spaanse openingstye (gesluit tussen 13 en 17 uur of so), so ons moes net ons eie instinkte volg. Die enorme stadsmure kan egter nie oor die hoof gesien word nie. Vandaar het ons deur die smal strate van die bekoorlike ou stad geloop. Die meeste van die Romeinse oorblyfsels is slegs fragmente. Die amfiteater is redelik volledig, maar ek het beter gesien. Om onduidelike redes is dit ook gesluit. Nie deel van die WHS nie, maar die moeite werd om te noem: die katedraal van Tarragona, ook in die boonste stad, is net wonderlik.

Op pad terug na Barcelona (via die A7 -tolpad) het ons 'n blik op die Romeinse akwaduk gehad. As u in die bui is, is daar 'n klein parkeerterrein aan weerskante van die pad, waar u mooi kan kyk en foto's kan neem. Ons het egter genoeg gehad na nog 'n bevredigende dag. Adviseer vir toekomstige reisigers na Tarragona: bring u eie kaart en neem u tyd!


Model van Roman Tarraco

Die model van Roman Tarraco toon die stad in die 2de eeu, op die hoogtepunt van sy glorie. Dit is gemaak op 'n skaal van 1: 500 en is 18 kubieke meter - wat dit die tweede grootste model van die Romeinse wêreld in Europa maak, slegs die een in Rome. Bouwerk het meer as drie jaar en 7 800 uur se werk geneem.

Die model gaan in detail om die stad te herskep soos dit eens was. Dit bevat die beskermende mure, die groot geboue wat op terrassen gebou is, die groot tempel van die Romeinse aanbidding en die omhulsel, die provinsiale Fòrum -plein en die sirkus.

Daar is ook baie aandag geskenk aan die boonste terras, of aanbiddingsgebied, wat 'n enorme plein was, omring met 'n boogstoep. Die tempel van Augustus was waarskynlik in die middel van die plein. Ander besonderhede sluit in die tweede terras, op 'n onderste verdieping, met 'n tuinarea en 'n pad van plaatstene wat by die aanbiddingsplek by die sirkus aansluit. Hierdie sentrale plek was omring met 'n geboë stoep, waarvan die agtermuur versier was met vaste pilasters, en drie meter bo die plein verhewe was.

Die Fòrum was die middestad en was geleë op 'n heuwel naby die see, ongeveer in die omgewing van Gasòmetre straat. Onder die kompleks is daar 'n skerp daling wat die natuurlike versperring tussen die stad en die hawe geword het. Die Romeinse teater is in die sentrale gebied gebou, met die helling tot hul voordeel. Die voorkant van die hawe was op 'n baie laer vlak. Daar was geen beduidende veranderinge aan hierdie struktuur tot in die 3de eeu nie, soos aangetoon op die skaalmodel.


Inhoud

Voorgeskiedenis en Tweede Puniese Oorlog

Die stedelike gebied is in die voor-Romeinse tyd gevestig deur Iberiërs wat handelskontakte gehad het met die Grieke en Fenisiërs wat hulle aan die kus gevestig het. Iberiese nedersettings was veral in die nabygeleë Ebro -vallei in die stedelike gebied van Tarragona, en sedert die 5de eeu vC is daar vestigings gevind. Oorblyfsels van nedersettings en fragmente van solderkeramiek is veral gevind in die Carrer de Caputxins naby die Romeinse teater. Alhoewel daar geen beskermende hawe in die onderste en nader aan die Middellandse See was nie, die monding van die Francolí (Tulcis) rivier het 'n klein baai gevorm. Daar was waarskynlik 'n kleiner nedersetting naby.

Bronne oor die stamverband van die Iberiërs wat hulle hier gevestig het, weerspreek mekaar: Titus Livius noem 'n oppidum parvum ("klein nedersetting") genoem Cissis , Polybios noem 'n polis genaamd Kissa (Κίσσα). Kort nadat Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus in 218 vC in Empúries (Emporion) geland het. Tarraco word vir die eerste keer in die Tweede Puniese Oorlog genoem. Livy skryf dat die Romeine verower 'n Puniese voorraadopslagplek vir Hannibal se troepe naby Cissis en die stad ontslaan (Slag van Cissa). 'N Rukkie later is die Romeine verslaan "nie ver van Tarraco nie" (haud procul Tarracone) .

Dit is nog onduidelik of Cissis en Tarraco identies is. Dit word vererger deur 'n muntstuk wat in Empúries gevind is, met die Iberiese inskripsie Tarakon-salir ( salier beteken waarskynlik "silwer"). Hierdie muntstuk, wat op 'n onbekende plek op Emporiaanse modelle gemunt is, is oor die algemeen omstreeks 250 vC gedateer. Gedateer voor die koms van die Romeine in elk geval. Die naam Kesse verskyn op 'n aantal munte van Iberiese oorsprong uit die 1ste en 2de eeu vC. Dit is gemunt volgens die Romeinse gewigstandaarde. Hulle het veral in Tarraco aan die lig gekom, wat daarop dui dat hulle ook daar geslaan is. Kesse is gemaklik met Cissis gelykstel, waarskynlik die hoofstad van die van Plinius genoem Cissetani . Daar is geen bewyse van 'n Etruskiese oorsprong van die naam wat Adolf Schulten voorheen aanvaar het nie.

In 217 vC het die Romeinse versterking aan wal gegaan onder Publius Cornelius Scipio in Tarraco. Tarraco was winterkwartiere in 211 en 210, toe Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus die stamme van Spanje daar versamel het vir die conventus . Die bevolking was tydens die oorlog grootliks getrou aan die Romeine. Livy noem hulle 'bondgenote en vriende van die Romeinse volk' (socii et amici populi Romani) , die vissers van Tarraco (piscatores Tarraconenses) gehelp met hul bote tydens die beleg van Carthago Nova.

Die noue verband tussen die vroegste Romeinse geskiedenis van Tarragona en die familie van die Scipions is reeds deur Plinius uitgespreek toe hy verklaar dat Tarraco 'n werk van die Scipions is (Tarraco Scipionum opus) soos Kartago een van die Puniërs was.

Tarraco in die tyd van die Romeinse Republiek

In die oorloë teen die Celtiberiane in die daaropvolgende twee eeue blyk dit dat Tarraco grootliks die rol van voorraadbasis en winterberging wat dit tydens die Tweede Puniese Oorlog beset het, behou het. Daar word dus algemeen aanvaar dat daar gedurende hierdie tydperk 'n militêre teenwoordigheid sal wees sonder dat 'n troepekamp opgespoor sal word. Dit was moontlik in die hoër deel van die ou stad, soos aangedui deur dele van die bewaarde stadsmuur. 197 vC Die verowerde gebiede, nog steeds smal stroke aan die kus van Spanje, is verdeel in die twee nuwe provinsies Hispania citerior en Hispania ulterior . Hoewel Strabo berig dat die goewerneurs in Carthago nova en Tarraco gewoon het, is daar talle aanduidings dat Tarraco hoofsaaklik tydens die republikeinse tyd as 'n goewerneursitplek gebruik is.

Die regstatus van Tarraco is nie volledig verduidelik nie, moontlik is Tarraco tydens die republiek georganiseer as 'n conventus civium Romanorum (byeenkoms van Romeinse burgers van die provinsie) met twee magistri (burgerlike "heersers") aan die hoof. Gaius Porcius Cato, konsul van die jaar 114 v.C., kies Tarraco as ballingsplek in 108. Aangesien 'n ballingskap amptelik beteken het om die Romeinse staat te verlaat, sou dit beteken dat Tarraco destyds 'n vrye of hoogstens 'n geallieerde stad was.

Nadat die Sertorius -opstand verby was, het die Tarraconians 'n opskrif ter ere van Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus aangebring. Volgens Strabo het een van die laaste skermutselings nie ver van Tarraco plaasgevind nie. Toe Caesar 49 v.C. v.C. die ondersteuners van Pompeius naby Ilerda (Lleida) verslaan het, het die Tarraconiërs 'n huldeblyk gestuur en sy leër met kos ondersteun. Die Pompeius -inskripsie moes nou weer toegewy word. Sonder meer is die klip omgedraai en 'n inskripsie aan 'n volgeling van Caesar genaamd Publius Mucius Scaevola op die nuwe voorkant geplaas. Dit is nie bekend wanneer Tarraco tot 'n Romeinse burgerkolonie verklaar is nie. Aan die een kant was die oorwinning van Caesar oor die Pompeiërs in 45 vC. Chr. Aan Munda as 'n ontstekingsoomblik, kon sy aanneemseun en opvolger Augustus Tarraco aan die ander kant hierdie status toegeken het. Huidige navorsing is versigtig oor die tydperk rondom 36 vC. Pleit. Na sy oorwinning by Munda het Caesar die stad die status en titel gegee beneficium (voordeel, verdienste, onderskeid).

Augustus tyd

In 27 vC het keiser Augustus na Spanje gegaan om toesig te hou oor die veldtogte in Cantabrië. Vanweë sy swak gesondheid het hy egter verkies om in Tarraco te bly, waar hy sy 8ste en 9de konsulaat aangeneem het. 'N Altaar is waarskynlik tydens sy teenwoordigheid in Tarraco aan hom opgedra. 'N staaltjie deur die retorikus Quintilianus vertel: "Die inwoners van Tarraco het vir Augustus gesê dat 'n palmboom op die altaar gegroei het wat aan hom gewy is. 'Dit lyk,' antwoord hy, 'dat dit nie baie gereeld gebruik word nie.' 'Verder het hy later die ou via Herculea uitgebrei te word Via Augusta . 'N Mylpaal gevind in die Plaza del Toros noem die straat tussen 12 en 6 vC. Dit het in die noordooste gelei via Barcino aan Tropaeum Pompei en in die suidweste via Dertosa na Saguntum en Valentia .

Die Spaanse provinsies is tydens Augustus se teenwoordigheid herorganiseer. Hispania ulterior was verdeel in die twee nuwe provinsies Baetica en Lusitania . Tarraco het die permanente hoofstad van geword Hispania citerior op die laaste onder Augustus, waarvoor die naam Hispania Tarraconensis het tydens die keiserlike tyd geheers.

Die stad floreer onder Augustus. Die skrywer Pomponius Mela beskryf dit in die 1ste eeu soos volg: "Tarraco is die rykste hawestad aan hierdie kus" (Tarraco urbs is in sy oris maritimarum opulentissima) . Tarraco het sy eie munte onder Augustus en Tiberius geslaan met afbeeldings van die keiserlike kultus en die opskrif CVT, CVTT of CVTTAR.

Na sy dood in 14 nC is Augustus formeel tot god verklaar. In 15 nC is 'n tempel waarskynlik aan hom opgedra in die oostelike deel van die stad of naby die Kolonie Forum. Hierdie gebeurtenis word genoem in die annales van Tacitus.

Die stad in die hoë keiserlike era

In 68 nC word Galba tot keiser in Carthago Nova uitgeroep. Hy het agt jaar in Tarraco gewoon. Na die vier-keiser jaar 69 begin Vespasianus 'n herorganisasie van die ontwrigte staatsfinansies. Volgens Plinius was een van die middele om Latyns burgerskap aan Spanje te gee. As gevolg hiervan, is die Spaanse gebiede, wat lankal in stedelike gebiede en gebiede met 'n stamorganisasie verdeel was, omskep in gebiede wat rondom die stedelike sentra georganiseer is, dit wil sê kolonies of munisipaliteite. Dit het dit makliker gemaak om belasting en belasting in te vorder. Stedelike elites het hulself toenemend begin verteenwoordig deur die bou van programme en die oprigting van gedenktekens. Die lewendige konstruksie -aktiwiteite, wat veroorsaak word deur die herorganisasie van die provinsie, kan in die 2de eeu in Tarraco goed saamgevat word. Na alle waarskynlikheid is die amfiteater gedurende hierdie tyd gebou, sowel as die tempeldistrik en die provinsiale forum in die boonste deel van die stad. Die meeste beelde is tussen ongeveer 70 en 180 nC daar opgerig.

Onder keiser Trajanus word senator Lucius Licinius Sura gedokumenteer as die beskermheer van die stad. Dit word genoem op die inskripsie van die Arc de Berà, wat wel sekondêr ingebou is, maar waarskynlik uit die omliggende gebied kom. Sura self kom uit die Tarraconensis en bereik die hoogste staatskantore. Hadrian besoek die stad in die winter van 122/123 nC en hou 'n staats parlement ( conventus ) vir die hele Spanje hier. Hy het ook die Augustus -tempel laat hernu.

Teen die einde van die tweede eeu het Tarraco duidelik ekonomiese probleme ondervind. Slegs 'n paar ere -beelde is in die stad opgerig, waarskynlik omdat die finansiering daarvan te duur geword het. Sedert die Severan -tydperk is voetstukke blykbaar ook toenemend hergebruik as byvoorbeeld grafstene. Gedurende hierdie tyd val die nederlaag van die opponerende keiser Clodius Albinus Onder sy volgelinge was die goewerneur van Tarraconensis, Lucius Novius Rufus. Die volgende strafhof van Septimius Severus het ook die voorste manne van die provinsie en die stad getref. Byna op dieselfde tyd, die inskripsies opgedra aan die concilium provinciae verdwyn. Van nou af verskyn inskrywings wat deur sy militêre personeel aan die goewerneur gewy is, toenemend. Van nou af was dit minder die invloedryke handelaars wat in die ordo decurionum as die patroni van die laat oudheid, groot eienaars en hoë amptenare. Severus het die Augustus -tempel laat herleef, Elagabal die amfiteater, soos 'n opskrif vind.

In 259, tydens die Valeriaanse vervolging van Christene, is die biskop Fructuosus en sy twee diakens Augurius en Eulogius tereggestel in die amfiteater van Tarraco. Met die martelaarskap wat Prudentius getuig, begin die nuus oor 'n Christelike gemeenskap in Tarraco. Argeologiese inligting kan eers aan die einde van die 3de eeu verkry word deur begrafnisse in die omgewing van die nekropolis aan die oostelike oewer van die Tulcis. Christelike geboue in Tarraco is eers aan die begin van die 5de eeu in literêre terme oorgedra.

Laat oudheid

Met 'n inval in die Franke omstreeks 260 na Christus, is 'n keerpunt in die geskiedenis van Tarraco tasbaar, wat gelei het tot 'n vroeë oorgang van die stad na laat antieke strukture. Benewens geskrewe bronne, is daar min argeologiese bewyse, soos die vernietiging van die villa rustica in Altafulla , oos van Tarraco aan via Augusta . 'N Skatkis is weggesteek, wat gedateer is tussen die jare 259 en 262 nC. Met die uitsondering van die klein hawegebied, het stedelike woonkwartiere in die onderste dele van die stad verlate begin raak. Die forum van die kolonie is in die 4de eeu laat vaar. Die ontwikkeling kom tot 'n einde in die 4de en 5de eeu, toe die boonste deel van die stad en die provinsiale forum gebou is met staats- en kerkverteenwoordigende geboue sowel as burgerlike woonbuurte. Munisipale afval is in die voormalige trappe na die boonste distrikte neergelê, wat toon dat die stedelike bevolking steeds goedere ingevoer het deur middel van langafstandhandel, veral uit Noord-Afrika. Gedurende hierdie tydperk kan 'n keerpunt in Tarraco se epigrafiese materiaal gesien word. Selfs vir die voetstukke van keiserlike standbeelde, is vroeëre monumente in die daaropvolgende tydperk hergebruik. Daar is ook meer gereeld inskripsies wat dui op die herstel van geboue.

As gevolg van die hervormings van die keiserlike administrasie onder Diocletianus, is die hele Iberiese skiereiland saamgevoeg in een bisdom, wat in ses provinsies verdeel is. Tarraco het die provinsiale hoofstad gebly, al was dit net 'n aansienlik verminderde provinsie. Die geboue wat moontlik tydens die Frankiese inval vernietig is, is slegs geleidelik herbou of deur nuwes vervang. Diocletianus en Maximianus het 'n porticus Iovae ("Jupiter - Portikus", moontlik deel van 'n basiliek) gebou tussen 286 en 293.

Sedert die middel van die 3de eeu was die stad die setel van 'n bisdom en het dit later onder die Visigotiese bewind gebly. Die name van baie latere biskoppe is bekend uit die handelinge van die raad. Aan die begin van die 5de eeu is Tarraco geraak deur 'n inval in die Alans, Vandale en Suebi tydens die migrasie van mense na die Rynoorgang in 406 watter skade hy aan die stad aangerig het, is onduidelik. In die jare 468/472 is die laaste keiser se inskripsie in Tarraco vir die keisers Leo en Anthemius opgestel.

In 476, na die val van Rome en die val van die Wes -Romeinse Ryk, is Tarraco beset as verower deur die Visigote onder hul koning Euric. Die stad is blykbaar sonder groot besnoeiings vir die burgers ingeneem. In elk geval is daar geen aanduidings van vernietiging nie en daar is geen verandering in die naammateriaal nie. Die Visigote het die stedelike strukture oorgeneem en 'n dun hoër klas uitgemaak. Die vondste in die Christelike begraafplaas bevestig hierdie epigrafiese waarneming, aangesien dit byna uitsluitlik Romeinse grafte is. Die Visigotiese konings het hul goue Driehoek tot 713 in Tarragona geslaan. Met die besluit van die Visigote om Toledo hul hoofstad te maak en belasting aan Barcino te betaal, verloor die stad sy politieke en fiskale belang, maar was dit steeds 'n belangrike kerklike sentrum as die setel van 'n metropolitaanse. Die einde van die toestande wat uit die oudheid geërf is, het gekom met die aankoms van die Moors, omstreeks 716 verower al-Hurr die stad. Volgens die Arabiese kroniekskrywer Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ar-Razi ("Rasis", 889-955) is die stad verwoes. Die skade was egter beperk omdat Arabiese geograwe later berig het dat Romeinse geboue behoue ​​gebly het.

Swel

As gevolg van die middeleeuse en moderne oorbou van Tarraco, is die meeste argeologiese waarnemings fragmentariese gedeeltes en nisse waarin die antieke stof behoue ​​gebly het. Grootskaalse ondersoeke is byna onmoontlik. In die tweede helfte van die 20ste eeu was die tak van Madrid van die Duitse argeologiese instituut betrokke by talle navorsingsprojekte in Tarragona. Die plaaslike Groter Escola d 'Arqueologia is hoofsaaklik verantwoordelik vir meer onlangse navorsing.

Benewens 'n bogemiddelde aantal vermeldings deur antieke skrywers vanweë die belangrikheid daarvan as die provinsiale hoofstad, word Tarraco se geskiedenis gedokumenteer soos dié van geen ander Iberiese stede deur middel van inskripsies oor 'n tydperk van 800 jaar nie. Byna 1500 monsters wat gevind is, bied 'n onskatbare bron van administratiewe, militêre, ekonomiese, sosiale, bevolkings-, kulturele en godsdienstige geskiedenis, nie net vir die stad Tarraco nie, maar ook vir die hele provinsie en die Iberiese skiereiland onder die Romeinse ryk. In 1966 publiseer José M. Recasens die eerste bundel La ciutat de Tarragona . In 1978 volg Géza Alföldy met 'n gedetailleerde artikel in Paulys Realencyclopadie der Classischen Antiquity. Beide voorstellings, met hul evaluering van die argeologiese, epigrafiese en numismatiese materiaal wat ooreenstem met die destydse navorsing, is steeds fundamentele voorstellings van die geskiedenis van Tarraco. Alföldy het ook die inventaris van Romeinse inskripsies gepubliseer en 'n studie voorberei oor die geslote groep toewydings van die provinsiale priesters.

Strabo berig oor Tarraco dat dit die mees bevolkte stad was Hispania citerior . Van die 60 hektaar van die beboude en ommuurde stedelike gebied het slegs 30 tot 40 hektaar as behuisingsontwikkeling gedien. Die bevolking word op twintig tot dertig duisend geraam. Ongeveer 1150 inwoners is by die naam bekend deur die inskripsies, waarvan ongeveer 1050 uit die eerste drie eeue van die keiserlike era gekom het. Soos met baie stede wat tydens die keiserlike era gestig is, het die Galeria word beskou as a stam van die inwoners. In drie inskripsies, burgers met hierdie tribus is uitdruklik genoem as Tarraconense , nog 20 inskripsies wat in Tarragona gevind word, dui ook daarop tribus .


Tarraco, die Groot Romeinse stad Hispania

Tans ken ons dit as Tarragona, maar in die 3de eeu v.C. dit was die groot Tarraco. Hierdie antieke Romeinse stad het tydens die Romeinse Ryk. Die wonderlikheid daarvan verbaas baie mense tot vandag toe. Die argeologiese terrein van Tarraco is in 2000 tot 'n wêrelderfenisgebied verklaar. Dit is ook die oudste Romeinse nedersetting op die Iberiese skiereiland.

Die antieke stad Tarraco verdien 'n roete vir sy mees kenmerkende punte. 'N Reis na die verlede wat die Roman Forum, die Sirkus en die Amfiteater met sy see -uitsig. 'N Wandel langs die Romeinse muur van Tarragona sal ons deur die meer as tweeduisend jaar van die geskiedenis waarmee die stad beskik. Die antieke Tarraco, gestig deur die Romeine, behou baie van sy glans. As ons mooi kyk, kan ons steeds 'n paar inskripsies in Latyn en Fenisies in die klippe by die huise vind.

Die argeologiese kompleks wat Tarraco vir ons gelaat het, bestaan ​​uit groot ruïnes in 'n baie goeie toestand. 'N Noodsaaklike stop is die Romeinse muur aka die “Muralla Romana, ” 'n militêre heining wat die ou stad omring. Alhoewel dit vroeër 4 kilometer lank was, het ons effens meer as 1 kilometer gehandhaaf. Dit het een van die mees kenmerkende simbole van Tarragona geword.

Asof ons 'n inwoner van Tarraco was wat in sy grootheid gedrink het, omhul die ou middestad ons met sy magie. Ons kan nie nalaat om die katedraal van Tarragona in vroeë Gotiese styl te sien nie. Dit is geleë in die hoogste deel van die stad.

Ons bereik dan die middelpunt van aktiwiteit in Tarraco, die Roman Forum, wat die administratiewe, kulturele en godsdienstige geboue van die stad gehuisves het.

Die ruïnes van die Romeinse sirkus laat ons die vele voorstel perderesies dat hulle van die tribune af gejuig het. Dit is aan die einde van die 1ste eeu nC gebou en is in die middestad geleë. Daar word geglo dat dit gehelp het om een ​​van die bes bewaarde ter wêreld te word, en dit bied 'n geleentheid om meer te leer oor die geskiedenis van Rome. Onder die grond het ons die ondergrondse gewelwe van die Romeinse sirkus, wat die staanplekke ondersteun, ideaal om Tarraco van binne te ontdek.

Die laaste stop op hierdie roete deur die groot Romeinse stad Tarraco eindig by die Romeinse amfiteater, 'n ander gebou waar die bril van destyds plaasgevind het. Gebou op 'n begrafnisgebied, was daar gladiator- en dieregevegte, atletiese uitstallings, jag en#8230 Om die toeskouers teen die son te beskerm, is daar soms 'n groot tent oor die amfiteater gesit. Hierdie roete, geleë by die see, eindig met 'n pragtige uitsig op die kus van Tarragona.


Antieke Tarragona se Tarraco

Ek was baie lief vir die stad sodra ek daar aankom, ondanks die laataand. Ek het nie 'n nagtoer deur die stad verwag nie, maar hier is ek gelei deur Iulian, 'n Roemeense landgenoot, my gasheer vir die 2 nagte wat ek hier deurgebring het.

Hy het nou al 'n hele paar jaar in Tarragona gewoon, sodat hy my dieper in die geheime van Tarraco, die ou Romeinse stad, gelei het. Ons het met die ou sentrum begin deur op en af ​​in die klipstrate te gaan en my bietjie vir bietjie meer inligting oor die verlede gegee. Ons nag toer eindig met die hawe in die teenoorgestelde kant van die stad, so teen die tyd dat ons terugkom, was dit reeds 02:00.

Die volgende dag het ek weer van voor af begin met die middestad, sodat ek dit ook behoorlik kon besoek. Aangesien ek daarvan hou om te loop en die stede te ontdek wat nie met kaarte nodig is nie, het ek lukraak geloop, sodat ek u nie nodig het om my roete te volg as u nie die tipe ontdekker is nie.

Laat ek u 'n bietjie vertel oor die geskiedenis daarvan, sodat u die belangrikheid van die plaaslike geskiedenis beter kan verstaan. Tarraco, die ou Tarragona, is die eerste Romeinse nedersetting op die Iberiese skiereiland. Vanweë sy strategiese ligging het dit gou die hoofstad geword van die Romeinse provinsie Hispania Citerior. Met meer as 2000 jaar se geskiedenis eindig die beheer van groot gebiede van Noord- en Suid-Spanje, van Galicië tot in die noordweste tot Murcia in die suidooste. Die stad is amper beskerm, want oral waar u draai, kan u spore van Romeinse aktiwiteite sien. Die Romeinse stadsmure, 'n forum, 'n sirkus, 'n teater, 'n amfiteater, 'n basiliek of 'n akwaduk is slegs enkele voorbeelde van die dinge wat u hier kan besoek.

Kom ons stap nou 'n bietjie deur die stad. My eerste stop was by Balcon del Mediterraneo, net aan die einde van die Rambla Nova. Dit is geleë op 'n hoë vlak van 40 m bo die see en bied 'n uitsig oor die see en die nabygeleë landskappe.

Ek gaan voort deur 'n tuintjie en daal af na die amfiteater. Soos enige ander Romeinse amfiteater, het hierdie een ook voordeel getrek uit die omgewing en is dit in die helling gebou om uitstekende akoestiek te bied. Dit word behoue ​​gebly en baie van die kamers is sigbaar. Met 'n kapasiteit van 14.000 toeskouers was die aanbied van gladiatorgevegte een van die belangrikste besienswaardighede van die bevolking.

As ek terugklim, moet ek die ou stad binnegaan, en net soos enige ander ou en later middeleeuse stad, het dit nogal lae geboue van 1-2 verdiepings met af en toe winkels of kroeë op die grondvloer, in die smal strate.


Argeologiese ensemble van Tarraco

Tarragona was eens 'n beroemde Romeinse stad en die oorblyfsels daarvan kan vandag in die stad gevind word. Die argeologiese ensemble is waarskynlik die oudste Romeinse nedersetting op die Iberiese skiereiland en een van die grootste terreine wat in Spanje bewaar is.

Tarraco was 'n belangrike handelsstad, en dit is ook 'n uitstekende voorbeeld van die Romeinse argitektuur - u kan nog steeds die Romeinse sirkus en die amfiteater uit die 2de eeu vC sien.

Openingstye

Casa Canals, Casa Castellarnau:
19 April - 30 Sep:
Di - So: 10 tot 15 uur

Romeinse sirkus:
19 April - 30 Sep:
Di - Sa: 9:00 - 21:00
Son, vakansie: 9:00 - 15:00

1 Jan - 29 Maart, 1 Okt - 31 Des:
Di - Sa - 9:00 - 19:00
Son, vakansiedae: 10 tot 15 uur

Koloniale Forum, Provinsiale Forum, Amfiteater, The Walls:
19 April - 30 Sep:
Di - So: 10 tot 21 uur
Son, vakansiedae: 10 tot 15 uur

Romeinse steengroef:
19 April - 30 Sep:
Di - Sa: 9:00 - 20:00
Son, vakansie: 9:00 - 15:00

1 Jan - 29 Maart, 1 Okt - 31 Des:
Di - Sa - 10 tot 16 uur
Son, vakansiedae: 10 tot 15 uur

Pallol kluis:
19 April - 30 Sep:
Di - Vrydag: 8:00 - 21:00
Sa: 21:00 - 14:00, 17:00 - 20:00
Son, vakansie: 9:00 - 15:00

1 Jan - 29 Maart, 1 Okt - 31 Des:
Ma - Vry: ​​- 9:00 - 19:00
Vakansiedae: 10 tot 15 uur

Toegang

Een monument:
Volwassenes: € 3,15
Studente (ouer as 16) en seniors: € 1,60
Kinders (onder 16): gratis


Tarragona

Voorwoord deur Gerard Huissen
Die Romeinse hawestad Tarraco, moderne Tarragona, is oorspronklik gestig en bewoon deur die Iberiërs. In die 2de eeu vC, tydens die Tweede Puniese Oorlog, het die stad in die hande van die Romeine gekom en die naam gekry Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraco, afgekort Tarraco. Dit het die hoofstad geword van die voormalige provinsie Hispania Tarraconensis, wat 'n groot deel van die huidige Spanje omvat.
Medio 2019 het Patricia Terrado Ortuño 'n omvangryke ondersoek (362 bladsye) in Spaans gepubliseer oor die hawestad wat so belangrik was vir die Romeine. Wel, ek vermoed dat baie van u nie Spaans lees nie, en daarom het ek, ondanks my gebrek aan kennis van die Spaanse taal, belowe om 'n poging te doen om 'n Engelse uittreksel verstaanbaar vir ons lesers te maak.
Patricia het 'n baie interessante en omvattende handboek aan die wêreld gegee waarin sy nie net alle kennis en bronne van die kennis van Romeinse Tarragona beskryf het nie, maar ook oor konsepte soos hawens, vaart en handel van daardie tyd (2de eeu v.C. - 3de eeu nC. Chr.) Sowel as ander relevante aangeleenthede.
Die boek in sy geheel is te diep vir een artikel en ek sal dus ongetwyfeld later 'n tweede artikel uit hierdie volledige handleiding oor Tarraco distilleer. As u die Spaanse boek Patricia kan lees, kan u die oorspronklike pdf hier aflaai: El Puerto de Tarraco en época Romana.

TARRAGONA
deur Patricia Terrado Ortuño

Figuur 1: Gravure deur die Vlaamse skilder Van den Wyngaerde

Die geskiedenis van die stad Tarragona is die geskiedenis van die hawe. Die huidige hawe van Tarragona word bepaal deur die verligting van die stad wat tradisioneel op 'n oppidium (versterkte heuwel), aan die voet van die kronkelende rivier Francolí wat in die Middellandse See uitloop.

Figuur 2: Die Francoli -rivier.

Die Romeine het die stad Tarraco genoem en na die val van die Wes -Romeinse Ryk het die stad in die hande gekom van die Visigote wat dit Terracona genoem het. Met die aankoms van die Arabiere in die jaar 713, is dit geleidelik verlaat, waarna die ruïnes vir slegs 'n handvol inwoners vier eeue lank die blyplek gebly het.
Na vier eeue sonder bagger en instandhouding, is die verlate hawe -bekken grotendeels opgesluit deur die periodieke toevoer van sediment uit die Francolí -rivier.

Om te sien in watter toestand die poort destyds was, moet ons kyk na die oudste bewaarde skildery van die Renaissance -stad Tarragona, wat in 1563 gemaak is deur die Vlaamse skilder Van den Wyngaerde (sien fig. 1). Die gravure toon die voormalige hawebek waarop lande, vrugteboorde, windpompe en vissershuisies beslag gelê het.

Die geboorte van 'n hawe

Figuur 3: Tarraco in geografiese verhouding met Rome en Kartago Nova

Om die oorsprong van die hawe van Tarragona te leer ken, moet ons eers kyk na die geografiese situasie en veral die geomorfologie van hierdie deel van die kus van Tarragona ontleed. Slegs dan kan ons probeer om die presiese eienskappe in antieke tye te bepaal. As ons dit doen, sien ons dat daar geen beduidende omstandighede of natuurlike elemente was wat die aandag van die ou seevaarders kon trek om daar te anker nie, of om 'n plek om vas te lê. Geen natuurlike baai met diep waters nie, beskerm teen die heersende wind deur die aangrensende heuwels, soos byvoorbeeld gevind deur die Kartagoanse generaal Hasdrubal in die middel van die derde eeu vC aan die kus van die huidige provinsie Murcia, langs die mynberge van Portman. Die nautiese belangrikheid van 'n roete tussen die suidooste van die skiereiland en die Afrikaanse kus om voordeel te trek uit die ontginning van die naburige silwermyne wat tussen 230 en 228 vC geregverdig is. die skepping van 'n nuwe Puniese kolonie. Hierdie stad het die trotse naam Quart Hadasch gekry, wat deur die Romeine Carthage Nova genoem word, en staan ​​nou bekend as Cartagena.

Figuur 4: Tarraco in die Ryk (foto: Haselburg-müller / wikipedia)

Maar dat die omstandighede van die baai van Tarragona nie goed was vir 'n hawe nie, beteken nie dat daar geen hawe was nie. 'N Heuwel aan die kus met die monding van 'n rivier aan sy voet het ten minste gedeeltelike beskerming gebied, en dit was alreeds iets vir 'n kusgebied.
Die Griekse skrywer Eratosthenes van Cirene 1 skryf in sy groot opus "Geographica" 2 oor Katalonië, waar aan die kus 'n naustrasmos (ankerplek) was, genaamd Tarrákon. Die vraag is hoe iemand uit Alexandrië wat nog nooit in die weste van die Middellandse See was nie, hiervan bewus was? Waarskynlik omdat die Griekse kapteins uit die sesde eeu v.C. het oor die Middellandse See gevaar en die verskillende plekke (insluitend verbeterings) telkens aan mekaar oorgedra.
In die eerste eeu vC. die Griekse geograaf, diplomaat en reisiger Artemidorus van Efesius 3 het die Iberië-Romeinse stad Tarraco besoek en beweer dat 'n hawe wat die naam werd is, ontbreek.
Danksy argeologiese navorsing kan ons hierdie twee stellings verduidelik en terselfdertyd verstaan ​​wat die Tweede Puniese Oorlog aan die einde van die derde eeu v.C. het bedoel vir die historiese hawe van Tarragona.

Die tweede Puniese oorlog
Tot die tweede Puniese oorlog was daar slegs 'n klein, waarskynlik Fenisiese, heuweldorp op hierdie plek. Argeologiese navorsing in die onderste lae van Tarragona het die stratigrafie en struktuur van hierdie nedersetting vanaf die 5de eeu vC in kaart gebring.
Matrose uit verskillende dele van die Middellandse See het hul vragte wyn, olie, gesoute vis, keramiek, tekstiele en juweliersware na die Iberiërs gebring in ruil vir graan, slawe en. galjoene.

Figuur 5: Kese As (120-20 vC)

Hierdie matrose was miskien die eerste om hier te anker en hulle het die nedersetting die Griekse naam Tarrákon gegee. Later het die Romeine dit in Tarraco verander. The original population called the place Kese, a name that can still be found in the earliest minted coins from Tarraco (see Figure 5).
Tarragona may not have had a safe bay, but it was favorable to both the sea routes with Italy and, via the Ligurian coast, with the islands. That is why the Romans chose, in 218 BC, Tarraco as their main port of departure on the east coast of Iberia to resist the great Carthage Nova ruled by the Barkas family (Bárquidas). When Hannibal Barkas crossed the Alps during the Second Punic War and Rome had to incur defeat after defeat, the Roman commander Gnaius Cornelius Scipio Calvus moved to the Iberian Peninsula to fight against the Carthaginian army units still there in order to separate Hannibal from the supplies from its home port. Finally the Romans won the war at the battle of Cissa (Kese) and settled permanently in Tarraco.

Figure 5: Roman trireme on a mosaic

In the following years, large fleets of cargo ships accompanied by quadriremen and quinqueremen 4 came from across the sea, and proved that the route to Tarraco was now popular and Tarraco itself offered an anchorage that was considered safe. Livius explicitly states that the great consular army of Publius Scipio in 217 BC. arrived at Portus Tarraconis (the port of Tarraco) where his brother Gnaius Cornelius Scipio Calvus had won the battle of Cissa the year before. The same Livius says that in the winter of 209, after the conquest of Carthage Nova, the Roman fleet overwintered in Tarraco, because the ships were no longer needed for the battle. According to the Latin nautical terminology, "Portus" means the place where ships spend the winter "(see the chapter ‘What is actually a port’ ). Therefore we may speak here of an authentic port.
Polybios 5 wrote: “. the Romans assembled their ships in Tarraco and the owners of the harbour, their allies, built docks, warehouses, streets, houses and public buildings to protect them.” In a warlike context such as then in Tarraco, the wintering center has clearly been transformed into a port headquarters. Portus Tarraconis is gebore.

Figure 7: Tarraco, Colonia Iulia Urbs Triomphalis

Also with the advent of peace and the new Roman Province in 197 BC. Tarraco would retain the character of a naval port, in particular for the gradual occupation of the Ebro and Duero valleys. The city flourished and grew under these circumstances and had its own currency.
Also during the great civil war in the 1st century BC. the city would play a major role. After the battle of Ilerda 6 and the pacification of Baética (southern part of Spain), Julius Caesar organized a large provincial meeting in Tarraco in 49 BC.
In 27 BC Augustus had to return to Tarraco when he got seriously ill during his campaign against the Astures 7 . He then lived in the city for two years, making Tarraco a second Rome with official embassies, political meetings etc. This was all possible because the port of Tarraco was the end of the main Mediterranean route between Rome and the Northern half of the Iberian Peninsula. Unfortunately there are no written sources that tell us anything more about the port. Archaeological research can maybe clarify the facilities of the port of Tarraco.

Figure 8: The harbour of Tarraco with the Roman pier.

Research after the harbor
Despite the salinization of the port over the years, the archaeologist Hernandez Sanahuja (1810-1891), born in Tarragona, was still able to see the remains of some of the large pillars in opus caementicium 8 that were part of the Roman pier in the mid-19th century. These remnants were blown up a few years later because they should be a danger to ships that wanted to moor there. No piers anymore. Now we must deal with the geophysical research of the past 30 years and data from the scarce literary sources that we have.
As for Tarraco, there are few sources that refer to the routes to and from the city. The oldest source we have comes from Pliny, which states the travel time from Rome: et citeriorem hispaniam quarto (dies) 9 (. and four days to Hispania Citerior 10 ).

Figure 9: Vicarella cups

Van die edictum de pretiis rerum venalium (edict on the prices of merchandise) by the emperor Diocletian from 301 AD. we know that the journey from the Orient to Hispania Tarraconensis costed 20 denarii, from Africa 8 denarii and from Rome (Ostia) 10 denarii. We can no longer consult the Peuteringer map 11 for the country routes, because the part with Hispania has unfortunately been lost. However we do have another source, the so-called Vicarello cups. These silver drinking cups from the 1st century AD, found in a Roman bathhouse in Vicarello near Lake Bracciano (see our article "WATER"), represent the land route from Gades to Rome with all places, villas and distances.

A port did not always stand on its own. Often there were separate anchorages, small berths and mooring places around the harbour where ships could divert depending on the circumstances (see also Narbon). Tarraco, as the provincial capital, would have been the center of the first Iberian port system that stretched along the east coast of Spain from Roses in the north to Cartagena in the south, also including the Balearic Islands. One of those places would have been, for example, the Carbunclos, an anchor area just a few meters from the harbour bay. This is said to have been used in the late Republican and Imperial times and is rich in archaeological finds uncovered by underwater archaeology. Today, unfortunately, the place is hidden from view by the marina. The location would have served as a waiting place for ships before entering the port.

Figure 10: Coastal towns in the Tarraco area

In addition, the large coastal towns in the Tarraco area also played an important role, such as Calipolis or Els Munts, places that, like Salouris, had a good harbour basin that offered sufficient protection to the ships.
It was also possible to anchor in Creixell, a place that was used together with Tarraco for the distribution of wine. Underwater archeology has provided much evidence for this, including recently (2017) a mortar.
Remarkable is also the existence of piers in southern Catalonia at L ’Amettla de Mar and L’ Ampolla.

The history of the port.
The history of the actual port of Tarraco is unruly due to the constant changes due to wars and conflicts, to urban development and renovation and to geological changes. Reconstructing the harbour as it looked in Roman times is difficult because we have no direct references to the coastline, harbour structures or descriptions of the location.
The Tarraco enclave was located about 70 km north of the Ebro river and 200 km south of Emporiae (Ampurias) 12 . Tarraco was also connected to the Lleida plain (west of Emporiae) so that the city took-in a strategic place for the Romans to consolidate their power in Spain and to establish a trade network.

Figure 11: Tarraco - geographic situation in Roman times

Tarraco lay on a hill, about 80 meters above sea level, from which one descended slowly towards the harbour area via a system of terraces. This hill stretched out to the sea and formed two coves. The first, the eastern one (now the Playa del Miracle) was closed off from the second bay by a promontory (east cape) that descended to the current Plaza dels Caros (this promontory had to disappear with the renovation of the modern harbour).
The western cove was closed by a natural interruption, the mouth of the Francolí (or Tulcis) river. This last cove was chosen in 218 BC. by the Romans as a landing-place. After the disembarkation, a military headquarters was established on the hill next to the old settlement.

Figure 12: Denarius of Galba minted in Tarraco in 68/69 after. Ch. 15

The orientation of the Roman camp was NE - SW and covered an area of approximately 1,750 m by 550 m 13 . According to the latest data, the port of Tarraco itself would have had an area of between 15 and 17 hectares and the dock would have a depth of between 9 and 11 meters 14 . These properties made the port suitable for large ships to unload their goods at the docks, although most small and large ships would use the port for transit.
The wind was also an important element for the ships. By northern wind, the harbor was well protected by the cape. Only the east wind, which could be strong in the summer, could become a problem.
Another advantage of this location was the presence of fresh water from the Tulcis river, although the fast-flowing water from the river also contributed to the silting up of the port.
Due to the changed coastline and the silting up of the country, as happened at Ostia and Portus for example, the old Roman port lies currently on the mainland.

Figure 13:Excavations in Tarragona (photo Tarragona Archaeological Museum)

The city on the old oppidium was probably founded between the sixth and fifth centuries BC. Earthenware finds at the foot of the hill show that the indigenous population traded very early with Greek and Phoenician skippers.
After the Roman occupation in the third century BC. the settlement lived for a few years next to the Roman army camp, until the Romans built a new city and the settlement disappeared completely. Already within the 2nd century BC. the area became a residential area with a completely different structure and many new buildings. The presence of a pre-Roman population continued to exist in Tarraco, but just as before the Roman invasion, the increasingly important port is controlled from high-altitude Tarraco.

What is a port?
An important source for studying ports are the testimonies of geographers and historians about seas, ports and islands. With the help of, for example, the writings of Ptolemeus 16 , Strabo 17 or Eratosthenes 18 , we know the characteristics of these ports, their location and even anecdotes linked to historical or mythological events.
Because many writers use the same word for different types of ports, the problem with the term "Portus" is still current. Although the Greek world was very rich in terms to define some kind of port, such as limén, ormós of ankyrobolion, the Roman world has only two: statio en portus. We owe this to Mauro Servius (fourth century AD) who gave a definition of each concept in his work Vergilii Aeneidem commemtarii:
Statio est ubi ad tempus stant naves, portus ubi hiemant
19 . (A statio is where the ships are anchored for a while, a portus where they hibernate.)
In general, the various historical texts about Tarraco are quite contradictory. Rufo Festo Avieno 20 wrote in the fourth century AD. about Tarraco:

Figure 14: Europe according to Strabo

inde Tarraco oppidum et Barcilonum amoena sedes ditium. nam pandit illic tuta portus brachia, uvetque semper dulcibus tellus aquis. (Then the Tarraco citadel and the beautiful location of the rich Barcilonas 21 , because a port unfolds there with safe arms and a land that is always irrigated by fresh water.)
Also from the hand of Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) we know the Tarragona orography as described in his Naturalis Historia 22 :
[…] Cessetania region, Flumen Subi, Colonia Tarracon, Scipionum opus sicut Carthago Phoenorum. (The Cessetania region, the Subi river (= Tulcis), the Tarracon colony, founded by Scipio like Carthage by the Puniciers.)
Strabo 23 (63 BC -19 AD) had never been to Hispania, but described in the first century BC in his work Geography perfect the coasts of Iberia, thanks to the information he borrowed from other authors such as Pytheas 24 , Homer, Asklepiades de Myrlea 25 and many others. Strabo writes: “The first city is Tarracon, which does not have a port but is located in a bay and is sufficiently equipped with other benefits” 26 .
The writer Eratosthenes wrote earlier, as we saw, that a city called Tarrakon was also a statio navum (the Latin equivalent of the Greek naustathmos, an anchorage) while Artemidoro said the place was not even suitable for anchoring.
Polybius wrote: “The Romans pulled their ships onto the land, and after gathering in Tarrákon those who had survived the defeats, they created a naval base with a view to protect their allies who had taken positions before the Romans' crossing”. This would indicate that there was indeed talk of a Portus.

Figure 15: Later edition of the AB urbe Condita

Finally, we find testimony from the Roman historian Titus Livius (59 BC - 17 AD) who says the following in his work Ab urbe condita 27 :
Ea classis ingens agmine onerariarum procul visa cum magna Laetitia civium sociorumque portum Tarraconis ex alto tenuit 28 . (To see this fleet, with its huge column of transports, arriving at a distance and the arrival itself in Tarraco brought great joy to the city dwellers and their allies.) This text must be seen in the context of the arrival of the Roman armies led by Scipio during the course of the Second Punic War (218 -201 BC).
We are talking about 30 warships and 8000 soldiers coming from Massalia (Marseille) and reaching Tarraco in the year 210 BC.
The big question is what kind of port it is Livius describes? The actually military and later commercial port with its infrastructures are probably built a few years later, together with the Roman city. Upon arrival of the fleet, the "port" must have been a small open river port with limited draft where hardly was accommodation for 30 ships. It was perhaps possible to have the ships anchored in the eastern bay.
According to various texts, the port of Tarraco is described as Portus, therefore capable of accommodating ships during the 'mare clausum' (closed sea - see article: wintershipping) and should therefore be equipped with structures for the wintering of ships, a built-up area as opposed to a statio navium, an anchorage place where ships anchored only temporarily.
Other sources mentioning the port come from authors who speak about the characteristics of the city of Tarraco itself, such as Silius Italicus 29 :
[…] tunc hospita Tarraco Baccho, considunt portu. Secu-rae gurgite clauso stant puppes, positusque labor terrorque profundi. (. and Tarraco, so hospitable in Bacchus (where good wine was served) with its good harbour. The ships are tied to a safe shelter from the currents and where they could forget the fatigue and shock of the great sea). The text gurgite glauso is also translated as "Breakwater". The reference that the ships are bound by the shelter of the current is a fairly clear sign of the existence of a dyke, a dock or other harbour structure.
In conclusion, we can assume that the sources mention the existence of a port since the arrival of the Romans to the Iberian Peninsula. The location of Tarraco was the deciding factor in choosing the city as the capital and therefore an adjacent port had to be build. It is not possible to deduce from the available source material exactly when that port was built and what kind of port it was, given the abundance of conflicting sources.
The city is mentioned as a protective place with sufficient space, protected against storms, with fresh water to supply the boats, with space for a market linked to maritime activities. According to the sources, this location is logical because of the excellent circumstances.

Historiography and historical cartography
These sources are a valuable witness to the Roman port of Tarraco, because remains that have now disappeared are still wholly or partially shown on the city maps from the various periods.

Figure 16: Stone extraction for the construction of the new harbour (1872)

A large part of the area where the Roman port was located, in particular the Eastern Cape, was used as a construction quarry for the construction of the modern port, which led to the destruction of valuable historical material. For example, the Spanish writer Luis del Arco wrote in the early twentieth century in his art and monument guide of Tarragona: “Already in the mid-nineteenth century, Tarragona experienced a long commercial and industrial boom, making it necessary to expand and renew the harbour. For this they had to break down part of the hill, from the Rambla de San Carlos to the sea, and then from the ground rose, like a new Pompeii, the old and lush Tarraco. The centuries had buried all Roman remains. And when removing the ground to make way for the foundations of modern buildings, many statues, reliefs, friezes, tombstones, mosaics, amphoras, thousands of coins and objects of all kinds appeared and this entire world of archaeological material was thrown into the sea to fill the port “ 30 .
We know little about the state of the Roman port during the Middle Ages. There is no indication whatsoever that supports the existence of a port. Today it is believed that the medieval harbour was an anchor area to the south of La calle Sant Miquel.
From the twelfth century the Roman harbour basin was used as an orchard and gardens because the bay was largely silted up.
From the thirteenth century there are various documented proofs of the use of the port of Tarragona: entrances and exits for ships, goods lists etc. Facts showing that the port was still in use, although we do not know in what circumstances, but it would certainly not have been very good. 31
The first maps were made in the sixteenth century. The oldest testimony of the port, apart from classical sources, is that of a lawyer from Tarragona, Lluis Pons d’Icart (1518/1520 - 1587). For the first time we hear something about the presence of remains of a Roman pier in the city. Together with the engraving by Anton van der Wyngaerde (see Figure 1), this is the most important source of research into what was left of the Roman port in the sixteenth century and, in particular, about the location of the harbour. He speaks of a portu fabricato (an artificial harbour). Lluis then says that the harbour can be easily recognized by the remains, including those of a temple of Neptune 32 laying in an orchard that was initially filled with sea water.
There is also a reference to the "port columns". These columns probably formed part of a large building, perhaps of the Roman theater. Pons d'Icart: "Many claim to have seen the columns in the orchard or vineyard. The sea was deep and the walls of the city were lower than the columns that were Corinthian and very well carved. It was not fifty years ago, as I learned from my father, my father-in-law and other old people who showed me the place where they saw ruins of large buildings. Where is unknown, but they said the land took up space." 33
Here we must again look at the engraving of Anton van Wyngaerde.

Figure 17: Part of the engraving of Anton van Wyngaerde

On the left we see the Roman pier (molo) that had to be replaced at the end of the 15th century. According to Pons d'Icart, the breakwater was said to be built of stone and mortar and the cement for the foundation was in the sea water with a certain type of stones on top. The pier would start on the rocks at the foot of the hill and end with a light beacon (lighthouse or lantern) called ‘Farellón. The stones on the pier were probably meant to be thrown into the water in order to break the waves.

Figure 18: Map of January 24, 1642 (port area)

These boulders could also be interpreted as a structure of arches of masonry connected by pillars, through which water could flow into the harbour, which in turn corresponds to the remains of the pier that we see on the maps. Pons d'Icart also claims that the pier has often been restored because he himself has found various medals from various emperors who mention this 34 . On a map from 1642 (now in the General Archive of Simancas) we see the Roman pier in the middle of the sea and close to the coast drawn as a barrier, dominant above the level of the water. Probably not showing the physical dimensions but as a symbol that the pier is still there. As for the harbour itself, there is a big difference between the Wyngaerde map and this map. The engraving of Wijngaerde shows the Roman pier next to an extension of land that has taken over part of the former harbour dock.

Figure 19: Map from 1600

An anonymous document from around 1600 35 shows the main points of the site as well as the profile of the coastline. The lower part of the city, with isolated structures and orchards, is not filled-in here. Only the road that connected the upper part of the city with the harbour. We still see the Roman harbour with a remnant of the Roman pier.

Figure 20: Map from 1797

Also in the eighteenth century we still see the remains of the Roman pier on various maps, which is partly used as a quarry for new harbour extensions. On a map from 1797 36 we see one of the most beautiful views of the harbour area. What is particularly striking is that the Roman pier seems perfectly drawn and corresponds to the descriptions of various engineers as they lay in the sea like large concrete blocks.

According to the historian Morera, who, among other things, wrote a book in 1894 about the monuments of Tarraco which also describes where the Roman port should have been, these remains of the pier were removed from the water in 1834 because they would hinder the fishermen 37 . Morera writes about the pier: "The Romans needed protection in the western creek to protect themselves from the southern storms, which led them to build a concrete hard dike. The dike was not entirely solid, but the base on the rock was equipped with small drainage arches, so that the water could circulate freely and the waves were still broken.”

Archaeological data
The pier
As we said at the start of the article, we do not know exactly what kind of port we are dealing in Tarraco. That is why the terminology for the pier is interchangeable: promenade, dike, breakwater or jetty pier.
In the 19th century the Spanish historian and archaeologist, Buenaventura Hernández Sanahuja describes the port in his work "History of the Port of Tarragona from its origins to the present day (1859)". He writes about the breakwater:
“… That the water hit the rock in the past is proven by the fact that during the construction of a house at the crossroads of the calles de S. Magin and Sta. Tecla, nº1 fragments of a breakwater with firm bronze eyes intended to capture ships were found. In addition, there were noticeable remnants of a constructed dyke with stairs leading to the bottom of the cellars or underground warehouses, one of which ran towards the sea with a sloping surface to facilitate launching of the built ships." 38

Figure 21: Extraction of stone blocks from quarry. (From Sanahuja book)
At number 10: Roman buildings and reservoir appear

The location he indicated is far from logical and it is therefore very doubtful whether the found remains were part of a breakwater. 39
Sanahuja also gives details about another breakwater:
“The break-water looked far from our dams, that is: it was not a road but it consisted of a long series of aligned pillars made of hydraulic concrete in large aligned wooden boxes on top of each other at certain distances, until they appeared above the water. From one pillar to the other were arches of brickwork that together formed a bridge. With this work of art they have succeeded in keeping the port clean of washed-up sand. Each pillar had its own skeg on the outside to break the waves. On top of the buildings that stood as warehouses on the sea bridge were barriers up to the height of the masts of the ships so that they were protected from the furious storms and could lie safely and comfortably in the harbour.” 40
This description corresponds to the remains of the Roman pier that we saw on the various engravings. If the description is true, then we can compare the breakwater with, for example, the one in Lepcis Magna in Libya where there was also a dock with warehouses, a temple and a lighthouse on the breakwater, although there is no evidence of this in Tarraco.

Figure 22: Pozzuoli and the remainder of the pier painted by Sir William Hamilton
in 1776.

The supposed building structure with pillars (opus pilarum) was used and described extensively in Roman times. We see it for example in Pozzuoli and on frescoes. The decaying pillars that, in the case of Tarragona, have been submerged for centuries, were thus, according to many traditions, a source of danger for incoming boats.
Another controversial construction that many historians regularly wrote about would have stood at the mouth of the Francoli River. There are no physical data or indications for this on any map, although they are common on artist impressions of the port (see figure 8). Sanahuja also had a hypothesis about this building. He wrote that until 1892 people believed that there was also a western Roman pier. It also ran from the bottom of the hill of Tarragona into the sea to separate the water of the river from the water of the other breakwater. 41 Although no evidence was found, such a second pier would have been logical. Partly against the supply of sediment from the often turbulent river.

Die vuurtoring
We do not know if there was a lighthouse in Tarraco because archaeological evidence is also missing here. The historiography on the other hand fully refers to a place known as "el Farelló". According to some historians, this would have been a lighthouse about three meters high at the end of the Roman pier 42 . It would also be quite possible that there was no lighthouse but only a warning light, for example an amphora with burning oil. Partly due to an incorrect translation of the Catalan word farelló, which means "rock". A farellón would be a rock that lies on the surface of the water and is therefore not immediately visible. In that case it would call more for a light beacon to warn ships than for a complete lighthouse.

Figure 23: Cargo from wreck off the coast of Catalonia (Catalan News)

During the sixties, seventies and eighties of the last century much underwater research was done under the coast of Tarragona.

Figure 24: Lead anchor stock found at Torredembarra

The artifacts found were cataloged in 2007 and contain many anchors, amphoras and pottery, parts of anchors, lead rods and even a sarcophagus.
However, complete wrecks from Roman times are missing at this location. Yet mapping the variety of anchors found, the different sizes, weights and decorative elements is an enrichment of knowledge of this area. They illustrate the anchorage areas near Tarraco and the routes of the merchant ships. They show, for example, how an important pier was used in the area during the Republican and Imperial times and that, before you entered the harbour, there was apparently an anchorage point.

Figure 25: Decorated anchor stock from Creixell

Other areas with a lot of maritime activity are Creixell and L’Ampolla (see Figure 10). At the latter, large stocks of anchors with an inscription from the manufacturer were found. The locations mentioned do not necessarily have to be harbours. In many cases they were merely boat houses that would have served as a refuge before arrival at the port of destination.
The old town of Tarragona was equipped with a "cova urbana", a 3 km underground system of galleries, caves and springs and an underground lake of 5000 m2, suitable for drinking water. These were already known in the 19th century but rediscovered in 1996. There was also a "cuniculus" (underground aqueduct) from Roman times, 13 meters below the Roman city and also two aboveground aqueducts with water from the Francoli and Gaià rivers.

Figure 26: Cova Urbana 43

Warehouses and harbour routes
Die eerste horrea (218 BC-30 BC) were mainly for the storage of Iberian grain for Rome and consisted of around 20 wooden structures in the middle part of the city. The majority of the preserved horrea from the heyday of the empire are located in the suburb of the western harbour. These were large rectangular structures with trade offices along wide harbour roads.

Figure 27: Horreum on the plot 22A

Die horreum on the plot known as 22a consists of three parts of 18.40 x 6 meters and an estimated total area of 110 m2, built along the waterfront. The basement of the warehouse was made in opus caementicium. The adobe 44 walls were reinforced with ashlar 45 and had large doors. There was a pebble floor in the three rooms prepared for a paved surface that has not been preserved. It is also claimed that this was an insulating floor against groundwater with a tabulatum (wooden plank floor) placed on it to allow ventilation so that products such as grain had a longer lifespan.
Later, the warehouses were probably given a monumental entrance with a colonnade. The Tarraco horrea from the heyday of the empire can be compared to the horrea in Lepcis Magna, the porticus Aemilia in Rome or the warehouse of Hortensisus and Galba in Ostia.

At the beginning of the second century we see that in the described warehouse the western compartment is provided with a white pavement, while the eastern section receives walls at different levels. Many parts of warehouses are then converted into residential houses. In the third century whole parts are no longer used and from the end of the 3rd and 4th centuries only a few tombs can be found.

The theatre

Figure28: Remains of the Roman theatre of Tarragona (Turismedia) Figure 29: Plan of the theatre

Recent excavations in the Roman theatre have revealed a number of spaces prior to the construction of the theatre that were probably used as storage spaces or taverns and were part of the harbour structures from the 2nd - 1st century BC.
The theatre itself was built in the first half of the first century AD. in the area that used to be the trade zone connected to the port. Only a few parts have been preserved, partly due to the many adjustments and changes over the years. There are still remnants of the eastern part of the foundation of the stage, the first steps of the spectator stand, the foundation of the front stage made of concrete as well as a number of rectangular and semicircular exedrae (semicircular spaces). In the back was a double row of openings where the curtain hung.
During the construction of a porticus postscaenam (space behind the stage with a colonnade) a large water feature was placed on the left with a space used as a nympheum consisting of a wall with columns around a large pond with fountains on the outside. There were marble craters on pedestals on either side of the nympheum from which water flowed down towards the nympheum and collapsed three meters below into a pool of water.
For the construction of the theatre a piece of the citywall and the harbour construction probably had to be demolished, creating a perfect view of the sea.

The Roman bathhouse
The public thermal baths were built at the end of the second century or the beginning of the third century AD. on the foundations of old warehouses. According to an inscription, this would have been the Thermae Montanae 46 .

Figure 30: Plan of te Roman bathhouse

The public building was built according to the then prevailing standards of Roman society and became, as it were, the new epicenter of the port area. The building was rich in painting and sculpture. The latrines made use of the old horrea from the century before.
The building was cruciform. On the long axis were successively a natatio (swimming pool), a frigidarium (cold water bath), possibly a tepidarium (lukewarm intermediate bath) and a caldarium (hot water bath). There were other spaces on the west and east sides, of which only those on the west side have been preserved. The complex was accessible from the north and possibly from one of the sides. Just like the theatre and the amphitheatre, the baths remained in function until the 5th century AD.

The sales areas. Markets and the Forum

Figure 31: Excavation site forum of Tarraco (see map)

The lower part of the city developed from a sandy water area into a harbour neighbourhood with all the necessary facilities. The forum of the city also played a central role in this.
The forum of Tarraco was dug up between 1926 and 1929 and later, in 2002/3, a new investigation followed.

Figure 32: Plan of the forum of Tarraco

The construction began in the late Republican era with a square and a temple dedicated to the Trias- Capitolinus (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva). The stage of this Capitol temple was later raised to a temenos (sacred space) with columns. The orientation was in a way that from the temple you could see the ships coming from the sea.
At the time of August the Basilica Iuridicalis (court of justice) was built including a floor with a colonnade. Under Tiberius a central colonnade of two floors high was added and the forum was expanded with a forum adiectum (added forum) prior to the basilica with its open square with a colonnade built above a cryptoporticus.

The Amphitheatre
Near the forum, an amphitheatre was built at the end of the1st century / beginning of the 2nd century AD. The amphitheatre was mainly used for gladiator and animal games. It had a capacity of 15,000 spectators and an area of 130 x 102 meters 47 . Apparently Panem et circensis (bread and games) played also an important role in Roman Tarragona of that time.

Figure33: The amphitheater of Tarragona (photo: Wikipedia- Cintxa)

Afsluiting
A city like Tarraco, which, according to the sources, played such an important role, especially during the second Punic War and the Roman conquest of Spain as a naval port, where a Roman fortress was converted into a thriving city, where, in addition to the locals, many Roman families settled there must have been almost certainly a thriving commercial harbour, although there are no signs of the actual harbour. Also epigraphic references from skippers, ships or wrecks are missing. However, many archaeological finds have been made under water pointing to a large maritime trade. If we take the many notes and engravings from the past 400 years seriously, there must also have been a pier/ breakwater as we know from Pozzuoli. Also the remains of the many horrea indicate a port with facilities as you might expect in a harbour that, after my believe, may carry the name Portus. A port that, according to the latest available data, occupied an area between 15 and 17 hectares with a harbour basin that had a depth of between 9 and 11 meters, allowing both large and small ships to dock here and to unload or take in their cargo.


Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco

The Roman remains of Tárraco are of exceptional importance in the development of Roman urban planning and design and served as the model for provincial capitals elsewhere in the Roman world. Tárraco provides eloquent testimony to a significant stage in the history of the Mediterranean lands in antiquity.

There was possibly a trading settlement here, founded by Ionian Greeks, in the early 1st millennium BC. However by the end of the 5th century BC the indigenous Iberians had created a settlement, called Kesse. It was seized and fortified by the Roman proconsul Scipio Africanus in 218 BC during the Second Punic War. The town of Tárraco is the first and oldest Roman settlement on the Iberian Peninsula, and it became the capital of the Province of Hispania Citerior, during the reign of Augustus. As such it was suitably endowed with imposing public buildings, as a demonstration of Roman power. It was visited by several Roman emperors, among them Augustus and Hadrian, and was the site of many councils bringing together officials. The unique Roman plan of the town is exceptional, as it adapted to the configuration of the land by means of a series of artificial terraces, which are to be seen around the provincial forum as well as in the residential quarter. The town is rich in important buried architectural and archaeological remains, among them buildings that are completely preserved, as in the case of the group of vaults in the Calle Méndez Núñez.

The defensive system of walls of Tárraco is one of the earliest examples of Roman military engineering on the Iberian Peninsula and the most important symbols of the town, defining its form from antiquity until the 19th century. They illustrate the construction technique known as opus siliceum that was characteristic of Italy and was used in Etruria and Latium. Some sections of wall - with internal and external decoration, cyclopean gates, and defensive bastions such as the Minerva, Capiscol, and Archbishop's Towers -are in a good state of conservation. This large group of buildings determined the layout of the existing old town, where most of the architectural elements survive. It was a large complex spread over three terraces used for high-level political purposes and to bring the communities of Hispania Citerior into the Roman Empire, as shown by the iconography of sculptural and decorative finds. The architectural details and the use of imported materials are taken as evidence of its architects and craftsmen having been brought in from Rome. The work of these Italian specialists is also to be seen in the three Roman structures used for public performances. A number of quarries are known around the town from which stone was extracted to build the Roman structures. There are also several luxurious villas, including the Centcelles villa-mausoleum, a modest villa rustica built in the 2nd century AD and later enlarged, and the Dels Munts Villa, a large and luxurious establishment.

The Roman town was sited on a hill, with the seat of the provincial government, at its crest and on two terraces created below. Among the principal buildings are the ramparts built by Scipio the imperial cult enclosure the Provincial Forum, a colonnaded open space the circus, built from Roman concrete (opus caementicium ) the Colonial Forum at the centre of the town the theatre, erected on the site of large cisterns and a harbour market the amphitheatre, built during the reign of Trajan or Hadrian for some 14,000 spectators the Visigothic basilica dedicated to the martyrs Fructuosus, Augurius and Eulogius the Romanesque church with a traditional Latin cross form (most of the lower parts of this structure survive, and the decoration that has been studied indicates Cistercian connections) the palaeo-Christian cemetery associated with the cult of the three martyrs, over whose tomb a basilica was built (the Palaeo-Christian Museum on the site houses much of the material resulting from excavations) the aqueduct, built from opus quadratum consisting of two courses of arches the Tower of the Scipios (its attribution to the Scipios is very doubtful)l and the Triumphal Arch of Berá, considered to be a territorial marker, indicating the boundary of the territory of Tárraco.