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Choragiese monument van Lysikrate

Choragiese monument van Lysikrate


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'N Sirkelvormige monument met Korintiese kolomme aan die buitekant. Die monument het 'n ronde dak en is op 'n vierkantige podium geleë. Die monument is gedeeltelik opgegrawe en die grond rondom het klein puinhope. Daar is 'n paar huise met teëldakke agter die monument.

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Choragiese monument van Lysikrate

Sien alle foto's

In antieke Griekeland word jaarlikse teaterkompetisies geborg deur choregoi, welgestelde beskermhere van die dramatiese kunste, is in die Theatre of Dionysus gehou. Die chorēgos wat die wenvertoning geborg het, het 'n prys ontvang, 'n groot trofee in die vorm van 'n bronsstatief. In 334 vC het Lysicrates die eerste van sulke pryse ontvang en 'n monument vir sy trofee in gebruik geneem.

Die monument sit in Tripidonstraat (Street of the Tripods), die ou pad wat van die ingang van die stad na die teater gelei het, en wat eens bedek was met choragiese monumente. Die fondamente van die ander is in die 1980's ontdek, maar die Lysicrates -monument is die enigste wat ongeskonde bly.

Die monument het 'n kubieke marmerbasis en rotonde met halwe kolomme in Korintiese styl wat 'n argitraaf ondersteun. Bo die argitraaf is die entablature, met frise wat tonele uit Lysicrates se wentoneel uitbeeld. Hulle wys hoe Dionysus, die Griekse god van die verhoog, seerowers verslaan deur hulle in dolfyne te verander. Die entablature het oorspronklik 'n ontbrekende koepel ondersteun, wat die basis was vir drie rolle wat die driepootvormige trofee bevat het.

In 1658 is 'n Franse Capuchin -klooster op die terrein gestig en het later daarin geslaag om die monument te koop. Die monnike het die monument as 'n biblioteek gebruik en dit het oor die jare deels dit oorleef. Die klooster self het nog 'n paar aansprake op roem. Die digter Lord Byron het daar gebly tydens 'n besoek aan Griekeland in 1810 en sy beroemde gedig, "The Maid of Athens", geskryf. En in 1818 het 'n monnik die eerste tamatieplante in Griekeland langs die Lysicrates -monument in die kloostertuine geplant.

Die choragiese monument is beskadig en gedeeltelik in puin begrawe in 1824 tydens die Griekse Onafhanklikheidsoorlog, toe die klooster vernietig is. Dit is herstel met hulp van die Franse regering en staan ​​nou trots op sy naamgenootplein.


Wedergeboorte van die Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in die Royal Botanical Gardens, Sydney

Die gerestoureerde Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in die Royal Botanical Gardens, Sydney, word op 16 Oktober onthul.

Die 148-jarige monument het deur die jare in wanhoop geraak. Maar danksy John en Patricia Azarias wat 'n missie van twee jaar onderneem het om die nasionale skat te herstel, het die monument 'n $ 600 000 gesigverhoging van private en regeringsfinansiering gekry.

Die egpaar het die tuine in 2014 besoek toe die verlate monument onder hul aandag kom.

Mense het monumente opgerig en ons dink dat hulle daardeur onthou sal word, en dan sien mense dit nie meer nie, dit word deursigtig. En dit gebeur met hierdie monument, het mnr Azarias aan neoskosmos.com gesê.

Mnr Azarias het verduidelik dat hulle donateurs uit alle agtergronde kon lok.

Die Griekse gemeenskap was die eerstes wat geantwoord het van hierdie fantastiese stad. ”

Maar daar is meer as net die monument wat in die gemeenskap herstel is toe meneer en mev Azarias ook die Lysicrates -stigting gevorm het, geïnspireer deur die monument in Athene wat in 334 vC deur choregos Lysicrates opgerig is ter herdenking van sy triomf in die Theatre of Dionysus -kompetisie.

Die Lysicrates Foundation nooi jaarliks ​​drie dramaturge uit om die eerste toneel van hul toneelstuk op te voer en die wenner kry $ 12,500 om te help met die voltooiing van hul werk.

“ In wese herleef ons die Groot Dionysië, ” het mnr Azarias aan neoskosmos.com gesê. Elke lid van die gehoor kom na die konservatorium, hulle ontvang 'n klein keramiekteken en kyk dan na die een na die ander toneelstuk. As hulle vertrek, is daar drie ure, een vir elke toneelstuk, en hulle sit die teken wat hulle het in een. Die urn wat die meeste het, is die wenner. ”

Die dramaturge op die kortlys vir die Lysicrates -prys van 2017 word later hierdie maand bekend gemaak en word in Februarie by die Sydney Conservatorium of Music opgevoer.


Herstel van die Choragiese monument van Lysikrate wat onthul moet word

John Azarias het altyd gevoel dat die samelewing verantwoordelik is vir kreatiwiteit.

Vir hom persoonlik was die geleentheid om dit te doen in Mei 2014 na 'n ontsaglike wandeling deur die Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney toe hy, saam met sy vrou, dr Patricia Azarias, hom voor die Choragic Monument of Lysicrates bevind - 'n replika van die oorspronklik, opgerig in Athene in 334 vC deur choregos Lysicrates ter herdenking van sy triomf in die Theatre of Dionysus -kompetisie.

As hulle vertroud was met die monument en die betekenis daarvan, kon hulle nie anders as om die swak toestand van die sandsteen op te let nie.

Mense het monumente opgerig en ons dink dat hulle daardeur onthou sal word, en dan sien mense dit nie meer nie, dit word deursigtig. En dit het met hierdie monument gebeur, het mnr. Azarias gesê Neos Kosmos.

Dit was op daardie oomblik dat hy geïnspireer is om die inisiatief te neem om die gedenkteken te herstel en daarna die Lysicrates Foundation te stig.

As uitvoerende direkteur in verskillende rade, en 'n voormalige diplomaat, het mnr. Azarias telefonies gebel op soek na vrygewigheid van mense. Omdat hy deel was van die geskiedenis van Australië, het hy ontdek dat mense baie graag die inisiatief ondersteun.

Die Griekse gemeenskap was die eerstes wat gereageer het. ”, sê hy, maar voeg by dat hy nie net op een sektor van die gemeenskap wou staatmaak nie en dit as 'n gesamentlike Sydney -projek erken het.

Die donateurs kom uit 'n wye verskeidenheid agtergronde-Afrikaans, Anglo-Kelties, Chinees, Grieks, Indies, Italiaans, Christelik, Joods, Moslem-nog 'n getuienis van die lewendigheid en diversiteit van hierdie fantastiese stad. ”

Die monument, wat die eerste keer in opdrag van die driemalige premier van NSW Sir James Martin was, is aanvanklik in sy huis in Potts Point gehou tot 1943, toe dit na sy huidige posisie in die tuine verskuif is.

John saam met sy vrou, dr Patricia Azarias.

Twee jaar nadat hul pogings begin het, en die Azarias daarin geslaag het om hul monument te herstel tot sy eertydse glorie deur middel van die Staatsregeringsprogram van die staatsregering, in totaal $ 600,000 gekos en moontlik gemaak deur privaat- en staatsfinansiering.

Maar dit is nie net die monument wat hulle lewendig gemaak het nie. In 'n poging om die teatertalent in Australië aan te moedig en te beloon, het hulle self die Great Dionysia -teatermodel weer met die Lysicrates -prys bekendgestel.

Drie dramaturge wat op die kortlys verskyn, word herinner aan die drie trilogieë in antieke Athene, en in teenstelling met ander kompetisies van hierdie kaliber, is dit die gehoor wat 'n konsep bepaal wat nêrens in die wêreld vir ongeveer 2 000 jaar.

“ In wese herleef ons die Groot Dionysia, ” sê mnr Azarias. Elke lid van die gehoor kom na die konservatorium, hulle ontvang 'n klein keramiekteken en kyk dan na die een na die ander toneelstuk. As hulle vertrek, is daar drie ure, een vir elke toneelstuk, en hulle sit die teken wat hulle het in een. Die urn wat die meeste het, is die wenner. ”

Die dramaturg kry nie net die goedkeuring van 'n gehoor nie, maar hulle ontvang ook $ 12,500 om die volledige toneelstuk te skryf.

Die intreeprys in 2015 is toegeken deur premier van NSW Mike Baird, en in 2016 deur die federale minister van kunste, Mitch Fifield.

Maar die idee om die mag uit die hande van die artistieke direkteur te neem, is aanvanklik nie gunstig beskou nie.

Toe ons die artistieke direkteur van die Griffin Theatre vir die eerste keer besoek het om haar van ons idee te vertel, het sy gesê dat ons mal is, en mnr. Azarias erken.

Die artistieke direkteur van elke teater is 'n poortwagter, en almal smeek hulle om hul toneelstuk op te neem.

Alhoewel hy volhard en dit doen, sê hy dat die stigting 'n alternatiewe platform vir teaterprodusente en artistieke direkteure geskep het om te sien hoe die gehoor reageer. In die toekoms hoop hy dat die geleentheid oor twee of drie dae sal uitbrei en aandag oor die hele wêreld sal trek.

Saam met die onthulling van die monument hierdie maand, word die Lysicrates Prize 2015: The People ’s Choice -boek bekendgestel en dramaturge op die kortlys vir die 2017 Lysicrates -prys aangekondig. Die uitvoering sal na verwagting in Februarie by die Sydney Conservatorium of Music volg, en in 'n poging om mense uit alle sektore van die samelewing te lok, is daar geen toegangsgeld nie.

“Ons wil mense hê uit al die poskodes, alle ouderdomsgroepe en nie net die gewone verdagtes wat gewoonlik na die teater gaan of uit die toneel is nie, en mnr. Azarias.

Vir sommige lyk dit miskien baie moeite om 'n tyd in die ou geskiedenis te herdenk. Maar vir mnr Azarias is dit veel meer as dit.

Die monument is deel van ons erfenis, dit is 148 jaar oud en ons vier nie net ons verlede nie, maar ons bevorder ook Australiese kreatiwiteit, wat volgens hom die belangrikste doelwit van die fondament is.
Die leuse van ons stigting is dat dit die skrywers, klowers en verskillende eggheads is wat die ware skatte van die samelewing is, die wat ons verhale vasvang - dit is diegene wat onthou sal word. Niks anders sal in die toekoms onthou word nie, niks anders nie. ”


Die einste model van 'n oud-moderne monument

Sloop van Pennsylvania Bank, 1867, ” Detail van albumdruk deur John Moran, fotograaf. (The Library Company of Philadelphia) The Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, uit James Stuart's Antiquities of Athens, 1762. (Smithsonian Libraries)

Teen die 1830's sou jy gedink Mense begin dalk 'n bietjie moeg word om te sien dat elke laaste argitek hul stad in die Grieks vertaal. En hulle mag het, as dit nie was vir William Strickland se manier om die ou en die nuwe te kombineer nie. Hierdie kreatiefste van die tuisgemaakte generasie argitek/ingenieurs het nie daarvan afgeskroom om die spel 'n paar kerwe op te skuif nie. Strickland haal sy kopie van Stuart uit Oudhede van Athene, 'n boek wat al sewentig jaar bestaan ​​en lank reeds as bron deur argitekte gebruik is, waaronder Benjamin Henry Latrobe, John Haviland en Strickland self.

Maar die spel was nou hoër. Strickland staan ​​voor die uitdaging om argitektonies sin te maak op 'n baie prominente en vreemd gevormde bouperseel wat gedefinieer word deur Dock, Walnut en Third Streets. En hy het bevind dat hy werk in die skaduwee van sy mentor se meesterstuk, die Bank of Pennsylvania. Hierdie moeilike webwerf het 'n uitstekende oplossing vereis - en 'n innoverende oplossing. Om 'n reghoekige Griekse tempel op 'n driehoekige bouperseel te druk, sou net nie werk nie. Strickland moes ontwerpoplossings vind wat nog dapperder was, maar ook noukeuriger oorweeg is.

En so het hy gedoen. Strickland het aan die smal punt van hierdie wig 'n verhewe, halfsirkelvormige portiek, wat hierdie oostelike fasade soos 'n groot ingang op 'n burgerlike plein laat lyk. (In werklikheid is dit die groot, afgeronde agterkant van die gebou. Strickland het Third Street die gebruikersvriendelike ingang gemaak.)

Perspektief van Old Stock Exchange in Dock- en Walnutstraat, 24 Maart 1915. (PhillyHistory.org)

Hier, in Philadelphia, 'n paar blokke van die rivier se kant van die stad, teenoor die oggendson (dieselfde wat antieke Athene verlig het), was Strickland se meesterstuk. Anders as sy ander Griekse herlewingsgeboue, was dit geen replika wat van die bladsye verwyder is nie Oudhede van Athene. Hier was 'n 3D-advertensiebord met Griekse funksies wat Philadelphia bedien, hier en nou.

Vir die koepel, wat die hele projek saamgevoeg het, het Strickland inspirasie gevind in Stuart se illustrasie van 'n monument van 334 vC wat nog steeds baie op die strate van Athene staan. Die Choragic Monument of Lysicrates was 'n self-gelukwensende voetstuk van 21 voet vir 'n koorprys wat tydens 'n uitvoerende kunswedstryd gewen is, deel van dieselfde fees wat die groot dramas van Aeschylus, Sophocles en Euripides opgelewer het. Stuart en William Henry Playfair het letterlike replika's in Staffordshire en Edinburgh ontwerp. Hier in Philadelphia het Strickland groot vryhede geneem met die ontwerp - en baie Amerikaanse resultate behaal.

Hy skuif die "monument" van straatvlak na die dak. Hy blaas dit op tot dubbel die grootte van die oorspronklike en maak 'n reuse 40-voet-hoë, 14 voet-deursnee-skyline-definiërende struktuur. En in plaas daarvan om die Choragic Monument of Lysicrates vir eeue in klip te interpreteer, het Strickland dit in hout ontwerp wat hy geweet het net 'n paar dekades sou duur. (Dit sou ongeveer elke sestig jaar vervang word.) Nou, ver van Europa af, sou hierdie pop-art skaal, argeologies korrekte, kortstondige monument die verlede weerspieël. Maar nog belangriker, bo die stadsbeeld van Philadelphia uit die 1830's, sou hierdie landmerk in die oomblik baie lewe.

Ooskant van die Merchant Exchange -gebou, 2 November 1960. (PhillyHistory.org)

Die Merchants Exchange, en veral die toring aan die oostelike punt, sou 'n noodsaaklike element word in 'n nuwe, hoëtegnologiese inligtingsnetwerk. Lank voor 1837, toe Samuel F.B. Morse het sy telegraaf (en manier langer voordat iemand van die internet gedroom het) het Europeërs en Amerikaners 'optiese telegrawe' wat vinnig gekodeerde boodskappe oor groot afstande kon oordra. Reeds in 1807 het die Amerikaanse kongres gedebatteer en uiteindelik gestem ten gunste van die finansiering van 'n 1,200 myl lange ketting optiese telegraaftorings wat New York en New Orleans verbind - 'n projek wat langs die pad val. Maar dit was nie vergesog nie. Meer as 'n dekade vroeër het Claude Chappe se uitvinding, die 'semafoor-visuele telegraaf', in Frankryk tot lewe gekom as 'n 143 myl-verbinding tussen Parys en Lille wat sou groei tot 'n netwerk van meer as 500 torings in Europa wat 3 000 myl strek. In 1799, toe Napoleon Bonaparte aan bewind gekom het, het hy hom voorgestel om die tegnologie oor die Engelse kanaal uit te brei.

Merchants Exchange, ooswaarts van bo Third Street, tydens die bou van die derde koepel, 25/10/1964. (PhillyHistory.org)

Toe die Amerikaanse argitek William Thornton hom dus in 1800 voorgestel het om Noord- en Suid -Amerika aan te sluit, het die moontlikhede 'n gelyke kop laat rol. Kort voor lank het Amerikaanse sakelui in Boston en New York hul eie optiese telegraafnetwerke gehad. Teen die tyd dat die Merchants Exchange in aanbou was, het 'n optiese telegraaf in Boston intyds gestuur, handel en beleggings gevolg.

'Tyd en afstand word vernietig', het die gewilde verkondiging geword, 'n mantra van die 1830's.

Geen verrassing dus dat die koepel van die Merchant Exchange hoog bo Dock- en Walnutstraat drievoudig was: as 'n sitplek vir klerke met teleskope wat skepe identifiseer wat na en van die hawe van Philadelphia op pad is, as 'n plek om boodskappe te stuur en te ontvang New York oor die vlaktes van New Jersey, en die blywendste boodskap van alles: dat Philadelphia uiteindelik tot sy reg gekom het as 'n moderne weergawe van antieke Athene.


Choragic Monument of Lysicrates - Geskiedenis

Snuffel

Kuratoriese nota

Dit is 'n hoogs ongewone variant op die Choragic Monument. Fouquet het nie sy modelrekonstruksie gebaseer op uitbeeldings van die oorspronklike in Athene nie, 'n monument wat opgerig is ter ere van die choregos of teaterborg Lysicrates. 'N Drama wat hy in 335 of 334 vC georganiseer en betaal het, het die eerste prys gewen op die godsdienstige fees Dionysia, wat in die Theatre of Dionysus, Athene, plaasgevind het ter ere van daardie god. Die prys was 'n bronsstatief, wat ter herdenking van Lysicrates se oorwinning opgerig is op die klein, sirkelvormige monument wat na hom vernoem is (334 vC). In plaas daarvan het Fouquet die model gebaseer op die sogenaamde 'Lantern of Demosthenes', 'n hoë, toringagtige dwaasheid, wat in 1801 deur Napoleon I gebou is in die park van die Château of St Cloud, Parys, waarvan die twee voorste dele losweg gebaseer op die klassieke monument. Die oop sirkelvormige struktuur bevat 'n borsbeeld van die keiser (in miniatuur gerepliseer in die model van Fouquet) en die Lantern sou verlig word om aan te dui dat Napoleon in die kasteel was. Die oorspronklike Choragic Monument of Lysicrates was baie korter as die toring by St Cloud en die sentrale gedeelte was gevorm uit 'n hol trommel met met ingewikkelde Korintiese kolomme. In 1870, as gevolg van die Frans-Pruisiese oorlog, is die Lantern van Demosthenes by St Cloud vernietig.

Hierdie model, tesame met die boog van Hadrianus (MR74), is in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog erg beskadig, waarskynlik toe 'n landmyn in die nag van 15 Oktober 1940 op Lincoln's Inn Fields val en die glaskas sowel as die gipsmodel verpletter.

Die gebroke pleisterkolomme laat ons toe om die binneste brons -anker te sien wat Fouquet gebruik het om die brose gips te versterk. Dit wil voorkom asof hierdie bronsstawe in die vorms van die kolomskagte geplaas is, en dan is die vloeibare gips om hulle gegooi.


Choragic Monument of Lysicrates onthul

Een van die mees ingewikkelde historiese monumente in Sydney is in sy eertydse glorie herstel, danksy die werk van die NSW -regering se spesialis -klipkappers -eenheid, 'n groep filantrope in Sydney en die Royal Botanic Garden.

Die Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, geleë in die Royal Botanic Gardens, is 'n replika van 1870 van 'n antieke Griekse monument wat dateer uit 334 vC.

Minister van Finansies, Dienste en Eiendom Dominic Perrottet onthul vandag die monument, wat gedeeltelik herstel is danksy 'n belegging van $ 200 000 as deel van die Minister's Stonework Program.

Die Lysicrates -monument verteenwoordig die ryk kulturele geskiedenis en erfenis wat ons stad, ons staat en ons nasie gevorm het, en ons moet die geskiedenis eenvoudig bewaar vir toekomstige geslagte, het mnr. Perrottet gesê.

Vroeër hierdie jaar het die regering 'n ekstra $ 2 miljoen se geld vir ons spesialis -klipmesselaars toegewy om ons erfenisikone te herstel en te bewaar, en ek was bly dat ek die bewaring van hierdie monument as deel van die program kon insluit. ”

Steenhouers werk by Yellowblock.

Benewens sy bande met die antieke Griekeland, het die Sydney -monument ook 'n aansienlike plaaslike historiese betekenis. Dit is in 1868 in opdrag van premier James Martin (na wie Martin Place vernoem is) in opdrag geneem en is gesny uit die ikoniese Yellowblock -sandsteen van Sydney.

Die monument, wat oorspronklik in die Potts Point -tuin van Martin geleë was, is in 1943 gered van sloop en deur die destydse premier William McKell na die Royal Botanical Gardens verplaas, na 'n veldtog deur die joernalis Fritz Burnell van Sydney Morning Herald.

In 2014 het 'n groep filantrope in Sydney opgemerk dat reën en winde die sagte goue sandsteen van die monument geërodeer het. Die groep stig die Lysicrates -stigting, wat nou saamgewerk het met die minister se steenwerkprogram en Royal Botanic Gardens om die monument te herstel.

Deurlopende instandhouding van die monument word ondersteun deur die Lysicrates Foundation en die Royal Botanic Gardens. Die Lysicrates -stigting het ook 'n jaarlikse kompetisie vir toneelskryf in die Griekse teatertradisie gestig as deel van sy werk om uitvoerende en visuele kunste in Australië te bevorder.


Bewaring (gebou) – Choregic Monument

The Choregic Monument of Lysicrates is in die Royal Botanic Gardens naby Farm Cove se seewand geleë. Die monument is 'n afskrif van die oorspronklike, wat in 334 vC in Athene opgerig is. Die projek het navorsing, toestandbepaling, ontsouting, hersny en oppervlakstabilisering ingesluit. Gemeenskapsdrang en betrokkenheid was 'n groot deel van hierdie projek.

Die Choregic -monument is belangrik vir sy vorm, materiaal, vakmanskap en historiese verenigings. Die monument is gelys in die National Trust Register, die City of Sydney LEP, en is 'n item in 'n bewaringsgebied. Die oorspronklike monument in Griekeland is vermoedelik die eerste eksterne gebruik van die Korintiese orde en is opgeneem in argitektoniese geskiedenisboeke om die samestelling van die hoofstad van Korinte aan te toon. Die kopie van Sydney wat uit 1870 dateer, gee geleerdes, studente en die gemeenskap toegang tot 'n getroue proporsie om te studeer en te geniet.

Die monument demonstreer die vaardighede in grotte en kopiëring van hoë kwaliteit van die klipkapper Walter McGill, bekend daarvoor dat hy ook die glorieryke hoofstede van die Australiese museum gesny het. Die monument is belangrik vir sy verbintenis met die voormalige premier van NSW, Sir James Martin, soos in Martin Place wat die werk vir sy tuin in Potts Point in 1870 laat oprig het. Die monument is in 1943 na die Royal Botanic Gardens verplaas.

Aanleiding van die projek:
In 2014 het private burgers, Patricia en John Azarias, opgemerk dat die Choragic -monument sorg nodig het tydens 'n wandeling in die Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney. Hulle het die Lysicrates -stigting gestig om geld by private donateurs in te samel, en die ministerie van steenwerkprogramme (MSP) van die staatsregering stem ooreen met die fondse dollar vir dollar. Dit is die eerste private/openbare vennootskap wat die MSP aangaan. Die totale koste van die projek was $ 450,000.

Bewaringsbenadering:
Met privaat skenkerfinansiering het vooropgestelde idees van 'herstel' gekom en die verwagtinge dat die monument skoon en verbeter sou lyk. Die MSP -span het nou saamgewerk met die skenkers om 'n raamwerk vir bewaringsbesluitneming vir die Monument te bied, gebaseer op die leidende beginsels van Burra Charter. 'N Groot uitdaging van hierdie projek was om te besluit oor die vlak van klipvervanging, gegewe die bestaande toestand en voortdurende blootstelling aan strawwe omgewingstoestande. Kwessies van betekenis gebaseer op vorm (Korintiese orde) is egtheid beoordeel.

In die hiërargie van belangrike elemente in die monument, is die fries baie belangrik, aangesien die kerfwerk die verhaal vertel van die Griekse god Dionysus wat seerowers beveg wat in dolfyne verander as dit in die water gegooi word. Die fries is opgebou uit 3 klippe wat elk 'n derde van die verhaal vertel. Die span het gekies om een ​​van die drie klippe (in die suidweste) na te sny weens die gevorderde toestand van verval. Die oppervlak van hierdie klip het alle herkenbare detail verloor, soos getoon op die aangehegte foto's. Alhoewel die oorblywende twee klippe in 'n redelike verweerde toestand is, is die verswakkingstempo vertraag deur ontsouting en die boonste gebiede om te keer dat water binnedring. Die hoofdoel van die projek was om soveel as moontlik van die oorspronklike sandsteen te behou, terwyl die monument in sy geheel gestabiliseer en beskerm word om te verseker dat die belangrikheid van die item vir die volgende generasie behoue ​​bly.

Navorsing en dokumentasie:
Gemeten tekeninge is voorberei om die toestand van die klip in kaart te bring om 'n rekord in die toekoms te gee en die toestand te vergelyk met rekords wat 20 jaar gelede deur die Stone -program opgestel is. Argief -professionele fotografie het die opdrag gekry om die monument voor, tydens en na die werke op te neem. Die houtsnee-proses het van die klipkappers vereis om die skaal en stilistiese verskille tussen die oorspronklike monument en die Sydney-weergawe te ondersoek. 'N Sleuteldokument waarna een van die friesstene herverf is, het tekenings van die oorspronklike uit "The Antiquities of Athens" deur Stuart en Revett, gepubliseer in 1748, gemeet.

Projekbetrokkenheid en veroudering:
Samevattend bereik geen ander openbare monument in NSW so 'n diversiteit van gemeenskapsbelang nie. Bewaringswerke was 'n katalisator vir baie groot en blywende gemeenskapsgeleenthede en kreatiewe strewe, veral as gevolg van die passie vir die projekte wat Patricia en John Ararias aanstig.

Die Lysicrates Foundation – Dr Patricia Azarias en John Azarius is by die Lysicrates Foundation geïnspireer om private fondse in te samel om by te dra tot die bewaring van die Choregic Monument. Sodra dit bereik is, het die Stigting die Lysicrates -prys, die Archibald -prys -ekwivalent vir dramaturge, in samewerking met die Griffin -teater gestig.

Griekse gemeenskap - deur die monument se verbinding met die oorspronklike 334B.C. Choregiese monument in Athene. John Azarias, is 'n onderhoud op die Griekse radio gevoer oor die bewaringsprojek en die Lysicrates -teaterprys.

Regsgemeenskap - James Martin het die Monument f in 1870 in gebruik geneem. Die bewaring van die monument het 'n belangstelling in die regsgemeenskap gebied om hulde te bring aan Martin vir sy prestasie as Australië se eerste premier en hoofregter. 'N Inwydingsrede Martin Oration is gestig deur die Lysicrates Foundation en gegee deur Hon. T.F. Bathurst AC, hoofregter van NSW op 25 November 2016 (gedenkboekie aangeheg).

Teatergemeenskap – Die Lysicrates -prys is in 2015 gestig en is 'n jaarlikse teaterprys, die Archibald -prys vir dramaturg, geïnspireer deur die antieke Griekse monument, opgerig in 334 vC. in Athene om 'n oorwinning deur die borg, Lysicrates, te vier in die Great Dionysia -teaterkompetisie van daardie jaar.
Hierdie Sydney -geleentheid lok elke jaar minstens 500 mense na die monument, aangesien dit die raamwerk bied vir die aankondiging van die wenner. Artikel oor finansiële oorsig, 3 Februarie 2017 (aangeheg) en onderhoud op Eastside 89.7FM-radio http://www.afr.com/lifestyle/arts-and-entertainment/theatre-and-dance/sydney-philanthropists-create-the-lysicrates -prys-20170131-gu2c75

Byron Society en die oorspronklike monument het 'n belangrike skakel met Lord Byron, wat poësie in die monument geskryf het terwyl hy in die 1800's in Athene gebly het. Die Australian Byron Society het byeenkomste in die Botanic Gardens by die Monument gehou ter viering van Byron se verjaardag.

Steenbewaring - Die onthulling van die voltooiing van die bewaring van die werk is op ABC -nuus verskyn.

Gepubliseer op 16 Oktober 2016. Onderwys oor die belangrikheid van die item en die bewaringswerke was 'n belangrike aspek van die projek.

'N Lied ‘ The Ballad of Martin and Lysicrates ’ - geskryf deur die goewerneur van NSW se vrou, mev Hurley en gesing deur mev Hurley tydens die onthulling van die voltooiing van die bewaringswerke in die Botaniese Tuine in Oktober 2016.

Het aan die projek gewerk:
Minister se klipwerkprogram, departement van finansies, diens en innovasie

Wat die regters gesê het:

Fantastiese werk uit die Minister se Steenwerkprogram oor 'n replika van 'n Griekse monument van 334 vC in die Botaniese Tuine wat ondersoek, ontsouting, herwinning en stabilisering behels. ”


Europese en Amerikaanse argitektuur (1750–1900)

Hierdie les dek een van die opwindendste 150-jarige bestek in argitektuur, 1750–1900. Seismiese veranderinge het plaasgevind op die gebiede van:

Lewensstyl: Gedurende hierdie jare het baie mense van die land na die stad verhuis. Engeland bereik 'n 50/50 balans rondom die 1850's. Amerika se ewewig het rondom die 1920's plaasgevind. Hierdie industrialisering het die ontstaan ​​van nuwe geboue veroorsaak.

Regering: Gedurende die laat agtiende eeu het die Westerse wêreld twee massiewe revolusies beleef - die Amerikaanse revolusie en die Franse revolusie. Monargieë het aan bewind afgeneem, en demokratiese regerings is geskep.

Beskerming: Godsdienstige en aristokratiese beskerming het plek gemaak vir meer opdragte deur demokratiese regerings en welgestelde, selfgemaakte individue.

Tegnologie: Daar is vordering gemaak met boumateriaal, vervoer en masjinerie. Tradisionele materiale soos baksteen en klip is vervang deur ysterhoudende metale (yster en staal) en glas.

Argitekte en ontwerpers het probeer om hul opleiding te versag met die eise van die moderne lewe - nie net bewys nie - in die argitektuur self, maar ook in argitektuurtekste, interieurontwerp, opgrawings en stedelike ontwerp, waarvan sommige in hierdie lesing behandel sal word. Vorderings in hierdie kategorieë plaas die bouberoep uiteindelik onherroeplik op pad na die moderne argitektuur van die twintigste eeu.

Die vertrekpunt van hierdie les veronderstel dat studente bewus sal wees van tendense in barok- en rokoko -argitektuur, maar dit is sinvol om met 'n resensie te begin:

Wys u klas 'n skyfie met beelde van ikoniese werke van Barok- en Rococo -argitektuur. Ek hou daarvan om Borromini's te gebruik San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Rome, 1638–41) as die barok-voorbeeld en Germain Boffrand en Charles-Joseph Natoire s’n Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise (Parys, 1736–9) as die Rococo -voorbeeld.

Begin die hersiening met 'n paar van hierdie aanwysings:

  • Beskryf die formele kenmerke van Barok- en Rococo -argitektuur.
  • Wie was die beskermhere?
  • Beskryf die dominante ideologieë en waardes van die kulture wat hierdie werke vervaardig het.
  • Na watter bronne het hulle gekyk?

U studente sal dalk verbaas wees om te hoor dat die flambojante eienskappe van Barok- en Rococo-argitektuur wat hulle in vorige lesings leer ken en waardeer het, in die middel van die agtiende eeu onder skoot gekom het vanweë hul vermeende misbruik van vryheid-wat klassieke elemente op onortodokse maniere kombineer-en uitvinding, soos die skepping van nuwe hoofstede. Looking at these works from a second-half-of-the-eighteenth-century standpoint serves the dual purpose of acting as the segue from last lecture to this one and also setting the architectural stage for the current lecture.

Francesco Borromini’s (1599–1667) San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane is a one example of a Baroque building that—to mid-eighteenth century minds—incorporated too much invention. Constructed for the Spanish order of Discalced Trinitarians, Borromini’s ground plan indicates that the interior space of the church was based on geometry (equilateral triangles, circles, and an oval). The underlying geometry becomes lost among the aspects that mesmerize viewers: the undulating walls, irregularly spaced columns, frequent wall openings, and ornament—all showcasing the freedom with which Borromini used and altered Classical elements—a significant example being the volutes of the composite capitals, some of which curve upwards instead of the traditional down. The sculptural quality of the interior is reflected in the church’s exterior. The façade swells out and in, and areas between columns are filled with niches and sculpture.

Moving forward a hundred years to the Rococo, your students will likely be familiar with Germain Boffrand and Charles-Joseph Natoire’s Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise. An oval room on the upper-level, this salon was used by a princess of the Rohan-Soubise dynasty for entertaining. The walls dematerialize, punctuated by windows, doors, and large mirrors. Extensive amounts of gilt ornamentation cover the walls and frames openings.

Themes to stress throughout the lecture include vordering, building type, materiaal en tegnologie.

Background Readings

Henry Flitcroft, The Temple of Apollo, Stourhead, 1765 (Wiltshire, England).

One of the best sources is Leland Roth’s Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning, second edition (Westview Press, 2007). If you are looking for information on European architecture see Barry Bergdoll’s European Architecture 1750–1890 (Oxford University Press, 2000) and Sir John Summerson’s The Classical Language of Architecture, twentieth printing (MIT Press, 2001). For an explanation of materials, see Harley J. McKee’s Introduction to Early American Masonry (National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1973). This book provides an excellent overview of the tools used to prepare building materials and terminology.

For British Architecture, see Sir John Summerson’s Architecture in Britain 1530–1830, ninth edition (Yale University Press, 1993).

For American architectural history, I recommend a series of survey texts as well as sources that are more focused upon specific artists or structures. Leland Roth’s A Concise History of American Architecture (Harper & Row, Publishers, 1979) provides a standard chronological progression through North American architectural movements. Dell Upton’s Architecture in the United States (Oxford University Press, 1998) is divided into chapters that address American architecture through the lenses of community, nature, technology, money and art.

For Stourhead see their webpage on the United Kingdom’s national trust site.

For the United States Capitol building, see James D. and Georgiana W. Kornwolf’s Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial North America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002)—a wonderful text about colonial and early American architecture. Also see Henry Russell Hitchcock and William Seale’s Temples of Democracy: The State Capitols of the U.S.A. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976).

For Schinkel’s Altes Museum, see Steven Moyano, “Quality vs. History: Schinkel’s Altes Museum and Prussian Arts Policy,” The Art Bulletin Vol. 72, No. 4 (December, 1990), 585–608 James J. Sheehan, Museums in the German Art World: From the End of the Old Regime to the Rise of Modernism (Oxford University Press, 2000) Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1781–1841: The Drama of Architecture (Art Institute of Chicago, 1994).

For the Gothic Revival, I am indebted to Chris Brooks’ The Gothic Revival (Phaidon, 1999) and Michael J. Lewis’ The Gothic Revival (Thames & Hudson, 2002).

For the Grammar of Ornament see Carole A Hrvol Flores’ Owen Jones: Design, Ornament, Architecture, and Theory in an Age of Transition (Rizzoli, 2006) John Kresten Jespersen, “Originality and Jones,” The Grammar of Ornament of 1856,” Journal of Design History Vol. 21, No. 2 (Summer 2008), 143–53 and Stacey Sloboda’s “The Grammar of Ornament: Cosmopolitanism and Reform in British Design.” Journal of Design History Vol. 21, No. 3 (Autumn, 2008), 223–36.

For the Skyscraper, I recommend Sarah Bradford Landau and Carl W. Condit’s Rise of the New York Skyscraper, 1865–1913 (Yale University Press, 1996) and Winston Weisman’s “A New View of Skyscraper History” in Rise of an American Architecture. (Metropolitan Museum of Art by Praeger Publishers, 1970).

For Aesthetic Movement architecture, see Andrew Saint’s Richard Norman Shaw (Yale University Press, 2010) Jeffrey Karl Ochsner and Thomas C. Hubka, “H. H. Richardson: The Design of the William Watts Sherman House,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 51, No. 2 (June, 1992), 121–45 James F. O’Gorman’s “A Touch of Nash: The Williams Watts Sherman House and the Aesthetic Movement.” Negentiende eeu Vol. 19, No. 1 (1999), 53–9 and In Pursuit of Beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement (Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1986).

For Ecole des Beaux Arts architecture see Christopher Mead, “Urban Contingency and the Problem of Representation in Second Empire Paris,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians Vol. 54, No. 2 (June, 1995), 138–74.

Content Suggestions

The layout of this lecture is designed to underscore the international and intercontinental spread of architectural ideas. In most instances, I give two examples to illustrate a particular stylistic movement—one European and one American. Optional works are indented underneath to supplement certain topics. I have also included asides about materials and other topics, which can be useful.

In an hour and fifteen minutes, you should be able to cover the following works of architecture:

  • Francesco Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Rome, 1638–41)
  • Germain Boffrand and Chalres-Joseph Natoire, Salon de la Princesse, Hôtel de Soubise (Paris, 1736–9)

Second Half of the Eighteenth Century:

  • Marc-Antoine Laugier, Essai sur l’architecture (Paris, 1755 first edition 1753)
  • James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, The Antiquities of Athens: Measured and Delineated (London, 1762–95)
    • Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, c. 334 BCE
    • Claude Lorrain, Coast View of Delos with Aeneas (1672)
    • Henry Flitcroft, Pantheon (constructed between 1753-54)
    • Henry Flitcroft, Temple of Apollo (constructed in 1765)
    • Henry Flitcroft, King Alfred’s Tower (designed 1765, constructed between 1769–72)
    • Bristol Cross (a monument from the fifteenth–seventeenth centuries was moved in 1765 from its original Bristol location to Hoare’s park)

    Negentiende eeu

    • Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Altes Museum (Berlin, 1823–30)
      • William Strickland, Tennessee State Capitol (Nashville, 1845–59)
      • Richard Upjohn, Trinity Church (New York City, 1839–46)
      • William LeBaron Jenney, Home Insurance Building, (Chicago, c. 1885)
      • McKim, Mead, and White, American Safe Deposit Company Building, (New York City, 1882–4).
      • H. Richardson, William Watts Sherman House (Newport, Rhode Island, 1874–6)
      • World’s Columbian Exposition (Chicago, 1891–3)

      Begun in the second half of the eighteenth century and lasting through the early nineteenth century, the Enlightenment did much to affect the path of architecture. Though not a single unified movement, it was founded on the belief in progress and in the power of reason. Recent achievements in science encouraged the notion that, through the acquisition of knowledge and the application of reason social, intellectual, and moral reforms could be affected. The impact of the Enlightenment on the arts took various forms. Some artists paid homage to science, others studied the classical past. The later impacts architecture more acutely.

      By 1750, there was a growing discontent with the gaudy Baroque and Rococo architecture highlighted above. It came under fire for being dishonest, meaning that its sculptural, undulating walls and overzealous ornamentation deceptively hid the building’s supporting construction. Critics thought that these features placed the emphasis in the wrong places and architecture required a much needed return to its primitive origins. This viewpoint was demonstrated in the frontispiece of the second edition of Essai sur l’architecture by Jesuit priest and amateur aesthetician Marc-Antoine Laugier (1713–69).

      The engraved frontispiece of Essai sur l’architecture depicts a classical female figure as the Muse of Architecture, holding a compass, a right angle and reclining on an entablature. The image also includes the Scamozzi Ionic capital (Scamozzi Ionic capitals flare out at the corners when the two sides come together). This Muse directs an infant to a primitive hut, humanity’s first built structure that represents pure, honest architecture. Built of wood—both living trees and cut—the space was created using a limited number of elements: posts (the verticals), lintels or beams (the horizontals), and gabled roof. All of these elements are not decorated.

      This image served as a rallying point to galvanize people to return to a perceivably purer architecture. It should be stated here that Laugier and his supporters did not feel that the only structures that should be built were primitive wooden huts. Instead, they promoted the idea that if a historical source was emulated, it should be from a culture that practiced pure architecture. The older the civilization, the purer architecture they created. Using this logic, Greek architecture was superior to Roman, as Greek civilization was older.

      One publication that did the most to spread an awareness of Greek architecture was The Antiquities of Athens: Measured and Delineated by English architects and antiquarians James Stuart and Nicholas Revett. Conceived during the Enlightenment, when there was interest in ancient cultures, the work was subsidized and published by the Society of Dilettanti (an English group of men who had all partook in the Grand Tour. Sir Joshua Reynolds was a member of the group who painted several portraits of its members). This text is noteworthy for containing the first meticulously measured drawings of ancient Greek architecture, giving the Western world access to their natural architectural perfection. To make the text as accurate as possible, Stuart and Revett spent four years (1751–5) documenting architectural monuments in and around Athens before returning to England to begin the publishing process. Although it was intended to be the first text of its kind, the drawn out publishing process allowed for a Frenchman, Julien-David Le Roy to produce Les Ruines des plus beaux monuments de la Grèce (Paris, 1758) five years before the first volume of The Antiquities of Athens verskyn. Despite publication delays, and then its gradual release, The Antiquities of Athens’ influence was international and it became a manual (historian James F. O’Gorman uses the word “Bible”) for the “Greek Revival” across Europe as well as in North America, c. 1810s–1840s.

      An illustration from Volume One of the text depicts the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. Located near the acropolis, this monument was erected around 334 BCE to commemorate an athletic or choral victory. This circular structure is thirteen feet high, made of marble, and around the exterior are six engaged Corinthian columns—some of the earliest of that type. Now lost is a tripod trophy that at one point surmounted the monument.

      A visual and ideological counterpoint to the pursuit of a more pure architectural source is the picturesque landscape garden Stourhead located in Wiltshire, England, the vision of banker Sir Henry Hoare. Designed over decades, Stourhead’s vistas were completely constructed—earth was moved, a lake was formed by damming a local river, and flora was planted. Hoare aimed to make mimic the painted landscapes found in the paintings of French Baroque painters Claude Lorrain and Nicholas Poussin. Indeed, Hoare had collected Lorrain’s Coast View of Delos with Aeneas (1672), which influenced the designs. For example, the garden included bridges and a building with a dome, imitating the Pantheon in Rome, motifs found in Lorrain’s paintings. The winding path through the garden began and ended at the house, leading one around the irregular lake that forms the garden’s centerpiece. Along the way, one was supposed to stop at certain points to admire views and pavilions constructed in differing architectural styles.

      Palladian architect Henry Flitcroft was commissioned to construct several pavilions for Stourhead: the aforementioned Pantheon (constructed between 1753–4), the Temple of Apollo (constructed in 1765), and the triangular 160-foot brick structure King Alfred’s Tower (designed 1765, constructed between 1769-72)—the top of which can be reach through an internal spiral staircase. In 1765, the Bristol Cross was moved from its original Bristol location to Hoare’s park. Over the centuries there has been debate among historians as to how the Virgilian inscriptions on the pavilions should be interpreted, and how that affects in the viewer’s experience in the garden.

      Politically, the full embodiment of Enlightenment ideals was reached during the American and French Revolutions that took place at the end of the eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth century. Die United States Capitol (c. 1793–1828, 1851–7, and 1856–63) in Washington D.C. became a beacon to Enlightenment ideas, adhering to the Classical spirit in its architecture’s revolutionary Neoclassical style. The federal building was envisioned as a seventeen-room brick building that would house the legislative branch of government.

      The fact that the U.S. Capitol was originally envisioned as a brick building may come as a surprise for students, who by this time are used to seeing European architecture constructed of fine stone. At the turn of the nineteenth century, American architects and builders were still uncomfortable and quite untrained in using this material. The lack of confidence architects and builders had for building stone was balanced by their assurance in using brick. Brick’s flexible recipe, permanence, and skill requirement allowed it to used across American in building construction. On the eastern seaboard, it was a material that that been in use since 1618 (the first brick building was the Fourth Jamestown Church—Jamestown was founded in 1607).

      As time progressed, other functions were added to the Capitol, such as Washington’s tomb and setting aside a space for the Supreme Court. In initial submissions, American gentlemen architects/builders failed to create adequate elegant and monumental forms that would define the nation’s new building type. President Washington called them ‘dull.’ Ultimately, the chosen design was a synthesis of competition submissions, which had referenced many aspects of other state houses, namely: a portico, a dome, a central public space, and the two houses opposite one another.

      Despite having many different creators (William Thornton, B. H. Latrobe, Charles Bulfinch and Thomas U. Walter—who were a mixture of professional and gentlemen architects), the Capitol’s various parts are united in the Neoclassical style, with the focal point being Walter’s dome (1856–63), modeled after the Pantheon. Construction of the Capitol pushed American builders out of their material comfort zones. Originally proposed as a brick structure, it was decided that ashlar masonry should be used for the exterior. For the vaulting, Thomas Jefferson wanted to use wood, but Latrobe pushed for masonry. Decades later, builders were pushed to their technological limits using a new material—iron, both cast and wrought—to create the Capitol’s famous dome.

      Nineteenth century architecture is memorable for its quick succession of historical revival styles, including the Greek Revival, the Gothic Revival, and the Queen Anne Style (a.k.a. the Aesthetic Movement), as well as introducing some major architectural publications and new building types. I hope to give a sense of the complexity of the nineteenth century architectural situation by highlighting select architectural examples, architectural texts, and new building types.

      The Greek Revival

      The facade of Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Altes Museum in Berlin is a prime example of Greek Revival architecture. The museum is a large box with eighteen fluted Ionic columns in front, surmounted by a smaller box. The building’s sheer breadth—it takes up almost the whole width of the northern end of the Lustgarten (Pleasure Garden)—and its façade, distilled to vertical and strong horizontal elements (arches are a feature synonymous with Roman architecture), are the more primitive/pure Greek architectural characteristics to which Schinkel alluded. The most direct visual source would be the Athenian stoa poikile, the ancient covered colonnade in the agora.

      This building did much to revitalize the heart of the city. First, by placing the museum at the north end of the Pleasure Garden, Schinkel inevitably elevated the art museum’s position in society because it took its place among three other important buildings: the Royal Palace, the Cathedral, and the Arsenal. Second, Schinkel carefully controlled the viewing experience of this building. Around 1830, one approached the Altes Museum from Berlin’s main boulevard Unter den Linden (“Under the Linden Trees”—the boulevard was lined with them). Down the street, the Royal Palace anchors the viewer’s vista. As one approached the palace the trees would frame a view of the Cathedral. Upon crossing the bridge and entering the southern end of the Pleasure Garden, the view of the Altes Museum would finally be visible.

      Internally, Schinkel forcefully argued for the rotunda, a space he felt would prepare visitors to experience the building and view works of art.

      Schinkel’s Altes Museum façade conveyed his understanding of the principles underlying the pure linear forms of Greek architecture. Other architects opted for a more direct quotation of Greek architecture.

      In the United States, a fine example of Greek Revival architecture is William Strickland’s Tennessee State Capitol (Nashville, 1845–9). Well-trained (Strickland was trained by B. Henry Latrobe, whom we met above with the U.S. Capitol) and well-traveled (Strickland went to Europe in 1838, traveling through England, France, Italy and Germany. Images from his European sketchbook have been made available online at the Tennessee Virtual Archive “William Strickland Sketchbook”.), Strickland demonstrated his broad working knowledge of historic architectural sources in the Tennessee State Capitol.

      In the Capitol, Strickland referenced a different order (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian) in each main section of the building. Working from the ground upwards, the Capitol had a Doric basement, Ionic porticos, and a Corinthian tower. The Erechtheum (the Acropolis, Athens, Greece) inspired the Ionic porticos, and Strickland used plates of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates found in The Antiquities of Athens as inspiration for the lantern for his building. Strickland modified the forms of the ancient original with windows to suit modern needs.

      The Gothic Revival

      The Gothic Revival began in Britain and spread internationally and across continents. Arguably the greatest monument to the Gothic Revival is the New Palace of Westminster, better known as the Houses of Parliament (London, 1835–68).

      The Old Palace of Westminster was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1834. On August 18, 1835, a Royal Commission was issued to rebuild the Palace and debate ensued over its appropriate style. Two main camps emerged: Neoclassical versus Gothic. Those in favor of the Neoclassical style supplied evidence such as the style’s popularity and its successful track record in high profile public commissions, such as the United States Capitol. Those who felt that the Gothic would be more appropriate supported their case with the following concepts that would be best articulated by A.W.N. Pugin, in his books Contrasts (1836) and True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841):

      • Harmony/Fitness: It was believed that there exists a connection between culture and architectural expression. The Gothic style surfaced during the medieval ages. The architecture produced was viewed as being perfectly in harmony to its needs. During the Gothic Revival, it was hoped that if buildings were constructed in that earlier style that it might resurrect some of the sentiments and the harmony perceived as missing from modern society.
      • Nationalism/Patriotism: At this time it was believed that each culture creates its own distinct style that suits its culture and climate. In the nineteenth century, Gothic architecture was perceived as being an indigenous English style, it would be only natural to draw upon England’s own architectural heritage and not an imported style from the southern European continent. Neoclassical architectural style would further be unsuited to England as it is an architecture produced for its milder Mediterranean climate and would be unsuited to the weather conditions of the north.
      • Function/Honesty: Gothic architecture was viewed as being an honest form of architecture, in which everything included contributed to its construction. Gothic ornament was judiciously placed to enrich and accent structural lines.

      In the end it was decided that architects submit designs in either the Gothic or Elizabethan style. Architect Charles Barry (1795–1860), best known for his classical and Italianate designs, submitted the winning design. Because of his more classical specialty, he employed the talents of A.W.N. Pugin, the vociferous Gothic revivalist mentioned above. The workload between the two men was neatly divided, Barry designed space and structure and Pugin designed the ornament and the interiors.

      Barry’s design was successful for multiple reasons. First, the Houses of Parliament was built on the site of the Old Palace of Westminster and successfully integrated the surviving structures (Westminster Hall and St. Stephen’s Chapel) into the new building complex. Second, Barry created a harmonious—though slightly asymmetrical picturesque—exterior by balancing the horizontal and vertical lines.

      The exterior’s recognizable sand-colored limestone came from Anston Quarry in Yorkshire. This particular stone was selected for its cost effectiveness and because it is a sedimentary rock, it could be easily manipulated. In the twentieth century, parts of the building in which the stone had eroded significantly were replaced with a honey-colored limestone from Medwells Quarry in Rutland.

      Third, Barry’s classical training strongly influenced his logical arrangement of rooms and courtyards, which he based around the classical system of repeating modules. This can best be appreciated by viewing a floorplan of the structure. Four branches of the building radiate out in the cardinal directions: north, south, east and west from a centrally located octagonal lobby. Barry placed the Throne room (located in the House of Lords), the House of Lords, and the House of Commons in line with one another, a subtle underscoring of the line of power in the English government. Pugin designs for the interiors included furniture, tiles, stained glass, and metal work. His most sumptuous decoration appears in the House of Lords, where seemingly every square inch is encrusted with medieval-inspired decoration.

      Switching to the United States, architects such as Richard Upjohn’s used Pugin’s books as a manual to design Gothic Revival buildings like Trinity Church (New York City, NY, 1839–46). Trinity Church was one of the most noteworthy commissions executed in America in the Gothic Revival style. In Trinity Church, one sees a shift occurring in American taste from the Classically inspired to the Gothic and Picturesque. Trinity Church espoused the ideals from leaders of the English Gothic Revival, and Upjohn based its design on an illustration of an “ideal church” from Pugin’s True Principles. Upjohn tweaked several aspects of Pugin’s design to accommodate American building methods and the site such as the vaulting, the pitch of the roof, and the chancel. Longitudinal in plan and made of brownstone masonry, the church was not as elaborately decorated as it could have been.

      The Grammar of Ornament

      Owen Jones’ Grammar of Ornament (London, 1856) is a design manual that has inspired countless generations of architects and designers. Conceived during era of English design reform, the Grammar of Ornament became Jones’ aesthetic treatise. Die Grammar of Ornament contains Jones’ 37 propositions (principles) of design, nineteen chapters dedicated to historical types of ornament, and a single chapter dedicated to the common denominator behind all ornament—nature appeared in 100 chromolithographed plates, in which there were 1,000 cropped illustrations ornament, which removed any hint of an original context.

      The quality of the lithographic plates is one factor that made the Grammar of Ornament famous. The content of the Grammar of Ornament appealed to architects, designers, and reform design thinkers, as John Kresten Jespersen writes, “for a century (after its publication), almost every architect’s office had a copy of the Grammar of Ornament. ” The intent of this publication was not to give architects, ornamentalists and designers a template from which to copy in their work, rather to allow individuals to absorb lessons from the past and apply this information to the ornament that would suit modern life.

      The Skyscraper

      The skyscraper is an American invention. Created in the second half of the nineteenth century and refined throughout the rest of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, skyscrapers—from the very beginning—have been symbols of commerce and prestige. The skyscraper is the first instance where the architectural story begins in America and then spread overseas. Scholars agree that a skyscraper must contain three features:

      • Significant Height: (more vertical than horizontal) This building type was created to suit the need for increased building space in major urban areas, the two most important of which were New York City and Chicago. The scarcity and the cost of land in these and other urban areas forced architects to build in only one direction—upwards.
      • Passenger Elevators: As human beings are usually opposed to walk up more that five flights of stairs, the incorporation of passenger elevators were a blessing. Elevators made each and every floor just as easily accessible and rentable, enabling building to be higher.
      • Metal Frame: Iron’s popularity increased in the middle of the nineteenth century as architects discovered its potential in building construction. Iron was used two ways in architecture: cast and wrought. Cast iron was a strong metal, capable of carrying great weights by compression. Major flaws of cast iron included its brittleness in terms of ductility as well as the irregularity of its compositional makeup. Wrought iron was not as strong as cast iron, but had an advantage in that it could assume any number of shapes. The combination of cast iron posts and more extensive wrought beams revolutionized the way in which architects envisioned structure and space.

      In short, iron allowed architects to build taller and span wider distances than ever before. In other words, advancements made in skyscraper height are closely tied to advancements in building technologies that supported them. Beginning in the 1880s, the more expensive and specialized product, steel began to replace iron as the preferred structural building material (as it contained the same/or increased strength of cast iron and the ductility of wrought iron). In the 1880’s, the first architects made the switch from iron to steel.

      The earliest example of a skyscraper may surprise you. Noted authorities Weisman and Condit concur that Gilman, Kendall & Post’s Equitable Life Assurance Company Building (New York City, 1868–70 destroyed) is the first skyscraper, since it was the first building that was designed and built containing all three of the aforementioned skyscraper features. Our twenty-first-century eyes, accustomed to seeing skyscrapers as enormous structures built of a curtain of metal and glass, would likely not recognize Equitable Life Assurance Company Building as an early descendant. This lost structure (for which no plans survive) is known only through images and building records. At 130 feet in height, this building was not significantly taller than surrounding commercial buildings. Yet, the conscious incorporation of the elevator transformed commercial architecture, as it allowed all eight stories to be easily reached, and therefore easily rentable.

      Architects cloaked the Equitable’s iron skeleton in the only way they knew how: with a grey-granite masonry, arranged with tiers—separated by entablatures—and capped with a hipped roof. In images the structure has a very Second Empire appearance, a style believed to be chosen for its ability, given Haussmann’s opulent Paris, to signify stability and prosperity. From the very beginning, skyscrapers served as office buildings. Throughout the later nineteenth century architects worked to give a characteristic facade to the skyscraper. Two major trends emerged: “wild work” and the Italian Renaissance palace, which can easily be illustrated with noteworthy period examples.

      In Chicago, William LeBaron Jenney’s Home Insurance Building, c. 1885 is an example of “wild work.” “Wild work” was a descriptor used by eminent late-nineteenth century architectural critic Montgomery Schuyler to refer to facades like this one. What Schuyler found wild, or mind-boggling, about this building was the ways in which the horizontal and vertical lines were constantly interrupted. The Home Insurance Building is also noteworthy as it was the first building to use steel construction.

      In New York City, the firm of McKim, Mead, and White gravitated towards a three-part skyscraper façade, evident in the American Safe Deposit Company Building, (1882–4). This building’s three parts (basement, shaft, and third tier of space at the top) are neatly defined. Three-part façade divisions like this inspired critic Montgomery Schuyler (who we just met above) in 1899 to liken such surfaces to the three parts of a classical column: base, shaft, and capital. Over the years, Schuyler’s metaphor has been applied to, and used to explain numerous facades, and has mutated to become the accepted explanation, but is wrong. This type of façade was inspired by Italian Renaissance Palaces such as the tripartite façade of the fourteenth/fifteenth century Palazzo Davanzati, which likewise has a basement, a shaft, and a third tier of space at the top–complete with an order in the loggia. The tripartite formula became a popular pattern used by architects across the nation such as Daniel H. Burnham & Company’s Flatiron Building (New York City, 1901–3). Even two-decades after this façade pattern had been first implemented, it had yet to fall out of style.

      The Aesthetic Movement

      Aesthetic Movement architecture (which is usually called the Queen Anne Style) began in England in the 1860s and then came to America in the 1870s. It was largely used as a secular architectural style, which some critics considered to be a major flaw (since it did not transition into sacred commissions). This style was characterized by its freedom, especially in color, picturesque, and asymmetrical design, and complex ornament. One of its greatest practitioners was R. Norman Shaw and one of the most famous buildings was the New Zealand Chambers Building (London, 1871–3 destroyed), an office building. Shaw used architectural elements to break up flat surfaces and shatter the light across the exterior of this building. The tendency to create highly textured facades would become a feature associated with Aesthetic Movement architecture on both sides of the Atlantic.

      H. Richardson’s William Watts Sherman House (Newport, Rhode Island, 1874–6 and numerous additions) was one of America’s earliest Aesthetic Movement architectural works. Most Americans would be introduced to the other aspects of the Aesthetic Movement at the Centennial Exposition in 1876. The Sherman Residence was a combination of established and innovative architectural features. The established features included the asymmetry (attempting to break the box) of early nineteenth century homes. The innovative feature was a new form of space—the living hall. The Sherman House’s living hall stretched the depth of the building and contained a hearth and a massive staircase. A variety of rooms (public, private, servant quarters) radiated off this living hall which produced an irregular floorplan.

      The irregularity of the floor plan was expressed in the asymmetry of the façade’s exterior. Within the gables Richardson created the silhouette of a saltbox house. The inclusion of this profile is noteworthy as Richardson revived a distinctive aspect of American colonial architecture. Additionally, on the facade, Richardson varied surface texture, allowing light to break apart on the surface, causing a scintillating effect. Inside, a selection of decorative objects—such as art glass—further underscored the philosophy of the Aesthetic Movement.

      Second Empire Paris and Ecole des Beaux Arts Classicism

      Charles Garnier’s Paris Opera House (Paris, 1862–75) is a building about spectacle. A grand structure, it was one of many that fit into Baron Haussmann’s revitalization of urban Paris. The Opera’s spectacle begins with its location. Built on its own island, it is approachable from several streets and the major Avenue de l’Opera, terminating in its own Place (a plaza or square). Though one may be distracted from the shear amount of ornament on the façade, the exterior overlooking the Place can be distilled into a podium-like arcaded base, atop which Garnier placed a colonnade. This colonnade was a recognizable variation of the two-part façade that Bramante’s House of Raphael popularized back in the Italian Renaissance, now quite popular in Paris. Garnier proceeded to adorn this classical façade with sculptural accents for which he employed some of the finest artistic talents in Paris—such as Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, who sculpted Die dans.

      The building’s entrances were designed to accommodate the societal needs of different opera-goers, from the Emperor to the bourgeois. Once inside, the spaces Garnier created is the mark of the classical training regimen of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, the institution that taught Garnier. The spacious lobbies, wide staircases, and sumptuous veneered surfaces served as dramatic platforms and backdrops to an environment designed for people to see and be seen. Underneath these elaborate surfaces, the Opera’s structure made use of the latest advancements in iron construction. Inside and out, this building makes use of Classical sources.

      Although there were almost 200 structures built for the World’s Columbian Exposition (hereafter WCE—Chicago, 1891–3), the fair became a dialectic of two courses in American architecture, Ecole des Beaux Arts classicism (evident in the architecture of the Court of Honor) and Picturesque/Aesthetic Movement (evident in the architecture surrounding the Lagoon). In America, leading up to the WCE, picturesque traditions such as the Aesthetic Movement—with their colored, asymmetrical, and scintillating surfaces—were popular.

      For example, Louis Sullivan’s predominantly red and gold Transportation Building extended this visual tradition to the WCE. In contrast, the majority of the main fair structures were constructed in the tradition taught at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. These fair buildings were unified by their coloring (white), classically inspired architectural elements, unified cornice line (65’), and axial symmetry. Beaux Arts classicism had such an effect on fairgoers that it would become the favored architectural style in America for the next several decades.

      The differences between these two architectural vogues were further underscored in the WCE’s landscaped environments, designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. Olmsted’s landscape architecture for the Court of Honor was a well proportioned symmetrical basin in perfect tandem with the balanced (all buildings had a 65’ cornice line) and symmetrical Ecole des Beaux Arts classicism surrounding it. For the lagoon area, Olmsted designed an irregularly shaped lagoon, in the middle of which was a wooded island with picturesque trails.