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Geskiedenis van voetbalstadions

Geskiedenis van voetbalstadions

Sokkerstadions was aanvanklik baie primitief. Daarom is die eerste FA Cup -eindstryd in 1872 gehou in die Kennington Oval, 'n krieketveld wat in 1845 gebou is.

Goodison Park was die eerste doelgemaakte voetbalstadion in Engeland. Dit het £ 8 090 gekos en is amptelik geopen op 24 Augustus 1892. Dit het bestaan ​​uit twee onbedekte erwe, elk vir 4 000 en 'n onderdakstandaard vir 3000 mense. In 1894 was dit die eindstryd van die FA Cup tussen Notts County en Bolton Wanderers, 'n wedstryd met 'n bywoning van 37 000.

Vroue is aanvanklik op een of ander grond toegelaat, aangesien daar geglo word dat dit die gedrag van vervaardigers sal verbeter. Toe Preston North End in April 1885 gratis kaartjies bekendstel, het meer as 2 000 vroue vir die wedstryd opgedaag. Gratis toegang vir vroue was so gewild dat teen die laat 1890's al die sokkerklubs die skema gestaak het.

In 1896 het Arnold Hills, die voorsitter van West Ham United, aangekondig dat hy grond in Canning Town gekoop het, en Hills het die Memorial Grounds gebou. Dit het £ 20 000 gekos om te bou en word beskou as een van die beste stadions in die land. Hills beweer dat dit 133 000 toeskouers kan hou en het aansoek gedoen om 'n FA Cup -eindstryd op die Memorial Grounds te hou. Dit het slegs 16 sentimeter per persoon toegelaat en die voetbalvereniging het die idee van die hand gewys.

Arnold Hills wou ander sportbyeenkomste hou, insluitend fietsry en atletiek. Behalwe 'n voetbalarena, het dit ook 'n blaasbaan, tennisbane en 'n buite -swembad gehad. Volgens een verslag was die 30,4 m lange swembad die grootste in Engeland. Die Memorial Grounds is in Junie 1897 geopen. Hills het 'n toespraak gehou waarin hy daarop gewys het dat dit "die grootste fietspad in Londen het waar hulle sulke monstervergaderings sou hou dat die aandag van die Metropolis op die Thames Ironworks gevestig sou word".

Die perseel is gekies omdat dit beplan is om die treinstasie Manorweg naby die stadion te bou. Ongelukkig is die projek vertraag en is dit eers vier jaar later voltooi. Dit het beteken dat die bywoning op die grond baie laer was as wat verwag is.

Seisoenkaartjies vir die 1897-98 is vasgestel op 5 sjielings (25p). Kaartjies vir individuele wedstryde kos 4d. Die bywoning van wedstryde was egter baie teleurstellend. Slegs 200 mense het die eerste wedstryd teen Northfleet gesien. Dit is nie verbasend as u dit vergelyk met die prys van ander vorme van vermaak nie. Dit kos gewoonlik slegs 3d. om die musieksaal of die bioskoop te besoek. Daar moet onthou word dat vakmanne in hierdie tyd gewoonlik minder as £ 2 per week ontvang het.

Soos Dave Russell daarop wys Football and the English: A Social History of Association Football in England (1997): "wat sosiale klasse betref, was skares by voetballiga-wedstryde hoofsaaklik afkomstig van vaardige werkers en laer middelklasse ... Sosiale groepe onder daardie vlak is grootliks uitgesluit deur die toegangsprys." Russell voeg by "die Football League, moontlik in 'n doelbewuste poging om die toegang van armer (en hierdie vermeende" rowwer ") ondersteuners te beperk, het die minimum prys vir volwasse mans tot 6d verhoog.

In die 1899-1900 is West Ham United tot die hoogste afdeling van die Southern League bevorder en is besluit om die prys van seisoenkaartjies te verhoog. Dit was nou 10s. 6d (52,5p) vir die tribune en 7s. 6d. (37,5 p) vir die res van die grond. Die eerste tuiswedstryd was teen Chatham. Die bywoning van 1 000 was laer as die meeste wedstryde die vorige seisoen en was waarskynlik 'n reaksie op die prysstyging. Na 'n FA Cup -wedstryd teen plaaslike teenstanders, Millwall, het na raming 13 000 mense egter opgedaag om die wedstryd te sien.

Die belangrikste figuur in die ontwerp van voetbalstadions was Archibald Leitch. In 1899 het hy die opdrag gekry om Ibrox Park, die nuwe tuisveld van Rangers, te bou. Die nuwe stadion het groot houtterrasse en 'n staanplek vir ongeveer 4500 toeskouers. Mense het egter begin om Leitch se veiligheidskenmerke te bevraagteken toe op 5 April 1902, toe 25 mense dood en 517 beseer is toe 'n deel van die westelike terras ineengestort het tydens die jaarlikse internasionale wedstryd met Engeland.

Ondanks hierdie ramp het Archibald Leitch die opdrag gekry om ander voetbalvelde te bou. In 1909 besluit John Henry Davies, die voorsitter van Manchester United, om die klub £ 60 000 te leen om 'n nuwe stadion met 'n kapasiteit van 80 000 te bou. Die Old Trafford -grond het onderdak sitplekke in die suidelike staanplek, terwyl die oorblywende drie staanplekke as terrasse agtergelaat is. Toe dit voltooi is, het die stadion die grootste tribune in die Football League gehad. Dit het ook 'n gimnasium, masseerkamer, dompelbaddens, kroeë, hysbakke en teekamers.

Die Empire Stadium in Wembley is deur Robert McAlpine gebou vir die British Empire Exhibition van 1923, teen 'n koste van £ 750,000. Dit was oorspronklik bedoel om aan die einde van die uitstalling gesloop te word. Daar is egter later besluit om die gebou te behou om sokkerwedstryde aan te bied. Die eerste wedstryd op Wembley, die FA Cup -eindstryd van 1923 tussen West Ham United en Bolton Wanderers, het slegs vier dae nadat die stadion voltooi is, plaasgevind.

Die Empire Stadium het 'n kapasiteit van 125 000, en daarom het die voetbalvereniging dit nie oorweeg om dit 'n all-ticket-wedstryd te maak nie. Beide spanne het immers slegs 'n gemiddelde bywoning van ongeveer 20 000 vir ligawedstryde. Dit was egter selde dat 'n klub uit Londen die eindstryd van die FA -beker haal, en ondersteuners van ander klubs in die stad het dit as 'n wedstryd tussen Noord en Suid beskou. Na raming het 300 000 mense probeer om in die grond te kom. Meer as duisend mense is beseer toe hulle die stadion in en uit was.


STADIUM GESKIEDENIS IN TAMPA

Daar is slegs een stadion in die land, waar u 'n seerowerskip van $ 3 miljoen, 103 voet, buite die noordelike eindgebied in 'n 19de -eeuse Pirate -dorp sal vind, beter bekend as "Buccaneer Cove". As u die Raymond James -stadion raai, is dit reg, maar die stadion het 'n baie nederige begin gehad voor die $ 168,5 miljoen omskakeling

4 NOVEMBER, 1967: TAMPA STADIUM WY-Tennessee verslaan die Universiteit van Tampa met 38-0 in die eerste wedstryd wat in die fasiliteit gespeel word. Die stadion met 46 700 sitplekke kos $ 4,1 miljoen om te bou.
10 AUGUSTUS 1968: EERSTE SPEL IN TAMPA-STADIUM-Washington verslaan Atlanta 16-14 in 'n voorseisoenwedstryd voor 'n skare van 42 000 in die eerste NFL-aksie in die nuwe stadion.
21 APRIL, 1975: STADIUM HUUR GOEDGEKEUR-Die Tampa Sports Authority keur eenparig 'n huurooreenkoms van 30 jaar met die Buccaneers goed vir gebruik van Tampa Stadium. Drie dae later stem die stadsraad van Tampa met 6-1 om die huurkontrak en uitbreiding tot 72 000 sitplekke goed te keur.
9 JULIE 1975: UITBREIDING VAN STADIUM BEGIN - Die grond is gebreek vir die uitbreiding van die Tampa -stadion, gefinansier deur die verkoop van $ 13 miljoen aan obligasies deur die Tampa Sports Authority.

Tampa -stadion "The Big Sombrero" Houlihan's -stadion

Tampa Stadium (met die bynaam The Big Sombrero en kortliks bekend as Houlihan's Stadium) was 'n groot opelugstadion (maksimum kapasiteit ongeveer 74,000) in Tampa, Florida. Dit is geopen in 1967, is aansienlik uitgebrei in 1974–75 en is gesloop in 1999. Die fasiliteit hou die naaste verband met die Tampa Bay Buccaneers van die National Football League, wat daar gespeel het vanaf hul stigting in 1976 tot 1997. Dit was ook gasheer vir twee Super Bowls, in 1984 en 1991.

Behalwe die Buccaneerss, was Tampa Stadium die tuiste van die Tampa Bay Rowdies van die oorspronklike North American Soccer League, die Tampa Bay Bandits van die United States Football League, die Tampa Bay Mutiny of Major League Soccer en die universiteitsvoetbalprogramme van die University of Tampa en die Universiteit van Suid -Florida. Dit het ook baie groot konserte aangebied, en 'n tyd lank was dit die rekord van die grootste gehoor wat ooit 'n enkele kunstenaar kon sien toe 'n skare van byna 57 000 in 1973 'n Led Zeppelin -vertoning in die fasiliteit gesien het.

Voorgeskiedenis en konstruksie

Die grond waarop die Tampa-stadion geleë was, was die omtrek van Drew Field, 'n vliegveld van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, wat die voorloper van die Tampa Internasionale Lughawe was. In 1949 koop die stad Tampa 'n grasperk van 720 hektaar tussen die lughawe en Wes-Tampa van die federale regering met die idee om uiteindelik 'n gemeenskapsportkompleks te bou. Al Lopez Field was die eerste fase van die projek, wat in 1955 geopen is.

Teen die vroeë 1960's was die burgerlike leiers van Tampa geïnteresseerd in die lok van 'n National Football League -span na die omgewing. Verskeie NFL-uitstallings wat baie bygewoon is, is op Phillips Field naby die sentrum gehou, maar die lokaal was te klein om 'n professionele sokker-franchise te ondersteun. Met die aanmoediging van NFL -amptenare het die stad besluit om 'n groter fasiliteit te bou wat op kort termyn deur die voetbalspan van die Universiteit van Tampa gebruik kan word en in die toekoms uitgebrei kan word vir gebruik deur 'n teoretiese pro -span.

Die bou van die Tampa -stadion het in die herfs van 1966 begin, direk langs die Al Lopez Field, wat toe die tuiste was van die Tampa Tarpons van die Florida State League en die opleidingshuis van die Cincinnati Reds. Alhoewel dit aparte voetbal- en bofbalplekke bevat, asook die oefenterreine van die Reds, was die perseel wat in 1949 aangekoop is, steeds groot genoeg om voldoende parkeerplek in die oop grond rondom albei fasiliteite moontlik te maak.

Toe dit in 1967 geopen is, het die Tampa-stadion bestaan ​​uit 'n bypassende paar groot boogvormige beton-tribunes met oop eindesones. Die sitplek het bestaan ​​uit lang, ruglose aluminiumbanke wat deur middel van kort tonnels (vomitoriums) bereik is, wat die sitarea verbind het met wye, oop gate aan die agterkant van die tribune. Die banke was gerangskik in twee groot vlakke, verdeel deur 'n horisontale gang ongeveer halfpad op die tribune. Die helling van die tribune was relatief steil, wat elke sitplek 'n direkte en onbelemmerde uitsig op die veld gegee het. Die amptelike kapasiteit was 46 481, hoewel tydelike bleikers in een of albei eindzones geplaas kon word indien nodig.

Speel oppervlak

Gedurende die leeftyd van die Tampa -stadion het die natuurlike grasveld bestaan ​​uit verskillende soorte Bermuda -gras, veral Tifway 419. Die speeloppervlak was deurgaans een van die beste in die NFL, en is gereeld aangewys as 'n gunsteling van spelers in opnames wat deur die National Football League Players Association.

Die Tampa -stadion is byna uitsluitlik van beton gebou. Gedurende sy bestaan ​​is buitemure ligbruin of wit geverf of as kaal beton gelaat, net soos die vloeroppervlakke. Die sitplek bestaan ​​uit lang aluminiumbanke en daar was geen dak of oorhang van enige aard oor die veld of sitareas nie.

Alhoewel die minimalistiese ontwerp van die stadion baie goeie siglyne moontlik gemaak het, het dit sowel toeskouers as spelers blootgestel aan die grootste deel van Tampa se subtropiese klimaat. Dit was veral die geval nadat die stadion ten volle toegemaak was vir die eerste seisoen van die Bucs in 1976, en wind wat deur die oop eindes gevloei het, afgesny het. Terwyl aanhangers onder die tribunes kon terugtrek na die skaduwee van die breë gange waar toegewings en toilette geleë was, het spelers en personeel op die veld nie so 'n uitweg gehad nie. Koeltoerusting is gewoonlik naby die sybanke geplaas. Die Buccaneers is ook toegelaat om hul wit truie tuis te dra, wat hul teenstanders gedwing het om in hul donkerder (en warmer) truie te ly. Gedurende die somer en vroeë herfs was daar gereeld geleenthede in die stadion in die aandure om die dikwels onderdrukkende middaghitte en humiditeit te vermy. In 'n ander knik na die plaaslike weer, is die oppervlak van die natuurlike gras hoog gekroon om vinnige dreinering te verseker tydens Tampa se intense donderstorms, met die kantlyn byna 18 sentimeter laer as die middel van die veld.

Uitbreidings en opknappings

Tampa stadion kapasiteit

Jare ---------- Amptelike kapasiteit
1967–1975 ----- 46,481
1976–1978 ----- 71,951
1979–1981 ----- 72,126
1982–1984 ----- 72,812
1985–1988 ----- 74,315
1989–1992 ----- 74,296
1993–1998 ----- 74,301

Die Tampa -stadion het in 1974–1975 'n uitgebreide uitbreidingsprojek ondergaan nadat 'n NFL -uitbreidingspan aan die stad toegeken is. Meer as 27 000 sitplekke is bygevoeg deur die oop eindgebiede heeltemal te omhul, wat die lokaal een van die grootste in die NFL maak met 'n kapasiteit van 71 908. Die gevolglike arena was nie in die vorm van 'n eenvoudige bak nie. Dit was die hoogste in die middel van die twee sidestands en liggies afwaarts na 'n afgeronde hoek waar dit die nuwe gedeeltes ontmoet, wat ongeveer die helfte so hoog was. Veel later is die stadion deur Chris Berman van ESPN 'The Big Sombrero' genoem vir die unieke golwende hoed / golfvorm wat deur die toevoegings van 1975 langs die bokant van die stadion geskep is.

Die laaste groot opknapping het in die vroeë tagtigerjare plaasgevind toe die perskas bo -op die westelike tribune, ter voorbereiding van sy eerste Super Bowl in Januarie 1984, bygewerk is en 'n groot reeks luukse bokse bo -op die oostelike tribune aangebring is. Hierdie konfigurasie het die fasiliteit sy maksimum sitplekvermoë van 74 301 gegee.

Vir die 1990-seisoen is groot vlagpale op die boonste rand van die stadion gemonteer as deel van 'n stadionopdatering wat die toevoeging van 'n JumboTron-skerm in die suidelike sone en kleiner telbord bo die tonnels op veldvlak in twee hoeke van die stadion insluit . Die pale is gebruik om groot vlae vir elk van die NFL -spanne te laat swaai tot in 1997, toe die Buccaneers 'n eenvormige herontwerp met 'n rooi vlag op hul helms aangeneem het. Groot weergawes van die vlag is op die stadion se vlagpale gehys toe die Buccaneers hul teenstanders se 20 meter lange lyn binnedring. Die konsessie het hierdie praktyk voortgesit toe dit 'n jaar later na die Raymond James -stadion verhuis het.

Sportgeskiedenis

Eerste stadionhuurders

Universiteit van Tampa Spartane

Die Tampa-stadion is net betyds voltooi om sy eerste sportbyeenkoms aan te bied-'n voetbalwedstryd tussen die Universiteit van Tampa Spartans en die nommer 3-vrywilliger van die Universiteit van Tennessee op 4 November 1967. Terwyl die Spartane die wedstryd met 38-0 verloor het, sou hulle geniet later sukses in hul nuwe tuiste, verhuis na die afdeling I -sokker in 1971 en stuur verskeie spelers na die NFL, waaronder Freddie Solomon en John Matuszak. Universiteitsamptenare was egter onseker oor volgehoue ​​gemeenskapsondersteuning nadat Tampa 'n NFL -uitbreidings franchise gekry het. Die president van "Tampa U", B. D. Owens, het die sokkerprogram na die 1974 -seisoen beëindig en gesê dat die skool bankrot sal staan ​​as hy die sport moet subsidieer.

Tampa Bay Rowdies

Die Tampa Bay Rowdies was die stadion se eerste professionele huurder, wat in 1975 begin speel het en hul enigste (buitelug) kampioenskap in hul eerste seisoen gewen het. (Die span het ook verskeie binnenshuise sokkerkampioenskappe gewen wat in die Bayfront -sentrum oorkant Tampabaai in St. Petersburg gespeel het.)

Die Rowdies het elke somer hul tuiswedstryde in die Tampa -stadion gespeel totdat die oorspronklike North American Soccer League in 1984 ontbind het. Daarna het die Rowdies voortgegaan, eers as 'n onafhanklike span, daarna in ander ligas (ASL, APSL) en elke jaar die stadion gebruik deur 1990. In 1991 en 1992 verhuis hulle oor die stad na die kleiner USF Soccer Stadium, voordat hulle in 1993 na die Tampa Stadium terugkeer vir hul laaste speelseisoen in die APSL.

NFL -uitbreidingsuitstallingspeletjies

Om die nuwe fasiliteit van die stad vir die NFL ten toon te stel, het gemeenskapsleiers in die laat 1960's en vroeë 1970's gereël vir verskeie uitstallingswedstryde in die Tampa -stadion. Die eerste sodanige wedstryd het die Atlanta Falcons en Washington Redskins in Augustus 1968 aangebied en 'n skare wat amper uitverkoop was, gelok. In die daaropvolgende seisoene is nog elf wedstryde gehou met dieselfde entoesiastiese skares, waaronder drie met die Baltimore Colts in 1972, toe die span tydens die NFL -voorseisoen in Tampa geoefen het.

Hierdie wedstryde voor die seisoen het NFL -eienaars en amptenare ruim geleentheid gebied om die Tampabaai -gebied en die stadion te beoordeel, en op 24 April 1974 het Tampa 'n NFL -uitbreidingspan gekry om in die 1976 -seisoen te begin speel.

Tampa Bay BUCCANEERS

Die Buccaneers se eerste tuiswedstryd in die gewone seisoen is op 19 September 1976 gehou toe die Bucs met 23-0 teen die San Diego Chargers verloor het. Dit sou 'n neiging word, aangesien die span begin het met 'n NFL-rekord van 26 wedstryde. Hulle sou nie 'n wedstryd op hul tuisveld wen nie, totdat hulle die St. Louis Cardinals verslaan het in die laaste wedstryd van die daaropvolgende seisoen, 18 Desember, 1977. Jubilant -ondersteuners het die Tampa -stadion se turf gewemel en die doelpale afgebreek.

Die Buccaneers het teen die 1979-seisoen genoeg verbeter om die NFC-kampioenskapswedstryd aan te bied, wat hulle met 9-0 teen die Los Angeles Rams verloor het. Die Bucs het 18 ekstra seisoene in die fasiliteit gespeel, maar het deur die meeste gesukkel. Hulle sou nog net een uitspeelwedstryd op hul oorspronklike tuisveld aanbied: 'n NFC Wild Card Game teen die Detroit Lions op 28 Desember 1997, wat hulle met 20-10 gewen het. Dit sou die laaste wedstryd wees wat die span ooit in die Tampa -stadion gespeel het toe hulle in 1998 langs die Raymond James -stadion verhuis het.

Tampa Stadium Krewe of Honor

In 1991 begin die organisasie die "Krewe of Honor", met 'n muurskildery van die eerste klas van drie lede. Quarterback Doug Williams is op 6 September 1992 opgeneem en eienaar Hugh Culverhouse op 5 September 1993. Geen bykomende lede is bygevoeg voordat Tampa -stadion gesluit en gesloop is nie.

"Houlihan se stadion"

Malcolm Glazer het ook naamregte op die Tampa -stadion verkry toe hy die Buccaneers in 1995 gekoop het. In Oktober daardie jaar het hy die restaurantketting van Houlihan, 'n ander onderneming in sy portefeulje, die Bucs $ 10 miljoen vir die regte laat betaal. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die amptelike naam van die fasiliteit in 1996 verander is na "Houlihan's Stadium" en dat Glazer gedagvaar is deur Houlihan se aandeelhouers, wat nie tevrede was met die aankoop van stadionnaamregte in 'n gebied waarin die ketting geen restaurante het nie.

Ander huurders en geleenthede

Tampa -stadion was die tuisveld vir verskeie ekstra spanne en het gedurende sy leeftyd 'n wye verskeidenheid geleenthede aangebied.

Tuis spanne

Tampa Bay Bandits

Van 1983 tot 1985 was een van die twaalf oorspronklike USFL -franchises die stadion se derde professionele huurder. Die Bandiete het sterk kaartjieverkope en ondersteuners ondersteun en was een van slegs twee USFL -spanne (die Birmingham Hings is die ander) wat in hul oorspronklike stad en stadion gebly het en dieselfde hoofafrigter (voormalige Florida Gators en Bucs quarterback Steve Spurrier) vir die drie seisoene van die liga. Die Bandiete vou saam met die USFL na die 1985 -seisoen.

Die Bulls Football van die Universiteit van Suid -Florida

Die span het sy eerste seisoen in 1997 in die stadion gespeel en die stadion se tweede en laaste kollegiale huurder geword. Die Bulle sou op 12 September 1998 die laaste voetbalwedstryd in die stadion speel en Valparaiso met 51-0 verslaan voordat hulle na Raymond James-stadion verhuis het vir hul volgende tuiswedstryd op 3 Oktober 1998.

Tampa Bay Bandits

Major League Soccer plaas een van sy oorspronklike spanne in Tampa in 1996. Die Tampa Bay Mutiny was die stadion se vierde en laaste professionele huurder. The Mutiny gebruik die stadion as hul tuisveld vir hul eerste drie seisoene, en verhuis na die Raymond James-stadion in 1999. Hulle het die laaste sportbyeenkoms op 13 September 1998 in die stadion aangebied toe hulle die New York MetroStars met 2-1 verslaan het in voor 27 957 mense.

Sportbyeenkomste

Sloop van stadion

By die aankoop van die Buccaneers in 1995, verklaar die nuwe eienaar Malcolm Glazer dat die Tampa -stadion onvoldoende is en dreig om die franchise na 'n ander stad te verskuif, tensy 'n nuwe stadion op belastingbetalers se koste gebou word. Om aan hierdie eise te voldoen, het Hillsborough County die plaaslike verkoopsbelasting verhoog en die Raymond James -stadion net suid van die Tampa -stadion in 1997–98 gebou.

Die sloping van die Tampa -stadion het kort ná die laaste tuiswedstryd van Tampa Bay Mutiny op 13 September 1998 plaasgevind. Balle en langwerpige graafmachines is vir 'n groot deel van die proses gebruik. Die laaste gedeelte van die stadion (die luukse bokse aan die oostekant wat vir die eerste Super Bowl van die stadion gebou is) is op 11 April 1999 ontplof. Die grond is toe skoongemaak en omskep in 'n parkeerterrein. 'N Deel van die sloping verskyn in 'n 1999 Modern Marvels -episode met die titel "Demolition".

Raymond James -stadion


Raymond James -stadion: ook bekend as die 'Ray Jay', en is die tuiste van die Tampa Bay Buccaneers van die National Football League (NFL) sowel as die NCAA se South Florida Bulls -sokkerspan. Die stadion het sitplek vir 65.890 en kan uitgebrei word na 75.000 vir spesiale geleenthede. Die stadion bied ook die jaarlikse Outback Bowl op Oujaarsdag aan, en die Monster Jam -toer vir monsterwaens hou 'n geleentheid by die stadion.

Raymond James -stadion was gasheer vir Super Bowls XXXV en XLIII, asook die 2017 College Football Playoff National Championship.

Geskiedenis

Die Raymond James -stadion is gebou om Houlihan se stadion te vervang op versoek van die nuwe eienaar van Bucs, Malcolm Glazer. Dit is aangrensend aan die terrein van die ou stadion op die voormalige ligging van Al Lopez Field, 'n baseballstadion wat in 1989 afgebreek is, afgebreek. Nadat die nuwe stadion voltooi is, was die uiteindelike koste $ 168,5 miljoen, met die hele koste wat in die openbaar gefinansier word.

Dit was bekend as die Tampa Community Stadium tydens die konstruksie, maar die naamregte is gekoop vir $ 32,5 miljoen vir 'n 13-jarige ooreenkoms deur Raymond James Financial, gebaseer in St. Petersburg, in Junie 1998. Op 27 April 2006 is 'n verlenging onderteken behou naamregte tot en met 2015. In Mei 2016 het die Buccaneers aangekondig dat die naamregte nog 12 jaar verleng is om te verseker dat Raymond James Financial se naam tot 2028 sal verskyn.

Die stadion het amptelik op 21 September 1998 geopen toe die Tampa Bay Buccaneers die Chicago Bears met 27–15 verslaan het. Die stadion het sy eerste sokkerwedstryd op 20 Maart 1999 aangebied, toe die Tampa Bay Mutiny met 5-2 van DC United verloor het.

Die stadion is gekies om die ACC Championship Game in 2008 en 2009 aan te bied.

Die stadion is tuisveld vir die Universiteit van Suid -Florida Bulls van die American Athletic Conference. Die rekordskare van die span in die Raymond James-stadion is 69,383 op 29 September 2012, toe die Bulle-tydens hul slegste seisoen ooit-'n nie-konferensiewedstryd teen die gewilde Florida State University Seminoles van die kragstasie Atlantic Coast Conference vir die eerste keer gespeel het .

Die grootste skare wat ooit in die Raymond James -stadion aangeteken is, het op 9 Januarie 2017 gekom toe die stadion die 2017 College Football Playoff National Championship aangebied het. 74 512 mense het dit bygewoon.

Tot die 2009 -seisoen was elke Buccaneers -wedstryd in die Raymond James -stadion uitverkoop. In 2010 het geen tuiswedstryd 'n kaartjie uitverkoop nie, sodat geen op plaaslike televisie uitgesaai kon word nie. Die reeks het voortgeduur tot week vier van die 2011 -seisoen, toe hy genoeg kaartjies verkoop het vir sy wedstryd op 3 Oktober met die Indianapolis Colts om 'n plaaslike kragonderbreking te vermy.

Die stadion was ook die tuiste van die voormalige Tampa Bay Mutiny van Major League Soccer en bied voortdurend ander sokkerwedstryde aan as gevolg van sy aangename veldafmetings. Op 8 Junie 2012 was dit byvoorbeeld die gasheer van die Amerikaanse mans se nasionale sokkerspan se eerste kwalifiseringswedstryd teen Antigua en Barbuda vir die FIFA Wêreldbeker 2014, wat die Verenigde State met 3-1 gewen het.

Kenmerke

Een van die mees herkenbare kenmerke van die stadion is 'n 31-meter seep-seerboot van 43 voet van staal en beton wat replika-kanonne afvuur elke keer as die Bucs punte kry of die rooi sone van die ander span binnegaan. Die kanon vuur een keer vir elke punt wat aangeteken is. Boonop, as die Buccaneers hul teenstander se rooi sone binnegaan, sal die stadion se vlagspanne om die omtrek van die boonste dek kom. Gedurende verskillende tye gedurende die wedstryd word die liedjie "Yo Ho (A Pirate's Life for Me)" gespeel op die stadion se adresstelsel (afkomstig van Pirates of the Caribbean), wat klante aan boord van die skip aandui om krale, t -hemde en ander gratis pryse aan die mense hieronder te gooi. Die segment staan ​​ook bekend as 'n 'Mini Gasparilla' vir die meeste aanhangers. 'N Geanimeerde papegaai sit op die agterstewe van die seerowerskip. Onder beheer van radio en afstandsbediening, haal die papegaai waaiers uit die skare en praat met die verbygangers.

Tydens Super Bowl XXXV op CBS het die voor-, halftyd- en post-game-lessenaarverslaggewing aan boord van die seerowerskip plaasgevind. NBC se Super Bowl XLIII en ESPN se 2017 College Football Playoff National Championship -dekking het ook uit die skip gekom.

Die twee "Buc Vision" Daktronics-videoweergawes van 2 200 vierkante voet was een van die grootste in die liga toe dit gebou is, en in 2016 is dit vervang aan 'n hoë-definisie-videobord van 9 600 vierkante voet aan beide kante sones. 'Buccaneer Cove' beskik oor 'n verweerde gevel van twee verdiepings in 'n vissersdorpie, met konsessies vir stadions en toilette. Alle dele van die stadion voldoen aan ADA.

Tydelike bleikers is opgerig in die eindgebiede vir Super Bowl XXXV, wat 'n rekordstadionbywoning van 71 921 opgestel het. Die stadionbywoningsrekord is sedertdien oortref deur die 2017 College Football Playoff National Championship, wat ook van tydelike sitplekke gebruik gemaak het.

In 2003 is die hoekbordjies in die stadion vervang met roterende trilon -advertensieborde en dit is in 2016 vervang met nuwe skerms met 'n hoë sigbaarheid.

Die Raymond James-stadion spog met die tweede beste veld in die NFL, volgens 'n opname van tweejaarlikse spelers in 2009.

Begin 2016 het die stadion 'n uitgebreide facelift gekry. Die opvallendste verbetering was die vervanging van die 200 m2-videodisplase met die nuutste, 990 vierkante voet (890 m2) videovertonings in die noorde en suide eindsones saam met die toevoeging van 'n nuwe videotoring van 2100 vierkante voet (210 m2) in elke hoek. Al met al beslaan die video-uitstallings meer as 2600 vierkante voet (2600 m2), wat Raymond James-stadion die derde grootste video-uitstalling in die NFL maak. Die oorspronklike klankstelsel en die luukse bokse van die stadion is ook opgegradeer. 'N Tweede ronde verbeterings word beplan nadat die 2016 -seisoen voltooi is.

Byname

Die stadion word 'Ray Jay' of 'The New Sombrero' genoem, 'n afslag van 'The Big Sombrero', die bynaam van Houlihan's Stadium. Dit word soms af en toe 'die CITS' genoem, 'n naam wat deur die jarelange plaaslike sportman Chris Thomas, wat staan ​​vir 'Community Investment Tax Stadium', verwys, na die feit dat die stadion geheel en al deur plaaslike belastingbetalers gefinansier is.


Geskiedenis van voetbalstadions - Geskiedenis

Yankee Stadium, die eerbiedwaardige "House that Ruth Built" wat 85 jaar gestaan ​​het voordat dit in 2010 heropen is, was die gasheer vir enkele van die mees onvergeetlike kollegiale en professionele voetbalwedstryde in die geskiedenis van die gridiron, wat die ryk geskiedenis van die Stadion. Sedert 20 Oktober 1923, met Syracuse se sege van 3-0 oor Pittsburgh, was daar 10 historiese oomblikke wat tot vandag toe nog bespreek en herinner word.

1. Die grootste spel ooit gespeel
Die NFL -kampioenskapswedstryd op 28 Desember 1958, tussen die New York Giants en Baltimore Colts, was die eerste NFL -wedstryd wat skielik die dood oortref het. Die Colts wen met 23-17 in wat algemeen beskou word as "The Greatest Game ooit gespeel." 'N Nasionale televisiegehoor het gesien hoe die ontvanger van Colts, Raymond Berry, 12 meter ('n kampioenskapswedstrydrekord) vir 178 meter en 'n telling in 'n wedstryd wat die begin van die toename in gewildheid van die NFL aandui, aandui.


2. Wen een vir die Gipper
George "The Gipper" Gipp was 'n All-American van die eerste span by Notre Dame voordat hy op 25-jarige ouderdom aan streptokokke-keelinfeksie gesterf het enkele dae nadat hy Notre Dame tot 'n oorwinning oor Northwestern gelei het. Terwyl hy op sy hospitaalbed was, het hy besoek ontvang van afrigter Knute Rockne voor 'n kragmeting op 10 November 1928 teen Army. Met die rustyd van 'n doellose wedstryd het Rockne sy span aangespoor om dit vir Gipp te wen, en die Iere tot 'n oorwinning van 12-6 in die Yankee-stadion geïnspireer.


3. Die tackle
Die tweede posisie Notre Dame en die beste posisie op die weermag het op 9 November 1946 in die Yankee-stadion miskien die opwindendste wedstryd van hul historiese wedywering gespeel, 'n gelykopstryd van 0-0 wat legendaries gemaak is deur John Lujack se goed gekronde reddingstryd van die kadetster wat Doc terugspeel. Blanchard laat in die wedstryd.


4. Die skop
Pat Summerall se velddoel van 49 meter in 'n wervelende sneeustorm op 14 Desember 1958 gee die Giants 'n oorwinning van 13-10 oor die Cleveland Browns om 'n uitspeelwedstryd vir die NFL East-kroon af te dwing. Summerall versoen vir 'n gemiste poging van 31 meter met 4 minute oor. Die volgende week verslaan New York Cleveland met 10-0 om deur te dring na die 1958 NFL Championship Game.


5. Op ys
Die Giants het op 30 Desember 1956 oor die Chicago Bears, 47-7, geklop om die NFL-kampioenskap te wen en hul eerste seisoen in die Yankee Stadium te speel. Die spel is bekend daarvoor dat dit gespeel word op 'n ysige veld waarin die Giants tekkies gedra het in plaas van skoenlappers, skakerings van 22 jaar vroeër toe die Giants ook tekkies gedra het om op 'n ysige Polo -terrein te speel in wat bekend geword het as 'The Sneakers Game'.


6. Sewende hemel
In 1961 verkry die Giants quarterback Y.A. Tittel uit die 49ers vir wag Lou Cordileone. Tittle het voortgegaan om die Giants na drie opeenvolgende Eastern Division -titels te lei. Onderweg gooi hy sewe raakskote om die Giants op 28 Oktober met 49-34 oor die Redskins te lei.


7. Lombardi se laagtepunt
Een lid van die beroemde Seven Blocks of Granite was die toekomstige afrigter van die Hall of Fame, Vince Lombardi, wat later in die 1936 -seisoen die "verwoestendste verlies van my lewe" verduur het. Op 'n modderige Yankee-stadionveld op Thanksgiving Day, het die Rams op Thanksgiving Day 'n oorwinning nodig gehad vir 'n Rose Bowl-ligging, en het op die Thanksgiving Day op 7 tot 6 op NYU geval.


8. Kramer se skoppe
Guard Jerry Kramer se drie velddoele het die Packers tot 'n oorwinning van 16-7 oor die Giants gelei in die laaste NFL-kampioenskapwedstryd van die Yankee-stadion op 30 Desember 1962. 'n Menigte van 64,892 het 'n wedstryd bygewoon wat in 13 grade met 40 myl gespeel is. wind per uur.


9. Gotham's Swan Song
Nebraska verslaan Miami met 36-34 op 15 Desember 1962 agter MVP George Mira se 321 verbygaande werwe en twee raakpunte. Slegs 6 166 het die Yankee-stadion bygewoon om die bitter temperatuur van 14 grade te trotseer in die laaste Gotham Bowl wat ooit gespeel is.


10. Die finale wedstryd
Die laaste klassieker van Whitney M. Young Urban League op 12 September 1987 was ook die laaste sokkerwedstryd wat ooit in die ou Yankee -stadion gespeel is. Die Central State University van Ohio het Grambling met 37-21 verslaan. Eddie Robinson, afrigter van Grambling, het daarna gesê: "Hulle het net kom speel. Ons het nie."

Volle seisoen plan

'N Volledige seisoenplan verseker u 'n kaartjie vir alle gewone seisoenwedstryde in die Yankee-stadion en kan u dieselfde sitplek vir alle Yankees-tuiswedstryde gedurende die na-seisoen toelaat. Benewens die groot voordele wat vir alle seisoenkaartjie -lisensiehouers beskikbaar is, word u outomaties lid van die New York Yankees Legacy Club vir kaartjieslisensiehouers vir die volle seisoen en geniet u die skerpste prysafslag van enige plan wat aangebied word.

Planne vir die volle seisoen is in verhouding tot 63 wedstryde.

Premium plekke word aangedui as die kleur op die aankoopbladsy.

VOLLEDIGE SEISOENPLAN: Koop kaartjies Koop Legends Suite kaartjies

41-wedstrydplan

Die 41-wedstrydplan bestaan ​​uit Openingsdag plus elke ander wedstryd daarna vir 'n totaal van 41 wedstryde in die gewone seisoen. In addition to the great benefits available for all Season Ticket Licensees, you will automatically become a member of the New York Yankees Legacy Club for 41- and 20-Game Plan Licensees. Licensees of the 41-Game Plan will have the opportunity to license the same seat location for approximately half of the home games scheduled to be played at Yankee Stadium during the postseason. A schedule with complete postseason home game information will be available online at yankees.com.

41-Game Plans have been prorated to 32 games.

Premium locations are noted as the color on the purchase page.

41-GAME PLAN: Buy Tickets Buy Legends Suite Tickets

20-Game plans

Two 20-Game Plan options, each consisting of the same seats for all 20 games are available. In addition to the great benefits available for all Season Ticket Licensees, you will automatically become a member of the New York Yankees Legacy Club for 41- and 20-Game Plan Licensees. Licensees of a 20-Game Plan will have the opportunity to license the same seat location for approximately one quarter of all home games scheduled to be played at Yankee Stadium during the postseason. A schedule with complete postseason home game information will be available online at yankees.com.

20-Game Plan #1 has been prorated to 15 games.

20-Game Plan #2 has been prorated to 16 games.

Premium locations are noted as the color on the purchase page.


Michigan Stadium

Michigan's football Stadium was completed in the fall of 1927 and formed one of the most satisfactory and practical football fields in existence. Its designation was in reality a misnomer since it was of the amphitheater or bowl type of construction, rising only slightly above the ground level on the east side.

The site of the structure was decided upon in the spring of 1926, and plans for construction were made during the following summer. Increased interest in the record of Michigan's football team, resulting at almost every game in an attendance much larger than the old stands on Ferry Field were able to accommodate, eventually led the Board in Control of Athletics to consider expansion of the University's athletic facilities. As the result of a report presented in January, 1926, by a University committee under the chairmanship of Professor Edmund E. Day, later president of Cornell University, a plan was developed for the reorganization and expansion of the athletic facilities of the University. Thus, the Stadium was only one part of a broader program which included the construction of the Intramural Sports Building, the Women's Athletic Building, the development of the University Golf Course, and the Women's Athletic Field.

To finance this extensive program, bonds were sold to alumni and to friends of the University, giving them preferred seats at all games for a period of years, these bonds to be retired progressively as the receipts warranted. The total improvements cost amounted to more than $2,000,000, of which the cost of the Stadium represented $1,183,545.

The site for the Stadium was a matter of some discussion, but eventually property, including some sixteen acres and 119 city lots, was acquired on South Main Street just across the Ann Arbor Railroad tracks from Ferry Field. This area was purchased by the Board in Control of Athletics for $239,000, including the cost of some lots which were taken under condemnation proceedings. The right of the Board in Control of Athletics to acquire land by this means was upheld by the state Supreme Court during the course of the negotiations. The site formed a gentle slope rising from the valley of the old Allen's Creek near the Ann Arbor Railroad to the level of South Main Street.

In considering plans for the Stadium it had been decided, in accordance with the recommendation of the Day committee, to make it a place to hold football games under the most favorable circumstances, with no emphasis upon monumental construction. Accordingly, a bowl type of structure was chosen which took advantage of the natural characteristics of the terrain so that the Stadium rested in the soil of the hillside instead of being enclosed within high concrete walls. The structure was above ground only on the east side, the only wall being on this side on the west the top seats were level with the street, with some seventy rows of seats, seating 85,753 originally, stretching down to the playing field. A series of steps on either side of the main entrance led to a wide areaway for the players.

The architects, instead of designing the structure in the form of a perfect ellipse, as in the Yale Bowl, provided for sides parallel to the playing field, bringing the spectators much closer to the side lines. This feature alone — the proximity of the seats to the playing field — made Michigan's Stadium one of the most satisfactory in this country. The Stadium was 756 feet long and 586 feet wide and included fifteen and one-half acres.

The strategically placed entrances and exits around the entire upper edge and in the center of the east side made it possible for crowds to disperse rapidly in fact, the exact time for emptying the Stadium was thirteen minutes. To care for the throngs which came to Ann Arbor on football days, parking facilities were supplied on all sides of the Stadium, and special city traffic regulations permitted street parking during the games. Locker and shower room facilities for home and visiting teams were provided under the east side of the stands. A press box was erected over the west side of the Stadium. It afforded room for five radio booths and 250 newspaper correspondents. The box was designed by Bernard L. Green (1891e) of the Osborn Engineering Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, and was built by James Leck and Company, of Minneapolis, general contractors. A new press box was built later.

In 1949-50 additional steel seats were erected at the top of the Stadium at a cost of $304,340, making the total seating capacity 97,231.

Wilfred Shaw (The University of Michigan: An Encyclopedic Survey, p. 1584)


Inhoud

Overall Rank Stadium Town / City Capacity Team League (Tier) Rank within League Notas
1 Wembley Stadium Londen 90,000 [2] England national football team n/a (national stadium) nvt
2 Old Trafford Manchester 75,635 [3] Manchester United Premier League 1
3 Tottenham Hotspur Stadium Londen 62,850 [4] Tottenham Hotspur Premier League 2
4 Emirates Stadium Londen 60,704 [5] Arsenal Premier League 3
5 London Stadium Londen 60,000 [6] West Ham United Premier League 4 Previously known as the Olympic Stadium. Regulated capacity reduced from 66,000 to 60,000.
6 City of Manchester Stadium Manchester 55,097 [7] Manchester City Premier League 5 Commercially known as the Etihad Stadium.
7 Anfield Liverpool 54,074 [8] Liverpool Premier League 6
8 St James' Park Newcastle upon Tyne 52,354 [9] Newcastle United Premier League 7
9 Stadium of Light Sunderland 49,000 [10] Sunderland League One 1
10 Villa Park Birmingham 42,682 [11] Aston Villa Premier League 8
11 Stamford Bridge Londen 41,631 [12] Chelsea Premier League 9
12 Hillsborough Stadium Sheffield 39,732 [13] Sheffield Wednesday League One 1
13 Goodison Park Liverpool 39,414 [14] Everton Premier League 10
14 Elland Road Leeds 37,890 [15] Leeds United Premier League 11 Capacity reduced from 40,296 [16] to 37,890 [17] during 2010/2011 season
15 Riverside Stadium Middlesbrough 34,000 [13] Middlesbrough Championship 2
16 Pride Park Stadium Derby 33,597 [13] Derby County Championship 3
17 Bramall Lane Sheffield 32,702 [18] Sheffield United Premier League 12
18 Coventry Building Society Arena Coventry 32,609 [13] Coventry City Championship 4
18 St Mary's Stadium Southampton 32,505 [19] Southampton Premier League 13
19 King Power Stadium Leicester 32,312 [20] Leicester City Premier League 14 Formerly known as the Walkers Stadium.
20 Molineux Wolverhampton 32,050 [13] Wolverhampton Wanderers Premier League 15
21 Ewood Park Swart brand 31,367 [13] Blackburn Rovers Championship 4
22 Falmer Stadium Brighton 30,750 [13] Brighton & Hove Albion Premier League 16 Commercially known as The American Express Community Stadium.
23 Stadium MK Milton Keynes 30,500 [13] Milton Keynes Dons League One 2
24 City Ground Nottingham 30,445 [21] Nottingham Forest Championship 5
25 Portman Road Ipswich 30,311 [13] Ipswich Town League One 3
26 bet365 Stadium Stoke-on-Trent 30,089 [22] Stoke City Championship 6 Formerly known as the Britannia Stadium.
27 St Andrew's Birmingham 29,409 [23] Birmingham City Championship 7 Shared with Coventry City of Championship
28 University of Bolton Stadium Bolton 28,723 [13] Bolton Wanderers League Two 1 Formerly known as the Reebok Stadium.
29 Carrow Road Norwich 27,244 [24] Norwich City Championship 8
30 The Valley Londen 27,111 [13] Charlton Athletic League One 4
31 The Hawthorns Wes -Bromwich 27,002 [25] West Bromwich Albion Premier League 17
32 Ashton Gate Stadium Bristol 27,000 [26] Bristol City Championship 9 Expansion completed ahead of the 2016/17 season.
33 Selhurst Park Londen 26,125 Crystal Palace Premier League 18
34 Craven Cottage Londen 25,700 [13] Fulham Premier League 19
35 KCOM Stadium Romp 25,400 [13] Hull City League One 5 Shared with Super League team Hull F.C.

Formerly known as the KC Stadium.

Following crowd troubles in the 1980s, and regulations imposed after the Taylor Report, several English league stadiums have been built or completely redeveloped in the last few years. Prior to 1988, however, the last newly built Football League ground in England was Roots Hall, Southend, which was opened in 1955.

Stadiums which are currently in development include:

The club are hopeful that building work will commence at the end of the 2019–20 season. The new, modern, state-of-the-art structure will see The City Ground's capacity become the highest in the East Midlands, reaching 38,000 after completion. [120]


History of Football Stadiums - History

Stadium History

The former South Park Commission (the Commission merged with 22 other park systems to establish the Chicago Park District in 1934) hired Chicago architects Holibird and Roche in 1919 to design a stadium that would serve as a showcase “for events and a playground for the people.” On October 9, 1924, the Grant Park Municipal Stadium premiered and one year later, at the request of the Chicago Gold Star Mothers, the stadium was renamed Soldier Field.

It was known as one of the great venues during the "Golden Age of Sports" and one of Chicago's most famous landmarks. Crowds in excess of 100,000 were commonplace, marked by several memorable events including the 1926 Army-Navy game and the epic 1927 Jack Dempsey/Gene Tunney heavyweight rematch featuring the controversial "long count". In 1944, 150,000 spectators attended a wartime visit by President Franklin Roosevelt and thousands turned out to hear evangelist Billy Graham in 1962. Soldier Field is also the birthplace of the first Special Olympic Games in 1968. College and Professional football, rock concerts, festivals, rodeos, stock-car races, and even a skiing/toboggan event have called Soldier Field home. The Chicago Bears moved from Wrigley Field and began using the facility in 1971 and played their first game in the renovated Soldier Field on September 29, 2003.

Soldier Field History

1919 - Plans for the stadium began in 1919, when Holibird and Roche won an architectural competition to build the stadium as a memorial to American soldiers who died in wars.

1922 – 1928 - The stadium was constructed by the South Park Commission (which later merged with other park commissions to become the Chicago Park District in 1934.) Soldier Field is a monument to the times and great sports places typical of the “Golden Age of Sports” and is one of few such stadiums still standing. Soldier Field was built in three stages between 1922 and 1939 at a total cost $13 million.

Soldier Field, when completed, contained 74,280 permanent bleacher seats made of fir planking. An additional 30,000 spectator temporary bleacher seats could be placed along the interior of the field, upper promenades and on the large open terrace beyond the north end zone.

October 9, 1924 – The official opening day – which coincided with the 53rd anniversary of the Chicago Fire—of the Municipal Grant Park Stadium. Within a year it was renamed Soldier Field.

The first event held in Soldier Field was a police meet featuring 1,000 police athletes and reportedly drew 90,000 spectators. Crowds in excess of 100,000 became commonplace in the years that followed, marked by several memorable sporting events.

November 22, 1924 – First football game held at the Municipal Grant Park Stadium was Notre Dame (13) v. Northwestern (6).

November 11, 1925 – The Municipal Grant Park Stadium is officially renamed Soldier Field at the urging of Chicago’s Gold Star Mothers.

November 27, 1926 – Soldier Field was officially dedicated in front of a crowd of 110,000 during the Army v. Navy game. The game ended in a 21-21 tie.

September 23, 1927 - The epic Jack Dempsey/Gene Tunney heavyweight rematch featuring the controversial long count with 104,000 watching. Dempsey knocked down Tunney and Dempsey went to the wrong corner. The referee directed him to the right corner, and five seconds passed before he started counting out Tunney. Tunney, the champ, got up at nine, which should have been 14, and went on to beat Dempsey.

1927 – The largest crowd to watch collegiate football was 123,000 to see Notre Dame take on Southern California.

1937 – The largest crowd to watch a high school football game took place at Soldier Field with an estimated 115,000 watching the Austin v. Leo High School Prep Bowl football game.

1944 - 150,000 spectators attended a wartime visit by President Franklin Roosevelt.

1948 – Chicago Park District engineers won an award at the 1948 International Lighting Expo for their design of a stadium lighting system featuring 5,000 watt flood lights that could be arranged in pre-set patterns by a three man crew.

1954 – 260,000 came to Soldier Field for a Catholic celebration entitled the Eucharistic Congress.

1962 - 116,000 turned out to hear evangelist Billy Graham.

September 19, 1971 - The Chicago Bears began using the facility as a regular season home and capacity was cut to 57,000 to bring season ticket holders closer to the field. Chicago defeats the Pittsburgh Steelers 17-15 before capacity crowd of 55,701 in the Bears’ first game since moving from Wrigley.

1978 – With the Chicago Bears, the Chicago Park District began to reconstruct the aging stadium with lights, playing surface, locker rooms, and rebuilding the stadiums’ plank-board style seating with chair back and armrests.

1981 – With renovations complete, Soldier Field could welcome 66,950 visitors.

September 1988 – Soldier Field converts turf from AstroTurf to Kentucky Bluegrass.

1994 – Soldier Field hosts the opening ceremonies of the 1994 World Cup soccer play, the first time the competition will by played on American shores.

2003 - Soldier Field completes a 20-month renovation that modernized the stadium and surrounding parkland for multi-purpose event use. The stadium grounds now host over 200 event usage days per year.

2011 - Soldier Field is awarded the status of LEED-EB from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). Soldier Field is the first existing North American stadium to receive the award of LEED-EB Certification and the first NFL stadium to receive this prestigious award. LEED-EB stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Existing Building.

2014 - Soldier Field hosted the New Zealand All Blacks rugby team as they faced off against the USA Eagles on November 1, 2014 marking the All Blacks first match in the US since 1980. The All Blacks defeated the Eagles 74-6 to a sold-out crowd.

2015 - Soldier Field hosted the final concert performances by legendary American rock band the Grateful Dead on July 3rd, 4th and 5th in celebration of the band's 50 year history. More than 212,000 Deadheads rocked out at Soldier Field for the Fare Thee Well shows over the holiday weekend, shattering stadium attendance records.

2016 - Copa America Centenario, in celebrating their 100th-anniversary edition of the South American championships, selected Soldier Field to host four matches: Jamaica vs. Venezuela (June 5th, 2016), USA vs. Costa Rice (June 7th, 2016), Argentina vs. Panama (June 10th, 2016), and the Semi-Final between Chile and Colombia (June 22nd, 2016).

Interesting Facts About Soldier Field

Soldier Field has hosted rock concerts, thrill shows, rodeos, tractor and truck pulls, circuses, fireworks displays, stock car races, sunrise services, marching band concerts, open-air operas, skiing and toboggan events including a ski jump event from a 13-story platform.

The stadium’s underpinnings consist of 10,000 giant wood piling foundations driven an average depth of six stories through landfill to bedrock.

It hosted the first boxing event that drew a gate of over $2.5 million (Dempsey-Tunney, 1927), the first ski meet held in a stadium, and the all-time largest football crowd (123,000). The largest crowd for any event in Soldier Field was 260,000 on Sept. 8, 1954, for the religious Marian Year Tribute.


A brief history of football grounds

We might love them, hate them or take them for granted &ndash but how did we end up with the football stadiums? Renowned football architecture historian Simon Inglis investigates the journey from gated fields to big gates and big yields.

Turn on any televised coverage of football these days and you can bet that in between the action your screen will be filled with mesmerising images of stadiums (or ‘stadia’ if you must).

Swooping aerials. Shots of the stands. Glimpses into the dressing rooms. Digitised fly-through animations, even.

Stadiums are more centre-stage than ever before: in our minds, in our faces. And yet before the 1990s and the post-Hillsborough stadium revolution, very little media attention was paid to them at all, except when there were disasters or outbreaks of hooliganism, or if a documentary maker fell for the charms of the Kop at Anfield.

Before the 1990s and the post-Hillsborough stadium revolution, very little media attention was paid to them at all

Going back further, despite the existence throughout the ancient worlds of Greece and Rome of brilliantly designed stadiums and arenas (or ‘arenae’ if you must), when Association football was first codified in 1863, there was no such entity as a ‘football stadium’.

A field on which football was played, for sure, with a rail around the pitch and a tent in the corner for players and officials. At best, there might be a few bench seats or a timber stand, featuring what Americans would call ‘bleachers’ (wooden steps exposed to the elements). But little more. More often than not early clubs merely rented a field on a short lease, and set up their real headquarters in a pub.

The rental era: borrowing other sports’ stadiums

In fact, as the game grew in popularity, the only enclosed venues where football clubs might reasonably accommodate a decent crowd were long-established cricket or athletics grounds.

So from 1872&ndash92 all FA Cup finals took place at the Oval, the London home of Surrey County Cricket Club, with just one exception. That was in 1873, when the venue was Lillie Bridge, a cricket and athletics ground in west London, just next door to where another athletics ground would be laid out in 1877, by the name of Stamford Bridge. (Even after Chelsea took over the Bridge in 1905, the athletics track remained until the 1930s &ndash and the ends retained distinctive curves until the 1990s redevelopment.)

From 1872&ndash92 all FA Cup finals took place at the Oval, the London home of Surrey County Cricket Club, with just one exception

And when the 1886 final between Blackburn Rovers and West Brom needed a replay, in the absence of any decent club venue, the FA chose the Racecourse Ground in Derby. This, as its name suggests, lay in the middle of the town’s racecourse, but, confusingly, was also a cricket ground. Derby County played there until they moved in 1895 to… the Baseball Ground, which had been laid out six years earlier by a foundry owner who caught the baseball bug on a visit to the United States.

Even after the FA were booted out of the Oval by Surrey following the 1892 final &ndash by which time crowds had grown from 2,000 to 25,000 &ndash the best venue they could find for the 1893 final was an athletics ground in Fallowfield, Manchester. A new record crowd of some 45,000 was reported, but the afternoon was a debacle: fans broke in, and ticket holders couldn’t get to their seats.

A home of our own: the self-build era

What professional football needed was professionally designed and solidly built, tailor-made grounds. Three main factors facilitated this great leap forward, all during the period 1890-1914.

Firstly, clubs started to form themselves into limited liability companies. This allowed them to issue shares and raise the necessary capital to buy a home of their own.

Secondly, thanks to industrialisation, materials such as mass-produced steel and concrete were more available and affordable. At last clubs could start to build big.

In 1895 a new form of turnstile came onto the market: the Ellison ‘Rush Preventive’

Thirdly, basic though this might seem, in 1895 a new form of turnstile came onto the market. Manufactured in Salford and called the Ellison ‘Rush Preventive’, this simple new device allowed clubs to count and take money from every individual entering their ground, one by one, before releasing a barrier to let them enter, rather than relying on the old system of having to trust gatemen to collect money and then hand it over to the club.

The new turnstiles didn’t prevent fraud completely &ndash but once installed, clubs found that their revenues soared. And with more money in the bank, the better able and the more incentivised clubs were to develop their grounds along modern lines.

During this first wave emerged such famous grounds as Goodison Park (probably the most developed ground of the early 1890s), Villa Park (which had a cycle track around the pitch), and the three Glasgow giants Ibrox Park, Hampden Park and Celtic Park (which also staged cycling).

A grand plan or a beautiful mess?

Instrumental in helping to design several of these grounds was the Scottish engineer, Archibald Leitch, the world’s first specialist football architect. Leitch was also commissioned to lay out the original Highbury ground for Arsenal in 1913.

But the first British ground that appeared from the off to have a long-term masterplan (as is standard practice today), and offer the possibility of incremental expansion on a large unencumbered site, was Manchester United’s Old Trafford. Also designed by Leitch, this opened in 1910.

Not that many other clubs followed suit. Most still ended up on cramped sites, building a bit here and a bit there, never to a masterplan &ndash and only when funds allowed.

Some, as a result, evolved into a wonderful hodgepodge of stands, roofs and angles, oozing with character &ndash Craven Cottage, Molineux and St James’ Park to name but three.

Others were hardly more than open bowls, the emphasis being on capacity (large terraces, mostly uncovered), utilitarian materials (for cheapness) and minimal facilities (because the fans seemed to keep on coming, so why bother doing more?).

In redeveloping Highbury during the 1930s Arsenal broke out of that mould, building two spendid Art Deco stands with genuine architectural qualities. But not until the 1960s did other clubs see fit to follow.

Again Manchester United were at the fore, with their sleek 10,000-capacity United Road Stand in 1965. This featured British football’s first bespoke executive boxes, an idea borrowed from horse racing. The intention was to replace the other three stands with similar designs, linking them to create a uniform modern stadium.

Conservative or forward-thinking?

United’s new stand also had a cantilevered roof. That is, it was, seemingly miraculously, &ldquocolumn-free&rdquo. One measure of how conservative Britain was during the 20th Century is that it took until 1958 for the nation’s first cantilevered-roof stand at a football ground, in the steel town of Scunthorpe, followed by Sheffield Wednesday in 1961. This was some 40 or 50 years after such roofs had started appearing routinely in France, Germany and Italy.

British football’s unwillingness to invest in high-calibre facilities paid its toll

British football’s unwillingness to invest in high-calibre facilities paid its toll. First there was the disaster at Bolton in 1946 (33 dead), then Ibrox in 1971 (66), Bradford in 1985 (56) and Hillsborough in 1989 (96). Added to this toll was a weekly log of injuries, seldom reported (40 to 60 per match on the Kop alone).

When Lord Justice Taylor investigated the Hillsborough disaster, he told the press that his intention was not to prepare English football clubs for the 21st century but to drag them into the 20th.

Not everyone agreed with his main recommendation for all-seated stadiums. But no footballing nation in the world had such a poor safety record as did England.

Incidentally, what, you may ask, is the difference between a ‘ground’ and a ‘stadium’? Well according to this writer's own rule, a ‘stadium’ is designed as a whole, with a complete end product in mind &ndash whereas a ‘ground’ is a venue that is developed, bit by bit, over the years, with no masterplan at all.

Wembley is thus a genuine stadium. Anfield (and Villa Park, and countless others) are but grounds &ndash and some would say all the better for it.


Stadium History

The Jaguars' home stadium has undergone significant changes and upgrades in its 22-year history. But as many new buildings and designs have come on line around the NFL, Jacksonville is still able to boast one of the most fan-friendly and technologically-advanced stadiums in the league.

On August 18, 1995, when the Jacksonville Jaguars played their first home preseason game in their new stadium, it marked the first time in sports history that an expansion team played its first home game in its inaugural season in a new stadium or arena. In the short period of 19 and a half months, the old Gator Bowl was demolished and a new stadium arose on the shores of the St. Johns River. Just before the Jaguars kicked off their first regular season game on September 3, 1995, NBC broadcaster Don Criqui said, "There isn't a better football facility in America."

In its 10th year of operation, the stadium was the host site of Super Bowl XXXIX, the world's largest one-day sporting event. Known at that time as Alltel Stadium, the building underwent a $63 million renovation in preparation for Super Bowl XXXIX. Among the additions were the Terrace Suite, a 25,000-square-foot sports bar called the Bud Light Party Zone, a 20,000-square-foot Sky Patio, 20 new escalators and four new elevators.

Originally named Jacksonville Municipal Stadium, the home of the Jaguars got a new name on the eve of the 2010 training camp, when EverBank Financial Corp. and the Jaguars introduced EverBank Field on July 27, 2010. One of the nation's largest privately-held bank holding companies, EverBank employs more than 2,200 workers and is headquartered in Jacksonville. The partnership included a five-year naming rights agreement, which was extended by another 10 years in 2014.

EverBank Field became the proud home of the world's largest in-stadium video boards in 2014. At 362 feet wide and 60 feet high, the two massive end zone displays are wider than the length of a football field and have set the standard for in-venue visual experience. Additional video boards and ribbon panels help enhance fans' in –stadium experience on game day.

In addition to the video boards, 2014 brought innovative changes to the north end zone. Christened FanDuelVille in 2015, the two-story, north end zone fan plaza is the ultimate home of fantasy football. The biggest party scene in professional sports also is home to the the Axalta Spas, an asset about which no other NFL stadium can boast. In the Florida sunshine, there's no better place for fans to cool off and cheer on the Jags.

The reimagining of EverBank Field continued in 2016 with a $90 million shared investment by the City of Jacksonville and the Jaguars. Phase 1 brought a complete overhaul of the Clubs, bringing new 50-yard-line patios to the NFL for the first time and a brand new south end zone tunnel to the start of the season. Phase 2 introduced a new 5,500 seat amphitheater and the Dream Finders Homes Flex Field to the downtown sports complex. Known as Daily's Place, the new venues are part the ambitious vision for the future of downtown Jacksonville as a world-class sports and entertainment destination.

On June 4, 2018, EverBank became TIAA Bank and the stadium was renamed to TIAA Bank Field.


History of Football Stadiums - History

The Silver Bowl was built in 1932 by a committee of Mount Carmel business men headed by Hal Grossman and other community leaders including: George Wardrop, Elmer Williams, Harold Schaefer, Harry Jones, Walter Levine, Charles Lucas, Herman Ludes, Dr. Charles Feifer, Albert Landis, Ray Williams, William Ruffing, Ira Roadarmel, and Hal Anthony.

The original stands, which seated 6,600, where constructed of wood. The 80 feet high steel light towers were erected for the opening game of the 1932 season. The lighting system was installed by a team of technicians from General Electric’s headquarters in Schenectady, New York. The team was so impressed with the facilities they boosted it was the most beautiful high school sports complex in existence and it would be the best lit high school stadium anywhere.

In the mid-1930’s, stands were constructed in both end zones and painted silver. The new bleachers gave the stadium a bowl-like appearance. Thus, a sports scribe called the stadium the “Silver Bowl,” the name which is still used today. At this time, the stadium could accommodate 10,000 fans.

In June of 1940, the wooden stands on the visitors side (west) were replaced with all steel grandstands, increasing the capacity to over 10,000. Also at this time, the home side was switched from the east side stands to the west side stands.

In the 1950’s the end zone stands were removed, but by the 1970’s the south end zone stand was reconstructed. The press box was completed in 1972 and in 1978 the east visitors stands were replaced with the current steel grandstands, giving the stadium a seating capacity of 7,202.

The field house was replaced in 2012 and the track was resurfaced in 2013. In the next year the field was officially renamed ‘The Joseph ‘Jazz’ Diminick Field in honor of Mount Carmel’s legendary former football coach. Later in the same year the track was rededicated to Mr. Gerald Breslin, former MCA Track Coach who compiled a record of 29 years without a dual-meet loss.


The humble history of the Cougars’ stadiums

BYU football isn’t what it used to be. The Cougar football program has grown and developed over the past 80 years to winning a national championship and having some of the nicest facilities in the country. Originally, the team played games in front of a much smaller crowd where the Richards Building now stands.

Although students use the never-ending stairs between the Tanner Building and the southwest end of campus to get to and from their classes each day, that was not their original purpose. The stairs used to be the stands of the old hillside stadium, which was home to the BYU football team in the 1930s.

The permanent stands at the old stadium seated 5,000 people, with temporary bleachers on the west side accommodating up to 12,000 people. This, however, is a small number of people compared to the current capabilities of the LaVell Edwards Stadium, which seats up to 65,000 people.

The old stadium was first used in 1928, when BYU football Coach Ott Romney led the Cougars to their first victory against the College of Idaho Coyotes.

“From its humble beginnings, it’s pretty awesome what BYU football has become,” Mel Olsen, previous offensive center and offensive line coach for BYU football, said. “It’s kind of unheard of to go from a place like that old stadium to winning a national championship.”

[media-credit align=”alignright” width=�″][/media-credit]The LaVell Edwards Stadium, the current home to the Cougars, has not been the only innovation to the BYU football program over the years. Since 1964, BYU has added the indoor practice facility as well as the Student Athlete Building, which is equipped with academic advisement for the athletes, a physical therapy center, the football gallery, the exclusive football locker room and many other services.

Olsen recalled that before and during Edwards’ coaching of the BYU Cougars, the team had to use the west annex of the Smith Fieldhouse for practice whenever it rained or snowed because the indoor practice facility was not built yet.

“The area was so small that the offense would practice for an hour and a half, followed by defense,” Olsen said.

After LaVell’s run, BYU football continued to progress to become the team it is now. The team is now equipped with Nike uniforms and state-of-the-art facilities.

“I think that BYU’s football facilities are among the nicest in the country,” wide receiver Cody Hoffman said. “Not too many stadiums still have natural grass fields … it takes a lot of work to care for a grass field.”

According to Roy Peterman, director of grounds, from the trimming of the hedges outside the stadium to the mowing of the grass field, all the immaculate details of the field grass and landscaping outside the stadium are cared for by BYU Grounds.

Whether it’s accompanying thousands of fans on a Saturday night or providing an excellent environment for the football team, the LaVell Edwards Stadium is home of BYU football and the result of a rich history.

“The improvements and successes of the football team (are) largely due to new facilities, skilled coaching and commitment to and pride in the team,” Olsen said. “It was all pretty exciting to watch unfold.”


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