Geskiedenis Podcasts

Die maak van die Verenigde Koninkryk

Die maak van die Verenigde Koninkryk

  • Katherine van Aragon
  • Anne Askew
  • Robert Aske
  • Anthony Babington
  • Thomas Boleyn
  • Anne Boleyn
  • Graaf van Bothwell
  • John Calvyn
  • William Camden
  • William Cecil
  • Robert Cecil
  • Anne van Cleves
  • Thomas Cranmer
  • Thomas Cromwell
  • Henry Darnley
  • Robert Devereux
  • Francis Drake
  • John Dudley
  • Robert Dudley
  • Edward VI
  • Elizabeth I
  • Elizabeth van York
  • Desiderius Erasmus
  • Lady Jane Gray
  • Richard Hakluyt
  • Christopher Hatton
  • John Hawkins
  • Henry VII
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  • Hans Holbein
  • Catherine Howard
  • Charles Howard
  • Henry Howard
  • Thomas Howard
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  • Henry Lee
  • Martin Luther
  • Thomas More
  • Catherine Parr
  • Philip II
  • Walter Raleigh
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  • Mary, koningin van Skotte
  • Edward Seymour
  • Jane Seymour
  • Thomas Seymour
  • William Shakespeare
  • Philip Sidney
  • Hertog van Medina Sidonia
  • Richard Southwell
  • Edward Stafford
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  • Levina Teerline
  • Mary Tudor
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  • Francis Walsingham
  • Peter Wentworth
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  • Wet van Unie
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  • Anne ek
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  • Thomas Wintour
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  • John Wright
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  • John Lambert
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  • William Lenthall
  • David Leslie
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  • Edmund Ludlow
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  • Andrew Marvell
  • Maria II
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Verenigde Koninkryk

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Verenigde Koninkryk, eilandland geleë aan die noordwestelike kus van die vasteland van Europa. Die Verenigde Koninkryk bestaan ​​uit die hele eiland Groot -Brittanje - wat Engeland, Wallis en Skotland bevat - sowel as die noordelike deel van die eiland Ierland. Die naam Brittanje word soms gebruik om na die Verenigde Koninkryk as geheel te verwys. Die hoofstad is Londen, wat een van die wêreld se voorste kommersiële, finansiële en kulturele sentrums is. Ander groot stede sluit in Birmingham, Liverpool en Manchester in Engeland, Belfast en Londonderry in Noord -Ierland, Edinburgh en Glasgow in Skotland, en Swansea en Cardiff in Wallis.

Die oorsprong van die Verenigde Koninkryk kan teruggevoer word na die tyd van die Angelsaksiese koning Athelstan, wat vroeg in die 10de eeu die trou van die naburige Keltiese koninkryke verseker het en "die eerste was wat regeer het oor wat voorheen baie konings met hulle gedeel het" in die woorde van 'n kontemporêre kroniek. Deur daaropvolgende verowering oor die daaropvolgende eeue, het koninkryke wat verder weg was onder Engelse heerskappy gekom. Wallis, 'n sameloop van Keltiese koninkryke wat in die suidweste van Groot -Brittanje lê, is formeel met Engeland verenig deur die Union Acts van 1536 en 1542. Skotland, wat sedert 1603 vanuit Londen geregeer is, is in 1707 formeel saam met Engeland en Wallis om die Verenigde Koninkryk te vorm van Groot -Brittanje. (Die byvoeglike naamwoord "Brits" is op hierdie tydstip in gebruik geneem om na al die koninkryke te verwys.) Ierland het gedurende die 1600's onder Engelse beheer gekom en is formeel verenig met Groot -Brittanje deur die Unie van 1800. Die Republiek van Ierland het sy onafhanklikheid in 1922, maar ses van Ulster se nege provinsies het as Noord -Ierland deel van die Verenigde Koninkryk gebly. Die verhouding tussen hierdie deelstate en Engeland is gekenmerk deur kontroversie en soms openlike opstand en selfs oorlogvoering. Hierdie spanning het ietwat verslap gedurende die laat 20ste eeu, toe afgesonderde byeenkomste in Noord -Ierland, Skotland en Wallis ingestel is. Selfs met die instelling van 'n magsdelingsvergadering na referenda in beide Noord-Ierland en die Ierse republiek, het die verhouding tussen Noord-Ierland se vakbondlede (wat die voortgesette Britse soewereiniteit bo Noord-Ierland verkies) en nasionaliste (wat vereniging met die republiek Ierland voorstaan) tot in die 21ste eeu gespanne gebly het.

Die Verenigde Koninkryk het beduidende bydraes tot die wêreldekonomie gelewer, veral in tegnologie en nywerheid. Sedert die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is die belangrikste uitvoer van die Verenigde Koninkryk egter kultuur, insluitend letterkunde, teater, film, televisie en populêre musiek wat in alle dele van die land getrek word. Miskien was die grootste uitvoer van Brittanje die Engelse taal, wat nou in elke uithoek van die wêreld gepraat word as een van die toonaangewende internasionale media vir kulturele en ekonomiese uitruil.

Die Verenigde Koninkryk behou bande met dele van sy voormalige ryk deur die Statebond. Dit trek ook voordeel uit historiese en kulturele bande met die Verenigde State en is lid van die Noord -Atlantiese Verdragsorganisasie (NAVO). Boonop het die Verenigde Koninkryk lid geword van die Europese Unie in 1973. Baie Britte was egter soms huiwerig EU -lede en het die sentimente van die groot Eerste Minister Winston Churchill vasgehou, wat klinkend opgemerk het: 'Ons sien niks anders as goed en hoop op 'n ryker, vryer, meer tevrede Europese gemeenskap. Maar ons het ons eie droom en ons eie taak. Ons is met Europa, maar nie daarvan nie. Ons is gekoppel, maar bestaan ​​nie. Ons is geïnteresseerd en assosieer, maar word nie geabsorbeer nie. ” In Junie 2016, tydens 'n referendum oor die vraag of die Verenigde Koninkryk in die EU moet bly, het 52 persent van die Britse kiesers verkies om te vertrek. Na baie onderhandelinge, verskeie sperdatumverlengings, langdurige binnelandse politieke onenigheid en twee veranderings van premier, is 'n ooreenkoms bereik oor 'Brexit' (Britse uittrede uit die EU) wat die EU sowel as die meerderheid van die parlement tevrede stel. Op 31 Januarie 2020 sou die Verenigde Koninkryk dus die eerste land word wat aan die EU onttrek het.

Die Verenigde Koninkryk bestaan ​​uit vier geografiese en historiese dele - Engeland, Skotland, Wallis en Noord -Ierland. Die Verenigde Koninkryk bevat die grootste deel van die oppervlakte en die bevolking van die Britse Eilande - die geografiese term vir die groep eilande wat Groot -Brittanje, Ierland en baie kleiner eilande insluit. Saam vorm Engeland, Wallis en Skotland Groot -Brittanje, die grootste van die twee belangrikste eilande, terwyl Noord -Ierland en die republiek Ierland die tweede grootste eiland, Ierland, vorm. Engeland, wat die grootste deel van die suide van Groot -Brittanje beset, sluit die eilande Scilly aan die suidwestelike kus en die Isle of Wight aan die suidelike kus in. Skotland, wat Noord -Groot -Brittanje beset, sluit die Orkney- en Shetland -eilande voor die noordelike kus in en die Hebrides voor die noordwestelike kus. Wallis lê wes van Engeland en sluit die eiland Anglesey in die noordweste in.

Afgesien van die landgrens met die Ierse republiek, is die Verenigde Koninkryk omring deur see. In die suide van Engeland en tussen die Verenigde Koninkryk en Frankryk is die Engelse kanaal. Die Noordsee lê in die ooste. Ten weste van Wallis en Noord -Engeland en in die suidooste van Noord -Ierland skei die Ierse See Groot -Brittanje van Ierland, terwyl suidwestelike Engeland, die noordwestelike kus van Noord -Ierland en Wes -Skotland na die Atlantiese Oseaan kyk. Op sy breedste is die Verenigde Koninkryk 500 myl lank. Van die noordelike punt van Skotland tot die suidelike kus van Engeland is dit ongeveer 1000 myl. Geen deel is meer as 120 kilometer van die see af nie. Die hoofstad, Londen, is geleë aan die rivier die Teems in die suidooste van Engeland.

Die argipel wat deur Groot -Brittanje en die talle kleiner eilande gevorm is, is net so onreëlmatig van vorm as wat dit uiteenlopend is in geologie en landskap. Hierdie diversiteit spruit grotendeels uit die aard en aard van die onderliggende gesteentes, wat in die westelike dele van die Europese strukture geleë is, met die vlak water van die Straat van Dover en die Noordsee wat voormalige landverbindings verberg. Noord -Ierland bevat 'n westelike verlenging van die rotsstrukture van Skotland. Hierdie algemene gesteentestrukture word deur die smal Noord -kanaal verbreek.

Op 'n globale skaal beslaan hierdie natuurlike skenking 'n klein oppervlakte - by benadering die van die Amerikaanse deelstaat Oregon of die Afrika -land Guinee - en die interne diversiteit daarvan, vergesel van vinnige veranderings van dikwels pragtige natuurskoon, kan besoekers uit groter lande 'n treffende gevoel van kompaktheid en konsolidasie. Die mense wat deur die eeue 'n bestaan ​​uit hierdie Atlantiese uiterste van Eurasië gemaak het, het hul eie indruk op die omgewing geplaas, en die antieke en kenmerkende uitdrukking van hul veldpatrone en nedersettings vul die natuurlike diversiteit aan.


Die Laaste Koninkryk: die ware geskiedenis agter die reeks

Die Laaste Koninkryk, gebasseer op die Saksiese verhale romans van Bernard Cornwell, vertel weer die geskiedenis van koning Alfred die Grote en sy begeerte om die vele aparte koninkryke te verenig in wat Engeland sou word. Hier gee ons 'n opsomming van die werklike geskiedenis tot dusver, en wat in reeks vier behandel word ...

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 6 Mei 2020 om 13:00

Wanneer is Die Laaste Koninkryk stel en waaroor gaan dit?

Dit is die verhaal van die stryd tussen Saksers en Denene in Engeland van die 9de eeu, toe Engeland nie een nasie was nie, maar 'n reeks onafhanklike koninkryke wat deur Danes oorskry of verwoes is. Die era van Lindisfarne en plunderaars uit die see is lankal verby - op hierdie punt in die geskiedenis, die Vikings in Brittanje is setlaars, here en konings.

Hierdie verhaal speel af vanuit die perspektief van Uhtred van Bebbanburg, 'n man wat 'n Saks gebore is en 'n Deen grootgemaak het, en worstel met sy aanhoudend gesplete lojaliteit tussen sy ede (waarvan hy baie maak), sy botsende kulturele identiteite en sy soeke na vergelding.

Wat begin as 'n verhaal van eenvoudige wraak-die terugwinning van sy voorvaderlike huis in Northumbria van sy usurperende oom en wraak op die moord op sy aanneem Viking-vader-strek vinnig uit tot 'n geskiedenis wat aangrensend is aan Vikings versus Angelsakse, soos Uhtred hom in die Koninkryk Wessex, waar Alfred die Grote droom om die noordmanne uit al die koninkryke van 'Engeland' te verdryf en 'n enkele nasie te skep, iets wat sou eers bereik word tydens die bewind van sy kleinseun.

Die vertoning is gebaseer op die Saksiese verhale romans van Bernard Cornwell (nou herdoop as die Die Laaste Koninkryk reeks weens die sukses van die program), waarvan daar tans 12 in druk is, met die slot 13de aflewering - Oorlog Heer - word in Oktober 2020 gepubliseer.

Wil u resensies van seisoen 4 lees en nog meer weet oor die werklike gebeure uit die geskiedenis wat die drama geïnspireer het? Lees meer van die kundiges op ons saamgestelde bladsy op Die Laaste Koninkryk

Wat is die plot van Die Laaste Koninkryk seisoen vier?

Seisoen vier van Die Laaste Koninkryk Daar word algemeen verwag dat die boeke sewe en agt uit die sage van Bernard Cornwell sal dek, Die heidense Heer en Die leë troon. Alfred die Grote is dood, net soos sy immerhangende neef Aethelwold Alfred se seun Edward die Ouere sit op die troon van Wessex, sy dogter Aethelflaed is getroud met die heerser van Mercia en die Danes, onder leiding van Haesten en Cnut (nie Cnut die Grote nie - hy sal nog honderd jaar nie gebore word nie), voel geleentheid . Uhtred besef intussen dat dit nou die tyd is om sy oom Aelfric uit te daag vir sy eersgeboortereg, die heerskappy van Bebbanburg in Northumbria.

Sodra seisoen vier voltooi is, is daar nog vier boeke (tot dusver) in die reeks van Cornwell om aan te pas - as die Die Laaste Koninkryk word hernu vir toekomstige seisoene.

DIE LAASTE KONINKRYK SEISOEN 4 -OORSIGTE:

Wat het gebeur in Die Laaste Koninkryk seisoen een? En wat is die werklike geskiedenis?

Die Laaste Koninkryk begin in 866, die jaar toe Vikings die eerste keer beheer oor York geneem het. Uhtred is 'n kind en erfgenaam van Bebbanburg (Bamburgh) in Northumbria. Toe die Vikings aankom, ry sy pa, Lord Uhtred, uit om te veg en word die kind wat Uhtred gevang is, voorspelbaar vermoor.

Uhtred se oom Aelfric hoop om die seun terug te los en hom rustig te vermoor, sodat hy onbelemmerd die heerskappy van Bebbanburg kan opeis, maar die plan word onderbreek wanneer die Deense jarl Ragnar the Fearless 'n voorliefde vir die seun het en hom uiteindelik terugneem na Denemarke saam met 'n Saksiese meisie, Brida.

Verskeie jare vorentoe: Uhtred is nou 'n jong man, volledig ondergedompel in die Noorse kultuur en godsdiens. Sy skynbare geluk stort neer wanneer Ragnar die Vreeslose vermoor word, lewendig in sy gang verbrand word deur die skeepsmeester Kjartan en sy seun Sven die Eenoog, ter weerwraak dat Ragnar Sven baie jare tevore in die oog het. Kjartan versprei gerugte dat die Saksies gebore Uhtred die misdadiger agter die daad is, wat Uhtred genoop het om oor die Noordsee terug te vlug na die lande wat hy as seuntjie verlaat het.

By die terugkeer na Northumbria ontmoet Uhtred Guthrum en Ubba, een van die legendariese seuns van die legendariese Viking -held Ragnar Lothbrok, wat hy sien kyk hoe hy koning Edmund van die East Angles vermoor. Die werklike Edmund "was aan 'n boom vasgemaak, geslaan en daarna vermoor met 'n sarsie pyle," skryf die kerkhistorikus Emma J Wells - wat amper gebeur hier, behalwe dat dit in 'n kerk afspeel.

Guthrum en Ubba glo nie sy onskuld nie, so Uhtred vlug na Winchester, hoofstad van Wessex, die titel 'laaste koninkryk' om die Danes ten prooi te val. Aethelred I regeer, maar teen die middel van die seisoen is hy dodelik gewond en op sy sterfbed gee die kroon aan sy broer, Alfred - met die uitsig op Aethelwold, sy eie seun, uitgebeeld as 'n dronkaard wat glo dat die kroon by verstek syne moes gewees het.

"[Alfred] kon nooit verwag het om koning te wees as die jongste van vyf broers nie, maar hulle is almal jonk dood", skryf Michael Wood. 'Hy was 21, vroom en dapper, maar in 'n swak gesondheid, met 'n verlammende oorerflike siekte, miskien Crohn se siekte.

Jong Ragnar, seun van Ragnar die Vreeslose, keer terug uit Ierland - een van die vele oewers, afgesien van Engeland waarheen die Vikings gevaar het - om self te bevestig dat Uhtred nie hul pa vermoor het nie. As hy vertrek om wraak te neem op Kjartan, vertrek Brida saam met hom.

Uhtred speel 'n belangrike rol in die slag van Cynwit in Devon in 878 - een van die vyf belangrikste 'verlore veldslae' in die Vikingtydperk, skryf Thomas Williams, wat dit beskryf as 'een van die groot militêre omkerings van die vroeë Middeleeue', voordat hy Ubba in 'n enkele geveg doodmaak. Uhtred se rol in die stryd word verlig ('n algemene tema in Die Laaste Koninkryk) en die oorwinning word toegeskryf aan Odda die ouderling, die ouderling van Devon, soos in die werklike geskiedenis.

Uhtred en Alfred bots gereeld deur die res van die reeks oor lojaliteit en godsdiens, maar waar Alfred gedwing word om die nut van Uhtred te erken, is dit wanneer die voormalige heer van Bebbanburg Alfred help ontsnap in die Somerset-moerasse-waar hy die koeke beroemd verbrand-in die nasleep van die Deense inval in Wessex in 878, en dan in die slag van Edington waarin die Saksers die Noordmanne 'n verpletterende nederlaag toedien.

Luister na die bekende historiese romanskrywer Bernard Cornwell wat praat oor sy boeke wat geïnspireer het Die Laaste Koninkryk, en oor sy skryfloopbaan in die breë:

Wat gebeur in Die Laaste Koninkryk seisoen twee? En wat is die werklike geskiedenis?

Uhtred gaan noordwaarts - nie na Bebbanburg nie, maar om Guthred te red, 'n Christen -Deen het geprofeteer om die koning van Cumberland te word. Die missie is 'n sukses, maar sodra koning Guthred oortuig is om Uhtred te verraai, verkoop hy hom as slawerny. Alfred stuur Young Ragnar (seun van Ragnar die Vreeslose en die aanneembroer van Uhtred, aan die einde van seisoen een gyselaar geneem deur Wessex) om hom te red. Herenig beleër Ragnar en Uhtred Kjartan en Sven the One-Eyed in Durham, en wreek uiteindelik Ragnar the Fearless.

Hierdie seisoen ontwikkel ook die karakter van Aethelflaed - nog nie die 'Lady of the Mercians' nie, maar 'n jong vrou en, as 'n dogter van 'n koning, een wat gereed is om in bondgenootskap getroud te word - 'As vrou is die verhaal van Æthelflæd alles te bekend in terme van koninklike dinastiese huwelike, ”skryf dr Janina Ramirez. Sy is getroud, in die geskiedenis en verder Die Laaste Koninkryk, aan Aethelred van Mercia. 'Hulle was 'n volkome politieke unie wat ontwerp was om die twee koninkryke te versterk teen Deense en Noorse invalle in die noorde', sê Ramirez.

Op die program onthul die Mercian Aethelred dat hy 'n arm man is, besitlik en beledigend. Hy neem Aethelflaed oorlog toe teen Deense broers Siegfried en Erik (albei fiktiewe antagoniste) en hul onderling Haesten (wat wel bestaan ​​het), waar sy gevange geneem en vir losprys aangehou word, en die seisoen se klimaksgeveg by Benfleet in 893 en die selfmoord van Odda die ouer begin. in plaas van sekere teregstelling vir verraad.

Wat het gebeur in Die Laaste Koninkryk seisoen drie? En wat is die werklike geskiedenis?

Seisoen drie begin met die bekendstelling van twee nuwe antagoniste, die vegter Bloodhair en sy siener, Skade - wat 'n visie het van Bloodhair wat Alfred in die geveg doodmaak. Maar Alfred is regtig besig om dood te gaan, weens swak gesondheid is Edward the Aetheling 'n jong man wat nog nie regeer nie Aetholwold saai onenigheid terwyl hy 'n weg sien om uiteindelik koning te word.

Die verhouding tussen Uhtred en Alfred bereik 'n krisispunt wanneer Uhtred per ongeluk 'n priester doodmaak nadat Aethelwold ingemeng het in reaksie, probeer Alfred Uhtred 'n eed aflê om Edward te dien. Uhtred, wat besef dat 'n eed aan Edward 'n lewe van diensbaarheid sou beteken, weier botweg en neem Alfred dan as gyselaar om sy ontsnapping te bewerkstellig.

Seisoen drie plaas Aethelwold in die middelpunt van die politiek. Hy verlaat ook Wessex, en stop eers by Mercia, waar hy die saad van verraad saai vir Aethelflaed, en in die kamp van Bloodhair, waar hy aanvoer dat die Dene 'n 'groot leër' moet vorm om Wessex te verpletter.

"Die Wes -Saksiese kroniekskrywers was erg oor Æthelwold se alliansie met Vikings, maar as 'n oorlogstaktiek was dit nie ongewoon nie", skryf die vroeë Middeleeuse historikus professor Ryan Lavelle, wat ook Die Laaste KoninkrykSe historiese konsultant. 'Daar is goeie rede om te vermoed dat Alfred hom ook met Viking -huursoldate verbind het as die omstandighede dit vereis.

Uhtred vertrek noordwaarts na Durham en na sy broer Ragnar die Jongere, waar hy kortliks met Bloodhair, Haesten en Ragnar se neef Cnut saamwerk om 'n groot leër te vorm om die Saksiese koninkryke binne te val, maar verlaat hulle om Aethelflaed te red - nou weggekruip in 'n klooster , want Aethelred beplan om haar te laat doodmaak.

Later vermoor Aethelwold Ragnar in sy bed - wat hom verhinder om sy swaard te bereik en hom toegang tot Valhalla te weier. Haesten word geopenbaar as 'n spioen vir Alfred en waarsku die koning oor die Deense bedreiging.

Alfred beswyk uiteindelik aan sy siekte - maar nie voordat hy met Uhtred versoen en Edward sien trou nie. Uhtred bevestig in die openbaar sy steun aan Edward as die vermoedelike koning, en hulle ry om Aethelwold en die Danes naby Bedford te ontmoet - en verslaan hulle met die hulp van Mercia en Kent. By die hoogtepunt van die geveg haal Uhtred Aethelwold in (nadat hy verneem het dat hy die een was wat verantwoordelik was vir die dood van Young Ragnar) en steek hy hom deur die hart.

Hierdie laaste daad van Aethelwold se bewerings speel aansienlik af van werklike gebeure. Alhoewel dit in die vertoning behandel word in die onmiddellike nasleep van Alfred se dood in 899, het die werklike geveg plaasgevind op 'n nie-geïdentifiseerde plek wat vermoedelik Holme in East Anglia was in 902, na 'n opstand van drie jaar waarin Aethelwold matige sukses behaal het. Selfs die omstandighede van die geveg is omgekeer, met die Danes wat Edward se leër in 'n hinderlaag beland het - hulle het die geveg gewen, maar Aethelwold sterf in die gevegte, wat dit ietwat pirries maak.

"Die opstand van Æthelwold is min bekend vandag, slegs 'n voetnoot in die Angelsaksiese geskiedenis," sê Lavelle. 'Dit dui ook daarop dat as Æthelwold 'n bietjie meer fortuin kon geniet in die uitval van Alfred se dood en 'n onduidelike geveg in 902 'n alternatiewe uitkoms gehad het, sou die toekoms van Engeland inderdaad heel anders gewees het.

Wat het gebeur in Die Laaste Koninkryk seisoen vier? En wat is die werklike geskiedenis?

Edward regeer in Wessex, gehawend van alle kante deur adviseurs en probeer uit die skaduwee van Alfred die Grote tree (of miskien dit nakom), maar Uhtred hoef dit nie te bekommer nie. Teen die einde van die eerste episode vaar hy noordwaarts om sy voorvaderhuis Bebbanburg (Bamburgh) terug te kry van Aelfric, die onnodige oom wat probeer het om hom as 'n seuntjie te laat vermoor en hom daarna as volwassene as slaaf laat verkoop het.

Bebbanburg is gerieflik kwesbaar - nie vanweë die Danes nie, maar van die Skotse aandag, en Aelfric sukkel om dit in bedwang te hou.

Die geskiedenis is hier gemeng, sê die vroeë Middeleeuse historikus Ryan Lavelle in ons episode 1 resensie: 'Noord -Northumbria was in 'n grensgebied wat deur 'n opkomende Skotse koninkryk betwis is, en aanvalle was waarskynlik gereeld genoeg, hoewel die gebeure wat hier uitgebeeld word, net so 'n knik is die historiese heer [Uhtred] van Bamburgh. ” Dat Uhtred, wat Lavelle verduidelik, aan die grens van sy mag sou wees, net soos Aelfric hier is, het in die 11de eeu teen die Skotte geveg, nie die 10de nie.

Luister op die podcast: Dan Jackson volg die kenmerkende geskiedenis en kultuur van Noordoos -Engeland, van antieke tye tot vandag

Terug in Die Laaste Koninkryk, Meen Uhtred dat 'n klein leër die vesting kan inneem. Edward weier om hom die weermag te gee, dus gaan dit oor na plan B: ontvoer sy vervreemde seun (ook genoem Uhtred) uit sy kerk, laat hom saam met 'n paar ander priesters in Bebbanburg sluip en maak dan die seepoort oop onder die dekmantel van die duisternis sodat Uhtred en sy vrolike groep Aelfric kan insluip en vermoor.

Uhtred kom wel in - nie sonder 'n ongeluk nie - net om sy plan te vermy deur die terugkeer van die eie, vervreemde seun van Aelfric, Whitgar, wat die magsbalans in die noorde eindelik verander deur Aelfric tereg te stel en Bebbanburg as sy eie te beweer. Uitmanoeuvreer ontsnap Uhtred en mede, maar nie sonder die dood van vader Beocca, sy naaste vertroueling en effektiewe vaderfiguur nie.

In Mercia bring Aethelred se kaptein van die wag (Eardwulf) nuus dat die Dene in Oos -Anglia hul kamp na Ierland verlaat het. Aethelred, wat laf is om nominaal onderdanig aan Wessex te wees, sien 'n kans om Edward op te los en marsjeer onmiddellik sy hele leër na Oos-Anglia om dit as sy eie aan te neem. Maar dit is alles rook en spieëls: die Dene, onder leiding van Cnut en Brida, het wel East Anglia verlaat, maar nie die see ingehaal nie. Hulle seil die rivier op, klim naby Aethelred se sitplek in Aylesbury en neem dit as hul eie.

Die nuus bereik nie dat Aethelred Eardwulf hom nie vertel nie, uit vrees vir sy meester se woede. Dit is nog 'n swart punt in 'n lang reeks karakterfoute in hierdie voorstelling van die Merciaanse heerser, wat om die beurt wispelturig, owerspelig en wreed is. ("[Aethelred] word gespeel as 'n redelike veragtelike karakter - 'n voorstelling waarvoor daar geen historiese bewyse is nie," sê Lavelle.)

In Winchester weier Edward om Wessex-bloed te mors om Merciaanse grond te red, met die goedkeuring van sy magtigste vasal (en skoonpa) Aethelhelm, en die woede van sy suster Aethelflead en sy moeder Aelswith. Hoewel al lank dood in die werklike geskiedenis, het die Aelswith van Die Laaste Koninkryk moet haar afnemende rol in die hof hanteer - wat lei tot 'n belangrike besluit om Edward se seun uit sy eerste huwelik (wat beide plaasgevind het en in seisoen drie van die skerm af geannuleer is) uit 'n klooster te haal. Die seun word onthul as Aethelstan, die toekomstige eerste koning van die Engelse.

Die intriges en bewerings bereik 'n hoogtepunt met Aethelflead wat daadwerklik optree: sy sluip weg van Winchester, verhoog die Mercian -vierde onafhanklik van haar afwesige man en (danksy Uhtred) lok die Danes om te veg in Tettenhall - 'n ware botsing wat in 910 plaasgevind het, in wat drie Viking -konings doodgemaak het. Dit was hierdie stryd, skryf die historikus dr Janina Ramirez, wat "die beeld van [Aethelflaed] as 'n seëvierende vegterskoningin verseker het".

In die vertoning staan ​​Aethelflaed nie alleen nie: sy het die ondersteuning van die Walliesers (maak hul eerste verskyning in Die Laaste Koninkryk), en laat in die geveg arriveer beide Aethelred en Edward om die gety te keer. Knoet word gedood, en Brida word as slaaf na Wallis teruggeneem.

"Die voorkoms van Walliese krygers op die slagveld is 'n historiese verbeelding by hierdie spesifieke geleentheid, maar Walliese militêre diens vir Angelsaksiese leërs was tans nie onbekend nie," sê Lavelle in ons episode vier. Dit is die manne King Hywel Dda ('die Goeie') wat Deheubarth ('die suidelike deel') regeer het, en hulle speel 'n belangrike rol - "'n herinnering dat die verhaal van die vroeë Middeleeuse Brittanje meer as 'n Engelse was." Die werklike Saksiese leër in Tettenhall was 'n alliansie van Aethelflaed en Edward, hoewel Aethelred se teenwoordigheid onseker is.

Die Laaste Koninkryk sien Aethelred 'n dodelike kopbesering opdoen by Tettenhall. Ten spyte van die feit dat hy slegs 'n paar dae sal lewe ('n fiksie: Aethelred is in 911 oorlede), vermoor Eardwulf hom in sy siekbed. Hoekom? Om 'n skielike verhoging te beskerm. Met die vraag wie as die heerser van Mercia moet opvolg, vind Eardwulf hom die gunsteling, 'n ooreenkoms wat gelegitimeer moet word deur die huwelik met Aethelred en Aethelflaed se dogter, die kind Aelfwynn.

Alhoewel Aethelflaed uiteindelik die troon inneem soos in die geskiedenis (al is dit te danke aan Uhtred in hierdie vertelling), vorm dit 'n boog waarin Uhtred Aelfwynn oor die platteland op soek is na veiligheid, wat haar in aanraking bring met 'The Sickness', wat - in 'n era sonder handewas - so skadelik is as wat jy jou kan voorstel. Aylesbury word selfs in kwarantyn geplaas.

Wat is hierdie siekte? 'Daar is geen historiese epidemie bekend in die vroeë Middeleeuse Brittanje vanaf 910/911 of selfs die eerste dekades van die 10de eeu nie, maar wat gebeur, is nie lank nie, nadat 'n siekteperiode in 896 aangeteken is, waarin 'n aantal groot en goeie van Wessex omgekom het, ”sê Lavelle in ons episode ses resensie. Ondanks die feit dat die beeld sterk verband hou met die Middeleeue, is daar niks in die reeks of in die werklike geskiedenis wat daarop dui dat hierdie siekte die Swart Dood is nie.

Te midde van die opvolgingskrisis, kom 'n nuwe Deense bedreiging na vore: Sigtryggr, 'n ware Viking wat as 'n afstammeling van Ivar the Boneless gedink het. Hy land in Wallis, verlaat King Hywel, red Brida, lei 'n oorlogsband na Wessex en gryp Winchester ahistories vas - onverdedig, terwyl Edward inmeng in die opvolging van Mercian.

Aan die einde van die seisoen se klimatiese maand lange beleg, word Uhtred onderhandelaar en help hy om 'n ooreenkoms te sluit waarin Sigtryggr Winchester ten gunste van York prysgee. Dit is weer die regte geskiedenis op die verkeerde tyd: Sigtryggr, merk Lavelle op in ons episode tien-resensie, was die historiese heerser van die Anglo-Skandinawiërs van York-maar eers in 920. Uhtred ry (voorlopig) met Aethelstan as syne afdeling - die seun kan nie in Winchester bly nie, veral omdat Aethelhelm, oupa van Edward se huidige erfgenaam, Aelswith pas vergiftig het om te verseker dat sy gesin die mag behou ...

Hoe sal Die Laaste Koninkryk einde?

As die vertoning voortduur en die draad van Bernard Cornwell se romans volg, weet ons moontlik reeds die antwoord. Cornwell vertel Geskiedenis Ekstra in 2018 daardie "Die Laaste Koninkryk Die reeks eindig met 'n ware historiese gebeurtenis: die slag van Brunanburh in 937. Die stryd was die begin van Engeland, dus moes dit duidelik in die reeks ingesluit word.

Die Laaste Koninkryk seisoen vier word vanaf Sondag 26 April op Netflix uitgesaai.

Kev Lochun is BBC -geskiedenis onthulSe produksie -redakteur


Making of the United Kingdom - Geskiedenis

Die Verenigde Koninkryk is noordwes van die Europese vasteland tussen die Atlantiese Oseaan en die Noordsee geleë. Dit het 'n totale oppervlakte van 244,100 vierkante kilometer, waarvan byna 99% grond en die res binnelandse water is. Van noord na suid is dit ongeveer 1 000 kilometer lank.

Die Britse deel van Europa en is lid van die Europese Unie (EU).

Wat is die amptelike naam van die Verenigde Koninkryk?

Die amptelike naam van die Verenigde Koninkryk is die & quotVerenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Noord -Ierland& quot.

Watter lande vorm die Verenigde Koninkryk?

Die naam verwys na die vereniging van wat vroeër vier afsonderlike nasies was: Engeland, Skotland, Wallis en Ierland (hoewel die grootste deel van Ierland nou onafhanklik is. Slegs Noord -Ierland is nou deel van die Verenigde Koninkryk).

Die Verenigde Koninkryk bestaan ​​uit:

  • Engeland - die hoofstad is Londen. - Die hoofstad is Edinburgh. - Die hoofstad is Cardiff.
  • Noord -Ierland - Die hoofstad is Belfast.

Engeland, Skotland en Wallis vorm saam Groot -Brittanje.

Groot -Brittanje en Noord -Ierland vorm saam die & quotVerenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Noord -Ierland& quot (VK)

Wat is die hoofstad van die Verenigde Koninkryk?

Waarom is die hele Ierland nie in die Verenigde Koninkryk nie?

Voor 1922 het die Verenigde Koninkryk Ierland by die definisie ingesluit, maar toe die Ierse Vrystaat nie meer deel van die Unie was nie, het die titel verander na 'Noord -Ierland'.

Wanneer is die Verenigde Koninkryk gevorm (gemaak)?

Die Verenigde Koninkryk (VK) is op 1 Januarie 1801 gestig en vorm die grootste deel van die Britse Eilande.

Hoe word mense in die Verenigde Koninkryk genoem?

Mense in die Verenigde Koninkryk word Britte genoem, hoewel hulle verskillende nasionaliteite het.

Die Union Flag, in die volksmond bekend as die Union Jack, simboliseer die unie van die lande van die Verenigde Koninkryk. Dit bestaan ​​uit die individuele vlae van drie lande in die Koninkryk. Lees meer

The Story of the Making of the United Kingdom

Die huidige Union Flag (Union Jack) verteenwoordig die politieke unie van drie koninkryke

Die verhaal van hoe die Verenigde Koninkryk gevorm is, kan vertel word deur die vervaardiging van die Union Flag, die vlag van die Verenigde Koninkryk.

Ander bladsye oor die Verenigde Koninkryk

Die Britse Eilande

Vrae oor Groot -Brittanje

Vrae oor Engeland

& kopiereg Kopiereg - lees asb
Al die materiaal op hierdie bladsye is gratis vir huiswerk en klaskamer. U mag die inhoud van hierdie bladsy nie herversprei, verkoop of plaas op enige ander webwerf of blog sonder skriftelike toestemming van die Mandy Barrow nie.
www.mandybarrow.com

Mandy is the creator of the Woodlands Resources section of the Woodlands Junior website.
The two websites projectbritain.com and primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk are the new homes for the Woodlands Resources.

Mandy left Woodlands in 2003 to work in Kent schools as an ICT Consulatant.
She now teaches computers at The Granville School and St. John's Primary School in Sevenoaks Kent.


Scotland: Rogue nation

The most important consideration in the making of the United Kingdom in 1707 was the standpoint of England.

Under William of Orange, England had been consolidated as a global power by the massive build up of the army and the navy to fight the French.

England’s war effort was funded through a national debt, supplied increasingly by taxes on trade rather than land.

The largest component of customs dues was levied on the colonial trade. But this trade faced significant disruption from Scottish commercial networks which circumvented the Navigation Acts contrived to protect English domestic and overseas trade.

England had insufficient manpower to fight wars, sustain manufacturing and expand its empire - the Scots were a ready reservoir.

English feelings that Scotland was acting as a rogue nation contributed greatly to William’s willingness to sabotage the Darien Venture through which Scotland attempted to establish an entrepôt for the East and West Indies on the Panama Isthmus in the late 1690s.

English desires to control the Scots became more acute after the accession of Queen Anne, particularly as the Scots seemed reluctant to accept an eventual Hanoverian succession.

Financial issues became critical as England embarked upon the War of the Spanish Succession. Because the Jacobites were strongly backed by Louis XIV of France, this engagement could well have turned into a war for the British succession.

Renewal of war further exposed a demographic crisis in England and brought about a major shift in government policy in favour of union.

England had insufficient manpower to fight wars, sustain manufacturing and expand its empire. The Scots were a ready reservoir.

Queen Anne played a proactive role in the making of the United Kingdom, not least because she was outraged by the endeavours of the Scottish estates to impose limitations on the prerogative powers of her eventual successor.

If the price of union and the Hanoverian succession was to be the termination of the Scottish estates, so be it. In turn, leading members of the estates, intent on preserving the royal prerogative, securing the Presbyterian Kirk and attaining greater career opportunities through empire promoted Union.


Communication and Banking in the Industrial Revolution

The latter part of the Industrial Revolution also saw key advances in communication methods, as people increasingly saw the need to communicate efficiently over long distances. In 1837, British inventors William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented the first commercial telegraphy system, even as Samuel Morse and other inventors worked on their own versions in the United States. Cooke and Wheatstone’s system would be used for railroad signalling, as the speed of the new trains had created a need for more sophisticated means of communication.

Banks and industrial financiers rose to new prominent during the period, as well as a factory system dependent on owners and managers. A stock exchange was established in London in the 1770s the New York Stock Exchange was founded in the early 1790s. 

In 1776, Scottish social philosopher Adam Smith (1723-1790), who is regarded as the founder of modern economics, published Die Rykdom van Nasies. In it, Smith promoted an economic system based on free enterprise, the private ownership of means of production, and lack of government interference.


&aposRumours&apos became one of the band&aposs most successful albums

Alhoewel Rumours would go on to become a massive international hit and musical anchor to the latter part of the &apos70s, Buckingham remembers having mixed feelings about creating such a bittersweet ode to love lost and found. “When Rumors went crazy, I just couldn’t bring myself to feel strongly about the album,” he said to Rollende klip in 1984. 𠇊t some point, all the stuff surrounding it started to become the main focus. There was a gap between what I felt was important internally – what I had accomplished musically – and the popular acclaim.”

The core five members of Fleetwood Mac would go on to produce further studio albums and tour and would disband and then reunite over the decades. Considered by many fans and critics as the band’s best release, Rumours was selected in 2018 for preservation in the National Recording Registry. Rollende klip placed it at number 26 on their list of 500 Greatest Albums of All Time,ꃞscribing the band as turning “private turmoil into gleaming, melodic public art.”

"Rumours remains so powerful because it’s so ruthlessly clear-eyed about the crisis, instead of smoothing it over," Christine explained to Rollende klip. "After all the tantrums and breakdowns and crying fits, the album ends with Stevie Nicks asking you point blank: &aposIs it over now? Do you know how to pick up the pieces and go home?&apos If the answers are &aposno&apos and &aposno,&apos you flip the record and play it again."


The Constitution of the United Kingdom

Many nations around the world govern through a written constitution, which lays out the fundamental laws of the land and rights of the people in one single legal document. So why doesn’t the UK have a written constitution? The answer can be found in our history.

Emerging nations around the world have had to start from scratch and produce a written constitution setting out their laws and citizens’ rights. Some more established countries have had to adopt a written constitution due to revolt or war. However Britain escaped the revolutionary zeal of the late 18th and 19th centuries, and so the UK constitution, often referred to as the British constitution, has evolved over centuries.

Democracy in Britain is based on Acts of Parliament, historical documents, court judgments, legal precedence and convention. The earliest date in the history of our constitution is 1215 when the barons forced King John to accept the Magna Carta, the ‘Great Charter of the Liberties of England’, which limited the power of the king, making him subject to the law of the land. Two of its key principles, the right to a fair trial by one’s peers and protection from unlawful imprisonment, form the basis of common law in Britain. Magna Carta would also be a major influence on the US constitution.

The Provisions of Oxford in 1258 set out the basis for the governance of England. 24 members would make up a Council governed by the monarch but supervised by a parliament. The first parliament, made up of knights, lords and common men drawn from the towns and cities, was presided over by Simon de Montfort, widely regarded as the founder of the House of Commons.

The Petition of Rights of 1628 set out some further rights and liberties of the people, including freedom from arbitrary arrest and punishment.

Another landmark piece of legislation was the Bill of Rights of 1689. This followed the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688, in which William III and Queen Mary replaced King James II. This bill declared that the monarch could not rule without consent of Parliament. As part of the bill, Parliament would meet regularly there would be free elections and freedom of speech in the chamber. It outlined specific liberties for the people, including the freedom to bear arms for self-defence, freedom from taxes imposed by the monarch without the consent of Parliament and the freedom from cruel and unusual punishment.

The Act of Settlement of 1701 controlled who should succeed to the throne and established the vital principle of judicial independence. The number of men entitled to vote was greatly increased by the 1832 Great Reform Act, and the Representation of the People’s Act of 1928 gave all men and women over the age of 21 the right to vote.

These and other written laws form just part of the constitution of the United Kingdom. Political customs or conventions are the unwritten rules that are vital to the workings of government. The office of Prime Minister is one of these conventions: legally the Monarch appoints the Prime Minister, who by convention is the leader of the largest party (or coalition of parties) after a General Election and commands the confidence of the House of Commons.

The Houses of Parliament

Parliament is made up of three entities: the Monarchy, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. To become law, bills have to be passed by both Houses and then given Royal Assent. By convention and in practice today, the Queen automatically gives her consent, although in theory she has the absolute and legal power to refuse.

By convention, all ministers in government must have a seat in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords. The Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer must have a seat in the House of Commons. This convention makes the elected government responsible and accountable to Parliament. This is known as the Westminster system of parliamentary government.

Entry into the European Economic Community in 1973 and membership of the European Union brought Britain under the jurisdiction of the European courts in many areas. Some people today see this as an undermining of parliamentary sovereignty, commonly regarded as the defining principle of the British constitution, and cite this as one of the arguments for Brexit (Britain leaving the European Union).

What would be the advantages of a written constitution? Those of us who have followed the Brexit debates in the House of Commons on television have done so in disbelief and confusion. Many today believe that parliament is at best in crisis and at worst ‘not fit for purpose’, and that a written constitution might clarify the position. Others claim that a system that has evolved over centuries is the best for Britain and a written constitution covering all our laws, liberties and conventions would be incredibly difficult to produce.

Whatever your point of view, the British system of government at Westminster (‘The Mother of Parliaments’) has formed the basis of parliamentary democracy of many countries around the world.


IV. Elections

Parliamentary elections were first introduced in medieval England as a solution from the Crown, who was required to obtain consent from Parliament to directly tax his subjects.[39] These elections evolved over time to have a detailed set of rules and procedures that continue to be refined today.

National elections are known as General Parliamentary Elections.[40] The Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011 established five-year fixed-term Parliaments, with the election occurring on the first Thursday of May, five years after the last election was held.[41] The political party that wins the most seats during this election goes on to form the government.
A principle of the British system of government is that the government of the day must have the confidence of the House of Commons. As noted above, the government is formed by the party that wins the majority of seats during the general election. A &ldquohung Parliament&rdquo results when no party wins a majority during the election. A report from the House of Commons states that &ldquothere are four likely outcomes. These [are] . . . (a) a minority government (b) a coalition (c) a failure to produce a government at all or (d) two or more of these things during the lifetime of a parliament.&rdquo[42] A hung Parliament occurred during the 2010 election, and the Conservative Party and Liberal Democrats went on to form a coalition government.[43]

Prior to the Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011, the maximum duration of a Parliament was five years, at which point Parliament automatically expired.[44] This rarely happened, however, and elections would generally occur after Parliament was dissolved, either through Royal Proclamation[45] or upon the advice of the Prime Minister.[46] The effect of the Proclamation was to vacate all the seats in the House of Commons and require a general election for the Commons. Because there was no set timetable for when an election should be held, other than it should occur within the five-year maximum term of Parliament, the Prime Minister had a political and tactical advantage of deciding the date of the general election, although generally the election was announced in the spring in which the Parliament was due to expire.

The last general election was held on May 7, 2015, and the Conservative party won 330 seats, accounting for 36.9% of votes. This secured a majority in the House for the Conservatives by twelve seats, the first time this party has secured a majority government since 1992. The next election will occur in accordance with the requirements established by the Fixed Term Parliaments Act 2011, and will take place the first Thursday in May 2020.[47]

A. Electoral System

In the UK, the electoral system used is that of a simple majority (plurality) for each constituency, more commonly known as the &ldquofirst past the post&rdquo system. The candidate who wins the largest number of votes from his or her constituency is to Parliament. The political party that wins the most votes goes on to form the government. A referendum was held in 2011 in which voters were asked if they wished to change the electoral system from the first past the post system to an alternative voting system. Voter turnout was higher than expected at 41%, with an overwhelming majority of 67.9% of voters rejecting a change in the electoral system.[48]

Eligibility to vote in general elections in the UK is subject to a number of criteria. Primarily, the individual wishing to vote must be registered in the register of parliamentary electors for his or her relevant constituency.[49] To be able to register his or her name in the register of parliamentary electors, the individual must be a British subject, which includes Commonwealth citizens,[50] or a citizen of the Republic of Ireland residing in Britain,[51] and be eighteen years or older. A British citizen residing overseas can vote for up to fifteen years after he or she leaves the country.[52]

Individuals who are disqualified from voting are Members of the House of Lords, legal or illegal immigrants, individuals of unsound mind, individuals guilty of corrupt or illegal practices in elections, and prisoners detained while serving their sentence. This latter restriction is currently under review as a result of a successful challenge before the European Court of Justice, although the current government has stated it has no plans to provide prisoners with a vote.[53]

B. Electoral Districts

Electoral Districts in the UK are known as parliamentary constituencies, with each constituency electing one Member of Parliament. There are currently 650 constituencies in the UK, with the average population represented by a Member of Parliament being 68,000.[54] The breakdown of Members of Parliament representing the countries of the UK is as follows: 533 in England, 59 in Scotland, 40 in Wales, and 18 in Northern Ireland.[55] The distribution of these seats is under continuous review by four nondepartmental government bodies, known as the Boundary Commissions. The Boundary Commissions recommend changes to the boundaries of the constituencies they are responsible for reviewing to ensure that each Member of Parliament represents a proportionate number of constituents who are eligible to vote.[56]

C. Registering to Vote

Provisions for the registration of voters in the UK are made through regulations under the Representation of the People Act 1983.[57] In the UK, local councils maintain voter registration lists (commonly known as the &ldquoelectoral roll&rdquo or &ldquoelectoral register&rdquo). The information held on the electoral roll is used for general elections, European Parliament elections, local government elections and, depending upon the persons&rsquo place of residence, elections to the National Assembly for Wales or the Scottish Parliament.[58]

Voter registration is not automatic and requires positive action (registration) on behalf of the individual wishing to vote. The electoral roll is compiled from three main sources:

  • An annual canvass conducted by the Local Council between August and November. Voter registration forms are delivered to homes in the Local Councils area. Households are required by law to complete and return the form listing all their residents who are eligible to vote on October 15 of that year.[59] If the information on the form received by the household is accurate, registration can be renewed by phone or the Internet.
  • Rolling registration by individual voters, who can register at any time by completing a registration form and sending it to the local electoral registration office.
  • Online registration by individual voters, who can register at any time by completing and submitting an online registration form.[60]

The penalty for failing to complete the voter registration form or for providing false information is a fine of up to £1,000 (approximately US$1,500).[61] Additionally, failure to register results in the individual not being able to vote in any election, and also has a negative impact on his or her ability to obtain credit, as credit reporting agencies use the electoral roll to verify names and addresses of credit applicants.[62]

The electoral register can be updated on a rolling basis with additions, deletions, or amendments. Individuals who move out of the voting district can submit a new voter registration form to be listed on the electoral register in their new district. Applicants must provide their old address so that the Electoral Registration Officer of the new district can notify the old district of the move.[63]

D. Voter Turnout

There were 45,325,100 UK parliamentary voters in 2014[64] 66.1% of the electorate voted during the general election in 2015, the highest turnout in eighteen years.[65]

E. Replacing Members of Parliament

Once elected, Members of Parliament cannot directly resign their seat.[66] The only way that a seat can be vacated is through death, disqualification, dissolution, expulsion, or elevation to the Peerage. When a parliamentary seat becomes vacant, a writ for a by-election is issued.[67] To prevent long-standing vacancies of seats, these writs are normally issued within three months of the vacancy.[68] If the vacancy occurs during a parliamentary recess, the Speaker of the House is permitted to issue a writ for election during this time.[69]

There appears to be no legislation or procedure to replace a large number of MPs. It is likely that the normal procedure for appointing MPs through by-elections would be followed in these circumstances. For example, in 1985, fifteen members of the Unionist Party vacated their seats in protest over the Anglo-Irish Agreement. As technically Members of Parliament are not permitted to reign from their seats, a legal loophole was used by these members, whereby they were appointed to an office for profit under the Crown, which disqualified them from sitting an am MP. By-elections were subsequently held to fill the vacancies.

During World War II, many seats were left vacant when MPs were involved in government services or became active members of the armed forces. The government formed a coalition in 1940 and agreed upon an electoral truce, during which the parties agreed not to contest by-elections. Instead, the local constituency association of the party that had won the seat in the last election nominated a candidate.[70] However, despite this agreement, some elections were still contested when parties considered that the candidate was too radical.


Inhoud

The United Kingdom is a Constitutional Monarchy in which the reigning monarch (that is, the king or queen who is the head of state at any given time) does not make any open political decisions. All political decisions are taken by the government and Parliament. This constitutional state of affairs is the result of a long history of constraining and reducing the political power of the monarch, beginning with Magna Carta in 1215.

Since the start of Edward VII's reign in 1901, the prime minister has always been an elected Member of Parliament (MP) and thus directly answerable to the House of Commons. A similar convention applies to the chancellor of the exchequer. It would probably now be politically unacceptable for the budget speech to be given in the House of Lords, with members of Parliament unable to question the Chancellor directly, especially now that the Lords have very limited powers on money bills. The last chancellor of the exchequer to be a member of the House of Lords was Lord Denman, who served as interim chancellor of the exchequer for one month in 1834. [6]

The British monarch, currently Elizabeth II, is the head of state and the sovereign, but not the head of government. The monarch takes little direct part in governing the country and remains neutral in political affairs. However, the authority of the state that is vested in the sovereign, known as the Crown, remains as the source of executive power exercised by the government.

In addition to explicit statutory authority, the Crown also possesses a body of powers in certain matters collectively known as the royal prerogative. These powers range from the authority to issue or withdraw passports to declarations of war. By long-standing convention, most of these powers are delegated from the sovereign to various ministers or other officers of the Crown, who may use them without having to obtain the consent of Parliament.

The prime minister also has weekly meetings with the monarch, who "has a right and a duty to express her views on Government matters. These meetings, as with all communications between The Queen and her Government, remain strictly confidential. Having expressed her views, The Queen abides by the advice of her ministers." [7]

Royal prerogative powers include, but are not limited to, the following:

Domestic powers Edit

  • The power to appoint (and in theory, dismiss) a prime minister. This power is exercised by the monarch personally. By convention they appoint (and are expected to appoint) the individual most likely to be capable of commanding the confidence of a majority in the House of Commons.
  • The power to appoint and dismiss other ministers. This power is exercised by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister.
  • The power to assent to and enact laws by giving royal assent to bills passed Parliament, which is required in order for a law to become effective (an act). This is exercised by the monarch, who also theoretically has the power to refuse assent, although no monarch has refused assent to a bill passed by Parliament since Queen Anne in 1708.
  • The power to give and to issue commissions to commissioned officers in the Armed Forces.
  • The power to command the Armed Forces. This power is exercised by the Defence Council in the Queen's name.
  • The power to appoint members to the Privy Council.
  • The power to issue, to suspend, cancel, recall, impound, withdraw or revoke British passports and the general power to provide or deny British passport facilities to British citizens and British nationals. This is exercised in the United Kingdom (but not necessarily in the Isle of Man, Channel Islands or British Overseas Territories) by the Home Secretary.
  • The power to pardon any conviction (the royal prerogative of mercy).
  • The power to grant, cancel and annul any honours.
  • The power to create corporations (including the status of being a city, with its own corporation) by royal charter, and to amend, replace and revoke existing charters.

Foreign powers Edit

  • The power to make and ratify treaties.
  • The power to declare war and conclude peace with other nations.
  • The power to deploy the Armed Forces overseas.
  • The power to recognise states.
  • The power to credit and receive diplomats.

Even though the United Kingdom has no single constitutional document, the government published the above list in October 2003 to increase transparency, as some of the powers exercised in the name of the monarch are part of the royal prerogative. [8] However, the complete extent of the royal prerogative powers has never been fully set out, as many of them originated in ancient custom and the period of absolute monarchy, or were modified by later constitutional practice.

As of 2019, there are around 120 government ministers [9] supported by 560,000 [10] civil servants and other staff working in the 25 ministerial departments [11] and their executive agencies. There are also an additional 20 non-ministerial departments with a range of further responsibilities.

In theory a government minister does not have to be a member of either House of Parliament. In practice, however, convention is that ministers must be members of either the House of Commons or House of Lords in order to be accountable to Parliament. From time to time, prime ministers appoint non-parliamentarians as ministers. In recent years such ministers have been appointed to the House of Lords. [12]

Under the British system, the government is required by convention and for practical reasons to maintain the confidence of the House of Commons. It requires the support of the House of Commons for the maintenance of supply (by voting through the government's budgets) and to pass primary legislation. By convention, if a government loses the confidence of the House of Commons it must either resign or a general election is held. The support of the Lords, while useful to the government in getting its legislation passed without delay, is not vital. A government is not required to resign even if it loses the confidence of the Lords and is defeated in key votes in that House. The House of Commons is thus the responsible house.

The prime minister is held to account during Prime Minister's Questions (PMQs) which provides an opportunity for MPs from all parties to question the PM on any subject. There are also departmental questions when ministers answer questions relating to their specific departmental brief. Unlike PMQs both the cabinet ministers for the department and junior ministers within the department may answer on behalf of the government, depending on the topic of the question.

During debates on legislation proposed by the government, ministers—usually with departmental responsibility for the bill—will lead the debate for the government and respond to points made by MPs or Lords.

Committees [13] of both the House of Commons and House of Lords hold the government to account, scrutinise its work and examine in detail proposals for legislation. Ministers appear before committees to give evidence and answer questions.

Government ministers are also required by convention and the Ministerial Code, [14] when Parliament is sitting, to make major statements regarding government policy or issues of national importance to Parliament. This allows MPs or Lords to question the government on the statement. When the government instead chooses to make announcements first outside Parliament, it is often the subject of significant criticism from MPs and the speaker of the House of Commons. [15]

The prime minister is based at 10 Downing Street in Westminster, London. Cabinet meetings also take place here. Most government departments have their headquarters nearby in Whitehall.

Since 1999, certain areas of central government have been devolved to accountable governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. These are not part of Her Majesty's Government, and are directly accountable to their own institutions, with their own authority under the Crown in contrast, there is no devolved government in England.

Up to three layers of elected local authorities (such as county, district and parish Councils) exist throughout all parts of the United Kingdom, in some places merged into unitary authorities. They have limited local tax-raising powers. Many other authorities and agencies also have statutory powers, generally subject to some central government supervision.

The government's powers include general executive and statutory powers, delegated legislation, and numerous powers of appointment and patronage. However, some powerful officials and bodies, (e.g. HM judges, local authorities, and the charity commissions) are legally more or less independent of the government, and government powers are legally limited to those retained by the Crown under common law or granted and limited by act of Parliament. Both substantive and procedural limitations are enforceable in the courts by judicial review.

Nevertheless, magistrates and mayors can still be arrested for and put on trial for corruption, and the government has powers to insert commissioners into a local authority to oversee its work, and to issue directives that must be obeyed by the local authority, if the local authority is not abiding by its statutory obligations. [16]

By contrast, as in European Union (EU) member states, EU officials cannot be prosecuted for any actions carried out in pursuit of their official duties, and foreign country diplomats (though not their employees) and foreign members of the European Parliament [17] are immune from prosecution in EU states under any circumstance. As a consequence, neither EU bodies nor diplomats have to pay taxes, since it would not be possible to prosecute them for tax evasion. When the UK was a member of the EU, this caused a dispute when the US ambassador to the UK claimed that London's congestion charge was a tax, and not a charge (despite the name), and therefore he did not have to pay it – a claim the Greater London Authority disputed.

Similarly, the monarch is totally immune from criminal prosecution and may only be sued with her permission (this is known as sovereign immunity). The monarch, by law, is not required to pay income tax, but Queen Elizabeth II has voluntarily paid it since 1993, and also pays local rates voluntarily. However, the monarchy also receives a substantial grant from the government, the Sovereign Support Grant, and Queen Elizabeth II's inheritance from her mother, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, was exempt from inheritance tax.

In addition to legislative powers, HM Government has substantial influence over local authorities and other bodies set up by it, by financial powers and grants. Many functions carried out by local authorities, such as paying out housing benefit and council tax benefit, are funded or substantially part-funded by central government.

Neither the central government nor local authorities are permitted to sue anyone for defamation. Individual politicians are allowed to sue people for defamation in a personal capacity and without using government funds, but this is relatively rare (although George Galloway, who was a backbench MP for a quarter of a century, has sued or threatened to sue for defamation a number of times). However, it is a criminal offence to make a false statement about any election candidate during an election, with the purpose of reducing the number of votes they receive (as with libel, opinions do not count).


Making of the United Kingdom - History

British Association of Paper Historians

History of Papermaking in the United Kingdom

The first reference to a papermill in the United Kingdom was in a book printed by Wynken de Worde in about 1495, this mill belonging to John Tate and was near Hertford. Other early mills included one at Dartford, owned by Sir John Speilman, who was granted special privileges for the collection of rags by Queen Elizabeth and one built in Buckinghamshire before the end of the sixteenth century. During the first half of the seventeenth century, mills were established near Edinburgh, at Cannock Chase in Staffordshire, and several in Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Surrey. The Bank of England has been issuing bank-notes since 1694, with simple watermarks in them since at least 1697. Henri de Portal was awarded the contract in December 1724 for producing the Bank of England watermarked bank-note paper at Bere Mill in Hampshire. Portals have retained this contract ever since but production is no longer at Bere Mill.

There were two major developments at about the middle of the eighteenth century in the paper industry in the UK. The first was the introduction of the rag-engine or hollander, invented in Holland sometime before 1670, which replaced the stamping mills which had previously been used for the disintegration of the rags and beating of the pulp. The second was in the design and construction of the mould used for forming the sheet. Early moulds had straight wires sewn down on to the wooden foundation, this produced an irregular surface showing the characteristic gelê marks, and, when printed on, the ink did not give clear, sharp lines. Baskerville, a Birmingham printer, wanted a smoother paper. James Whatman the Elder developed a woven wire fabric, thus leading to his production of the first wove paper in 1757.

Increasing demands for more paper during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries led to shortages of the rags needed to produce the paper. Part of the problem was that no satisfactory method of bleaching pulp had yet been devised, and so only white rags could be used to produce white paper. Chlorine bleaching was being used by the end of the eighteenth century, but excessive use produced papers that were of poor quality and deteriorated quickly. By 1800 up to 24 million lb of rags were being used annually, to produce 10,000 tons of paper in England and Wales, and 1000 tons in Scotland, the home market being supplemented by imports, mainly from the continent. Experiments in using other materials, such as sawdust, rye straw, cabbage stumps and spruce wood had been conducted in 1765 by Jacob Christian Schäffer. Similarly, Matthias Koops carried out many experiments on straw and other materials at the Neckinger Mill, Bermondsey around 1800, but it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that pulp produced using straw or wood was utilised in the production of paper.

By 1800 there were 430 (564 in 1821)papermills in England and Wales (mostly single vat mills), under 50 (74 in 1823) in Scotland and 60 in Ireland, but all the production was by hand and the output was low. The first attempt at a papermachine to mechanise the process was patented in 1799 by Frenchman Nicholas Louis Robert, but it was not a success. However, the drawings were brought to England by John Gamble in 1801 and passed on to the brothers Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier, who financed the engineer Bryan Donkin to build the machine. The first successful machine was installed at Frogmore, Hertfordshire, in 1803. The paper was pressed onto an endless wire cloth, transferred to a continuous felt blanket and pressed again, it would have been cut off the reel into sheets and loft dried in the same way as hand made paper. In 1809 John Dickinson patented a machine that that used a wire cloth covered cylinder revolving in a pulp suspension, the water being removed through the centre of the cylinder and the layer of pulp removed from the surface by a felt covered roller (later replaced by a continuous felt passing round a roller). This machine was the forerunner of the present day cylinder mould of vat machine, used mainly for the production of boards. Both these machines produced paper as a wet sheet which require drying after removal from the machine, but in 1821 T B Crompton patented a method of drying the paper continuously, using a woven fabric to hold the sheet against steam heated drying cylinders. After it had been pressed, the paper was cut into sheets by a cutter fixed at the end of the last cylinder.

By the middle of the nineteenth century the pattern for the mechanised production of paper had been set. Subsequent developments concentrated on increasing the size and production of the machines. Similarly, developments in alternative pulps to rags, mainly wood and esparto grass, enabled production increases. Conversely, despite the increase in paper production, there was a decrease, by 1884, in the number of paper mills in England and Wales to 250 and in Ireland to 14 (Scotland increased to 60), production being concentrated into fewer, larger units. Geographical changes also took place as many of the early mills were small and had been situated in rural areas. The change was to larger mills in, or near, urban areas closer to suppliers of the raw materials (esparto mills were generally situated near a port as the raw material was brought in by ship) and the paper markets.


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