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Ruïnes op die argeologiese terrein van Metsamor in Armenië

Ruïnes op die argeologiese terrein van Metsamor in Armenië


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Argishtikhinili (antieke stad)

Argishtikhinili (Urartian: ar-gi-iš-ti-ḫi-ni-li) was 'n stad in die antieke koninkryk Urartu, gestig tydens die uitbreiding van die Urartiërs in die Transkaukasus onder hul koning Argishti I, en na hom vernoem. Dit het tussen die 8ste en 6de eeu vC geduur. Die ruïnes van die vestings van Argishtikhinili is 15 kilometer suidwes van die huidige stad Armavir, Armenië, tussen die dorpe Nor-Armavir en Armavir in die Armeense marz Armavir. Die stad is gestig op die linkeroewer van die middelste bereik van die Arasrivier. Deur die eeue het die rivierkanaal na 'n paar kilometer suid van die stad verskuif. [1]


Komplekse toer na Armenië

As u binne agt dae omtrent alles wil leer oor Armenië, dan is die pakketreis ideaal vir u. U sal tyd hê om alles te dek - geskiedenis, kultuur, argitektuur en natuurmonumente, argeologiese terreine, grotte. U sal seker nie verveeld raak nie. Armenië sal u verras met sy veelsydigheid: 'n pragtige heidense tempel van die tweede eeu, net 10 minute van een van die argitektoniese meesterwerke van Armenië - Geghard -kloosterkompleks - in die rots gekerf!

U het die geleentheid om die uitsig op die berg Ararat te geniet vanaf die naaste punt in Armenië - vanaf die klooster Khor Virap, waar Sint Gregorius die Illuminator 13 jaar lank gevange was.

As gevolg van hierdie toer sal u sien hoe uiteenlopend die Armeense natuur is, hoe die landskap in Dilijan verskil van die in Araratvallei.

Daar wag 'n spesiale verrassing vir die fynproewers - 'n middagete in 'n dorpshuis in Garni. U sal sien hoe die tradisionele Armeense brood - lavash - gebak word, en u sal dit natuurlik saam met ander lekker geregte proe.

Dag 1: Aankoms by die lughawe Zvartnotc. Ons gids sal u ontmoet en na u hotel vervoer.

Dag 2: Yerevan Ontbyt by die hotel. Geskiedenismuseum van Armenië. Besoek tsitsernakaberd gewy aan die slagoffers van die Armeense volksmoord van 1915. Middagete. Matenadaran, die museum vir manuskripte, wat ongeveer 17.000 ou manuskripte bevat. Ontspanning. Oornag in Jerevan.

Dag 3: Jerevan – Garni – Geghard – Yerevan Ontbyt by die hotel. Die toer begin met die vesting Erebuni, wat in 782 vC gestig is, met die stille klipgetuie van antieke Jerevan. Ons gaan na Garni, 'n halfuur se stap deur die skilderagtige vallei van die rivier die Azat (UNESCO-wêrelderfenis), met sy wonderlike basaltkolomme. Middagete by Garni, in 'n dorpshuis. Daar sal u ook sien hoe tradisionele Armeense brood lavash gekook word. Besoek aan die enigste heidense tempel van Garni (I c.). Besoek aan die grotkloster Geghard (V-XII c., UNESCO Wêrelderfenis). Oornag in Jerevan.

Dag 4: Yerevan – Metsamor – Echmiatsin – Yerevan Ontbyt by die hotel. Argeologiese opgrawings van Metsamor, 'n unieke monument van die wêreldkultuur van die Bronstydperk. 'N Reis na die heilige stad Echmiatsin, met sy katedraal en kerke, wat deur UNESCO op die wêrelderfenislys geregistreer is. Ons besoek die Echmiatsin -katedraal (IV c.), Die tempel van St. Hripsime (VII c.), St. Gayane (VII c.), Die ruïnes van die tempel Zvartnots (VII c., UNESCO Wêrelderfenis). Keer terug na Jerevan. Nasionale Galery. Oornag in Jerevan.

Dag 5: Yerevan – Bjni – Sevan – Dilijan – Haghpat.

Ontbyt by die hotel. 'N Reis na Bjni in die vallei van die rivier Hrazdan, met sy natuurlike brug, kerk en vesting van die X eeu. Reis na die bergagtige meer Sevan, die pêrel van Armenië, op 'n hoogte van ongeveer 2000m. Middagete.Sevan -klooster (IX -sent.) Op die skiereiland Sevan. Ons gaan voort met die reis na die noordooste, die gebied van woude, die hidropatiese stad Dilijan. Middagete. Vervolg die roete na die woud (1,5 uur se stap, maklik), in taxus (denneblad (Jurassic periode), 'n jarelange (wat 3000 jaar leef), kom selde onder natuurlike omstandighede voor en word in die Rooi Boek van die boom). Gaan voort met die reis na die noorde, die Lori -streek. Oornag in Haghpat.

Dag 6: Hagpat – Sanahin – Yerevan Ontbyt by die hotel. Besoek aan die klooster van Haghpat (X c., Wêrelderfenis van UNESCO) en die klooster van Sanahin (s. X, World Heritage of UNESCO). Middagete. Besoek aan die Kobayr -klooster (X c.) Met asemrowende fresco's uit die XIII eeu (40 minute se stap, skerp). Die pad terug na Jerevan deur die skilderagtige kloof van die rivier Debed, en teen die berghange en die gang van Spitak. Mount Aragats, 4,430 meter hoog, is die hoogste punt in Armenië. U sal ook die stad Spitak sien, die episentrum van 'n massiewe aardbewing met 'n sterkte van 7,2 grade, wat in 1988 byna heeltemal verwoes is en gedurende die daaropvolgende jare herbou is. Ons gaan deur twee dorpe van Yezidi (nasionale minderheid). Oornag in Jerevan.

Dag 7: Yerevan – Khor Virap – Areni – Noravank – Yerevan ”

Ontbyt by die hotel. Langs die snelweg Yerevan – Artashat sal die majestueuse berg Ararat voortdurend in ons oë wees en ons sal amper tot sy voet kom om die klooster van Khor Virap te besoek, waar die heilige Gregory Illuminator 13 jaar lank in die gevangenis was. Ons gaan voort met ons toer na die suide, provinsie Vayots Dzor. Ons sal wonderlike plaaslike wyne in die fabriek van Areni -wyne probeer. Naby die dorpie Areni, in die skilderagtige vallei van die rivier die Arpa, besoek ons ​​die Karsts-grot Areni-1 met die oorblyfsels van die materiële kultuur van die klip- en brons-eeue. Middagete. Dan kom u langs die kloof by die klooster Noravank (IX-XIII c., Wêrelderfenis van UNESCO), verborge tussen die rooi kranse, een van die beste kloosters in Armenië. Keer terug na Jerevan.

Dag 8: Yerevan – Ashtarak – Agarak – Aghdzk – Tegher – Amberd – Yerevan “ Ontbyt by die hotel. Parajanov Museum (die unieke kunstenaar, skilder, wêreldberoemde filmmaker). Die toer duur voort na die suidelike hange van die berg Aragats, waar die argeologiese opgrawings van die antieke plek Agarak (Bronstydperk) geleë is. Armeense konings Arshakuni -graf in die dorp Aghdzk. Klooster Tegher (XII c.). Middagete. Besoek die Amberd-vesting (X sent.), Op die suidoostelike hange van die berg Aragats, op 'n hoogte van 2.300 m. Keer terug na Jerevan. Afskeidsete. Oornag in Jerevan.

Dag 9: Ontbyt by die hotel. Vertrek na lughawe Zvartnotc.


Artaxata

Artaxata of Artaxiasata (Grieks Ἀρτάξατα of ᾽Αρταξιάσατα): Hellenistiese hoofstad van Armenië (moderne Khor Virap).

Stigting

Artaxata is in 188 vC gestig deur Artaxias, die eerste koning van Armenië uit die Artaxiad -dinastie, wat op advies van sy militêre adviseur Hannibal Barca opgetree het. noot [Strabo, Aardrykskunde 11.14.6.] Na verneem word, het Hannibal selfs die stadsnota ontwerp [Plutarch, Lucullus 31.3-4.] En die stad het dus die bynaam "die Armeense Kartago" gekry. nota [Plutarchus, Lucullus 32.3.] Die Grieks-Romeinse geograaf Strabo het moontlik die regte naam van die stad onthou toe hy opgemerk het dat dit ook genoem word Artaxiasata, 'n noukeurige weergawe van die woorde šiyati, "die vreugde van", en arta, "geregtigheid". noot [Strabo, Aardrykskunde 11.14.6.]

"'N Pragtige nedersetting"

Die nuwe stad, wat Yervandashat as hoofstad van Armenië vervang het, was geleë op die noordelike oewer van die rivier die Araxes, op 'n vrugbare vlakte, naby die samevloeiing met die rivier wat nou Metsamor genoem word. Die webwerf het 'n wonderlike uitsig op die berg Baris (nou bekend as Ararat). Die filosoof Plutarchus noem dit '' 'n baie groot en pragtige stad '' noot [Plutarchus, Lucullus 31.4.] En Strabo bevestig dat Artaxata dit was

'n pragtige nedersetting en die koninklike woning van die land. Dit is geleë op 'n skiereilandagtige elmboog en sy mure het die rivier as 'n beskerming rondom, behalwe by die landmus, wat omring word deur 'n sloot en 'n palissade. noot [Strabo, Aardrykskunde 11.14.6.]

Hierdie kronkel in die rivier is nie geïdentifiseer nie. Die mure is egter gevind en blykbaar drie meter dik en tien kilometer lank is vyf kilometer ondersoek en toon aan dat die boonste deel van die stad op verskeie heuwels met steil hellings gebou is. Die noordelikste heuwel, wat ongeveer sewentig meter bo die vlakte uitstyg, was die akropolis: 'n groot, driehoekige vesting. Die baksteen steunpunte van die vesting se muur is ouer as die vroeë tweede eeu vC en bewys dat koning Artaxias, toe hy Artaxata gestig het, 'n ouer, Urartiese heuwelfort hergebruik het. Die torings, wat vir katapulte gebruik is, was Hellenistiese toevoegings. Die graafmachines het 'n wapenrusting gevind en die werkswinkel van 'n smid, swaarde, dolke en nie minder nie as drie duisend pyl- en spiespunte.

/> Die steil hange van Artaxata

Argeoloë het akwadukte en dreineringskanale geïdentifiseer. Daar was badhuise op die akropolis en, naby die Araxesrivier, in die onderste stad. Ons weet ook dat daar 'n teater was, die eerste in Armenië. Die Armeense skrywer Moses van Chorene skryf in die laat oudheid dat Artaxata nie meer die wonderlike stad was nie, maar dat daar talle heidense tempels was, gewy aan Tir en Anahita (Apollo en Artemis).

Volgens die Peutinger -kaart het paaie Artaxata verbind met Mesopotamië in die suidweste, met Media in die suidooste en met die Griekse stede van die Swart See in die noordweste. Die paaie het handel vergemaklik - munte en robbe is argeologiese bewyse - en die stad het ryk geword. Dit het nuwe inwoners gelok, hoewel nie almal vrywillig gekom het nie: koning Tigranes II (ongeveer 95 - ongeveer 55 vC) het die krygsgevangenes van twaalf dorpe na Artaxata oorgeplaas. Die stad moes tienduisende inwoners gehad het.

Sy rykdom het Artaxata 'n natuurlike militêre teiken gemaak. In 68 vC beleër die Romeinse bevelvoerder Lucullus die stad, waar Tigranes II ('n bondgenoot van die vyand van Rome Mithridates VI Eupator van Pontus) sy toevlug geneem het, maar Lucullus se teenstanders in Rome het daarin geslaag om sy herinnering te verseker voordat hy iets kon bereik. nota [Plutarchus, Lucullus 31.] Die opvolger van Lucullus Pompeius is oorgelaat om die oorgawe van Tigranes te aanvaar. nota [Appian, Mithridatiese oorloë 104 Cassius Dio, Romeinse geskiedenis 36.52.2.]

Later, in 34 vC, was die stad die teiken van 'n suksesvolle Romeinse veldtog deur Mark Antony, wat koning Artavasdes II vervang het. nota [Velleius Paterculus, Romeinse geskiedenis 2.82.3 Cassius Dio, Romeinse geskiedenis 49.39.1-40.2.] In 1 nC het die Romeinse prins Gaius Caesar, 'n kleinseun van keiser Augustus, die gebied besoek en 'n nabygeleë stad met die naam Artageras verower, let op [Strabo, Aardrykskunde 11.14.6 Velleius Paterculus, Romeinse geskiedenis 2.102.2.] Terwyl die Romeinse prins Germanicus in die jaar 18 nC Artaxata besoek het om in te gryp in die Armeense opvolging. let op [Tacitus, Annale 2.56.]

In 58 het die Romeinse bevelvoerder Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo 'n baie suksesvolle veldtog teen Armenië van stapel gestuur met behulp van III Gallica, VI Ferrata en X Fretensis. Hy het Artaxata met die grond geslyp en die Armeniërs 'n nuwe, pro-Romeinse koning, Tigranes VI, gegee. let op [Tacitus, Annale 13.41 Cassius Dio, Romeinse geskiedenis 62.19.4.] Toe 'n vredesverdrag gesluit is, aanvaar die Romeine 'n ander koning, Tiridates, wat deur die keiser Nero (66 nC) gekroon is. Hy was 'n broer van die Partiese koning Vologases I, die eerste koning uit die Arsacid -dinastie in Armenië.

Alhoewel Armenië 'n nuwe dinastie gekry het, het Artaxata die hoofstad gebly. hoewel dit kortliks die naam Neronia gekry het. let op [Cassius Dio, Romeinse geskiedenis 63.7.2.] Dinge het begin verander in 114 nC, toe die Romeinse keiser Trajanus Armenië binnegeval en verower het. ('N Groot inskripsie van die Fourth Legion Scythica is te sien in die State Museum of Armenian History in Jerevan. Let op [EDCS-09701691.>) Hoewel Trajanus se opvolger Hadrianus in 117 Armenië verlaat het, het koning Vologases I (nie te verwar met die Vologases nie) hierbo genoem) het sy woning na die nabygeleë Kainepolis/Vagharshapat (Echmiadzin) verhuis. Een generasie later, in 162 nC, het die Romeinse generaal Statius Priscus Artaxata afgedank. <<Historia Augusta, Marcus Aurelius 9.1.]

Laat Oudheid

Die stad het bewoon gebly en gebly, ondanks die plundering deur die Sasaniese koning Shapur II in 369, 'n kulturele sentrum van 'n mate. Dit was die plek waar koning Tiridates III die Christelike non Hripsime laat noteer het [Agathangelos, Geskiedenis van St. Gregory en die bekering van Armenië 2.13-14.] En waar hy die Christelike prediker Gregory the Illuminator gevange gehou het, let op [Agathangelos, Geskiedenis van St. Gregory en die bekering van Armenië 2.18.] Totdat Tiridates in die eerste jare van die vierde eeu tot die nuwe geloof bekeer het. Die gevangenis van Gregory het die kern geword van 'n heiligdom, Khor Virap, wat nog te midde van die verlate ruïnes van Artaxata bestaan.

In die vyfde eeu het die rivier Metsamor sy gang verander en die stad het afgeneem. Tog was dit 'n handelsplek tussen die Romeinse en Sassaniese Ryk: die Codex Justinianus verwys na 'n wet van Honorius en Theodosius II, gedateer tot 408 of 409, dat handel slegs in Nisibis, Callinicus (Raqqa in Sirië) en Artaxata toegelaat is. let op [Codex Justinianus 4.63.4.1.] In 449 is Artaxata gebruik vir 'n vergadering van Armeense Christelike leiers om die eise van die Sassanid -koning Yazdgard II te bespreek, wat daarop aangedring het dat die Armeniërs die Sassaniese godsdienstige leierskap sou volg. (Twee jaar later het die Sassaniese Perse die Armeniërs verslaan.)

Teen hierdie tyd is Artaxata verduister deur Vagharshapat en het Dvin Khor Virap as pelgrimstog oorleef.


Herontdek Armenië se gids- Armavir Marz

Armavir Marz is geleë in die Arax (Yeraskh in historiese tye) riviervallei en het van die rykste en vrugbaarste land in Armenië, wat bestaan ​​uit die drie Sowjet -streke Ejmiatsin (die bekken van die onderste Kasagh -rivier), Armavir ( die Metsamor, voorheen Kara Su of Sevjur -"Blackwater" -wasbak), en Baghramian, die rotsagtige westelike hoogland. Juweel in die toeristiese kroon is Ejmiatsin, die moederkerk van Armenië, met sy skatkis en afgeleë vroeë Middeleeuse kerke, waaronder die verwoeste Zvartnots -katedraal. Die Sardarapat -gevegsmonument bevat 'n wonderlike, onlangs opgeknapte etnografiese museum wat 'n aparte besoek werd is. Die Urartiaanse/Hellenistiese stad Armavir/Argishtihinili en die vesting van Aragats, en die vroeë Ystertydperk/museum van Metsamor, is van groot argeologiese betekenis, hoewel dit 'n bietjie geheimsinnig is vir nie-spesialiste.

Sedert die Neolitiese tydperk en van groot belang in die Urartiese en Hellenistiese tye (Armavir en Yervandashat was ou Armeense hoofstede), was hierdie vrugbare rivierlande onder Mongoolse, Turkse en Persiese besetting te aanloklik vir die veroweraars, wat die Armeense bevolking in die voetheuwels. Slegs rondom Ejmiatsin, waar die Armeense kerk vasgehou het aan ryk landgoedere, het die Armeense volk 'n meerderheid in die Arax -vallei behou voordat die bevolking van die 20ste eeu oorgeplaas het. Middeleeuse Armeense oorblyfsels is dus redelik yl. Die Russiese/Sowjetregering was ook nie goedgesind teenoor die monumente van die daaropvolgende Persiese heersers van Armenië nie.

Alhoewel dit plat is, word die land gekruis deur strome, damme en kanale, met 'n ryk voëllewe. Swift pyl saans langs die pad, en ooievaars sweef streng bo -oor.

Ejmiatsin en omgewing (afdeling 1 kaart D)

As u Yerevan op die lughawepad verlaat, draai u links by die lig net nadat die groot sirkel na die dorpie Argavand lei. Neem die regte vurk by die bord "Customs Warehouse" en kyk onmiddellik regs. Op sy eie staan ​​'n aansienlike begrafnistoring met klippe, een van die handjievol belangrike Islamitiese monumente wat in Armenië ongeskonde bly. Die lang Arabiese fries-inskripsie uit 1413 begin met 'n beroemde Sura uit die Koran en herdenk Pir Hussein, die seun van Sa'ad, 'n ietwat selftevrede stammeester in Armenië gedurende die kort tydperk na die dood van Timur Lenk toe Kara Yusuf, leier van die Turkmeense Karakoyunlu (Black Sheep) stamkonfederasie, was die opperheerser van 'n groot deel van Timur se Persiese ryk. Pir Budaq was die seun van Kara-Yusuf, wat die troon kortliks met sy pa gedeel het. Die Karakoyunlu het gemengde resensies in Armeense rekeninge gekry en is in elk geval gou verdryf deur die Akkoyunlu, oftewel White Sheep, 'n mededingende konfederasie.

In die naam van Allah genadig en barmhartig! Allah - daar is geen god buiten hom nie, lewendig, werklik, nie lomerigheid of slaap kan Hom gryp nie; Hy besit alles in die hemele en op die aarde. Wie sal pleit, behalwe met Sy toestemming? Hy weet wat voor hulle was en wat na hulle sal wees, terwyl hulle niks van sy kennis waarneem as wat Hy wil nie. Sy troon omhels die hemel en die aarde, en Hy word nie belas deur hulle te bewaak nie. Hy is inderdaad groot en hoog. Opdrag om hierdie geseënde graf (kubba) te bou, die grootste, die edelste, oorvloedig in vrygewigheid en grootmoedigheid, die ondersteuning van konings en sultans, toevlug vir die swakke en die armes, voog van wetenskaplikes en diegene wat kennis soek, hulp aan die armes en reisigers, die glorie van die staat en die geloof, Emir Pir-Hussein, die seun van die laat ontslape Emir, verhef tot Sy [Allah se] beskerming, die barmhartigste Emir Sa'ad,-mag die grond op hom lig lê-in die dae van die regering van die Groot Sultan, die vrygewigste Khakan, die Sultan van Sultans in die Ooste en die Weste, die hulp van die staat en die geloof, Pir Budaq Khan en Yusuf Noyon, - mag Allah hul mag voortbestaan, op die vyftiende van Radzhab van die jaar 816 [11 Oktober 1413].

Terug op die lughawepad is die dorpie Parakar (4816 bevolking, met gipsmyn, S. Mariam Astvatsatsin, S. Harutyun kerk van 1855). Die volgende is Musaler (2340 p., Vernoem na die heroïese verset by Musa Dagh (Mount Moses) in Turkye), met 'n jaarlikse viering van hul laaste resue deur die Franse met 40 massiewe potte harissa wat gratis is vir almal, en ander feeste rondom die Musa Ler -monument einde September. Die volgende dorpe is Ptghunk (1355 p) en Zvartnots = 70 = (40 09.62n x 044 20.25e) ("Plek van engele"). Die massiewe, sentraal beplande kerk, gemerk op die snelweg (S) deur 'n sierpoort en agteruitkykende arend S. Grigor Lusavorich* sou in elk geval 'n wonderwerk gewees het, alhoewel geleerdes nie saamstem oor hoe om die verwoeste fondamente te herstel nie. Die herstel van die troukoek in die meeste toeristeboeke, drie verdiepings hoog met galery, is ongekend en waarskynlik verkeerd. Die kerk is gebou deur Katholikos Nerses III (641-662) om die oorblyfsels van Sint Gregorius die Illuminator te huisves, vermoedelik waar hy koning Trdat/Tiridates in 301 of (meer waarskynlik) 314 nC bekeer het. Buiten die kerk, wat tekens toon van Noord -Siriese invloed en 'n paar interessante beeldhouwerk het, is oorblyfsels van Nerses se paleis en 'n parskuip, met 'n klein (geslote) museum. Agter die parskuip is 'n kalkolitiese vertelling. Voor die museum is 'n 7de eeu. spykerskrif van die Urartiese koning Rusa II ter herdenking van die bou van 'n kanaal uit die Hrazdan ("Ildaruni") rivier.

Die Klooster van Surp Ejmiatsin ** ("Die afkoms van die eniggeborene" in tradisionele etimologie) = 85+= (40 09.70n x 044 17.53e) word omring deur die stad met dieselfde naam, nou amptelik herdoop Vagharshapat (51280 p) na sy 2de eeuse AC-stigter, koning Vagharshak (117-140). Die stad kan ook identies wees aan Kainepolis ('nuwe stad') wat gestig is as 'n plaasvervanger vir die verwoeste Artashat deur koning Sohaemus/Tigran, wat twee keer deur die Romeinse leërs op die troon geïnstalleer is, eers deur Antoninus Pius (van 144-161 nC) ) en daarna deur Marcus Aurelius (164-186). Twee Romeinse inskripsies, nou in die Staatshistoriese Museum, dokumenteer die teenwoordigheid van 'n Romeinse garnisoen in Ejmiatsin, die afgeleë rand van die militêre uitbreiding van Rome na die Kaukasus. Een van hulle is opgerig deur 'n tribune van die 15de Legioen ter nagedagtenis aan sy vrou en dogter. Dit is in 364-369 deur Persiese troepe in puin gelaat. Die stad se algemene naam in die vroeë moderne tye was Üch-Kilise of 'Drie Kerke', vernoem na die mees prominente kenmerke van die plaaslike landskap.

Deur na die klooster te gaan, draai u links van die hoofsirkel in die stad. Die Moeder Tempel (Mayr Tachar) is in die 4de eeu begin, gebou op die ruïnes van 'n heidense kultusgebied, maar dit is deur die eeue sterk herstel, deeglik in die 17de eeu. Die basiliese samestelling van die oorspronklike tempel is verander na 'n kruisvormige een met die sentrale koepel in 483. Aan die begin van die sewende eeu is die houtkoepel van die gebou, waarskynlik oktaedraal en gevorm soos die dak van die Armeense boerhuis, vervang deur 'n klip een. Hierdie samestelling van die katedraal het byna onveranderd gekom. In die 17de eeu (1653-1658) is 'n nuwe koepel en 'n drieledige klokkie gebou, laasgenoemde voor die westelike ingang van die katedraal. Die binne muurskilderye, gemaak deur die Armeense skilder Nagash Ovnatan in 1720, is herstel en uitgebrei deur sy kleinseun, Ovnatan Ovnatanian. in 1782-1786. In 1955-1956 is die binnemuurskilderye van die katedraal en die klokketoer hernu deur 'n groep Sowjetkunstenaars onder leiding van L. Durnovo. Die klooster was die setel van die Katholikos in die 4de en 5de eeu en weer sedert 1441. As sodanig, en as die setel van die wonderbaarlike oorblyfsels van die Armeense kerk - die Lance, die hand van St. Gregory the Illuminator, die hand van die apostel Thaddeus, 'n vinger van St Jude, 'n druppel bloed van St. Hripsime, ens. - dit het groot landgoedere beheer en ryk geskenke ontvang uit die hele Armeense wêreld. Die Tesourie, wat 'n deel van hierdie grootheid huisves, en na die vuurtempel, word bereik deur die kerk, regs van die altaar. Engelssprekende diakens is beskikbaar as gidse, maar bydraes word verwag. Oorkant die ingang van die kerk en deur die boog is die paleis van die Katholikos, met 'n kleiner skatkamer wat nie vir die publiek oop is nie. Aan die voet van die boog is 'n wag wat u moet vra om die groot te sien Alex Manougian Museum. Hierdie museum bevat 'n indrukwekkende versameling hoofsaaklik nie-sekulêre kuns, sowel as 'n baie kleurvolle voorbeeld van die geskenke wat Katholicos Vazgen van regoor die wêreld tydens sy leiding ontvang het. Onder die verskillende museumuitstallings is pragtige kerkklere geborduur met goud en pêrels, bedrukte gordyne, geborduurde deksels. kruise, kruise, allerhande rituele voorwerpe van silwer goud, ivoor, versier met filigraanwerk en juwele. Die meeste van hierdie artikels dateer uit die 17de-19de eeu. Sommige van die uitstallings van die Echmiadzin -klooster word in die kloostertuin vertoon, veral die khachkars uit die hele Armenië en die ou Jugha. Daar is 'n herboude teologiese skool (Chemaran) op die gronde.

Ejmiatsin het deur die eeue heen baie vooraanstaande besoekers ontvang. Eerwaarde Smith en Dwight, na 'n koue verwelkoming op grond van die wanopvatting dat hulle op dieselfde bose taak was as hul sendelingkollegas in Shushi, het hulle gedurende 19-23 November 1830 vier dae deurgebring, sover hulle die eerste Amerikaners ooit geweet het kom daar. Hulle beskryf die ommuurde klooster en die stad self: "'n stampvol versameling modderhutte, miskien 500 in getal." Hulle het nooit die verouderende Katholikos Eprem ontmoet nie, maar het 'n aangename gesprek gehad met sy sekretaris Hovhannes, die enigste monnik van die plek wat Russies kon. Hulle het skerp opgemerk die rykdom van die dekor: "Die protestantse Chardin en die pouslike Tournefort verenig hulle om te getuig dat baie van hierdie rykdom van die pous afkomstig is in die vorm van omkoopgeld vir die bekering van die Katholikos en nou 'n monument bly vir die geloofwaardigheid van die een en die misleiding van die ander. " By 'n besoek aan 'n biskop se woonstelle, skryf Smith: 'Alles was gemaklik, indien nie luuks nie, min ooreenstem met die idees wat gewoonlik in die sel van 'n monnik vermaak is, en bevestig wat ons op ander maniere geleer het dat die voorste gevangenes hiervan vestiging beoefen min van die selfverloëninge waarvoor hulle beroep bekend is. "

Die Frans/Russiese geleerde Marie-Felicite Berge het in Januarie 1848 vir die grootste deel van 40 dae in Ejmiatsin gebewe, 'n gevangene van die koue van die winter. Hy verskaf 'n gedetailleerde beskrywing van die manuskripversameling, afkomstig van die eerste katalogus wat op aandrang van die destydse aartsbiskop Nerses van Ashtarak opgestel is. Berge het berig dat buite die katedraal S van die kloktoring 'n inskripsie in Grieks, Persies en Engels was, wat die senaat van luitenant -sir John MacDonald was, wat in 1830 in Tabriz as gesant van die Britse Oos -Indiese geselskap by die Shah verval het. van Persië. Volgens Shopen het Ejmiatsin in 1830 die Katholikos gehuisves, 12 aartsbiskoppe en biskoppe, 26 argimandriete en monnike, 14 aartsdiakens, 9 protodiakens en agt akoliete, die helfte van die kloosterbevolking van die voormalige Khanaat van Jerevan. Die Britse kolonel Herbert Chermside besoek Ejmiatsin in 1888 en skryf: "Ek het groot klagtes gehoor oor die nederigheid van die selibate biskoppe en monnike van Etchmiadzin. In Turkye het die Armeniërs 'n beskerming hierteen in hul gewoonte om huise te omring en te verras waar die kerklikes is veronderstel is om voordeel te trek uit hul voorregte om die vroue te ontlont, maar hierdie soort lynchwet word nie deur die polisie in Rusland toegelaat nie. "

Daar is drie ander groot vroeë kerke in die stad: die eerste is Hripsime Kerk* van 618 = 75 = (40 10.05nx 044 18.62e), regs van die hoofweg gebou op die tradisionele terrein van die graf van hierdie martelaar - tradisioneel het sy en haar maagdelike volgelinge ontsnap uit die vervolging in Rome, waarvan haar oorblyfsels na bewering ingepyl is die 17de eeu deur twee Latynse monnike, maar daarna herstel, behalwe fragmente wat teen 1830 kerke in Venesië, Goa in Indië, Nakhichevan en Galata in Konstantinopel bereik het.

Gayane Kerk* = 35 = (40 09.04n x 044 17.55e) van 630 is ook op die terrein van Gayane se martelaarskap gebou. Shoghakat Kerk = 20 = van 1694 is gebou deur prins Aghamal Shorotetsi op die plek van 'n vroeë kapel aan een van S. Hripsime se metgeselle. Naby Shoghakat is 'n klein, verwoeste enkelpadskapel van die 5-6de eeu. Omdat die Armavir bisdom, wat in 1996 gestig is met die skepping van die marz, geen kerk of biskopskoshuis in die marz -hoofstad van Armavir -stad het nie, werk die biskop tans uit Ejmiatsin se S. Astvatsatsin -kerk (1767). In 1998 was daar slegs agt werkende kerke en 13 priesters wat Armavir Marz se amptelike bevolking van 315,000 bedien het.

Vagharshapat maak ook aanspraak op 'n hotel, die museums van die plaaslike kunstenaars Manuk Abeghian en Hovhannes Hovhannisian en die galery van Khoren Harutian. Net S van Ejmiatsin is die verhaal van Teghut, 'n nedersetting van die Chalcolithic-Early Bronze Age wat deur die argeoloog Rafik Torosian opgegrawe en gepubliseer is.

Ongeveer vier km S van Ejmiatsin, ongeveer 150 m W van die hoofweg S na Margara net voor 'n spoorwal, is 'n lae heuwel agter 'n klein gehuggie, omring deur 'n ysterheining (gapings aan die NK -kant). Dit is die Chalcolithic (laat 4de Mill. V.C.) deur die Hellenistiese (4de-1ste v.C.) plek van Mokhrablur ("Ash Hill"). Daar is 8 meter afsettings wat 12 afsonderlike woonlae verteenwoordig. Baie min is sigbaar, verby een groot klipblok en 'n wye reeks pottebakkies. Die Sowjet -Armeense ensiklopedie maak die gewaagde bewering dat die sentrale tempel van Mokhrablur, wat volgens hulle dateer uit die 10de eeu. maar dit blyk eintlik uit die 1ste helfte van die 3de millennium vC te wees, was die vroegste bekende voorbeeld van monumentale klipargitektuur in die Sowjetunie.

Noord van Zvartnots is: Norakert (2503 p) en Baghramyan (2363 bl.), Gestig in 1947, vernoem ter ere van die held van die Sowjetunie en later maarskalk Hovhannes (Ivan) Baghramyan (gebore in die Chardakhlu -dorpie Elisavetpol, nou Ganca [Gyanja] in Azerbeidjan in 1897). Die dorp het 'n kerk en S. Sargis -heiligdom wat in 1997 gebou is. Verdere E is Aygek (1103 bl.), Wat in 1946 gestig is om immigrante uit Iran te huisves, en Merdzavan (2722 bl.), Gestig in 1947 en die tuiste van verskillende landbou -institute.

Suid van Zvartnots is Voskehat (2197 p), en Arevashat (1413 bl.) Met 'n kerk en 19de eeu. Tukh Manuk ("Dark Baby") heiligdom.

Die noordoostelike hoek - Aghavnatun en Targmanchats (afdeling 2 kaart D)

By die ingang van Ejmiatsin draai die hoofweg regs om die stad te omseil. Die eerste geplaveide pad aan die regterkant lei na 'n hoë klippilaar, 'n monument wat in 1833 opgerig is in die teenwoordigheid van die besoekende tsaar Nicholas I ter herdenking van die 1131 Russiese soldate wat daar naby geval het tydens die sogenaamde slag van Oshakan op 17 Augustus 1827 "verdedig Heilige Ejmiatsin" teen die Persiese leër. In April 1827 het die Russiese weermag, vergesel van die energieke aartsbiskop Nerses van Ashtarak (die toekomstige Katholikos Nerses V), die Heilige Stoel beset, wat sedert 1822 in 'n dodelike toestand was, en die wêreldse Katholikos Eprem het toevlug geneem in Karabakh en daarna Haghpat -klooster (reeds op Russiese gebied) om gretige Persiese skuldinvorderaars te vermy. 'N Groot Persiese leër onder Abbas Mirza, seun van die Sjah van Persië, vorder teen die ommuurde, maar yl garnisonale klooster, toe generaal Krasovskii, wat sy magte verdeel het (wat Armeense hulpverleners insluit), na die verdediging jaag. Perse met groot verlies, terwyl Nerses die Heilige Spies uit die kantels gewaai het. Alhoewel Krasovskii gekritiseer is omdat hy die grootste deel van sy krag verloor het, kan sy optrede heel moontlik die lewe van die pro-Russiese Nerses gered het, wat reeds in 1810 nouliks ontkom het om deur een van die kanonne van Hassan Khan uitmekaargeslaan te word weens sy klagtes oor die kerk mishandeling by Persiese hande. Die geveg het ook 'n Armeense volksheld veroorsaak. Hakob Harutyunian, skutter in die Persiese leër, het 'n naam in die Armeense geskiedenisboeke gekry omdat hy sy kanon op sy eie leër gerig het. Hy is gruwelik gemartel deur die geïrriteerde Perse, wat sy oë, neus, lippe ens verloor het, maar het oorleef om 'n Russiese keiserlike pensioen in te samel. (Let egter daarop dat Nerses se eie aanbeveling vir die pensioen sê dat Harutyunian aan die Russe oorgedra het met inligting oor Abbas Mirza se planne, 'n minder kleurvolle aksie as broersmoord, maar miskien ook minder geneig om 'n Russiese offisier te laat skarrel.)

Die spoorpad krom dan W om by die pad N van Ejmiatsin aan te sluit Mrgastan (944 p., S. Hovhannes kerk gebou 1912) en verder. Terug in die rigting van Ejmiatsin, slegs 50 m E van die pad na Oshakan, is Shresh Blur, 'n Chalcolithic-Early Bronze Age-nedersetting. Die volgende dorp is Shahumian (939 p., Vernoem na die gemartelde Bakoe -kommissaris) en die nabygeleë Shahumiani Pluimveefabriek (929 bl). N is Dasht ("Field", 556 v, gestig 1926). In die omgewing (N en links van die pad?) Is 'n 1ste millennium voor Christus siklopiese fort genaamd "Ardar Davit" (David die Regverdige) deur die plaaslike bevolking.

Hengel links van Dasht, bereik een keer Aigeshat (1368 p., Tot 1935 Hajighara, gemengde Armeens/Koerdies), wat (draai regs aan die SE -rand van die stad) die erg verwoeste Targmanchats ("vertalers") Vank van die 7de eeu, en miskien ook 'n S. Gevorg -kerk van die 18de eeu. en, op 'n heuwel daar naby, 'n vroeë toring. Wes van Aigeshat is Amberd (1276 bl.), Met 'n Tovmas Arakeal (Thomas die Apostel) kerk van die 12de eeu. en Poghos-Petros kerk van die 19de eeu.

'N Verdere afdraai vanaf die hoofomleiding van Ejmiatsin lei NW na Tsaghkunk (1097 p, till 1946 Abdurahman), with S. Astvatsatsin church of 19th c, restaurant NW is Mkhltapa Neolithic tell. Volgende kom Hovtamej (1025 p, church 19th c.), and Tsiatsan ("Rainbow") (1058 p, till 1978 Grampa), with ruined S. Astvatsatsin church. Further N is Doghs (1195 p), site of a glorious victory here in 894 of Smbat I Bagratuni over the invading Emir Apshin of Atrapatakan. Doghs has a S. Stepanos church built in the 19th c.

Further W, opposite the turnoff for Taronik/Metsamor, a signposted road leads NE to Arshaluys ("Dawn",3836 p, till 1935 Kyorpalu), with S. Astvatsatsin church built 1903-09 fort, restaurant S. Karapet shrine/pilgrimage site of 14-18th c. 2 km S. Next village is Haytagh (2441 p, church of 19th c.). A small road bears left to Ferik (267 p), named in honor of the revolutionary and poet Ferik Polatbekov, while the main road continues N to Samaghar (2360 p, formerly Geghakert, S. Harutyun church of 13th c.), and Tsaghkalanj (1225 p, till 1978 Aghjaghala), with a S. Gevorg church of the 1870s. Nearby are Bronze Age grave mounds and, to the NE, Amenaprkich medieval settlement with graveyard. The Neolithic-Chalcolithic tell site of Aghjaghala is on the E side of the village.

Continuing north, one reaches the village of Aragats (2973 p, Armenians/Kurds, till 1946 Khznauz), with a S. Stepanos church of 1870. To reach the Urartian fortress/settlement just SW of the village, turn left from the large building festooned with storks' nests on the W side of the main road, then right following the asphalt road, then take the second dirt road left to where it becomes impassible. The rough walls of the site are visible, embedded in a rocky 10 m high mound. Total area of this important early 7th c defense site is about 10-15 acres.

Entering from the S. the village of Aghavnatun (2934 p), there are sparse remains of an Iron Age cyclopean fort. On the left of the road entering the village from the S is a ruined medieval princely tomb of 13th c., chapel and graveyard surrounding. There are remains of four churches: S. Astvatsatsin church of 1876, S. Gevorg of 10th c Tsiranavor of 14th c Karmravor S. Karapet churches and reportedly a restaurant. Turning left (N) on a paved road at the N end of town, a dusty road leads through a major tuff quarry (prehistoric graveyard below) to a hilltop with a prominent circular tower*. Build of massive stones, with a tiny entrance, this tower commands a sweeping view and may have served as a watchtower or, perhaps, as a Zoroastrian funeral site (cf Parsee "towers of silence" in India). In any case, no finds are associated with the tower, which is undated. Next village N, Lernamerdz (395 p, once Ayarlu) once also had a restaurant.

Metsamor and Environs (Section 3 Map D)

Passing Ejmiatsin on the E bypass, 2 km past the overpass is on the left a conspicuous monument to 7 Yugoslav (now Serbian) aviators killed in December 1988 when their plane, carrying relief supplies to the December 7 Gyumri-Spitak earthquake victims, crashed in a field. Behind the monument, a small mound and water-worn stones mark a Bronze Age (but marked on the sign as 5-4th millennium BC) occupation site, partly covered now by a little shed that has become a local shrine.

The skyline is dominated by the four cooling towers of the Metsamor Armenian Nuclear Power Plant. The nuclear plant, not open to the public, still generates about 40% of Armenia's electricity. Though neither of the two reactor units suffered damage in the December 1988 earthquake, they were shut down in response to domestic populist pressure as inherently unsafe. Unit Two was reopened in 1996, with loans from Russia and subsequent safety assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency. As a further safety measure, the plant management brought Katholikos Garegin I to bless a new chapel in the plant's main administrative building in 1997. The Government of Armenia pledged under international pressure to shut the reactors down permanently by the end of 2004, but is likely to renege unless financing is found to build safer new reactors and keep its nuclear power sector employed.

About 6.1 km after the Ejmiatsin overpass, about two km before the Metsamor reactor, shortly after a gas station, an unsignposted road leads left in 3 km to Taronik (1888 p), rich in storks' nests. Turning right in the village, the left after 500 meters, the paved road leads to a substantial mound 1 km W of Taronik, the site of the Chalcolithic through Early Iron Age settlement of Metsamor*, with a small but rich archaeological museum* aangeheg. Excavations have shown that back in the early Bronze Age (late 4th-3rd millenia BC) Metsamor was flourishing, occupied an area of 10.5 hectares and consisted of a citadel fenced in by a sturdy Cyclopean wall and a zikkurat observatory sited on a low mountain ridge. In the early Iron Age (11th-9th cc BC) Metsamor was already a city. The citadel, observatory and dwelling blocks that occupied the lowland stretching to Lake Akna covered an area of 100 hectares. The fortress proper within the huge Cyclopean wall housed the palacial structures, the temple ensemble with its seven sanctuaries and the outbuildings. Half a kilometer to the southeast of the citadel was the traditional necropolis which was tentatively supposed to cover an area short of 100 hectares. Small interments have been excavated along with large burial mounds and underlying crushed-stone layers yielding large-sized tombs built of red tufa blocks and encircled by cromlechs. Excavations were resumed in 1998 with funding from the nuclear plant (which pumps its cooling water from next door) in a vain effort to locate a gate (and preferably an inscription giving the ancient name) in the lower defensive wall. The summit of the mound has an early first millennium BC sanctuary, and there are important remains of pits used for gravitational separation of iron from slag. A little SW is a hill with 3rd millennium BC carvings on the rock indicating the direction of the rising of Sirius. The settlement experienced many ups and downs before disappearing in the 17th cc. The museum - opened in 1966 and with 22,000 artifacts - has a treasury in the basement exhibiting jewelry from chamber tombs around the site, and upstairs rooms display the full sequence of Armenian prehistoric pottery, including splendid black and red burnished vases. An agate frog-weight in the possesion of the Babylonian ruler Ulam Vurarish (end of the 16th cc BC) and a seal of cornelian with Egyptian heiroglyphs owned by the Babylonian ruler Kurigalz (15th cc BC) are especially interesting. A visit to the site can be followed by jogging NW to Aknalich (2673 p). The small lake between Metsamor and Aknalich, for which the latter village is named, is one of the sources of the Metsamor river, fed by underground springs. The lake is overlooked by a pleasant restaurant.

Nearby villages include Aratashen (2688 p, church of 1870, S of village is Neolithic-Chalcolithic tell), Khoronk (2164 p, S. Nshan church of 1880), and Artimet (1513 p, till recently Atarbekian, S. Grigor Lusavorich church of 1876). Further south by the railroad are Zartonk (1831 p, originally with Yeghegnut), Yeghegnut (1759 p, until 1947 Ghamishlu, before then Sefiabad), and Artashar (962 p, formerly Azeris).

W of Aknalich, the new city of Metsamor (8853 p, hotel) rises on the right. It was incorporated in 1979, designed to house workers for the nuclear power plant.

Sardarapat and Ancient Armavir (Section 4 Map D)

On reaching the Marz capital of Armavir (28733 p), the main road passes under a large red stone overpass. Turning right before the overpass, one enters the city, passing on the right the Armavir Cognac factory. Armavir also boasts a hotel, restaurants, and a private zoo/botanical garden.

To reach Sardarapat, pass underneath the overpass and immediately turn right and back up and over the railroad lines. The road will jog right, then left, passing through the village of Norapat (2675 p) and become the wide main road leading straight to Sardarapat battle monument and museum =70+= (40 05.58n x 043 56.77e). First village is Hoktember (5387 p, church). Turning right on the paved road in the village (W toward the village of Dzerzhinski), somewhere on the right before the cemetery is the site of the important Persian fortress of Sardari Berd. This was built around 1810 with British technical assistance by Sardar Hosein Qoli Khan, last and best of the Persian governors of the Erevan Khanate, using stones taken from the ruins of ancient Armavir, some still bearing traces of cuneiform inscriptions. Used as administrative center for the Sardarapat district and summer residence of the Khan of Erevan, the fortress was taken by the Russians under General Paskevich in 1828, despite stout defense by Khan Hasan, Hosein's brother. Almost no trace of the fortress is left, this remnant of foreign rule having been dismantled to build Soviet Armenia.

On this side road is Dzerzhinski (1512 p), a former state farm founded in 1946 in honor of Felix Dzerzhinski (1877-1926), Lenin's Secret Police chief and hero in the ceaseless war against counterrevolutionary traitors and saboteurs. Also, the village of Lenughi (1510 p), till 1946 Aghlanli Nerkin, with S. Nshan church from 1870s.


6. Wine-Making Facility – 6,100 years old

In a cave in southern Armenia a team of international archaeologists have unearthed a wine press for stomping grapes. Fermentation and storage vessels, drinking cups, and withered grape vines, skins, and seeds have also been discovered at the site. The installation suggests the Copper Age vintners pressed their wine the old-fashioned way, using their feet. Juice from the trampled grapes drained into the vat, where it was left to ferment. The wine was then stored in jars—the cool, dry conditions of the cave would have made a perfect wine cellar. Ancient-wine expert Patrick E. McGovern, a biomolecular archaeologist at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, called the discovery “important and unique, because it indicates large-scale wine production, which would imply, I think, that the grape had already been domesticated.” The apparent discovery that winemaking using domesticated grapevines emerged in what’s now Armenia appears to dovetail with previous DNA studies of cultivated grape varieties, McGovern said. Armenian Highlands are considered the birthplace of viticulture. It is believed the wine has been used for religious or ritualistic purposes. The discovery is important, the study team says, because winemaking is seen as a significant social and technological innovation among prehistoric societies. Vine growing, for instance, heralded the emergence of new, sophisticated forms of agriculture. They had to learn and understand the cycles of growth of the plant. They had to understand how much water was needed, how to prevent fungi from damaging the harvest, and how to deal with flies that live on the grapes. Chemical analysis of the residue has dated the winery to 4,100 BCE. “This is the earliest, most reliable evidence of wine production,” said archaeologist Gregory Areshian of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).


Weapons and Wealth

So during the middle of the second millennium BC, gold items, and the moldings of gold, silver, copper and bronze were exported from Armenia to many other countries. Since the 17th century BC great amounts of iron from Armenia was exported to the Hittites Kingdom, Egypt, Assyria, North Caucasus and Central Russia in the form of weapons and decorations designed for daily use.

During that time period Armenia was supplying almost all neighboring countries with ferrous (or iron) chariots and horses. In addition to this, according to Manetho, who was priest in Egypt, horse domestication first occurred in the Armenian Highland.

So Armenia's natural resources contributed significantly to the development of neighboring countries’ economies and military preparedness. Because of this, ancient countries of the Middle East sought to control Armenia, or establish permanent trade relations.

These trade relations with distant countries contributed to the development of the geological and geographical knowledge of Armenians.

Mineral and metallurgical traces at Metsamor site, Armenia. (Photo courtesy author)

Is it possible that the development of metal ore and metallurgical production of metals—primarily, the production and export of iron—was the basis of the development of astronomical knowledge in the Armenian Highland? Perhaps the simultaneous existence of a metallurgical complex and observatory at ancient site of Metsamor is not accidental, but has a very clear and reasonable explanation.

Featured image: Metal belt from Metsamor site, Armenia. Second century BC. Photo courtesy author, Lilit Mkhitaryan


History of Armenia

The Armenian Highlands are located in the Northern border of Western Asia between Small Asian Plateau and Iranian Plateau, between the plains of the Black Sea and Mesopotamia. The people of Armenia have been formed and have created their statehood in the Armenian Highlands and have created their unique culture. The Armenian Highlands nearly totally coincide with the Armenian historical motherland. As the Armenian Highlands were located in the centre of the route of strategic trade and they were rich in a number of recourses, managed to have a great power and ambitions. The creation of the state and its maintenance was not stable. For the first time we learn of the country Armenia from the Sumerian cuneiforms of 3rd century B.C. The word “Haya” is connected with the suffix “stan”, which means country. Hayk was the strongest and the most famous leader of Armenia. In his honor the country was called Hayk’s country. Hayk had lived in the foothills of Ararat he had travelled a lot and had assisted in the building of the Babylonian Tower. After coming back into the Highlands he defeated Babylon’s King Bell. It was 2492 B.C. According to the cuneiforms of Assyrian Babylon of 13-12th century B.C. Armenia was called Nayiri (country of rivers). Due to the archeological excavations we are acknowledged about the Kingdom of Ararat. The proof of those times are the ruins of Erebouni castle, which are present in nowadays’ capital of Armenia–Yerevan. The castle of Erebouni has been built in 782 B.C.–13 years before the building of Rome. The first century B.C. is called a golden century in Armenia. Culture and art were developed during this century. The first unified kingdom of the Armenian Highlands that is mentioned in the Bible is known as the Kingdom of Ararat. It was a powerful rival of the Assyrian Empire. In the 6-4th centuries B.C. Armenia was under the supremacy of Persian Achaemenid Dynasty. Two years before the Hellenic era the Dynasty of Artashes origins there. Mets Hayk* came to the peak of its power in the days of Tigran the Great (the Second) in 95-55 B.C. Tigran the Great was a major statesman and a general. Though in the days of Tigran the Great the Kingdom of Armenia was great, it reached the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, it became a battlefield between Iran and Rome as a result of which Armenia became a buffer state. The most difficult period for the Armenians was the first century A.D. During those times the state influence of the Parthian slowly got worse. The influence of the Romans became powerful for two and a half centuries, who asserted their power in that region. Thus, Armenia became the enemy of Rome. The Armenian dynasty of Arshakuni started from that time on and continued for four centuries. The activity of Armenians started during that time. Many ancient castles and towns were rebuilt during that time. The most important thing during that era was that culture and science were developed. The town of Vagharshapat was built there. And from this town Christianity began to spread all over the world: the Armenians were the first to adopt Christianity in 301. According to the decree of Milan, Christianity was adopted in Rome in 313. As compared to other countries Armenia was the first one. According to the legend the people who taught Christianity in Armenia during the first century A. D. were two apostles of Jesus Christ–Bartholomew and Thaddeus. Due to the hard work of St Grigor during that time, King Trdat the Third adopted Christianity as a state religion. Until that time the most famous religion was Zarathustra Paganism was not few either. In 387 Armenia lost its statehood: one part became a part of Byzantium and the other one became Persia’s part. There has been one important war in the history of Armenia. And that was the battle of Avarayr in 451. During that battle there were one hundred thousand people in the Armenian troops, of which 66 thousand were warriors of the ministerial regimen and the other 34 thousand were home guardsmen. The troops of the Sasanid Persia consisted of 214 thousand people. Despite of it the Armenians managed to defeat. At the beginning of the 5th century Mesrop Mashtots created the Armenian alphabet, the Bible was translated into Armenian, the literature developed and the main style of church building was consolidated. The 5-6th centuries were the era of the development of literature and architecture.

The Armenia of the Middle Ages

Armenia of Bagratuni – the Armenian Kingdom of the Middle Ages

After the invasion of the Arabs in the 7th century the Sassanid Persia started to destroy. Armenia went under the influence of the Arabian Caliphate during that time. It could control Armenia. After struggling for a long period of time the Armenians could defeat. In 859 Ashot Bagratuni became the king of Armenia. He was called the king of kings. In 885 king Ashot was recognized as the king by the Arabian caliphate. Economy, culture and politics of Armenia were developed at the beginning of the 9th century. From the first half of the 9th century there appeared the dynasty of Bagratunies. The re-establishment of the important role in the world trade launched the growth of a number of cities. The building of churches began to prosper. The castle of Ani became famous in the 5th century. Ani was called the city of one thousand and one churches. The city was surrounded by walls there were very many gardens there. The population of the capital Ani was one hundred thousand: it was the biggest one in Europe with the number of its population. At the end of the 10th century, from the Eastern part of the country the Armenian Highlands were invaded by the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk tribes. In the 11th century the kingdom of Bagratuny began to perish slowly. The Seljuk tribes and Turkey got stronger at that time. From the 11th century they began to have their influence on the Northern part of Armenia. As a result of the invasions by the Mongol Empire, Lenk Timur Empire and others, the country was ruined and lots of Armenian emigrated. After the Kingdom of Bagratunies a new Armenian kingdom was created in the Southern part of the Mediteranean Sea. It was the kingdom of Cilicia. This kingdom has existed for almost 300 years (from 1080 to 1375). Armenians appeared in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time in 96-95 B.C. The Kingdom of Cilicia slowly grew stronger in 1198 and it was recognized as a sovereign kingdom by Byzantium and crusaders. After the fall of the Tatar Empire the invasions to Armenia by other barbarians didn’t stop. The troops of Lenk Timur and Shah Abas invaded Armenia at that time. In 1639 Western Armenia and Eastern Armenia of Turkey became part of Persia. Such condition continued from the 19th century to the 20th century. In the result of the repeated rivalry between the Osman Empire and Iran Armenia was divided into two countries–Armenia of the Turkish territory and Armenia of the Persian territory. In the 10- 12th centuries Armenia was in good terms with Russia. The reason for that was the struggle between Turkey and Persia. According to the contract of Gyulistan in 1804 a part of the Historic Armenia–Artsakh became part of Russia. According to the contract of Turkmenchay in 1828 Yerevan caliphate of Eastern Armenia became part of Russia. At the end of the 19th century the Genocide of Armenians started by the Osman Turkey. During that genocide there were known the resistances of the regions of Sasun, Zeytun and Van. The genocide of 1915 is the event that cannot be forgotten. One and a half million people were killed during that genocide. The rescued people spread all over the world, a part of them got shelter in Eastern Armenia. On May 28, 1918 Armenia became an independent state. In 1920 Armenia entered USSR. In 1991 Armenia got independence again and it is an independent state until now. The majority of Armenians are Christians, the main direction is Armenian orthodox church. 90 percent of Armenians belong to the Armenian Apostolic church.
Armenian church is a very conservative church. The churches that are alike the Armenian church are the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, Syrian Orthodox Church and the Orthodox Church of Ghpti. There are some catholic, evangelic and protestant believers in Armenia. There are some representatives of Yazidi belief, Muslim and Judaism.

translated from Armenian into English by M.Vardanyan


Armavir Region

Armavir Region is located in the western part of the Republic of Armenia. It’s the highest populated province of Armenia, but the smallest in terms of area. The Region occupies 4.2% of the territory of the Republic, including Armavir, Echmiadzin and Baghramyan regions. The capital city is Armavir.

Gebied – 1242 km 2
Bevolking – 263,9 thousand ( 01.01.2019 census )

Armavir Region was reformed on the 12th of April, 1995.

In the past, it included Aragatsotn Region of the Ayrarat world of Mets Haik. After the joining of Eastern Armenia and Russia, it became a part of the Echmiadzin province of Yerevan state.

The Region is included in the Diocese of Armavir of the Armenian Apostolic Church. St Astvatsatsin church of Echmiadzin is the seat of the diocese.

In the east, it borders on Yerevan, in the north on Aragatsotn and in the south-east on Ararat Regions, in the south-west it has a state border with Turkey.

Aardrykskunde

Armavir Regions occupies the northwestern part of the Ararat Physical-Geographical Region (absolute altitudes of 800-1000 m).

The natural landscape is semi-desert and mountain steppe. Dry and salted plants are common. Particularly the Ararat red-bellied insect species are frequent, and the “Vordan Red” sanctuary (200 hectares) has been established for the conservation of lush plants.

The Region is not rich in minerals and is not particularly rich in water resources. Here is the lowest lake in the country – Lake Ayghr (Akna), which covers 50 hectares, has 2m depth.

Metsamor river (also known as Sevjur river) is the only river that starts from the Region The small lake of Ayger, located near the Aknalich village,is among the few water surfaces of the Region.

Armavir Region is characterized by dry continental climate, with hot summers and mildly cold winters. Precipitation does not exceed 300 mm. Summer is hot the temperature often rises to 40-42 °C. Winters are cold, cloudy, humid (average air temperature is 10-20 ° C in January). Highland winds are constant.

Bevolking

Armavir Region is one of the densely populated regions of Armenia, with 212.5 people /1 sq km. The urban community of the Region, with 3 cities, is 84.0 thousand people or 31.6%. The rural population is about 180 thousand people or 68.3%. Men form 48.8% of the total population, and women – 51.5%.

The Ararat valley is most densely populated (50.3% in Echmiadzin and 7.5% in the Baghramyan region). Largest urban community is the town of Vagharshapat (Etchmiadzin), with a population of 46,540. With a population of 5,584, the village of Parakar is the largest rural municipality of Armavir.

Armavir Region is homogeneous with 93% of Armenians,Yezidis (6.6%), Assyrians (0.1%), Kurds (0.1%) and Russians (0.2%).

Urban communities – Armavir, Vagharshapat( Echmiadzin ) and Metsamor.
Rural communities – 93
Rural settlements – 94

Sightseeing in Armavir

Armavir Region is rich in unique historical monuments, here 430 monuments are registered.

The former Armenian capital, Armavir, was found on the left bank of the Araks River. At the confluence of Araks and Akhuryan, ruins of Yervandashat are found.

There are also St. Echmiadzin Cathedral with its Treasure, etsamor and Zvartnots Archaeological Museums, State Ethnographic Museum of Armenia in Sardarapat, the largest outlet of Armenia’s groundwater – Ayghrlich, Musaler and Sardarapat Memorials.

Famous historical and cultural centers of the region

Bagaran St. Hripsime
Argishtikhinili ancient site Shoghakat
Ancient metalwork of Metsamor Zvartnots
Holy Echmiadzin Monastery of Translators (VII century)
St. Gayane St. Astvatsatsin Church of Echmiadzin (XIX century)

St. Hripsime
Shoghakat:
Zvartnots
Monastery of Translators (VII century)
St. Astvatsatsin Church of Echmiadzin (XIX century)

Economy and public life

Armavir Region of the Republic of Armenia is distinguished by its developed agriculture and industry. The geographical location and climatic conditions of the region are favorable for both crop development (perennial plantations, vegetables) and cattle breeding advancement. Vegetable crops and vegetables are mostly cultivated.

The industry specializes in the production of electricity, food, beverages, alcoholic beverages.

In 2017 the number of economically active residents of the region was 53.1% of the total population. The poverty rate is 34.3%. Unemployment is more serious in urban areas. The tourism potential of the region is mainly represented by rich historical and cultural values.

There are 123 secondary education schools, 2 special schools, 1 college, 9 sports schools with branches in different communities of the region. There is a vocational college in Echmiadzin. In Armavir and Echmiadzin, 6 educational institutions are providing vocational and intermediate vocational education programs, and one non-state higher education institution – Grigor Lusavorich University of Echmiadzin.

There are 58 medical establishments, 3 of which are medical centers, with polyclinic services, 1 health center, 1 hospital, and 1 regional blood station. There are 85 culture houses in Armavir, 82 of which are in rural communities, 8 are museums. The cultural centers of Yerevan are also available to the population of the region. There are 4 puppet theaters and 5 theatrical groups.

Vervoer

Armavir has an advanced transport network, the total length of the roads is 613 km, of which 123.2 km of interstate and 91.6 km is of national importance. 99% of the population of the region is provided with regular bus transport.

The 70-kilometer section of the Yerevan-Tbilisi railway runs through the region. There is also a 35 km long railway of local importance.

The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) is located about 36 km west of Yerevan, near the city of Metsamor. The plant’soutput satisfies 40% of the country’selectricity demand. Mobile telephony and mobile internet are provided by all operators: the settlements are 100% fiber-optic and ethernet-portable, and the quality of the internet is satisfactory.

Wired telephony is available in 2 urban and 18 rural communities of the Region. There are 111 post offices of Haypost CJSC in the settlements of the region.
The population of all communities in the region has the opportunity to receive more than 10 TV channels with sufficient quality. There are three regional television companies. The entire territory of the Regionhas been covered by digital TV programs. Public Radio is also available in all settlements of the region.

Telephone codes՝

Echimiacin-231
Zvartnots-231
Baghramyan-231 90
Vache- 231 91
Noraket-231 95
Jrarat – 231 98
Xoronq- 231 99


Top 5 mysterious sights in Armenia

Our planet is really an incredible place. Although almost every single day scientists wow us with findings which our ancestors solely linked to supernatural powers and gods, the earth abounds in a myriad of mysterious places which are yet to be discovered.

With its modest territory yet rich history and culture, Armenia is a land of enigmas that have been captivating the locals and foreigners for centuries.

So, if you’re one of those curious minds, who delights in unlocking secrets and solving puzzles, let’s start our journey across the most mysterious sights in Armenia.

Top mysterious sights in Armenia: Carahunge

Called “Zorats Karer” and “Karenish” (“Army Stones”) by locals, Carahunge is the Stonehenge of Armenia. And as its better-known “fellow” Stonehenge in England, its origin and early-age functioning is still open to a question.

Located in south Armenia, in the picturesque Syunik marz, Zorats Karer’s mystic energy constantly entices history geeks and just curious minds from all over the world.
The prehistoric monument comprises stone settings, burial cysts and standing stones called menhirs (“men” meaning “stone” and “hir” meaning “long” in the Middle Breton language) all in all 223 stones.
At the first glance, you won’t even conceive that the rock complex served an astronomical observatory centuries ago, according to the most widely-spread hypothesis. Some Armenian scholars even claim it was the oldest observatory in the world! It’s still not proved, however, one thing is for sure: the mystic allure of this site will leave you wondering for a long time ahead.

Top mysterious sights in Armenia: Sevsar

Another possible evidence of Armenians being keen astronomers in the past can be accounted for the ancient petroglyphs found on the slopes of Mount Sevsar (”Black Mount”), located in Gegharkunik marz, north Armenia. Some scholars link the origin of the rock paintings to the arrival of aliens who featured their constellations and stars on the rocks. Indeed, it’s hard to believe that as far back as in the 3rd millennia BC people were able to watch the universe to later depict the cosmic bodies on stones. The exceptional significance of the petroglyphs is evident, but their real message is not yet encoded. However, the very process of immersing into the unknown depths and trying to unveil the secrets of the past can be fascinating!

Top mysterious sights in Armenia: Khndzoresk village

Armenian Stonehenge is not the only enticing site in southern Armenia. History lovers will find it fulfilling to visit Khndzoresk, one of the largest villages in Eastern Armenia. Perched on a steep slope of a canyon, Khndzoresk is a complex of manmade and natural cave dwellings which were inhabited up to the 1950s! Yes, it’s amazing how people carved out their the settlements and resided there for centuries. Apart from the caves, Khndzoresk is home to the Fortress of Khndzoresk, Saint Tadevos Church, Saint Hripsime Church and “Anapat” school-church.

In Khndzoresk, you’ll not only ”dip” into the history but also have an extreme experience: crossing the Khndzoresk Bridge which connects the two parts of the village, is not for faint-hearted. However, besides beautiful Tatev monastery and the world’s longest ropeway, include Khndzoresk in your must-see list in Armenia- it’s only 30 km away from Tatev!

Top mysterious sights in Armenia: Azhdahak Mount

Gegharkunik province is not only home to the charming Lake Sevan and awe-inspiring Sevsar petroglyphs. Here stands the magnificent sleeping volcano Azhdahak – the highest peak of the Geghama Mountains and the third highest summit in Armenia. But the mount is also famous for ancient monuments- vishaps (”dragons”) or vishapakars (”dragon stones”)- which are scattered on its slopes.

The dragon-like stones featured the mythological dragons which according to the old legends blocked the way to the water and demanded a human sacrifice for further access. It’s part of Armenian folklore, indeed. However, remnants of dinosaurs in this territory hint us that the legend perhaps is not ungrounded.

Of course, you’re not going to see any ”Jurassic Period” characters near Azhdahak (though some shepherds claim they do), but you’ll be intrigued to disclose another secret of Azhdahak- a gigantic hole that is far from volcanic origin. While some scholars are sure it’s a trace of UFO, the better substantiated version so far is that it was caused by an asteroid weighing around 300kg. Anyways, it’s up to you to stick to either of the hypothesis or even propose your own one!

Top mysterious sights in Armenia: Zvartnots Temple

Beautifully lounging against the background of biblical Ararat, Zvartnots Temple (to be more precise- what was left of it), is yet another mystery of the Armenian history. Dating back to the 7-8th centuries AD, the temple was exceptional for the time in terms of its height and grandeur. It’s still open to question what caused the destruction of the temple- whether a natural disaster or an architectural error. The last version can be more credible as all the later cathedrals built on the basis of Zvartnots didn’t stand the test of time, either. In any case, even in its present state, standing proudly in ruins, the Zvartnots Cathedral is enthralling and is a must-see during your trip to Armenia.

Already intrigued and itching for revealing Armenia’s secrets? Contact us and we’ll guide you through this amazing country!

Images: Levon Karapetyan, Alexey Khoritonov, Edgar Barseghyan, Karen Tokhatyan, Ayas Tour


Kyk die video: armeens belang (Julie 2022).


Kommentaar:

  1. Shalom

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  2. Seldon

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  3. Nizilkree

    die outoritêre standpunt, verleidelik

  4. Cam

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  5. Brale

    Absoluut die perfekte antwoord



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