Geskiedenis Podcasts

2 Julie 2013 Dag 164 van die vyfde jaar - Geskiedenis

2 Julie 2013 Dag 164 van die vyfde jaar - Geskiedenis

09:55 AM DIE PRESIDENT ontmoet en groet personeel van die ambassade
Amerikaanse ambassade, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzanië
Geslote pers

10:35 neem die PRESIDENT deel aan 'n kranslegging tydens die 1998 Ambassade Bombing Memorial
Amerikaanse ambassade, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzanië
Dekking vir reispoel

11:10 AM DIE PRESIDENT getuig van 'n demonstrasie van 'Soccket Ball' en besoek die Ubungo Symbion -kragstasie
Ubungo Plaza, Symbion -kragstasie
Uitgebreide swembaddekking

11:20 gee die PRESIDENT opmerkings by die Ubungo Symbion -kragsentrale
Ubungo Plaza, Symbion -kragstasie
Uitgebreide dekking van swembad

12:10 vertrek die PRESIDENT en die EERSTE GESIN onderweg Washington, DC
Julius Nyerere Internasionale Lughawe, Tanzanië
Open pers

EDT

20:00 Oproep tyd in die stad

22:00 arriveer die PRESIDENT en die eerste gesin Joint Base Andrews
Dekking buite die stad se reispoel

22:25 kom die PRESIDENT en die eerste gesin by die Withuis aan
South Lawn


Verken ons komende webinars, geleenthede en programme.

Die doeltreffendste manier om 'n vryer Amerika met meer geleenthede vir almal te verseker, is deur ons jeug te betrek, op te voed en te bemagtig. En die doeltreffendste manier om dit te bereik, is deur te belê in The Bill of Rights Institute. Ons dra by tot onderwysers en studente deur waardevolle hulpbronne, gereedskap en ervarings te verskaf wat burgerlike betrokkenheid deur 'n historiese raamwerk bevorder. U kan vandag deel wees van hierdie opwindende werk deur 'n skenking aan The Bill of Rights Institute te maak!

Ondersteun nou

Maak vandag u belegging in die leiers van môre deur die Bill of Rights Institute!

Maniere om met BRI saam te werk

Kom meer te wete oor die verskillende maniere waarop u met die Bill of Rights Institute kan saamwerk.

Oor BRI

Die Bill of Rights Institute is daartoe verbind om die hoogste gehalte te lewer.


Ontdek die geskiedenis van die mees ikoniese afdelingswinkels in New York

Van die vervaardiger van Louisiana tot 'n Franse immigrant, die stigters van die beste winkels in New York was eenvoudige mans met buitengewone visies. Elkeen was 'n pionier in 'n konsep, van bekostigbare manspakke en maatwerk tot die bring van premiumware en onontdekte ontwerpers uit Europa na Manhattan, en baie het selfs 'n onbekende gebied in kaart gebring, en die kommersiële spilpunt van die stad verlaat om die stad in te woon in meestal woonbuurte. Die tempels van die Amerikaanse kleinhandel wat hierdie mans geskep het, maak vandag net so deel uit van die geskiedenis van ons land as George Washington (terloops, die mede -stigter van George en Taylor, Washington Washington Taylor, is selfs na ons eerste president vernoem).

Vertoon: Saks Fifth AvenueIn September 1924 was neefs Horace Saks en Bernard Gimbel die spreker van die stad. Hulle het pas 'n blink nuwe winkel oopgemaak met 'n hele blok voorkant in Fifth Avenue. Saks Fifth Avenue was 'n mededinging teen mede -huurder Lord en Taylor in Fifth Avenue en, nog belangriker, Macy's, die Herald Square -mededinger van die Gimbel -broers se eie naamwinkel. Saks was die eerste winkel in New York wat die idee van vensteruitstallings geformaliseer het, en byna 'n eeu later het die vakansievensters, gerieflik reg oorkant die boom van die Rockefeller Center, nog steeds baie gons, net soos sy stigters dekades gelede.


IRS Newsroom

IR-2021-130, 22 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag twee nuwe aanlynhulpmiddels bekendgestel wat ontwerp is om gesinne te help om die maandelikse vooruitbetalings van kinderbelastingkrediete onder die Amerikaanse reddingsplan te bestuur en te monitor.

IR-2021-129, 14 Junie 2021-Die tesourie-afdeling en die Internal Revenue Service onthul vandag 'n aanlyn aanmeldingshulpmiddel vir nie-filer wat ontwerp is om in aanmerking te kom vir gesinne wat normaalweg nie belastingopgawes indien nie, om te registreer vir die maandelikse voorafbelasting op kinders Kredietbetalings, wat op 15 Julie begin.

IR-2021-128, 11 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag twee nuwe, aparte stelle gereeld gestelde vrae (FAQ's) geplaas om gesinne en klein en middelgrote werkgewers te help om krediete op te eis onder die Amerikaanse reddingsplan ( ARP).

IR-2021-127, 9 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die buro van die fiskale diens het vandag aangekondig dat hulle meer as 2,3 miljoen ekstra ekonomiese impakbetalings uitbetaal het onder die Amerikaanse reddingsplan.

IR-2021-126, 8 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service wil gemotiveerde verkrygingspersoneel aanstel wat belangstel in die verskaffing van diens van hoogstaande gehalte aan belastingbetalers van Amerika.

IR-2021-125, 8 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner belastingbetalers wat geraamde belasting betaal tot 15 Junie om hul geraamde belastingbetaling vir die tweede kwartaal van belastingjaar 2021 sonder boete te betaal.

IR-2021-124, 7 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het begin om briewe te stuur aan meer as 36 miljoen Amerikaanse gesinne wat op grond van belastingopgawes wat by die agentskap ingedien is, in aanmerking kan kom om maandeliks kinderbelastingkredietbetalings vanaf Julie te ontvang .

IR-2021-123, 4 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service stuur hierdie week meer as 2,8 miljoen terugbetalings aan belastingbetalers wat belasting betaal het op werkloosheidsvergoeding wat nuwe wetgewing nou as inkomste uitsluit.

IR-2021-122, 2 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner vandag belastingbetalers wat buite die Verenigde State woon en werk dat hulle hul federale inkomstebelastingopgawe vir 2020 voor Dinsdag 15 Junie moet indien.

IR-2021-121, 1 Junie 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag aangekondig dat hy aansoeke vir die Internal Revenue Service Advisory Council (IRSAC) aanvaar. Aansoeke sal tot 9 Julie 2021 aanvaar word.

IR-2021-120, 27 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag aangekondig dat rentekoerse dieselfde sal bly vir die kalenderkwartaal wat begin op 1 Julie 2021.

IR-2021-119, 26 Mei 2021-Vandag het die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die buro van die fiskale diens aangekondig dat hulle meer as 1,8 miljoen bykomende ekonomiese impakbetalings uitbetaal het onder die Amerikaanse reddingsplan.

IR-2021-118, 24 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag aangekondig dat die 2021 Virtual IRS Nationwide Tax Forum van 20 Julie af oor vyf weke gehou sal word, met 'n reeks lewendige webinars elke Dinsdag, Woensdag en Donderdag.

IR-2021-117, 20 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner belastingbetalers wat die onlangse sperdatum vir belastingaangeleenthede misgeloop het, daaraan terugbetaal dat daar geen boete is vir laat indien nie.

IR-2021-116, 19 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag voortgegaan met 'n voortdurende poging om dakloosheid te help deur mense wat nie 'n vaste adres of bankrekening het nie, daaraan te herinner dat hulle steeds kwalifiseer vir stimulusbetalings en ander krediete, insluitend die voorafbetaalde kinderbelastingkrediet.

IR-2021-115, 18 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag leiding gegee oor belastingverlagings ingevolge die American Rescue Plan Act van 2021 vir voortgesette gesondheidsdekking ingevolge die Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act van 1985 (COBRA).

IR-2021-114, 17 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner belastingbetalers daaraan dat die sperdatum vir die indiening van die meeste individuele inkomstebelastingopgawes vanjaar 17 Mei is.

IR-2021-113, 17 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service en die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie het vandag aangekondig dat die eerste maandelikse betaling van die uitgebreide en nuut bevorderbare kinderbelastingkrediet (CTC) uit die Amerikaanse reddingsplan gemaak sal word op 15 Julie.

IR-2021-112, 14 Mei 2021-Slagoffers van die storms en tornado's van hierdie lente in Tennessee sal tot 2 Augustus 2021 tyd hê om verskillende belasting- en individuele belastingopgawes in te dien en belastingbetalings te doen, het die Internal Revenue Service vandag aangekondig.

IR-2021-111, 14 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service sal vandeesweek terugbetalings begin uitreik aan belastingbetalers wat in aanmerking kom vir werkloosheidsvergoeding in 2020 wat die Amerikaanse reddingsplan wat onlangs uitgevaardig is, later van belasbare inkomste uitgesluit is.

IR-2021-110, 14 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag belastingbetalers wat 2020-belasting skuld, daaraan herinner dat daar verskillende maniere is om via IRS.gov te betaal, insluitend betaalopsies vir baie mense wat nie ten volle kan betaal nie.

IR-2021-109, 13 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het die sperdatum vir burgerlike vrywilligers verleng om aansoek te doen vir lidmaatskap van die Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) vir 2022.

IR-2021-108, 13 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service sal in reaksie op ontwrigting van die brandstofvoorsieningsketting geen boete oplê as gekleurde diesel verkoop word vir gebruik of op die snelweg in die state van Alabama gebruik word nie, Delaware, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Noord -Carolina, Pennsylvania, Suid -Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia en die District of Columbia.

IR-2021-107, 12 Mei 2021-Vandag het die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die Buro van die fiskale diens aangekondig dat hulle bykans 1 miljoen betalings in die negende groep ekonomiese impakbetalings uitbetaal Amerikaanse reddingsplan.

IR-2021-106, 11 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag 'n oorsig gegee van sommige van die belangrikste belastingbepalings in die Amerikaanse reddingsplanwet.

IR-2021-105, 10 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag riglyne uitgereik oor die belasbaarheid van programme vir afhanklike sorg vir 2021 en 2022, wat verduidelik dat bedrae wat toeskryfbaar is aan oordragte of 'n verlengde tydperk vir die ontstaan ​​van eise in die algemeen nie belasbaar is nie.

IR-2021-104, 7 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner vandag belastingvrye organisasies wat op 'n kalenderjaar (CY) funksioneer, dat sekere jaarlikse inligting en belastingopgawes wat hulle by die IRS indien, op 17 Mei betaalbaar is, 2021.

IR-2021-103, 5 Mei 2021-Vandag het die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die buro van die fiskale diens aangekondig dat hulle meer as 1,1 miljoen betalings uitbetaal in die agtste groep ekonomiese impakbetalings van die Amerikaanse reddingsplan.

IR-2021-102, 5 Mei 2021-Die kantoor van die Internal Revenue Service van die hoofverkrygingsbeampte kondig vandag die suksesvolle ontwikkeling aan van 'n webapp genaamd Projected Contract Award Date.

IR-2021-101, 4 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner almal daaraan dat May die National Hurricane Preparedness Week insluit en ook die National Wildfire Awareness Month is.

IR-2021-100, 3 Mei 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag aangekondig dat die aansoekperiode vir ooreenstemmende toelaes vir lae-inkomstebelastingbetalers (LITC) vir kalenderjaar 2022 van 3 Mei 2021 tot 18 Junie 2021 sal duur.

IR-2021-99, 30 April 2021-Kwalifiserende organisasies kan nou aansoek doen om die belastingberading vir bejaardes en vrywilligers vir inkomstebelastinghulpverlening aan die Internal Revenue Service, wat sommige organisasies in staat stel om tot drie jaar se jaarlikse befondsing aansoek te doen.

IR-2021-98, 30 April 2021-Die tesourie en die IRS wat vandag vrygestel is, het die vroeë konsepte van nuwe skedules K-2 en K-3 vir vorms 1065, 1120-S en 8865 vir belastingjaar 2021 opgedateer (indieningseisoen 2022) .

IR-2021-97, 29 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner werkers in die optrede-ekonomie en diegene wat in 2020 werkloosheidsvergoeding geëis het, aan hul opsies en waar hulle inligting kan vind oor die nakoming van hul belastingverpligtinge.

IR-2021-96, 29 April 2021-Almal kan 'n outomatiese uitstel van belastingaansoeke aanvra, maar sommige mense kry ekstra tyd sonder om te vra, volgens die Internal Revenue Service.

IR-2021-95, 28 April 2021-Vandag het die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die buro van die fiskale diens aangekondig dat hulle bykans 2 miljoen betalings in die sewende groep ekonomiese impakbetalings uitbetaal Amerikaanse reddingsplan.

IR-2021-94, 27 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag 'n beroep op belastingbetalers en belastingpersoneel gedoen om elektroniese opsies te gebruik om die verwerking van belastingopgawes, terugbetalings en betalings te bespoedig.

IR-2021-93, 26 April 2021-Deur voort te bou op die sukses van Skikkingsdae en Virtuele Skikkingsdae, het die Internal Revenue Service Office van Hoofadvokaat sy eerste Nasionale Virtuele Skikkingsmaand in Maart 2021 aangebied. Die resultate is indrukwekkend.

IR-2021-92, 22 April 2021-Vandag het die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die buro van die fiskale diens aangekondig dat hulle bykans 2 miljoen betalings uitbetaal in die sesde groep ekonomiese impakbetalings van die Amerikaanse reddingsplan.

IR-2021-91, 22 April 2021-Die tesourie-afdeling en die Internal Revenue Service het vandag 'n inkomsteprosedure 2021-20 uitgereik vir sekere ondernemings wat lenings in die eerste ronde van die Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) ontvang het, maar geen van die oorspronklike uitgawes omdat hulle staatgemaak het op riglyne wat uitgereik is voor die inwerkingtreding van belastingverligtingwetgewing in Desember 2020.

IR-2021-90, 21 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service en die ministerie van tesourie het vandag verdere besonderhede bekend gemaak van belastingkrediete wat kragtens die Amerikaanse reddingsplan beskikbaar is om klein ondernemings te help, insluitend die verskaffing van betaalde verlof vir werknemers wat COVID-19-inentings ontvang.

IR-2021-89, 20 April 2021-Die IRS het belastingbetalers vandag daaraan herinner om hul belastingopgawes na te gaan vir algemene foute wat terugbetalings kan vertraag of die normale verwerking andersins kan beïnvloed.

IR-2021-88, 19 April 2021-As deel van die voortgesette fokus op nakomingskwessies, het die IRS vandag die oprigting van die IRS-kantoor van promotorondersoeke aangekondig. Die nuwe kantoor sal die pogings van die koördineerder van die promotorondersoeke wat verlede somer begin het, verder uitbrei.

IR-2021-87, 15 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag voortgegaan met 'n voortdurende poging om dakloosheid te help tydens die pandemie deur mense wat nie 'n permanente adres of bankrekening het nie, daaraan te herinner dat hulle steeds vir Ekonomie kwalifiseer Impakbetalings en ander belastingvoordele.

IR-2021-86, 14 April 2021-Vandag het die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die buro van die fiskale diens aangekondig dat hulle byna 2 miljoen betalings uitbetaal in die vyfde groep ekonomiese impakbetalings van die Amerikaanse Reddingsplan.

IR-2021-85, 13 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag 'n beroep gedoen op individue en gesinne met 'n lae en matige inkomste, veral diegene wat gewoonlik nie 'n belastingopgawe indien nie, om IRS Free File te gebruik om hul eie federale belasting op te stel stuur dit terug, stuur dit per e-pos en ontvang 'n terugbetaling-alles gratis.

IR-2021-84, 9 April 2021-Die American Rescue Plan Act van 2021 skort die vereiste op dat belastingbetalers hul belastingaanspreeklikheid met die hele of 'n gedeelte van hul oortollige vooruitbetalings van die Premium Tax Credit (extra APTC) vir belastingjaar 2020 verhoog .

IR-2021-83, 9 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner Amerikaanse burgers, inwonende vreemdelinge en enige binnelandse regsentiteit dat die sperdatum om hul jaarverslag van buitelandse bank- en finansiële rekeninge (FBAR) in te dien nog steeds op 15 April 2021 is .

IR-2021-82, 9 April 2021-Beamptes van die Internal Revenue Service het vandag 'n beroep op deelnemers aan beledigende mikroversorgingsversekeringsreëlings gedoen om hierdie transaksies so gou as moontlik te verlaat.

IR-2021-81, 8 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service herinner in aanmerking komende inwoners van die Amerikaanse gebiede dat as hulle werkloosheidsvergoedingsbetalings ontvang wat andersins onderhewig is aan Amerikaanse inkomstebelasting, hulle tot $ 10.200 per persoon kan uitsluit werkloosheidsvergoeding van Amerikaanse inkomstebelasting vir 2020, na wetgewing wat op 11 Maart 2021 aanvaar is.

IR-2021-80, 8 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag verskeie belangrike leiersaanstellings aangekondig terwyl die werk voortgaan met die implementering van belangrike bepalings van die Eerste Wet op die belastingbetaler.

IR-2021-79, 8 April 2021-Die departement van tesourie en die Internal Revenue Service het vandag kennisgewing 2021-25 uitgereik wat leiding gee ingevolge die Wet op Belastingbetaler se Sekerheid en Ramphulp van 2020.

IR-2021-78, 8 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag individue, afgetredenes, beleggers, besighede, korporasies en ander wat hul belasting kwartaalliks betaal, herinner vandag daaraan dat die betaling vir die eerste kwartaal van 2021 Donderdag betaalbaar is. 15 April 2021.

IR-2021-77, 7 April 2021-Vandag het die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die buro van die fiskale diens aangekondig dat hulle meer as 25 miljoen betalings uitbetaal in die vierde bondel betalings vir ekonomiese impak van die Amerikaanse reddingsplan.

IR-2021-76, 5 April 2021-Terwyl mense regoor die land hul belastingopgawes vir 2020 indien, maak sommige aanspraak op die 2020-terugbetalingskrediet (RRC). Die IRS stuur briewe aan sommige belastingbetalers wat die krediet van 2020 geëis het en moontlik 'n ander bedrag kry as wat hulle verwag het.

IR-2021-75, 5 April 2021-Onopgeëiste terugbetalings van inkomstebelasting ter waarde van meer as $ 1,3 miljard wag op 'n geskatte 1,3 miljoen belastingbetalers wat volgens die Internal Revenue Service nie 'n 2017-vorm van federale inkomstebelastingopgawe van 2017 ingedien het nie.

IR-2021-74, 2 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag riglyne uitgereik vir werkgewers wat aanspraak maak op die behoud van krediet vir werknemers ingevolge die Wet op Hulp, Verligting en Ekonomiese Sekuriteit van die Coronavirus (CARES Act) gewysig deur die Wet op Belastingbetaler Sekerheid en Rampbelasting. van 2020 (Verligtingswet).

IR-2021-73, 2 April 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag aangekondig dat hy burgerlike vrywilligers soek om in die Belastingbetalersvoorspraakpaneel (TAP) te dien.

IR-2021-72, 1 April 2021-Vandag het die Internal Revenue Service, die Amerikaanse departement van tesourie en die buro van die fiskale diens aangekondig dat hulle nog 'n paar miljoen betalings uitbetaal in die derde groep ekonomiese impakbetalings van die Amerikaanse Reddingsplan.

IR-2021-71, 31 Maart 2021-Om belastingbetalers te help, het die Internal Revenue Service vandag aangekondig dat hy stappe sal doen om hierdie lente en somer outomaties geld terug te betaal aan mense wat hul belastingopgawe ingedien het en werkloosheidsvergoeding aangemeld het voor die onlangse veranderinge deur die Amerikaanse reddingsplan.

IR-2021-70, 30 Maart 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag gereeld vrae gevra oor hoe studente en hoëronderwysinstellings pandemieverwante noodhulp-toelaes moet aanmeld.

IR-2021-69, 30 Maart 2021-Terwyl daar voortgegaan word met die uitreiking van miljoene ekonomiese impakbetalings aan Amerikaners, het die Internal Revenue Service en Treasury Department vandag aangekondig dat hulle verwag dat betalings hierdie naweek aan ontvangers van sosiale sekerheid en ander federale begunstigdes wat normaalweg nie 'n belastingopgawe indien nie, met die voorspelling dat die meerderheid van hierdie betalings elektronies gestuur en op 7 April ontvang sal word.

IR-2021-68, 30 Maart 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag gewaarsku teen 'n voortdurende bedrogspul met IRS-nabootsing wat blykbaar hoofsaaklik op opvoedkundige instellings gerig is, insluitend studente en personeel wat '.edu' e-posadresse het.

IR-2021-67, 29 Maart 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag aangekondig dat individue tot 17 Mei 2021 tyd het om sekere sperdatums te bereik wat normaalweg op 15 April sou val, soos om IRA-bydraes te lewer en sekere eise vir terugbetaling in te dien.

IR-2021-66, 26 Maart 2021-Die Internal Revenue Service het vandag 'n aankondiging 2021-7 uitgereik waarin verduidelik word dat die aankoop van persoonlike beskermende toerusting, soos maskers, handreiniger en ontsmettingsdoeke, vir die primêre doel om die verspreiding van koronavirus te voorkom is aftrekbare mediese uitgawes.


In 1928 het die Hooggeregshof beslis dat afluisters wat sonder 'n lasbrief verkry is en wat as bewysstukke in die howe gebruik word, nie die Vierde en Vyfde Amendement oortree nie. In sy onenigheid lewer mede -regter Louis Brandeis wat tot dusver een van die bekendste bewerings is dat privaatheid inderdaad 'n individuele reg is. Die stigters het gesê Brandeis "verleen aan die regering die reg om te laat staan ​​- die mees omvattende regte en die regste wat deur beskaafde mans bevoordeel word." In sy meningsverskil het hy ook aangevoer vir 'n grondwetlike wysiging om die reg op privaatheid te waarborg.

In 1961 het Estelle Griswold, uitvoerende direkteur van Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut, en die ginekoloog C. Lee Buxton van Yale School of Medicine 'n jarelange geboortebeperkingsverbod in Connecticut uitgedaag deur 'n Planned Parenthood -kliniek in New Haven te open. As gevolg hiervan is hulle onmiddellik gearresteer, wat hulle in staat gestel het om te dagvaar. Met verwysing na die klousule oor die behoorlike proses van die veertiende wysiging, die gevolglike saak van die Hooggeregshof in 1965 -Griswold v. Connecticut—alle verbod op geboortebeperking op staatsvlak geskrap en die reg op privaatheid as 'n grondwetlike leerstelling vasgestel. Verwys na gevalle van vryheid van vergadering, soos NAACP v. Alabama (1958), wat spesifiek melding maak van 'vryheid van assosiasie en privaatheid in u verenigings', het regter William O. Douglas vir die meerderheid geskryf:

Sedert 1965 het die Hooggeregshof die reg op privaatheid die bekendste toegepas op aborsieregte Roe v. Wade (1973) en sodomiewette in Lawrence v. Texas (2003). Dit gesê, ons sal nooit weet hoeveel wette daar is nie nie geslaag of toegepas is weens die grondwetlike reg op privaatheid. Dit het 'n onontbeerlike grondslag geword van die Amerikaanse reg vir burgerlike vryhede. Sonder dit sou ons land 'n heel ander plek gewees het.


Vermoëns

Tsunade het Madara se Susanoo -ribbekas verpletter.

Net soos ander studente van die Derde Hokage, is Tsunade 'n buitengewoon talentvolle shinobi. Haar vaardighede het bekend geword na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Shinobi toe dit deur Hanzō as 'n Sannin genoem is, saam met Jiraiya en Orochimaru. Die vaardighede van Tsunade word algemeen beskou as die rede vir Konoha se oorwinning tydens die oorlog, en in die daaropvolgende jare het dit bekend geword as die sterkste kunoichi ter wêreld. ⎦ ] Ondanks die feit dat dit verroes was, het Tsunade se vaardighede Kabuto Yakushi se vaardighede maklik uitgeklasseer toe hulle geveg het; hy moes daarop staatmaak om 'n militêre rantsoenpil te gebruik om voort te gaan veg, en haar vrees vir bloed teen haar gebruik om die oorhand te kry. Toe sy dit oorkom, het sy een vir een teen Orochimaru geveg en hom in die eensaamheid verslaan. Sy sou later Konoha's Fifth Hokage word, en was verantwoordelik vir die redding van talle dorpenaars toe Pain die dorp in Deel II verwoes het. Selfs mense soos Madara Uchiha erken dat Tsunade waardig was om 'n Kage te wees. ⎧ ]

Chakra en fisiese vaardigheid

Tsunade maak haar seël los.

As afstammeling van beide die Senju- en Uzumaki -stamme, het Tsunade hul lewenskrag en fisiese energie geërf, wat haar in staat gestel het om nie net meer as 'n halwe dag met Madara Uchiha te veg nie, maar selfs te oorleef nadat sy in twee dele gesny was en haar bewussyn lank genoeg behou het genees ander voordat sy self genees is. Haar reserwes van chakra is groot, genoeg om 'n paar duisend shinobi te genees tydens die laaste stryd met Obito Uchiha. Sy het ook uitstekende beheer oor haar chakra. Na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Shinobi, begin sy geleidelik haar chakra in die sterkte van 'n honderd seël op haar voorkop stoor. As die seël vrygestel word, het Tsunade toegang tot al die opgehoopte chakra, wat in totaal honderd keer haar gewone chakra-vlakke beloop. Alhoewel sy gewoonlik hierdie ekstra chakra gebruik om beserings te genees of haar ander jutsu uit te voer, kan sy die chakra ook aan ander oordra, óf om hul eie aan te vul of te versterk. ⎨ ]

Tsunade breek die grond met een vinger.

Tsunade leer haar student, Sakura Haruno, hoe om chakra in haar vuiste op te bou en dit vry te laat in kontak met 'n teiken, wat ernstige skade aanrig. Tsunade gebruik vermoedelik self hierdie vermoë, maar dit is nie altyd duidelik wanneer sy van nature baie sterk is nie, genoeg om Gamabunta se swaard op te lig en#9129 ] en Hashirama het opgemerk dat sy nog baie sterk was, selfs toe sy net 'n paar jaar oud was. ⎪ ] Haar fisiese prestasies, ongeag die oorsaak, sluit in: die grond met net 'n vinger skeur ⎫ ] en ses van Jiraiya se ribbes, albei sy arms, breek en verskeie van sy interne organe breek. ⎖ ] Sy het selfs deur Susanoo gebreek, 'n 'absolute verdediging', met slegs 'n paar treffers. ⎬ ]

Tsunade glo dat dit noodsaaklik is vir 'n mediese dokter om beserings te vermy, aangesien hulle nie hul pligte kan uitvoer as iets met hulle gebeur nie. ⎭ ] In 'n sekere mate help haar onnatuurlike krag haar in hierdie verband, aangesien teenstanders kan vermy om naby haar te kom sodat sy hulle nie kan tref nie. Terselfdertyd word Tsunade egter gereeld beseer in 'n geveg, selfs so ver dat sy haarself in gevaar stel om haar bondgenote te beskerm. ⎮ ] Dit is alles omdat Tsunade haar Creation Rebirth -vermoë as 'n redelike uitsondering op die beginsel van 'vermy besering' beskou, aangesien sy ernstige skade kan opdoen en steeds kan oorleef. Selfs sonder die Creation Rebirth, is die vermoë van Tsunade om beserings te verduur nogal indrukwekkend, aangesien sy verskeie sterfsteke op die bors kan oorleef en#9135 ] kan oorleef en in staat is om jutsu te verrig nadat sy gesny is. ⎰ ]

Ninjutsu

Tsunade en Katsuyu genees beserings.

Tsunade kan dele van Katsuyu, 'n slak uit die Shikkotsu -woud, ontbied. Benewens die stryd saam met Tsunade, kan Katsuyu haar afdelings gebruik as 'n vorm van langafstandkommunikasie of om Tsunade se beseerde bondgenote te beskerm en te beskerm. As haar bondgenote 'n entjie weg is, kan sy Katsuyu na hul plek stuur. ⎱ ] Deur met Katsuyu te skakel, kan Tsunade diegene waaraan Katsuyu geheg het, monitor, dit op afstand genees en hul chakra aanvul soos nodig.

Die aard van Tsunade sluit in weerlig, vuur, water en aarde, sowel as Yang Α ] en in die anime Yin Release. ⎲ ] Sy word nie direk gesien met behulp van een van hierdie aard in die reeks nie, alhoewel haar Body Pathway Derangement 'n mate van weerligchakra moet gebruik: sy spuit haar chakra in 'n teenstander, deur die liggaam se elektriese seine te skarrel sodat beveel om hul hand te beweeg in plaas daarvan om hul been te beweeg, ens. ⎳ ]

Benewens haar ander vaardighede, wys die anime Tsunade met 'n mate van spasie -tyd ninjutsu, ⎴ ] fūinjutsu, en versperring ninjutsu.

Transformasie tegniek

Ondanks die feit dat sy in die vyftigerjare was, laat Tsunade se transformasietegniek haar lyk asof sy nog in haar twintigs was. Sy verander maklik watter ouderdom sy verskyn om haar dobbelskuld te vermy. ⎠ ] Tsunade se unieke transformasie blyk permanent te wees, aangesien sy hierdie vorm kan behou sonder om moeite te doen, selfs al is sy beseer of slaap. Die transformasie verdwyn wanneer die chakra opraak, en laat haar terugkeer na haar natuurlike voorkoms. ⎵ ]

Mediese Ninjutsu

Tsunade word beskou as die wêreld se grootste mediese nien, wat in een oogopslag siektes kan identifiseer en toestande kan behandel wat ander mediese nien onmoontlik genees. Haar vaardighede is genoeg dat Orochimaru geglo het dat sy die nekrose-agtige gevolge van die Dead Demon Consuming Seal kan omkeer. Sy het onder meer die sielkundige skade van Tsukuyomi genees, en#9142 ] het die skade aan Rock Lee se ruggraat reggemaak toe hy as 'n hulpelose saak beskou is, en#9143 ] en die gevolge van die Three Coloured Pills teengewerk met instruksies van die Nara Clan Mediese ensiklopedie. ⎸ ] Haar mediese bekwaamheid is weer bewys toe sy Shikamaru se ernstige chakra-uitputting onmiddellik genees het nadat hy in aanraking gekom het met 'n wortel van die Godboom, en die chakra-mantel om hom merkbaar reageer op haar behandeling. ⎹ ]

Tsunade genees haarself met Creation Rebirth.

Die toppunt van Tsunade se mediese vaardigheid is ongetwyfeld haar Creation Rebirth, wat gebruik maak van haar groot chakravoorrade om alle wonde wat sy opdoen onmiddellik te genees. Omdat dit geen handseëls benodig om uit te voer nie, het sy geen bewuste inspanning van haar kant nodig nie, en kan sy enige skade genees, ongeag hoe ernstig (haar chakra -vlakke dit toelaat) Orochimaru beskryf dit as 'n vorm van onsterflikheid waarop selfs hy jaloers is. ⎺ ] Ten spyte van hoe nuttig dit in die geveg is, is Creation Rebirth 'n tweesnydende swaard: die selle van die liggaam kan slegs 'n sekere aantal kere verdeel en geskep word, dus wanneer Tsunade die tegniek gebruik, verkort sy haar lewensduur. As gevolg hiervan gebruik sy dit slegs in baie desperate situasies.

Tsunade ondersoek vir 'n prosedure.

Tsunade se vaardighede strek verder as die tipiese mediese ninjutsu. Sy het bekendheid verwerf tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Shinobi omdat sy die enigste persoon was wat teenmiddels vir die gifstowwe van Sunagakure se Chiyo kon maak. ⎘ ] Net so kan sy slaapdrankies maak wat selfs vir die vaardigste ninja's nie opspoorbaar is nie. ⎻ ] Sy is kundig genoeg om lykskouings te doen en skade op selfoonvlak te ondersoek. Na die vierde Shinobi -wêreldoorlog bestudeer sy die materiaal waaruit die White Zetsu -leër bestaan ​​en leer sy prostetiese ledemate daarvan maak. In die anime ondersoek sy Kabuto Yakushi se Yin Healing Wound Destruction en gebruik dit wat sy vind om die oorlewingsyfer van Rock Lee se mediese prosedure te verhoog. ⎼ ] Vanweë haar uitgebreide mediese kennis was Tsunade hoofsaaklik verantwoordelik vir die opstel van die moderne mediese stelsel, alhoewel sy haarself vrystel van baie van die wette wat hulle beheer as gevolg van haar wedergeboorte. ⎬ ]

Statistieke


Beste manier om vinnig gewig te verloor: hoe ek 10 pond in 2 weke verloor het

Dit was eintlik 15 pond in 12 dae. Van 7 Januarie tot 19 Januarie. Ek het binne die eerste drie maande meer as 40 pond verloor en ek is nog steeds sterk! Die dieet en program wat ek hieronder beskryf, kan gewoonlik 10 pond verloor binne u eerste twee weke sonder probleme.

Opmerking vir vroue: Ja, jy verloor gewig anders as mans. U metabolisme is anders en dit is belangrik om dit in gedagte te hou. Hierdie berig bevat ook oplossings vir vroue (ons ma het meer as 25 kilogram verloor deur die program vir vroue genoem).

Hier is my voor en na foto's om te betaal:

Die eerste dag en week 2 weeg hier:

Aanvanklike gewig:

Week 2 Gewig:

15 pond ligter in 2 weke en ek hoef nie te sê dat ek redelik opgewonde was nie, en dit het my beslis gehelp om aan te hou.

Ek het 90 dae lank 'n pasgemaakte vetverliesprogram gevolg. Daar is 'n vroulike en 'n manlike weergawe van hierdie program. Klik hier as u 'n vrou is. As u 'n man is, klik hier. Na die 90 dae het dit my geneem:

Aanvanklike gewig:

Dag 90 Gewig:

183,8 pond

Hier is my voor/na -prentjie vir die eerste 90 dae op hierdie nuwe program, en ek het 'n onlangse opdatering van ongeveer 'n maand gelede ingegooi, en ek gaan nog steeds so sterk.

My broer, Devon het ook baie soortgelyke resultate behaal (hoewel baie minder om te verloor). Selfs ons ma kon 25 pond daal met behulp van die metodes wat spesifiek vir vroue uiteengesit is. Wil u meer inligting oor die program hê? As u 'n vrou is, klik hier. As u 'n man is, klik hier vir u program.

Dit het die lewe verander en eintlik baie pret!

Hierdie artikel is 'n opsomming van die tipe lewenstylveranderinge wat ons gemaak het en 'n oorsig van wat ons gedoen het om hierdie gewig te verloor. Ons hoop dat dit soveel mense as moontlik kan help. Alhoewel ons uiteindelik 'n bietjie oefen, was die meeste verliese wat ons opgemerk het deur die optimalisering van 'n eetplan en 'n program wat spesifiek vir ons gewerk het.

As u ernstig is om gewig te verloor then you might want to check out the customized fat loss program (for men) Or its sister program called the Venus Factor (for women). Please take some time to review some of the post, but much of the info was taken from this program (Mans: click here. Women: klik hier. The video on the page is about 20 minutes, but it’s a good watch and has some great info (be sure to watch to the end because it gives you a great discount). The program is only about $40 – less than what I used to spend on pizza every weekend. Follow the link below to check it out.

The custom solution for women:

For Men:

It’s crazy what dropping as little as 10 pounds will do to your energy levels and work productivity. It was going through this process that sparked my renewed interest in the health and fitness community and snowballed into me being much more passionate about all this.

If you’re looking to lose weight quickly, there are three things you need to optimize or focus on:

  • Your diet – what you eat and drink
  • Your exercise – timing and duration of specific exercises
  • Supplementation – speeding up the process with the help of safe drugs

I really think that the best way to lose weight is by optimizing your diet. More specific it’s to manage your blood sugar levels and eat for your specific metabolism.

I lost my weight by only optimizing my diet. I changed what I ate dramatically and literally melted the weight off. I remember waking up on the fourth day after starting this in complete amazement by the fact that my fingers felt skinny. I’m not sure if it was the amount of salt I ate or what, but my fingers and hands have felt fat for the last year – this alone was enough to keep me going. For the sake of this overview, I will not go into any detail on supplements (as I have yet to learn much about them), and will only briefly touch on exercising. Instead, I’ll focus on optimizing diet for rapid weight loss.

So how did I lose this weight so quickly?

I kept my blood sugar from spiking by following a fat loss program built for me. It was quite similar to the slow carb diet. The methods I used were from the advice I found from a variety of locations, surrounding foods and how diet alone can make for some amazing weight loss. You can get the program we used for this right here: women click here – and – men click here.

Not going into details of the diet (you can read that yourself). These were the key changes I made that I know helped with the rapid weight loss.

I ate a big, high-protein breakfast

I love my breakfasts. It’s crazy to think that I could lose 10 pounds in 2 weeks while eating this every morning. It’s great though because in the evening when I sometimes get cravings, I will just remind myself how awesome breakfast is going to be. I included a picture to the right of a typical breakfast that I will eat. Dit is ’s three fried eggs, 4-6 pieces of bacon, and fried mushrooms, onions, and beans. Heerlik.

Lets be honest, there were mornings that I just didn’t have it in me to make this. For those mornings I would fall back to just 2-3 hardboiled eggs, or a single hardboiled egg and a protein shake made with water + whey protein isolate. Since I work from home, I can typically take the time to make a big breakfast, but probably 1/6 days I would have to fall back to the quick breakfast.

Remove most dairy products

This wasn’t a huge issue for me. I haven’t drank much milk since junior high, and although I do enjoy cheese on almost everything it was easy enough to give up. Luckily, I could still use butter to cook with, and if you are like the many people that love cream in their coffee – this is okay as well as long as it’s heavy cream and not milk. Cheese is a big part of my cheat days as I explain below.

Water, Coffee, or Tea

This was one of the biggest challenges for me. That said it is crazy how fast you can lose weight quickly if you simply cut out drinking unnecessary calories. Admittedly, I’ve historically enjoyed a beer or two over dinner at home – and even more than one or two if out with some friends. Although I don’t think there’s anything wrong with a beer a night, or a glass of wine a night, I know the former is not great for losing weight.

If all you have is two weeks to lose weight, you’re going to have to be very strict with this rule. Luckily you can still drink any water-based drink such as coffee and tea, so it’s not all bad. I usually have a huge glass of ice cold water plus one or two large cups of coffee in the morning to kick start my day. I often use cinnamon to flavour my coffee – it’s a great tip for those of you that really enjoyed adding milk.

No white carbohydrates

In fact, anything that is white or can be white. So no pastas, no rice, no breads, no oatmeal, no potatoes, etc. However, I still ate a ton of carbohydrates. I just ate better high-fiber carbs such as black beans, kidney beans, and lentils. The latter I didn’t really enjoy, so most of my meals were made up of beans. The picture to the left is an example of what I would eat for supper. This night I had a spread of black beans, cooked frozen veggies, and sliced ham. I basically substituted the ham for any other meat – chicken, beef, or pork mostly – and alternated between black and kidney beans. Let op – if you find your food getting bland, try using mustard and pepper. For lunch, I’ll often take 1/2-1 can of tuna, 1-2 cups of frozen veggies, and a big scoop of bean, cook in the microwave, add a couple squeezes of mustard and pepper and shake.

Moderate 20 minute weight resistance twice per week

When I was reading the Four Hour Body, it really got me interested in how the body works and how it deals with exercise, food, etc. This is one thing that I think really helped me – especially during my cheat days. I will do a light to moderate 20 minute work out consisting of the following exercises:

  • Bicep curl x 15
  • Air squats x 50
  • Military shoulder press x 15
  • Wide arm pushups x 20
  • Against-the-wall tricep extensions
  • As many close-grip pull ups as possible
  • Calf raises x 30

The goal of the workout was to promote food storage to muscle instead of fat – this is especially important during your cheat days. During my cheat day, I will look to do the air squats + tricep extensions even if I’m eating out. I didn’t go to the gym at all for this, instead, I just took a couple old 20lb dumbbells, a pair of 10lb dumbbells and a pull-up bar from home. If you don’t have a pull-up bar don’t buy one, simply exchange the exercise for a back row or seated back fly exercise. I also don’t own a weight bench so no need to spend your money on that. What I’ve learned since losing even more weight is that these workouts are pretty important if you want to lose weight fast. They aren’t necessary but they certainly do help shed some extra pounds by keeping the fat off, especially on your cheat day.

I gave myself one cheat day

I say one cheat day because I wanted to illustrate the fact that this diet can be used for people wanting to know how to lose weight in 2 weeks. If you are only using this as a fast way to lose weight, then you’ll only want to indulge in one cheat day during your two-week period. However, I now give myself every Saturday as a cheat day.

I believe that this cheat day is important for a number of reasons. Firstly, the science behind it suggests that if you go for too long on a limited-calorie diet (which this isn’t, however I noticed that it took me much, much less food to fill me up when I ate well, so you tend to naturally eat less on this diet) that your metabolism will shift to a lower gear in order to compromise for the lower intake of calories. By cheating one day and spiking the number of calories you consume, it will keep your metabolism from doing this – and allow you to maintain your high metabolic rate throughout the week.

Personally, I find the cheat day important because it gives you something to look forward to. This diet is a huge change from most Westerners’ lifestyles. With the diet comes a lot of cravings, especially in the beginning. I would make a little note of anything that I was craving and made sure I went out and bought it Saturday morning. For example, this is what my first cheat day looked like:

  • Ontbyt – bacon and eggs with hash-browns, toast, a ton of ketchup, and a fruit smoothie
  • Snack – Full bag of All Dressed potato chips and a large bag of sugar candy (Cherry Blasters)
  • Middagete – Entire box of extra cheesy Kraft Dinner
  • Snack – 2 large Caramilk chocolate bars
  • Supper (and evening snack) – 1/2 large poutine, a few garlic fingers and 7 slices of a 16″ large pizza from Alexandras Pizza.

Even typing that out makes me a bit sick to my stomach. Needless to say, I didn’t crave any sort of junk for a while after that day. In fact, thinking back it was at least Thursday before I made a note of anything for the next cheat day.

Final words on this way to lose weight quickly

What I explained above was how I lost 10 pounds in 2 weeks. I’m continuing to lose week after week at an average of 4-5 pounds per week (I’m sure this will slow down once I get closer to my goal weight). The above method works like a charm and I feel is a great way to lose some extra weight. UPDATE: I’ve since lost over 40 pounds in 90 days and continue to get leaner and leaner.

I’ve learned a ton about health and fitness – specifically weight loss and motivation – over the past several months. So much so that I’ve recently become a personal trainer so that I could help others reach their health and fitness goals as well. I’m super excited about this new found passion and can’t wait to start helping more people. If you have any questions about this program or any other exercise program please don’t hesitate to ask – I’m here to help.

If you are serious about losing weight and changing your lifestyle and willing to put in a little bit of effort to make amazing changes, then I do think you should check out the fat loss factor program. Like I mentioned, it does cost a bit of money, and I was extremely hesitant to buy a program off the internet, but I’m really glad I did. It is cheaper than what we used to spend ordering pizza every few days.

The custom solution for women:

For Men:

Also, if you have any questions, leave a comment in the comment section below and I’ll answer them as soon as I can.


British Parliament adopts the Coercive Acts in response to the Boston Tea Party

Upset by the Boston Tea Party and other blatant acts of destruction of British property by American colonists, the British Parliament enacts the Coercive Acts, to the outrage of American Patriots, on March 28, 1774.

The Coercive Acts were a series of four acts established by the British government. The aim of the legislation was to restore order in Massachusetts and punish Bostonians for their Tea Party, in which members of the revolutionary-minded Sons of Liberty boarded three British tea ships in Boston Harbor and dumped 342 crates of tea—nearly $1 million worth in today’s money—into the water to protest the Tea Act.

Passed in response to the Americans’ disobedience, the Coercive Acts included:

The Boston Port Act, which closed the port of Boston until damages from the Boston Tea Party were paid.

The Massachusetts Government Act, which restricted Massachusetts democratic town meetings and turned the governor’s council into an appointed body.

The Administration of Justice Act, which made British officials immune to criminal prosecution in Massachusetts.

The Quartering Act, which required colonists to house and quarter British troops on demand, including in their private homes as a last resort.

A fifth act, the Quebec Act, which extended freedom of worship to Catholics in Canada, as well as granting Canadians the continuation of their judicial system, was joined with the Coercive Acts in colonial parlance as one of the Intolerable Acts, as the mainly Protestant colonists did not look kindly on the ability of Catholics to worship freely on their borders.


July 2, 2013 Day 164 of the Fifth Year - History

A. enhance their skills in segmentation

B. help students understand conventional spelling

C. help students identify story elements and vocabulary

A. formal formative assessment.

B. informal formative assessment.

C. informal summative assessment.

The teacher is listening and watching as she informally assesses student understanding of the concept: angle measures in triangles.

A. These methods are easier and more exciting to teach.

B. These methods allow students to socialize and minimize disruptions during class.

C. These methods address a variety of learning styles and allow students to take ownership of their learning.

A. Send the ELL students to the resource room for supplemental instruction during presentations.

B. Make dictionaries accessible to the students and allow for additional time to complete the assignments while other students can work independently.

C. Adjust the content to make the presentation and homework assignments simpler to accommodate varying language proficiencies.

A. pair the vocabulary word with a picture and simple definition

B. provide translated versions of the vocabulary words

C.have students read an abridged version of the novel in their native language(s)

The teacher is providing equal access to the students by providing a picture cue and simple language that explains the vocabulary words. The teacher can reinforce learning by having students draw picture cues of their own and practice using the words in context.

B. provide translated versions of the vocabulary words

This would help students to recognize the vocabulary words by name and meaning when encountering the words in the novel.

WRONG:
C.have students read an abridged version of the novel in their native language(s)

This would not provide equal access because the students may miss out on state standards and learning objectives if they do not read the entire novel.

D.allow the students to listen to snippets of an audio version of the novel

A. having students read short poems aloud in front of the class

B. using various graphic organizers to compare two reading selections

C. having students partner read then complete comprehension activities independently

This is a great activity for students that requires them to think critically about two reading sections and compare them. This would help promote the students' reading comprehension because they are analyzing a text and comparing it to another.

WRONG:
D. using a word wall to track vocabulary words

A. Students are better able to understand perspectives, values, and beliefs beyond those that are familiar.

B. Students are exposed to repeated and meaningful vocabulary.

C.It helps maintain the students' interest in literature study by continually presenting them with new settings, characters, and situations.

Using multiple resources that reflect various literary and cultural traditions exposes students to differing viewpoints.

WRONG:
C. It helps maintain the students' interest in literature study by continually presenting them with new settings, characters, and situations.

A. They are not listening attentively.

B. They do not want to work in their assigned groups.

C. They are not intelligent
studente.

A. Transcribe his lectures and provide copies of the lectures to the ELL students.

B. Translate his lectures into the students' native languages.

C. Prepare multimedia presentations with visual images to coincide with his lectures.

A. allow each student to understand the benefits of each culture.

B. create a classroom environment that promotes respect for different cultures.

C. allow each student to learn about the differences of each culture.

It is a high priority for students in the classroom to respect different cultures.

WRONG:
D. creates a classroom environment that adopts aspects from various cultures.

A. Mr. Hanson asks students to determine who the most reliable narrator is in the book.

B. Mr. Hanson asks each student to write down what they think is the main conflict of the narrative.

C. Mr. Hanson asks various students to explain possible effects of different events in the narrative.

A. Reteach the lesson because students are failing to understand the material.

B. Teach more advanced multiplication content to challenge his students.

C. Continue with his unit as planned his students are clearly understanding the material.

A. The main character did _____ because ______ happened first.

B. The word "_____" means ______. I know because in the text it says, "_____."

C. Because the character said _____, I believe s/he will _____.

A. Read short excerpts of poetry, demonstrating how to pause and add proper inflection.

B. Reviewing phonics and frequent morpheme pronunciations.

C. Have students read unknown excerpts in front of the class.

By modeling how to pause and inflect while reading, Mr. Blaschke can demonstrate good fluency to his students through short reading passages.

WRONG:
D. Create a word wall to introduce students to new terms they may encounter in their reading.

A. Send the ELL students to the resource room for supplemental instruction during the presentations.

B. Allow the ELL students to work together during group activities to promote English proficiency.

C. Adjust the content to make the presentations and homework assignments simpler to accommodate the varying language proficiencies.

ELL students should not be grouped together because groups should be heterogeneous regarding language proficiency. Students are much less likely to develop proper language models and conversational skills in the L2 language when they are grouped with students of similar language proficiency.

RIGHT:
D. Make dictionaries accessible to the students and allow for additional time to complete the assignments while other students work independently.

A. Sheltered English instruction

A. students will be confused by the different way of speaking (e.g., accent).

B. students will have to learn a lot of new vocabulary in Spanish and that will make them get behind in school.

C. students will want to use English instead of Spanish.

A. Formative assessments measure what students know at the end of a unit.

B. Formative assessments are given at the end of the grading period.

C. Formative assessments measure what students know along the way.

Summative assessments are the type of assessment you would normally administer at the end of a unit, not formative. Formative assessments are more frequent.

RIGHT:
C. Formative assessments measure what students know along the way.

A. subtractive language education.

B. conservative language education.

A. It promotes students' creativity outside the structure of a classroom activity.

B. It allows each student to write about something they want to write about.

C. It allows the teacher to identify a foundation to help the students begin their writing activity.

Requiring students to think about a specific role model in their lives and characteristics they admire about that role model will help the teacher guide the students in constructing a three-paragraph essay about role models.

WRONG:
D. It stimulates the students' creativity and gives them a beginning outline for their essay.

A. The use of the first language sound system to read in the second language

B. The ability to use visual clues to infer meaning

C. The transfer of cognate vocabulary

Different letters might reflect a different sound or emphasis on the word also, there is a new vocabulary which might sound similar but is different in meaning.

RIGHT:
B. The ability to use visual clues to infer meaning

B. making associations with their L1 language.

C. finding patterns in language.

A. teach students to model and solve problems in other disciplines.

B. develop instruction that connects mathematical concepts and procedures.

C. inform upcoming instructional strategies.

The data may show that mathematical connections are lacking, in which case the upcoming instructional strategies would have this focus, however, in general, this is not the best use of the data.

RIGHT:
C. inform upcoming instructional strategies.

A. The acquisition of a second language is much different from learning the first language due to the advanced cognitive development of students

B. Learning a second language is not different because it is essentially like learning new vocabulary words, which is done in any language

C. Learning a second language is not much different than learning the first language the language acquisition for L1 and L2 are very similar

While learning a new language is similar to learning one's first language, the process is much more complex than learning new vocabulary. For example, many languages have various sentence structures and verb conjugations that vary from one's native language.

RIGHT:
C. Learning a second language is not much different than learning the first language the language acquisition for L1 and L2 are very similar

A. Provide a self-assessment questionnaire for students to complete after the group project is finished.

B. Observe the students from the front of the class.

C. Assign one group member to observe and report on the group members' understanding.

Providing a self-assessment questionnaire would not help Mr. Daniel monitor student understanding as the students complete the project, but it would rather provide insight into student understanding after the project was completed.

RIGHT:
D. Walk from group to group while observing the students.

A. While reading aloud to the class, the teacher pauses to define vocabulary terms using context clues.

B. Read a text that's projected for the class and take notes in the margins while reading.

C. Provide student with a teacher-written summary of a text after the class has read it together.

A. his cognition helps him with this academic subject (even if it is taught in English).

B. his lack of English keeps him from following the lesson.

C. the ELL/ESL time is in the afternoon when he is tired.

A. Provide a glossary of terms found on the test.

B. Use multiple-choice and short-answer questions.

C. Use vocabulary that is easier for the ELL student to understand.

B. after every complete thought

C. after every difficult word

A. Highlight each student's academic progress and their increasing ability to learn new ideas and concepts.

B. Discuss with students the lasting benefits of education.

C. Provide students with data and tools to help them measure their learning experiences.

A. Mr. Keyes can ensure the teaching relates to the historical heritage of each student.

B. The students will not form negative attitudes about each other's heritage and cultural background.

C. The students will better appreciate Mr. Keyes' teaching.

B. Spanish is a syllable-timed language, and English is a stress-timed language.

C. Spanish contains less falling intonation than English.

A. It provides an enjoyable activity to engage students in language development.

B. It demonstrates acceptance of diversity and its value in enriching students' learning.

C. It demonstrates the importance of peers, peer acceptance, and conformity to peer-group norms.

Having students contribute individual pages about themselves to a class book has many positive outcomes, and all four choices have merit. However, demonstrating an acceptance of diversity is of the utmost importance in a class with diverse backgrounds. This activity promotes an acceptance and understanding of the backgrounds of the students while providing an enjoyable, enriching activity. The keywords in the prompt is "students from diverse backgrounds."

A. in young children, well before formal schooling begins.

B. after the letters of the alphabet are learned.

C. after basic spelling skills are learned.

A. have the teacher ensure that the homework demonstrates the students' academic abilities and not their limitations of the English language.

B. provide the English language learners with accommodated homework that is not as difficult.

C. work one-on-one with each English language learner during class to help them understand the English language and their homework.

A. Create a mnemonic device with motions so students "act out" the theorem.

B. Have students draw triangles and assign number values to the sides that fit with the theorem.

C. Assign an essay over the development of the theorem.

A. Reading should be taught to students by addressing each concept separately.

B. Reading comprehension is increased when reading fluency is increased.

C. It is best to assess students' reading comprehension through formal assessments.

A. they increase their ability to translate their native language to English.

B. they become more familiar with important historical events.

C. they are able to practice reading English aloud.

A. Long and short vowels don't exist in Spanish.

B. Spanish speakers often de-voice at the end of syllables.

C. Spanish is a syllable-timed language.

These word pairs all contain a short and a long vowel. In Spanish every vowel makes only one sound, so it can be difficult for Spanish-speaking students to differentiate between long and short vowels in English.

A. Provide students with two additional prompts, "_at" and "__one", and have them create sentences in their notebooks with as many words using the additional prompts.

This activity allows students to work at their own pace and dictate the level of higher-order thinking skills used. Less-able students can think of simple words to use in simple sentences while more advanced students are able to think of complex sentences, and possibly narratives, to use with the word prompts. This is an individual activity that allows each student to maximize their ability.

B. Allow each student, one-by-one, to think of as many words using the original prompt. Once one student is finished, allow the next student to repeat the exercise until the whole class has a turn.

Not only is allowing each student to think and answer one-at-a-time an inefficient exercise, but it allows students at the beginning of the activity to think of lots of words. The activity does not vary according to a student's developmental level.

C. Encourage the class to spell the word aloud before writing the word in their journals.

This activity allows students to work at their own pace and dictate the level of higher-order thinking skills used. Less-able students can think of simple words to use in simple sentences while more advanced students are able to think of complex sentences, and possibly narratives, to use with the word prompts. This is an individual activity that allows each student to maximize their ability.

WRONG:
B. Allow each student, one-by-one, to think of as many words using the original prompt. Once one student is finished, allow the next student to repeat the exercise until the whole class has a turn.

A. determining current knowledge before beginning a unit of study

B. comparing student performance to that of same-aged peers across the country


The Birth of the NHS

On the 5th July 1948 an historic moment occurred in British history, a culmination of a bold and pioneering plan to make healthcare no longer exclusive to those who could afford it but to make it accessible to everyone. The NHS was born.

The National Health Service, abbreviated to NHS, was launched by the then Minister of Health in Attlee’s post-war government, Aneurin Bevan, at the Park Hospital in Manchester. The motivation to provide a good, strong and reliable healthcare to all was finally taking its first tentative steps.

The creation of the NHS in 1948 was the product of years of hard work and a motivation from various figures who felt the current healthcare system was insufficient and needed to be revolutionised.

Aneurin Bevan, Minister of Health, on the first day of the National Health Service, 5 July 1948 at Park Hospital, Davyhulme, near Manchester. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.

These ideas can be traced back to the early 1900s with the Minority Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law in 1909. The report was headed by the socialist Beatrice Webb who argued that a new system was needed to replace the antiquated ideas of the Poor Law which was still in existence from the times of the workhouses in the Victorian era. Those who were involved in the report believed it was a narrow-minded approach from those in charge to expect those in poverty to be entirely accountable for themselves. Despite the strong arguments provided in the report, it still proved unsuccessful and many ideas were disregarded by the new Liberal government.

Nevertheless, more and more people were beginning to speak out and be proactive, including Dr Benjamin Moore, a Liverpool physician who had great foresight and a pioneering vision of the future in healthcare. His ideas were written in “The Dawn of the Health Age” and he was probably one of the first to use the phrase ‘National Health Service’. His ideas led him to create the State Medical Service Association which held its first meeting in 1912. It would be another thirty years before his ideas would feature in the Beveridge Plan for the NHS.

Before the creation of the NHS or anything like it, when someone found themselves needing a doctor or to use medical facilities, patients were generally expected to pay for those treatments. In some cases local authorities ran hospitals for the local ratepayers, an approach originating with the Poor Law. By 1929 the Local Government Act amounted to local authorities running services which provided medical treatment for everyone. On 1st April 1930 the London County Council then took over responsibility for around 140 hospitals, medical schools and other institutions after the abolition of the Metropolitan Asylums Board. By the time the Second World War broke out, the London Council was running the largest public service of its kind for healthcare.

Scene from ‘The Citadel’ (1938)

Further momentum was gained when Dr. A.J Cronin’s novel “The Citadel” was published in 1937 and proved to be highly controversial for its criticism of the inadequacies and failures of healthcare. The book was based on a story about a doctor from a small Welsh mining village who climbed the ranks to become a doctor in London. Cronin had observed the medical scene greatly and the book prompted new ideas about medicine and ethics, inspiring to some extent the NHS and the ideas behind it.

There was a growing consensus that the current system of health insurance should be extended to include dependents of wage-earners and that voluntary hospitals should be integrated. These discussions were not taken any further when in 1939 the outbreak of the Second World War took precedence. The wartime period necessitated the creation of the Emergency Hospital Service to care for the wounded, making these services dependent on the government. The issue of health provisions in Britain was a growing problem.

By 1941, the Ministry of Health was in the process of agreeing a post-war health policy with the aim that services would be available to the entire general public. A year later the Beveridge Report put forward a recommendation for “comprehensive health and rehabilitation services” and was supported across the House of Commons by all parties. Eventually, the Cabinet endorsed the White Paper put forward by the Minister of Health Henry Willink in 1944, which set out the guidelines for the NHS. The principles included how it would be funded from general taxation and not national insurance. Everyone was entitled to treatment including visitors to the country and it would be provided free at the point of delivery. These ideas were taken on by the next Health Minister Aneurin Bevan.

The nuts and bolts of the project finally took hold when Clement Attlee came to power in 1945 and Aneurin Bevan became Health Minister. It was Bevan who embarked on the campaign to bring about the NHS in the form we are now familiar with. This project was said to be based on three ideas which Bevan expressed in the launch on 5th July 1948. These essential values were, firstly, that the services helped everyone secondly, healthcare was free and finally, that care would be provided based on need rather than ability to pay.

Since then, the NHS has gone through many changes, improvements, updates and modernisation processes. No-one back in 1948 would have been able to foresee the way in which the NHS developed, succeeded, pioneered and expanded.

In the early years of the NHS, not long after its launch, expenditure was already exceeding previous expectations and charges were considered for prescriptions to meet the rising costs. By the time of the 1960s these early adjustments were altered and it was considered to be a strong period of growth for the NHS, characterised by new developments in the availability of drugs.

As the years rolled by, new changes were made and reorganisation occurred in 1974 as the period of economic optimism which had characterised the earlier decade was beginning to wane. By the time of the 1980s and the Thatcher government, modern methods of management were introduced. However the necessity for the NHS to remain as a critical mainstay service for the British public was prioritised still by Margaret Thatcher, despite the conflict in ideas in other areas such as welfare and public housing.

Today, the NHS is facing a greater crisis still. The issues of funding and demand continue to rise and the ability to provide free healthcare to all is a continuous topic of debate for many.

Nevertheless, seventy years marks an important moment in British history. The NHS created in 1948 was brought about through hard work and dedication from those that truly believed in new ideas about services, health, medical ethics and society more generally. The NHS has faced crisis, economic downturns, periods of prosperity, growth and so much more in its seventy years of operation.

The NHS has in some ways exceeded expectations and at the same time there is always more that can be done. The idea of a National Health Service once upon a time would have been unheard of, yet today we cannot imagine life without it. The creation of the NHS marks a significant chapter in British social history.

Jessica Brain is 'n vryskutskrywer wat spesialiseer in geskiedenis. Gebaseer in Kent en 'n liefhebber van alles wat histories is.


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