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Watter behandeling het geallieerde Joodse krygsgevangenes gekry toe hulle deur die Duitsers gevange geneem is?

Watter behandeling het geallieerde Joodse krygsgevangenes gekry toe hulle deur die Duitsers gevange geneem is?

Volgens Wikipedia dien daar tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog ongeveer 500 000 Amerikaanse Jode in die Amerikaanse magte, en nog 500 000 Jode dien ander geallieerde nasies.

Sommige van hierdie dienspligtiges sou deur die Duitsers gevange geneem word. Watter behandeling sou hulle ontvang het? Sou die Duitsers Joodse krygsgevangenes anders behandel het?

Let op - dit is soortgelyk aan, maar nie dieselfde as: Hoe het die Nazi's die verskille in die manier waarop hulle Jode teenoor krygsgevangenes behandel het, geregverdig?


Britse en Amerikaanse krygsgevangenes is as krygsgevangenes behandel. Sowjet -Joodse krygsgevangenes is gewoonlik as Jode behandel, as hul nasionale herkoms bepaal kon word. Die regverdiging was dat die Sowjetunie nie die internasionale konvensie oor krygsgevangenes onderteken het nie. Dit was natuurlik die amptelike standpunt, maar die werklike behandeling was afhanklik van bevelvoerders in die veld.

Amptelike standpunt word weerspieël in die sogenaamde Commissar's Order wat voor die inval van die Sowjetunie uitgereik is. Hierdie bevel het voorgeskryf dat kommissarisse, kommuniste en Jode uit krygsgevangenes hulle ter plaatse geskiet het. Maar nie alle bevelvoerders het hierdie bevel gehoorsaam nie. Sommige Duitse bevelvoerders weier om hierdie bevel aan die troepe oor te dra. As gevolg hiervan is Joodse krygsgevangenes op verskillende maniere behandel in die Sowjet -teater.

Sowjet-burgers, behalwe boere, het die sogenaamde "interne paspoort", waar aan almal 'n "nasionaliteit" toegeken is, wat Russies, Oekraïens, Jood ensovoorts kon kry. Militêre personeel het nie hierdie paspoort gehad nie. Om vas te stel dat iemand ''n Jood' 'was, was slegs moontlik uit die woorde van ander krygsgevangenes.

Regstellings en verwysings. Die kommissaris -bevel word in hierdie Wikiedia -artikel aangehaal: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commissar_Order Ek weet nie of hierdie aanhaling volledig is nie, maar dit bevat nie Jode uitdruklik nie. In sommige dokumente was hulle vermom onder die naam 'polities ongewens', soos in hierdie oorspronklike dokument: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/1519-ps.asp wat 'polities ongewenste nasionaliteite en rassegroepe' noem. Wat in werklikheid gebeur het, word beskryf in hierdie Wikipedia -artikel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_mistreatment_of_Soviet_prisoners_of_war

WYSIG. Daar is baie boeke wat die vraag aanspreek, byvoorbeeld Alexander Dallin, Duitse bewind in Rusland, 1941-1945: 'n Studie van besettingsbeleid.


Oor die algemeen was die behandeling van Joodse krygsgevangenes aan die "lae kant" van wat dit vir ander van hul 'nasionaliteit' was.

Krygsgevangenes wat Sowjet-Jode was, is baie sleg behandel-omdat hulle Sowjets was. Dit was 'n bietjie erger vir mans wat beide Sowjets en Jode was, maar dit was basies 'Sowjet' wat hul behandeling bepaal het.

Krygsgevangenes wat Amerikaans of Brits was, is dikwels geskei van nie -Joodse landgenote. Hulle het toe onaangename take gekry dat ander van hul nasionaliteit gespaar is, maar steeds nie so sleg behandel word soos die Sowjets of ander "oosters", Joods of nie. In die agterkop dink die Duitsers aan hulle as bv. "Amerikaners."

Anders gestel, die Nazi's beskou hul krygsgevangenes as "Amerikaners" (of "Sowjets") eerste, Jode as tweede.


Die Joodse krygsgevangenes van Westerse nasies is van ander krygsgevangenes geskei, na 'n aparte kamp by Berga verhuis en meer harde werk toegewys. In ongeveer 2 maande in een kamp waar die Jode mynwerke toegeken is, het 20% van hulle omgekom. Dit word vergelyk met 2% van die sterftesyfer onder nie-Joodse krygsgevangenes. Gelukkig vir die gevange Jode het die oorlog gou tot 'n einde gekom, sodat slegs ongeveer 1/5 van hulle gesterf het. As die oorlog voortduur, sou hulle uiteindelik almal sterf.

Duitsers het formeel beweer dat hulle Joodse krygsgevangenes behandel het volgens die Genève -konvensie, maar in werklikheid het die omstandighede baie verskil. Aan die ander kant het ongeveer 60% van alle krygsgevangenes aan die oostelike front in kampe gesterf.


Duitse krygsgevangenes in die Sowjetunie

Ongeveer drie miljoen Duitse krygsgevangenes is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur die Sowjetunie gevange geneem, die meeste van hulle tydens die groot vooruitgang van die Rooi Leër in die laaste jaar van die oorlog. Die krygsgevangenes is aangewend as dwangarbeid in die Sowjet-oorlogse ekonomie en na-oorlogse heropbou. Teen 1950 was bykans alle oorlewende krygsgevangenes vrygelaat, met die laaste gevangene wat in 1956 uit die USSR teruggekeer het. [1] Volgens Sowjet -rekords sterf 381 067 Duitse Wehrmacht -krygsgevangenes in NKVD -kampe (356 700 Duitse onderdane en 24 367 van ander nasies). [2] [3] Volgens die Duitse historikus Rüdiger Overmans ca. 3 000 000 krygsgevangenes is deur die USSR geneem, en hy het die 'maksimum' aantal Duitse krygsgevangenes in Sowjet -hande op 1,0 miljoen gestel. [4] Op grond van sy navorsing is Overmans van mening dat die dood van 363,000 krygsgevangenes in gevangenskap van Sowjet deur die lêers van Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt) bevestig kan word, en voer voorts aan dat '70000 Duitse weermag heeltemal aanneemlik lyk, maar nie bewysbaar nie. personeellede wat vermis is, is in Sowjet -aanhouding dood. [5] [4]


Beleid van massahongersnood in die Ooste

Sowjet -krygsgevangenes was die eerste slagoffers van die Nazi -beleid van massahonger in die ooste. In Augustus 1941 stel die Duitse weermag 'n rantsoen van slegs 2 200 kalorieë per dag vas vir werkende Sowjet -krygsgevangenes. Selfs dit was nie genoeg om lank te lewe nie, maar in die praktyk het die krygsgevangenes baie minder ontvang as die amptelike rantsoen. Baie Sowjet -krygsgevangenes het hoogstens 'n rantsoen van slegs 700 kalorieë per dag ontvang. Binne 'n paar weke was die gevolg van hierdie 'bestaansrantsoen', soos die Duitse weermag dit noem, die dood deur honger. Die krygsgevangenes is dikwels voorsien, byvoorbeeld slegs spesiale "Russiese" brood gemaak van suikerbietskoppies en strooi meel. Uit talle berigte van die laat somer en herfs van 1941, wat ly aan ondervoeding en amper honger ly, toon dat die desperate krygsgevangenes in baie kampe hul honger probeer verlig het deur gras en blare te eet.


Nazi's ontruim kamp, ​​dwing gevangenes op sterfoptogte

Toe breek die Sowjette deur die Duitse verdediging en begin Krakow nader. Toe die Rooi Leër al hoe nader marsjeer, besluit die SS dat dit tyd is om te ontruim.

Hulle het beplan waaraan gevangenes dink as doodsoptogte en lang, gedwonge reise uit Auschwitz na ander konsentrasie- en doodskampe. Vanaf 17 Januarie is gevangenes in lang kolomme gedwing en aangesê om weswaarts te loop na gebied wat nog deur Duitsland gehou word. Slegs diegene met goeie gesondheid ('n relatiewe term in kampe met wanvoeding en siektes) kon deelneem, en diegene wat geval het, is geskiet en agtergelaat. Tot 15 000 gevangenes is dood in die doodsmars, wat in uiters koue toestande plaasgevind het. Die wat oorgebly het, is in oop vragmotors gedwing en verder na die Ryk gestuur, waar hulle verplaas is na verskillende kampe wat nog onder Duitse beheer was.

Die wagte wat oorgebly het, het steeds getuienis toegesmeer, insluitend die stoor van pakhuise vol geplunderde besittings. Teen 21 Januarie het die meeste SS -offisiere vir altyd vertrek.

Die meeste van die 9 000 gevangenes wat in Auschwitz oorgebly het, het ernstige gesondheid gehad. Ander het weggekruip in die hoop dat hulle kon ontsnap. Die toestande was haglik en daar was geen kos nie, geen brandstof nie, geen water nie. Sommige gevangenes het gesoek tussen die besittings wat die SS nie kon vernietig nie. 'N Klein groepie gesonder gevangenes het die siekes versorg.


Die Duitse krygsgevangenes wat in Texas geleef, gewerk en liefgehad het

Sommige het as hospitaalbestellings gaan werk. Ander pluk katoen, hooibaal of bewerkte grond en woon in akkommodasie naby landbougrond. Hulle het aandete saam met gesinne geëet en het die oë van enkellopende vroue opgeval en met hulle weggeloop wanneer en hoe hulle ook al kon.

Die enigste ding wat die besoekers van die inwoners van Hearne, Texas, skei, was die "PW" -letters wat in hul klere gestik was - dit, en die feit dat baie nie Engels kon praat nie.

Die mans was Duitsers wat deur die geallieerde magte gevange geneem is, en van 1943 tot 1945 is meer as 400 000 van hulle na die Verenigde State gestuur vir aanhouding in kaserne. Tussen 500 en 600 sentrums is regoor die land opgerig, maar baie van die gevangenes beland in Texas weens die beskikbare ruimte en warm klimaat.

Byna oornag het die mense van Huntsville, Hearne, Mexia en ander dorpe 'n soort wrede toorkuns beleef. Hulle geliefdes het verdwyn, oorsee gestuur om die Tweede Wêreldoorlog te betwis, gevange Duitsers wat in hul plek gematerialiseer is en die rol van arbeider aangeneem het. Diegene wat werk geweier het, het agter 'n omheining van 10 voet lank met doringdraad toegeslaan terwyl tieners verbyry om na die vyande se gesig te staar.

Wat hul verbeelding ook al opgetel het, dit stem nie ooreen met die werklikheid nie: die mans agter die heining het minder boos gelyk as verveeld. En teen die tyd dat die Amerikaanse regering klaar was met hulle, sou baie heroorweeg waarvoor hulle veg.

Binne "die Fritz Ritz"

Die Duitse opmars na die klein stad Amerika was 'n gevolg van die lot van Groot-Brittanje, wat 'n oorskot van gevange of oorgegee vyandelike soldate ondervind het, maar geen ruimte gehad het om hulle te plaas of kos om hulle te voed nie. Terug in die Verenigde State het dorpe wat 'n tekort aan arbeid ondervind het, 'n geleentheid gesien om hul velde met werkende liggame te vul. Hoe bisar dit ook al was, dit lyk asof vyandelike gevangenes die antwoord op 'n verswakkende ekonomie op die tuisfront was.

Camp Huntsville was die eerste wat in Texas opgerig is. Byna 'n jaar lank het die konstruksie van 837 hektaar plaasgevind, en die 400 geboue was gereed vir inwoning teen die lente van 1943. Texas sou uiteindelik twee keer soveel kampe (met 'n totaal van 78 000 insittendes) as enige ander staat sien, en vir 'n eenvoudige rede: die Genève -konvensie van 1929 het bepaal dat krygsgevangenes in 'n soortgelyke klimaat geplaas moet word as die waarin hulle gevang is. Omdat soveel Duitsers in Noord -Afrika oorgegee het en nie klere of voorrade gehad het vir kouer weer nie, is baie na Texas gestuur.

Die nuuskierigheid van die plaaslike bevolking het vinnig plek gemaak vir wrok. Alhoewel hierdie mans bevele gehad het om broers, vaders en vriende te vermoor, was verblyf in Huntsville en ander kampe verbasend gemaklik. Gevangenes is toegelaat om te sonbaai, sokker te speel en uit te strek in 'n persoonlike ruimte van 40 vierkante meter met lakens en komberse. (Beamptes het 120 vierkante meter.) Kos was vars en storte was warm. Kollege -krediete wat verdien word, sou by universiteite in Duitsland tel. Hulle het selfs bottels bier gekry.

Vir Amerikaners wat kos van hul eie tafel af rantsoen, het die geselligheid van die Duitse woonplekke gesteek. Ondanks die klagtes - die plaaslike bevolking het die kampe "die Fritz Ritz" genoem - het die Amerikaanse regering eenvoudig die mandate van Genève nagekom, wat vereis dat krygsgevangenes dieselfde lewensomstandighede as die soldate wat hulle bewaak het, deel.

Nie dat hulle baie toesig nodig gehad het nie. Die hooggeplaaste beamptes was daarvoor verantwoordelik om ondergeskiktes in lyn te hou, en die behandeling was so ruim dat relatief min probeer ontsnap het. Diegene wat wel verskyn het, het sonder 'n gevoel van dringendheid beweeg, langs snelweë geloop of in tydelike vlotte rondgery. Die straf vir pogings was ewe slap: die meeste het 30 dae gevangenisstraf in die kaserne gekry.

Die krygsgevangenes was nie verplig om te werk nie; dit sou ook nie onder oorlogsvoorskrifte geduld word nie. Maar verveling en die potensiaal vir geld of koepons vir die kantien het baie van die gevangenes gemotiveer om landbou te neem wat gewasse dra. Katoen was 'n gewilde oes in Texas, maar grondboontjies, aartappels en mielies het in ander lande baie aandag nodig gehad. Een boer in Oklahoma het 40 gevangenes aangeneem en die regering $ 1,50 per kop betaal om die 3 000 hektaar te red wat verwaarloos is toe sy arbeiders na fabriekswerk vertrek. Dit was nie ongewoon dat sommige Duitsers voorskote aantrek en na kosher -ondernemings gaan nie. Die 80 sent wat hulle op 'n dag verdien het, het baie bygedra tot die algemene winkels in die kaserne.

Heropvoeding

Terwyl baie soldate tevrede was om die oorlog goed gevoed en met respek behandel te kry, het 'n ander groep onrustig geword. Amptenare wat toegewy was aan Nazi -ideale, was besig om hulself te skei van hul apatiese stapelmaats wat die Amerikaanse lewenswyse begin sien het as iets wat beny moet word, nie gedoof nie.

Die sogenaamde 'Anti-Nazi' krygsgevangenes van Huntsville het ruimte gekry om te organiseer waarna die oorlogsdepartement verwys as heropvoedingskursusse. Gevangenes is in klasse ingedeel en lesse gegee in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis en demokrasie, die werke van beroemde Joodse musikante en skrywers is bestudeer, koerante is geskryf en gedruk wat die ideologie wat in twyfel getrek het, in die koppe van Duitsers gebring het sedert hulle kinders was. Sommige het gesit en kyk na rolprente wat Nazi -slaghuis uitbeeld. Die hoop was dat hulle uiteindelik weer bedraad na Duitsland sou terugkeer en 'n boodskap van vrede sou versprei.

Tensy hulle vra om na simpatieke kampe gestuur te word, kan Duitsers wat bereid was om hul swaarde te laat val, hulself as die teiken van Hitler se lojaliste bevind. Hugo Krauss, 'n gevangene wat gereeld met wagte gepraat word en vermoedelik die plek van 'n gesmokkelde kortgolfradio laat vaar het, is na die hospitaal gestuur nadat hy met loodpype en houtplanke geslaan is. Hy is drie dae later oorlede.

Huistoe?

Teen 1945 word soveel as 60 000 gevangenes elke maand na Amerika gestuur. Toe VE-dag verklaar word, het die regering onmiddellik begin dreineer van die ingevoerde werkers. Soos 'n teruggetrokke band, het die Duitsers bevind dat hulle takkampe naby plase verlaat om terug te keer na basiskampe of militêre installasies. Van daar het sommige in Frankryk of Groot -Brittanje stilgehou om die skade wat deur die oorlog aangerig is, te herstel voordat hulle na Duitsland teruggekeer het.

Die meeste kampe het oorgegaan tot iets nuttigs, indien nie altyd prakties nie: Camp Huntsville is nou 'n gholfbaan. Camp Hearne staan ​​egter as 'n stuk lewende geskiedenis, met gedeeltelik herboude woonbuurte en begeleide toere wat weekliks beskikbaar is.

Heino Erichsen, wat as jongman 'n kop vol Nazi -propaganda gekry het, het hom in Hearne bevind. Net 19 toe hy gevang is, het hy die dreunende geluide gehoor van Krauss wat naby doodgeslaan is. Nadat hy na Duitsland teruggestuur is, het hy sy Amerikaanse burgerskap aangevra en ontvang.

Hans-Jochem Sembach het 'n soortgelyke begeerte gehad. Nadat hy na Fair Park, New York, gestuur is, het Sembach probeer om terug te sluip na sy kamp in Dallas. Gevang, bevind hy hom in Duitsland, waar hy 'n brief aan die Dallas Morning News in 1951. Dit het gedeeltelik gelees: "Ek is 'n voormalige Duitse oorlogsgevangene en was 'n leser van u koerant ... Texas het my eerste rustige tuiste geword na harde jare van oorlog .... Ek wil terug in die ou Texas en ek kan werk. Wie kan my help? ”

Bykomende bronne:
"Camp Huntsville: Die eerste krygsgevangenekamp van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Texas [PDF]."


VERWANTE ARTIKELS

Nog 'n wrede aanslag op die menseregte van gevangenes het in die Slag van die Bulge in Ardennes plaasgevind.

Te midde van die koudste winter van die oorlog in Desember 1944, en enkele dae voor wat baie gedink het die laaste Kersfees van die oorlog sou wees, is 'n hewige aanslag teen Belgiese burgerlikes en Amerikaanse troepe gehou, met bevele van hooggeplaaste Nazi-amptenare dat Amerikaanse gevangenes Dit was veral 'n 'onnodige las op die Duitse ekonomiese stelsel' en het die strengste behandeling van alle Amerikaanse soldate voorgestaan

Fritz Knoechlein is op 28 Januarie 1949 in Hamburg opgehang. Hy het die bevel gegee dat die koninklike krygsgevangenes in Norfolk met die masjien in Le Paradis geskiet kan word

'N Groep koue, moeë soldate is van hul groep afgesny en het onder swaar vuur van tenks hul hande in die lug gesit en oorgegee.

Hulle is in die erge koue van hul goed gestroop, voordat hulle op 'n oproerige wyse vermoor is. In sommige gevalle is die slagoffers tussen die oë, in die tempel of in die agterkant van die kop geskiet.

Daar is later geskat dat daar destyds 150 Amerikaanse gevangenes in die weide was.

Dit vorm slegs twee voorbeelde van die katalogus van PoW en burgerlike slagtings waaruit Chinnery se ontstellende nuwe boek bestaan.

Alhoewel die mishandeling van die Duitsers en Italianers vervaag in vergelyking met die verontwaardigings wat bondgenote onder die Japannese regime in die gesig gestaar het, meen Chinnery steeds dat die Nazi's verantwoording moet doen en dat alle oorlewende krygsgevangenes wat deur hul misdade geraak word, met reg vergoed word.

'Tienduisende geallieerde krygsgevangenes sterf aan die hand van die Nazi's en hul Italiaanse bondgenote. Hierdie boek is vir hulle, 'verduidelik Chinnery.

'Die verantwoordelikheid vir die mishandeling en moord op krygsgevangenes het in Berlyn rus, en daar was baie klagtes deur die oorlogskantoor in die stad na berigte van gevangenes wat vermoor of mishandel is terwyl hulle in Duitse hande was.

'Daar was letterlik duisende voorvalle en dit was so wydverspreid dat dit met die goedkeuring van die Nazi -regering moes plaasvind, indien nie die opdrag nie.'

'Hierdie boek is geskryf om die rekord reg te stel en om mense in die regering te leer wat van beter behoort te weet', het die skrywer bygevoeg.

'Vir diegene wat steeds glo dat die Duitsers by die Genève-konvensie gehou het en dat dade van mishandeling die individuele wagte se skuld was eerder as die Nazi-regeringsbeleid, nooi ek u uit om hierdie boek te lees en die inhoud daarvan te onthou-sodat u dit nie vergeet nie.'

Die voormalige leiers van die Nazi -regime in die dok by Nuremburg. In die voorste ry (heel links) dra Hermann Goering 'n donker bril, wat later selfmoord sou pleeg. Langs hom is Hitler se voormalige adjunk Rudolf Hess wat lewenslange tronkstraf in die Spandau -gevangenis sou uitdien. Twee sitplekke verder sit Wilhelm Keitel wat vir talle oorlogsmisdade sou hang

Glimlaggende Duitse valskermsoldate het op 2 Junie 1941 op Kretaanse burgers losgebrand na bewerings dat hulle gewonde Nazi -soldate vermoor het. Kretaanse burgerlikes het valskermsoldate afgeneem of met messe, byle, steen of selfs kaal hande aangeval. As gevolg hiervan is die indringende Duitse valskermsoldate tydens die slag by Kreta baie ongevalle aangerig

Oorlogsmisdade aan beide kante: Duitse soldate wat buite Dachau deur Amerikaanse troepe tereggestel is, woedend oor hul ontdekking van die konsentrasiekamp. Terwyl geallieerde troepe deur Europa in 'n reeks aanvalle teen Nazi -Duitsland beweeg het, het hulle tienduisende konsentrasiekampgevangenes teëgekom. Baie van hierdie gevangenes het gedwonge optogte na die binneland van Duitsland oorleef uit kampe in die besette Pole

Britse gevangenes wat tydens die val van Tobruk, Libië gevange geneem is, word deur lede van die AfrikaKorps onder die kloppende son begelei

Vyftig van die geallieerde vlieëniers wat uit Stalag Luft 3 in die Great Escape ontsnap het, is in koue tonele soos hierdie tereggestel. Op die foto: In 1946 het die RAF spesiale ondersoekbeamptes die moorde op eskaderleier Thomas Kirby-Green en die vlieënde offisier Gordon Kidder naby Zian, Moravia, gerekonstrueer.

Vrouegevangenes werk in die konsentrasiekamp Ravensbruck in Germeny waar 92 000 vroue tydens die oorlog sou sterf


Die Sowjette wat die Nazi's nie as krygsgevangenes aan die Oosfront geneem het nie

Voor die operasie Barbarossa en die kodenaam vir die Nazi -inval in die USSR, is die lot van politieke werkers van die Rooi Leër (militêre kommissarisse, politieke instrukteurs/toesighouers, ens.) Reeds verseël. Volgens die & ldquo -riglyne vir die behandeling van politieke kommissarisse & rdquo (ook bekend as die kommissiebevel & rdquo), uitgereik deur die Wehrmacht -opperbevel op 6 Junie 1941, moes hulle eers uitgeskakel word.

Heinrich Himmler besoek 'n kamp met Sowjet -krygsgevangenes in 1942.

In die stryd teen die Bolsjewisme kan 'n mens nie reken op die nakoming van die beginsels van die mensdom of die volkereg nie! & rdquo verklaar die direktiewe: & ldquo Politieke kommissarisse is die inisieerders van barbaarse Asiatiese metodes van oorlogvoering. Daarom moet hulle onmiddellik en met alle meedoënloosheid hanteer word. Kommissarisse word nie as soldate erken nie, geen internasionale regsbeskerming geld vir hulle nie. & Rdquo

Hollywood beeld dikwels Sowjet -kommissarisse uit as genadelose, lafhartige Stalinistiese honde wat agter soldate in die voorste linies weggekruip het terwyl hulle 'n geweer op hul rug gerig het. In werklikheid was politieke werkers in die Rooi Leër dikwels een van die sterkste en dapperste vegters. Hulle was verantwoordelik vir die troepemoraal en gevegsopleiding, en was dikwels die eerste wat 'n aanval uitgevoer het en almal saam met hulle gedra het. Daarom was hulle in die oë van die Duitsers so 'n gevaarlike en kragtige vyand.

Toe hulle gevang is, is politieke werkers van ander soldate geskei en na ondervraging (soms sonder) ter plaatse tereggestel. Bykomende kontrole is by krygsgevangenekampe uitgevoer om te verseker dat niemand deur die net gegly het nie. Onder die krygsgevangenes was slange en skelms wat vir 'n sigaret -einde, 'n bord swedersop en 'n stukkie brood politieke instrukteurs, kommissarisse en Jode weggegee het sonder sulke verraaiers, sou die Gestapo hulle nooit kon identifiseer nie die kamp, ​​en rdquo onthou Mikhail Temkin, wat deur tien sulke konsentrasiekampe gegaan het.

Wat my die meeste opgeval het oor politieke instrukteurs en lede van die Kommunistiese Party, was hul inherente waardigheid en onmiskenbare tekens van opvoeding, & rdquo het die Duitse soldaat Heinrich Metelman in sy memoires geskryf Deur die hel vir Hitler: & ldquo Ek het hulle nooit, of feitlik nooit, in 'n toestand van wanhoop gesien nie. Hulle het nooit gehuil of gekla nie, nooit iets gevra nie. Toe die uur van teregstelling aanbreek en teregstellings aan die gang was, het hulle met die kop omhoog na die steier gegaan. & Rdquo

2. Jode in die Rooi Leër

Joodse soldate was die eerste slagoffers van die Holocaust op Sowjetgrond. Samevattings en teregstellings het reeds op 22 Junie 1941 begin, die begin van die inval, enkele dae voor die eerste optrede om die burgerlike Joodse bevolking uit te roei.

Ten volle bewus van wat in ballingskap op hulle wag, het hulle dikwels selfmoord gepleeg. In die middel van Julie 1941 was die 375ste radioafdeling byvoorbeeld omring deur die Duitsers. & ldquo Daar was niks anders om te doen as om oor te gee nie, en rdquo herinner Igor Melko: & ldquo Toe sê Yasha (Liport): & lsquo Ek kan daar gaan masjiengeweer. & rdquo

Net soos politieke werkers, is die gevangenes wat as Jode beskou is, van die ander soldate geskei en onmiddellik weggedoen. In stilstaande en transito kampe vir krygsgevangenes, spesiaal Einsatzgruppen (en werknemersgroepe en paramilitêre doodsgroepe wat van die veiligheidsdienste afkomstig is) het gewerk om minderwaardige elemente te identifiseer en deur mediese ondersoeke is ook baie deur hul vermeende kamerade weggegee.

Soms is Jode deur intuïsie uitgesonder, en rdquo sê Naum Fishman, wat die gevangenskap wonderbaarlik oorleef het. Die bevelvoerder en die meegaande sersant -majoor stap stadig langs die tou, stop en kyk versigtig in die gesigte van diegene wat in 'n ry staan. Die beampte sou sy sweep lig, dit teen die gevangene se borskas laat rus en die woord "lsquoYou."

'n Brute dood wag op Jode wat onder die gevangenes geïdentifiseer is, en rdquo sê Afroim Fraiman, 'n gevangene van die Peski -kamp naby Pskov: & ldquoHulle kon in koue water gedompel word en dan naak buite in die ryp gelaat word totdat hulle doodgevries het. 'N Ander Jood van die Rooi Leër, verraai deur 'n medewerker, is aan 'n motor vasgemaak en in sirkels langs die grond gesleep. Die Duitsers kyk na sy pyniging en lag. Die vinnigste dood vir 'n Joodse gevangene in hierdie kamp was as die wagte die honde op hom neersit en hy sou doodgemaak word. & Rdquo

Volgens verskillende ramings het tot 85 000 Sowjet -soldate van Joodse etnisiteit in die Duitse ballingskap beland. Slegs 'n paar honderd het daarin geslaag om te oorleef en terug te keer huis toe.

Sowjet -krygsgevangenes in Mauthausen -kamp.

3. Partisane

Dat hulle in die een of ander vorm guerrilla -verset sou ondervind, het die Duitsers goed geweet nog voor die inval. Op 13 Mei 1941 het die opperbevel van die Wehrmacht die & ldquo -besluit uitgevaardig oor die regulering van gedrag van troepe in die distrik en lsquoBarbarossa & rsquo en hantering van opposisie, en rdquo wat duidelik verklaar: & ldquo afdelings is geskep vir teen-guerrilla-oorlogvoering.

Die groot omvang van die Sowjet -partydige verset het die Duitsers egter verstom en ontstel. Vanweë klein sabotasie-aanvalle op klein garnisoene, vorm die mense en rsquos-wrekers vinnig volwaardige afdelings wat in staat is om groot gebiede agter vyandelike linies (die sogenaamde partydige lande) te bevry, en selfs op gelyke voet met gereelde Wehrmacht-eenhede te skakel.

Sowjet -krygsgevangenes voor teregstelling.

Die Duitsers en die gevoelloosheid en die haat teenoor die brutale moordenaars het 'n kookpunt bereik. As politieke werkers en Jode nog steeds 'n (hoewel klein) kans gehad het om die kampe te oorleef, is partisane onmiddellik geskiet. Let daarop dat laasgenoemde dikwels gevange Duitsers in dieselfde munt betaal het.

'N Nog meer algemene manier om bandiete en rdquo's uit te voer, was deur openbare ophanging. So 'n skandelike dood, het die Nazi's geglo, sou die inwoners van die besette gebiede intimideer en waarsku daarteen om die partydige beweging te help, want dit kan die volgende wees. & ldquoOp Moskovskaya -straat, waar die & lsquoHouse of Life & rsquo nou staan, was daar ['n mark], & rdquo sê Valentina Polyak, 'n inwoner van Minsk: & ldquoDie Duitsers het ons van die skool af daarheen geneem en ons gedwing om te kyk hoe partisane opgehang word. Hierdie gruwelike beeld vlieg tot vandag toe voor my oë. Ek was 12 jaar oud. & Rdquo

Teregstelling van die Sowjet -saboteur Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya.

Die Duitsers en medewerkers het enige partydige wat gevange geneem is, doodgemaak, hulle doodgeslaan, & rdquo herroep & ldquopeople & rsquos wreker & rdquo Grigory Isers: & ldquoDaar was een partisan in ons losbandigheid wat uit gevangenskap ontsnap het. Niemand het hom vertrou nie, sy wapens is nie teruggegee nie en sy elke tree is noukeurig dopgehou. Dat hy in die kloue van die Duitsers was en oorleef, lyk vir ons ongelooflik. & Rdquo

Gee altyd 'n aktiewe hiperskakel na die oorspronklike materiaal as u enige van die inhoud van Russia Beyond gebruik, gedeeltelik of volledig.


Watter behandeling het geallieerde Joodse krygsgevangenes gekry toe hulle deur die Duitsers gevange geneem is? - Geskiedenis

Kopiereg en kopie 2004 deur Hugo S. Cunningham

Oorsig

    Tydens die finale ineenstorting van Nazi-Duitsland (1945) het tussen 3,4 en 5 miljoen p-1 Duitse PoW's in Amerikaanse hande geval. Duisende of tienduisende sou sterf van honger, blootstelling en verwaarlosing, baie honderde duisende sou skaars 3-4 maande van sulke toestande oorleef en miljoene sou nog steeds gevange gehou word baie maande nadat die oorlog geëindig het.

Die Duitse jaarlikse sterftesyfers in Amerikaanse hande (1%?) P-2 en Franse hande (2,6%) p-3 was 'n hele orde van grootte minder as vir Amerikaanse PoW's in Japanse hande (27%) p-4, Duitse PoWs in Sowjet-hande (35-50%) p-5, of, die ergste van alles, Sowjet-PoW's in Duitse hande (60-80%). Hulle was vergelykbaar met, maar waarskynlik hoër as, die jaarlikse sterftesyfer van Amerikaanse PoW's in Duitse hande (1%). p-6

Bron:
onder redaksie van Ginter Bischof en Stephen Ambrose, Eisenhower en die Duitse PoWs: Feite teen valsheid, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge en Londen, doek van 1992, 258 bls.

1. Honger en oormatige sterftes van Duitse PoW's

2. James Bacque se ergste aanklagte weerlê deur Bischof, Ambrose, et al.

1. Honger en oormatige sterftes van Duitse PoW's

    Na 'n toevallige opmerking deur 'n Duitse vriend, was ek verbaas om te hoor hoe sleg die VSA (en Frankryk) Duitse PoW's in 1945-48 behandel het. Alhoewel dit nie massamoord was nie, was dit 'n skerp kontras met die warm beeld wat later deur die Marshall-plan en die Berlynse luglift gekweek is.

Soos die meeste Amerikaners wat aandag gee aan die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, het ek geweet dat Duitse PoW's redelik goed behandel is in die VSA, 1942-1944. Gedeeltelik was dit om ander Duitsers aan te moedig om oor te gee (hoewel min vrywillig was tot die laaste weke van die oorlog), deels om die Duitse weermag aan te moedig om Westerse PoW's ordentlik te behandel (soos hulle meestal gedoen het).

Wat ek egter eers onlangs geleer het, was dat dit radikaal verander het in die laaste weke van die oorlog.

    Die geallieerde moondhede het op die hoogste vlak (Roosevelt, Churchill en Stalin) besluit om die konvensies van Genève te verwerp, veral na die uitwissing van 'n Duitse regering wat met die Rooi Kruis kon onderhandel. (Die Sowjetunie het natuurlik nooit in die eerste plek die Genève -konvensies onderteken nie.)

    (1) Aanhouding na die einde van die oorlog:

    Ingevolge die Geneefse konvensies moet POW's binne maande na die einde van die oorlog huis toe gestuur word. Die Geallieerdes het in plaas daarvan besluit om baie PoW's (herontwerpte "ontwapende vyandelike magte") as slawe -arbeiders te hou, wat 'herstelwerk' verskaf om die skade wat deur Nazi -aggressie aangerig is, te herbou. In die Weste word die eise van Frankryk as veral oortuigend beskou - die Duitsers het miljoene Franse PW's as slawe -arbeiders gehou, behalwe dat Frankryk tot op die been gestroop is. Nadat die PoW's ondersoek is, die ou manne en seuns van die "Volkssturm" vrygelaat is en Nazi's vir vervolging aangehou is, het die VSA 740 000 van die res (insluitend sommige van die wat uit die VSA teruggestuur is) na Frankryk oorgeplaas. 1.000.000 Duitse Pows het aan die begin van 1946 in Amerikaanse kampe in Duitsland gebly, maar aan die begin van 1947 was daar nog net 38.000 oor. Die Westerse nasies het hul laaste Duitse PoW's in 1948 huis toe gestuur (dikwels onder Amerikaanse druk), terwyl die Sowjets hulle s'n behou het so laat as 1956.

    In die lente van 1945, toe die VSA 3,4 miljoen Duitse PoW's gehad het, het Brittanje 2,150,000 besit. Baie is as slawe -arbeiders na Brittanje gestuur, waar 400,000 aan die einde van 1946 nog oorgebly het. In die algemeen is diegene in Brittanje ordentlik behandel, in teenstelling met baie in Frankryk.

(Parentetiese nota: Die Franse PoW's wat deur die Duitsers 1940-45 gehou is, is redelik behandel, met 'n jaarlikse sterftesyfer wat vergelykbaar was met Britse en Amerikaanse PoWs. die tyd dat Vichy se samewerking nie meer van belang was nie (1944), sou die naderende Duitse nederlaag die mishandeling van Franse PoW's baie onbedagsaam gemaak het.)

    Onder die Geneefse konvensies behoort Duitse PoW's dieselfde rantsoen te kry as hul geallieerde gevangenes. In plaas daarvan, aangedui as 'ontwapende vyandelike magte', het hulle nie meer rantsoene as Duitse burgerlikes gekry nie. Veral in April tot Julie 1945 beteken dit hongerrantsoene, hoewel daar oor die algemeen genoeg voedsel was om te voorkom dat massadood sterf.

    Die ergste tydelike omheining in die VSA was die 16 "Rheinwiesenlager" ("Rynweide kampe"). 557,000 PoW's is gehou van April tot Julie 1945 in die ses ergste hiervan: Bad Kreuznach-Bretzenheim, Remagen-Sinzig, Rheinberg, Heidesheim, Wickrathberg en Bederich. Die Maschke-kommissie sal later 4,537 sterftes in die gemeente in hierdie ses ergste RWL's, 774 van die ander, in die tabel stel. Hulle het gedink dat die werklike dodetal twee keer so veel kan wees, maar was skepties oor 'n ooggetuie -eis van 32,000 sterftes.

Soos Bacque aantoon, is dit misleidend om die sterftesyfer van miskien 2% in hierdie RWL-kampe te vergelyk met die jaarlikse sterftesyfer van Amerikaanse PoW's in Duitse hande, omdat hierdie kampe slegs 3-4 maande oop was. Ekstrapoleer 2% tot 'n jaar en kry ongeveer 7%, wat baie erger lyk.

Indifference, even hostility, of some US guards and camp officers:

    Revelation of starved cadavers and mass murder in liberated concentration camps provoked hatred towards Germans in general. This was particularly notable among some (but by no means all) soldiers of Jewish background, and, with less excuse, among some new soldiers, lacking combat experience, who wanted to show toughness.

Conditions remind me of the Andersonville GA prison camp of the US Civil War -- hunger indifferent or incompetent camp administrators who wouldn't let prisoners help themselves. (The victorious Union tried and hanged Andersonville commandant Capt. Henry Wirz in 1865.) There probably was a dire shortage of food and shelter in the spring and summer of 1945 nevertheless, I suspect that German civilians in surrounding districts could have brought in some debris suitable for dry flooring if they had been asked. Two contrasts with Andersonville: in 1945, the horrible conditions only lasted 3-4 months, and sufficient medical measures prevented mass death from disease.

    "I feel that the Germans should suffer from hunger and from cold as I believe such suffering is necessary to make them realize the consequences of a war which they caused."
    -- Lucius D. Clay to John J. McCloy, June 29, 1945

Overcrowded, poorly-managed railroad transports were a sporadic, temporary problem. At Mailly le Camp on 16 March 1945, 104 German PoWs were dead on arrival. A further 27 were found dead at Attichy. Eisenhower apologized publicly, though expressing intense irritation privately about having to apologize to the Germans about anything.

    Due to economic decline in the last months and especially weeks of Nazi Germany, many PoWs were malnourished even before the Allies captured them.

Short rations for both civilians and PoWs:

    The collapse of Germany in the spring 1945 was also an economic collapse, especially of food production. Nitrogen and phosphates, the ordinary components of fertilizer, had since 1943 been diverted into weapons production.

German rail transportation and food factories had been heavily bombed.

Hitler did not want Germans to survive his defeat, and gave sabotage orders accordingly. (Some such orders were defied by Albert Speer and others, but not all.)

The slave laborers who maintained German agriculture while most Germans were in the army went home. They were not replaced by returning Germans.

Contributions could no longer be taken at gunpoint from occupied France, Denmark, etc.

10-13 million of refugees fled to western Germany from the East.

The Soviets blocked the normal peacetime delivery of agricultural surpluses from eastern Germany to the west.

In 1945, food shortages were a world-wide problem, not just for the Germans. Shortages had a special impact throughout Western Europe in the most serious case, millions in the Netherlands were on the verge of death from starvation p-7 . Also, due to the continuing war with Japan, there was a global shortage of shipping.

Even "displaced persons" (DPs), victims of Nazi deportations and slave-labor schemes (7 million in Germany, 1.6 million in Austria) , were on short rations, despite the sympathy of Allied authorities.

    Bacque retorts that one reason for hunger and poverty in 1945 Germany was deliberate Allied policy, the playing out of the Morgenthau Plan, to prevent Germans from earning their keep in manufacturing and trade. The hunger did not completely disappear until the establishment of a sound currency and capitalist economy in 1948.

    All Germans were short of shelter at the end of the war. Many (40%) of dwellings had been rendered uninhabitable by bombing or fighting.

Some PoWs were kept in the awful "Rheinwiesenlager" because Allies who wanted them as laborers weren't ready to receive them.

2. James Bacque's worst charges rebutted by Bischof, Ambrose, et al.

    In 1989, a Canadian publisher issued James Bacque, Other Losses: An Investigation into the Mass Deaths of German Prisoners of War at the Hands of the French and Americans After World War II. Bacque, a Canadian novelist, charged that US General Dwight Eisenhower, motivated by personal hatred of Germans and partly abetted by the French, caused the death (by neglect or worse) of 1 million(!) German PoWs in 1945-48. Bacque's theme sold well among certain anti-American fever-swamps in Canada, and even more among German Holocaust-deniers: if Americans killed a million helpless German PoWs from idle spite, then Nazi atrocities against Jews (which the deniers claim were exaggerated anyways) don't look so uniquely horrible.

Bischof and Ambrose (and the contributors to their book) shredded Bacque's "one million" claim, highlighting crude mathematical errors and distortion of sources. Among points brought out:

    1 year after the last acknowledged German PoW was released by the Soviets (1956), the West German government set up the "Scientific Commission for the History of German Prisoners of War," (sometimes called the "Maschke Commission") . They spent the next 16 years tracking the fate of German PoWs in various countries, publishing their results in 22 books. They noted Western mistreatment of German PoWs in 1945, but, studying the 6 worst camps that held 560,000 PoWs, estimated deaths from 3,000-9000, in the range of 1%.

    Bacque was aware of the Maschke studies, and dismissed them as a cover-up arranged between Cold War allies. He also claimed they were not released to the public at large. A limited edition (431 copies) was sold primarily to universities and research libraries.

The German Red Cross in 1974 reported 41,000 missing who were last known on the Western Front. Even if one assumes they all died in US PoW camps, and adds the 15,000 PoW dead listed by the US provost marshal , that yields a maximum of 56,000, 1.1% of the peak number of PoWs held by the US.

Where were the 1,000,000 bodies?

For no logical reason, Bacque reduced the generally accepted death toll of PoWs taken by the Soviets by 1,000,000 while adding the same figure to the US account.
Before one is too quick to blame the Soviets for their gruesome death toll (up to 50%), however, one should note that the Nazis, with greater economic resources than the Soviets, allowed a death toll of Soviet PoWs of 60% or more.

Eisenhower was under careful supervision by both the US and British governments, and could not have carried out a murderous conspiracy without their knowledge. His staff included many British officers, yet Bacque, for whatever personal motives, chose to claim the British were innocent.

Nevertheless, setting aside Bacque's inflated numbers and apparent vendetta against Eisenhower, there were enough truthful individual horror stories about the "Rheinwiesenlager" (USA) and French captivity to give his work some plausibility, especially to those coming across such information for the first time.

(Closing note) So how wicked was this mistreatment of German PoWs?

Appendix: Sources

Some sources cited by Bischof and Ambrose

    Of 22 volumes published by the "Wissenschaftliche Kommission f r deutsche Kriegsgefangenengeschichte" (hereafter WKDKGG) ("Scientific Commission for the History of German PoWs"), aka the "Maschke Commission" after lead scholar Erich Maschke:

    B hme, Kurt, Die deutsche Kriegsgefangenen in Amerikanischer Hand: Europa (WKDKGG, Vol. 10, part 2) ("German Prisoners of War in American Captivity: Europe"), Munich, 1973.

B hme, Kurt, Die deutsche Kriegsgefangenen in Franz sischer Hand (WKDKGG, Vol. 13) ("German Prisoners of War in French Captivity"), Munich, 1973.

James Bacque, Other Losses: An Investigation into the Mass Deaths of German Prisoners of War at the Hands of the French and Americans After World War II, Stoddart Publishing Co. Ltd., Toronto Canada, 1989 cloth 248 pp.
(The revisionist book disputed by Bischof, Ambrose, et al.)

The table of contents of Bischof and Ambrose's collection of essays:

Table of contents copyright (c) 1992 by Lousiana State University Press.

Voetnote

"BA" ("Bischof and Ambrose") refers to:
edited by G nter Bischof and Stephen Ambrose, Eisenhower and the German PoWs: Facts Against Falsehood, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge and London, 1992 cloth, 258 pp.


Proof Eisenhower Didn’t Have To Starve German POWs, He Wanted To

How does this “holding” pen differ from the final camps? Final camps for German POWs to die by starvation and illness. If this was justified, then why not show these images at the end of every Holocaust book and movie? Wouldn’t that send an emphatic and direct “Never Again” message and warning to all?

Wear’s War Editor’s Comment: This is one of a series of published and planned articles detailing aspects of the Western Allies deliberate intention to murder approximately 1 million disarmed German POWs by means of unnecessary starvation, exposure, and illness.

On July 27, 1929, the Allies extended the Protective Regulations of the Geneva Convention for Wounded Soldiers to include prisoners of war (POWs). These regulations state: “All accommodations should be equal to the standard of their troops. The Red Cross supervises. After the end of the hostilities the POWs should be released immediately.”

On March 10, 1945, Dwight Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, disregarded these regulations by classifying German prisoners captured on German territory as “Disarmed Enemy Forces” (DEFs). The German prisoners were therefore at the mercy of the Allies and were not protected by international law.

The Allies had the ability to feed and shelter their POWs

The record clearly shows that the Allies had the ability to feed and shelter their POWs. The Allies prevented food from reaching Germany. James Bacque writes:

Even as the gallows at Nuremberg displayed their awful warning, the Allies were depriving men, women and children in Germany of available food. Foreign relief agencies were prevented from sending food from abroad Red Cross food trains were sent back full to Switzerland all foreign governments were denied permission to send food to German civilians fertilizer production was sharply reduced and food was confiscated during the first year, especially in the French zone. The fishing fleet was kept in port while people starved. British soldiers actually blew up one fishing boat in front of the eyes of astonished Germans. “The people say the sea is full of fish, but they want to starve us,” said Burgomaster Petersen.[1]

Some historians claim that Eisenhower’s order banning civilian food supply of the camps was prompted by an overall threat of a food shortage. However, many German prisoners and civilians saw American guards burn the food brought by civilian women. Ernst Kraemer, a prisoner at Büderich and Rheinberg, states:

At first, the women from the nearby town brought food into the camp. The American soldiers took everything away from the women, threw it in a heap and poured gasoline [benzine] over it and burned it.”

Writer Karl Vogel, the German camp commander appointed by the Americans in Camp 8 at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, says that Eisenhower himself ordered the food to be destroyed. The Americans were destroying food outside the gate even though the prisoners were getting only 800 calories per day.[2]

German prisoner Herbert Peters states concerning conditions at the huge U.S. camp at Rheinberg:

Even when there was little for us to eat, the provisions enclosure was enormous. Piles of cartons like bungalows with intersecting streets throughout.”[3]

Ten prisoners and several civilians describe starvation conditions at Bretzenheim through the approximately 70 days the camp was under U.S. control. The official U.S. Army ration book shows that the prisoners at Bretzenheim received 600 to 850 calories per day. According to Capt. Lee Berwick of the 424 th Infantry Regiment, the prisoners at Bretzenheim starved even though food was piled up all along the camp fence. Capt. Berwick could not explain why the prisoners got only 600 to 850 calories per day. During the camp’s worst period of about 16 days, Berwick estimates that three to five bodies a day at Bretzenheim were taken from each of 20 cages within the larger enclosure.[4]

A few American soldiers from the 424th regiment. Capt. Lee Berwick, Johnson’s Bayou, La., 424th (not pictured) was a credible witness. He talked 102 Germans and two officers into surrendering an almost impregnable position to a handful of men. He boldly strode to the very muzzle of enemy machine guns to warn of the “huge force” supporting him and ordered the senior officer to surrender. It worked! http://lonesentry.com/gi_stories_booklets/106thinfantry/

The German prisoners went on starving despite plenty of food in Europe. The U.S. Army had stored 13,500,000 high-protein Red Cross food parcels in army warehouses in Europe taken over from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in May 1945. On November 17, 1945, the army was still wondering what to do with these parcels. Each parcel contained on average 12,000 calories. There was enough food in them to have given the approximately 700,000 German prisoners who had died by then a supplementary 1,000 calories per day for about eight months. The ICRC parcels alone would probably have kept most of the German prisoners alive until early 1946.[5]

One of the first signs of the Allies’ starvation policy came from North America, where the ICRC delegation reported that the German prisoners’ rations had been cut as soon as Germany released its Allied POWs. Then, in late May or early June 1945, the ICRC loaded two freight trains with food from their warehouses in Switzerland, where they had over 100,000 tons of food in storage. The trains traveled to their destination in the American sector via the normal route prescribed by the German government during the war. When the trains reached their destinations, the U.S. Army informed the ICRC officials accompanying the trains that the warehouses were full. The trains were forced to return to Switzerland.[6]

Max Huber, the head of the ICRC, began inquiries into the U.S. Army’s actions. After a long investigation, Huber wrote a letter to the U.S. State Department. Huber referred to the Red Cross food trains that were returned full to Switzerland in the spring of 1945. Huber wrote:

When hostilities in Europe ceased, the International Committee of the Red Cross made every effort to improve the situation of prisoners of all categories whose status after the liberation by the Allied Armies became that of “ex-prisoner of war.” Anticipating the difficulties which would result from these circumstances, the Committee hoped to alleviate as much as possible the hardships of the former internee by working out a relief scheme with the Allied military authorities which, while bringing a considerable measure of aid, would also prove to be a rational means of liquidating the accumulated stocks in Switzerland and other countries….

Meanwhile, the numerous communications from Allied officers in charge of assembly areas and camps for Displaced Persons the reports of our delegates on medical missions in Germany and especially the many direct requests addressed to us from the Camps themselves, bear witness to the fact that tens if not hundreds of thousands of displaced persons in Germany are still in dire need of aid. From all this we are bound to recognize that the demands made upon the Anglo-American pool by the competent sections of the Allied armies are not proportionate to the prevailing need…In consequence, the humanitarian work of the International Committee is in danger of becoming discredited. Our responsibility for the proper use of relief supplies placed in our care is incompatible with a restriction to the fulfillment of orders which render us powerless to furnish relief which we ourselves judge necessary.

The anticipated requisitions were either not made at all, or else came in with much delay. Having effected delivery with our trains in Germany in default of those promised by the Allied armies in Germany but never placed at our disposal, we would then find that the receiving personnel at the various destinations were without proper instructions as to the handling of these consignments. If the warehouse happened to be full, our trains would be refused there in turn. That the warehouses were still filled to overflowing was proof positive that the distributions in view of which previous requisitions had been made were still in abeyance….The Allied authorities’ dispositions…of Anglo-American stocks…have failed to achieve relief in reasonable proportion to the extent of these stocks and degree of transport facilities available.

Practical experience showed…that in consequence of the general food shortage caused by the occupation army’s normal requisitions and the dislocation of transport, the [armies] were unable to allot even a minimum ration to the Balts, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Italians, Rumanians and apatrides [stateless people] on Germany territory.

Thus, stating our case fully to the governments and Red Cross Societies concerned, we desire to stress the fact that the conditions set forth above leave us no alternative but to express our grave concern for the immediate future. To stand passively by whilst holding large quantities of immediately available relief supplies and knowing the plight of many camps of Displaced persons of all categories in Germany, growing steadily more alarming, is not compatible with the tradition of our institution.[7]

The Red Cross worked tirelessly to aid civilians and soldiers throughout the war and after. Only Stalin and Eisenhower refused them the right to aid POWs as prescribed by the Geneva Convention.

The United States Force, European Theater (USFET), over Eisenhower’s signature, calmly ignored everything Huber said in his letter. Huber was forced to return the food to its original donors because the army refused to distribute it. There was so much food to return that it took thousands of train cars to return the food to its sources in Paris and Brussels. Huber apologized for clogging the rail system in France with this unnecessary work. Huber also had to obtain extra trucks beyond the 500 belonging to the ICRC in Geneva to return over 30,000 tons of food to the original donors.[8]

EPSON scanner image

Relief agencies such as the YMCA, the Unitarians, the American Friends Service Committee (the Quakers), and various other church groups were also attempting to send aid into Germany. For the crucial months until November 1945, while Eisenhower was military governor of the U.S. zone of Germany, the army made it difficult if not impossible for welfare from relief agencies to reach Germans. For example, the American Quakers were ordered to keep out of the U.S. zone. Also, the YMCA was refused permission by the U.S. Army to feed German prisoners in U.S. camps in France even though the YMCA offered to pay for all goods received from the army. The general attitude of the U.S. Army towards civilian relief agencies is clear from the opinion expressed by Stephen Cary, European Commissioner of the American Friends Service Committee, who said, “We were very unhappy with their heavy-handed and restrictive treatment.”[9]

The Quartermaster Progress Reports from April through June 1945 also confirm that there was a huge surplus of food in the U.S. Army. Every month shows a vast surplus amounting to more than 100 days on hand for the whole army. This food surplus existed even though there was mass starvation in the U.S. POW camps.[10]

The U.S. Army also had plenty of tents, barbed wire, medical and other supplies for the German prisoners. These items were scarce in the camps not because the army lacked supplies, but because requests for supplies were denied. Gen. Everett S. Hughes said on March 19, 1945, after he visited the huge supply dumps at Naples and Marseille:

[Marseille is] Naples all over again. More stocks than we can ever use. Stretch as far as eye can see.”[11]

Gen. Robert Littlejohn, who as quartermaster of USFET was in charge of Eisenhower’s supplies, tried to get agreement on how to dispose of the army’s surplus subsistence. Littlejohn wrote to Eisenhower on October 10, 1945:

There is in this Theater a substantial excess of subsistence in certain items due to the rapid discharge of prisoners of war after VE day, the accelerated deployment of U.S. Military, the sharp decrease in employment by U.S. forces of allied liberated nationals and the ending of the supply responsibilities of the French army.…”[12]

The rations the U.S. Army had accumulated in October 1945 amounted to a 139-day supply of food in the European Theater of Operations. This was 39 days more than the 100-day supply of food the army liked to keep on hand. The surplus in the United States was so great that Gen. Littlejohn noted that

we have been invited to increase our rations of fruit juices and have been advised that our requirements for fresh eggs, fresh fruits, potatoes and butter can and should be met from U.S. sources.”

Littlejohn’s letter goes on to discuss a policy on how to get rid of the surplus, which some officers wanted to send to the United States. Despite this surplus, the German prisoners in U.S. camps kept on starving.[13]

The evidence also suggests that France had enough food to feed their German POWs. The total number of prisoners on hand in France at its peak of about 800,000 represented about 2% of France’s total population of about 40 million in 1945. If, as many German prisoners contend, their ration was about half the minimum to sustain life, then just 1% of the total food consumed in France would have saved them all from starvation. This food could have turned the German prisoners into productive workers contributing to the French economic recovery.[14]

The failure of the Red Cross and other relief agencies to supply the German POWs with food stands in stark contrast to the success of the Red Cross during the war. As the French, American, British and Canadian prisoners left German captivity at the end of World War II, the Red Cross was there to welcome them with food parcels drawn from the millions in storage in their warehouses in Switzerland. The returning prisoners had received about 1,500 calories per day from the Germans. Another life-saving 2,000 calories per day had arrived by mail, mainly from France, Canada and the United States.

The effectiveness of the Red Cross care was demonstrated by the fact that, according to a news release of the American Red Cross in May 1945, over 98% of the Allied prisoners were coming home safe. The released prisoners were in good health not only because of the food, but also because of clothing and medicine which had arrived safely by mail.[15]

Read Germany’s War

[1] Bacque, James, Crimes and Mercies: The Fate of German Civilians under Allied Occupation, 1944-1950, 2nd edition, Vancouver, British Columbia: Talonbooks, 2007, p. 88.

[2] Ibid., pp. 91, 231 (footnote 13).

[3] Bacque, James, Other Losses: An Investigation into the Mass Deaths of German Prisoners at the Hands of the French and Americans after World War II, 3 rd edition, Vancouver: Talonbooks, 2011, p. xxxvii.


German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur Von Schadewald » 02 Feb 2020, 11:05

How were Jewish Anglo-American military prisoners of the Germans treated?

Were any mistreated, brutalized, killed or sent to Auschwitz?

Or did they handle them according to the Geneva Convention?

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur Poot » 10 Feb 2020, 20:32

Based on surviving POW accounts, once the German captors learned that some US POWs were Jewish (as designated by an 'H' on the lower third of their 'dog tags,' or identity tags worn by each serving member), they were either shot immediately or sent to a forced labor or death camp. There were even some US troops who weren't Jews that were mistaken for being Jews because their features and coloring were what the Germans associated with being Jewish. There were US POWs of Mexican ancestry that fell victim to this.

Here's an article about the dilemma face by Jewish G.I.'s who wore dog tags designating them as Jewish:
http://www.hakirah.org/Vol15Males.pdf

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur history1 » 10 Feb 2020, 21:29

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur history1 » 10 Feb 2020, 21:39

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur David Thompson » 11 Feb 2020, 01:56

For interested readers -- see:

US PBS Special on Berga-US Jewish POWs
viewtopic.php?t=23431

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur Poot » 11 Feb 2020, 05:03

David Thompson,
Thanks for that link, Berga was the camp I was thinking of, and the approximate time period of capture for the troops in question was winter 1944.

history1,
Glad you found the murder of POWs and the forced labor of others to be so entertaining. You (very) apparently didn't bother to read any of the link I listed, but want instead to cling fast to the quaint notion that Germans never violated the Geneva Convention. Since I can't take you seriously, don't bother responding.

Von Schadewald,
Check out the link to the Berga thread provided by David Thompson. There was also a one hour TV show on this episode that aired in the USA in 2019. If I can find the title of it, I'll get ahold of you.

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur history1 » 11 Feb 2020, 18:29

3 weeks lasting travel he and the other passengers had to wear permantenly gas masks and life wests on board because the German U-boats in the atlantic ocean!
Guess what!? In my resarch I found out that the Gentleman did board the ship in the UK even BEFORE WWII STARTED! In mid Sept. he landed already on Ellis Island! That means that he was already before Sept. 1st 1939 in the UK. BTW, I don´t blame the man that he can´r remember the facts so many decades later, but the USHMM which does in this way misinform their audince and violate their own rules.

Another person told me his father´s story on a social media site, a survivor from the extermination camp Treblinka! Her father told her did he had to clean the crematorium ovens in Treblinka from human ash and bones when he was only 14 years old- IN 1939! When Treblinka was installed years later in 1942! Oooops!


The in the US Jewish World well known Rabbi Nissen Mangel tells the whole world that he is the worlds youngest Holocaust survivor from the KL Birkenau, as he was only 13 years old when he arrived there. Eva mozes Kor and dozens of other children survivors are/were younger then he! ooops!

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur Poot » 11 Feb 2020, 19:12

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur history1 » 11 Feb 2020, 19:33

INSKEEP: These Americans had become part of the Holocaust. [. ] German guards forced them to continue even as Nazi Germany collapsed all around them. [..]
Mr. GERALD DAUB (Brooklyn Native): I was an infantryman in World War II. And during the Battle of the Bulge, I was captured with the rest of my infantry company in a little town called Rimling(ph), which was on the marginal--just between the marginal Seigfried lines. And I was brought to a.

INSKEEP: This is the middle of winter, brutal battle, a brutal German attack.

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur history1 » 11 Feb 2020, 19:42

"Mr. ROGER COHEN (Journalist): So I went down to BERGA, a little town in the East. It was a snowy day. Berga is kind of last place you can feel 1945 almost as if it was yesterday because everything had been FROZEN IN TIME BY COMMUNISM. And I saw these sealed tunnels where the US GIs had been put to work as SLAVE LABORERS."

Which Berga is he talking about?
Communism in Nazi Germany pre WWII? ROFL!
Seems Mr. Cohen was/is unfamiliar with the Geneve Conventions? Every POW, except officer ranks, are oblihated to work when asked for and as long as it´s not work which is directed against their own country/forces, eg. operating anti-tank cannons, producing ammunition.

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur history1 » 11 Feb 2020, 20:18

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur history1 » 11 Feb 2020, 20:49

Vanuit die skakel:
"[. ] On the night of March 20, 1945, a 20-year-old Mexican American soldier named Tony Acevedo lay in the cold barracks of a Nazi concentration camp.[. ] "When we got to Berga, well, they took us to the cremation center to bathe us,” Acevedo said. “We didn't know that that was for bathing. We thought they were going to cremate us.”

The US soldiers passed corpses of gassed prisoners. "

Berga, a Nazi concentration camp? A Stalag with gassed inmates? Holy mackerel!What´s next? Hitler operating the gas chamber?
We know that some veterans are leaning to exaggerations.. One should ask this guy which SS-officer did ran the camp! Ooops?
Why does the Geman Ministry for Justice not list this "concentration" camp? ROFL
https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/begd . 30967.html
And 6 days on the train from Bavaria to Berga? Ddi they depart on the 5th day after boarding the train only?
https://goo.gl/maps/rdpfLh95RzmtecgR9

Re: German treatment of Jewish Anglo-American POWs

Plaas deur Sejanus » 12 Feb 2020, 12:34

History1 is absolutely right about this subject, which I know from having studied it extensively.

The only cases I ever came across involving Anglo-American POWs being sent to a concentration camp (not a POW camp) were the small groups that were sent to Mauthausen as a result of Hitler's adding Anglo-American POWs to the list eligible victims (joining other nationalities) of his "Bullet Decree" (also known as Operation Bullet administered by the Gestapo), this was one of Hitler's reactions to the mass escape of POWs from Sagan during 1944 more popularly known as "The Great Escape."

There is also a report of a very small group Anglo-American POWs being sent to Sachsenhausen. Note that these prisoners were originally sent to POW camps first and only sent to a concentration camp as a secondary measure, daarna escaping from a POW camp and being recaptured. This still violated the Geneva Convention but to Hitler's way of thinking it was justified to prevent further escapes from POW camps.

The Bullet Decree was intended to target POW escape planners and plotters. However, none of those POWs affected were sent to a concentration camp due to being Jewish. Instead the Jewish Anglo-American POWs were generally treated correctly even when the Germans were aware they were Jewish, I know this from having examined the POW record cards maintained on each prisoner and more (some POWs brought their own file cards home as souvenirs after their camps were liberated, and over the years some of these have appeared on the collector market, the fact many of these POWs made it home unscathed regardless of the Germans knowing of some being Jewish is a testament to their correct treatment).

While it was not policy to murder Anglo-American POWs simply because they were Jewish, it may be possible that some kon have been shot out of hand by troops and some of their leaders acting on their own initiative. Some examples of that sort of thing happening (not strictly targeting Jews though) are the Malmedy massacre perpetrated by the Waffen-SS during the Battle of the Bulge, and on the other side - the US Army massacre of SS troops at the liberated Dachau Concentration Camp.

A few select sources: Justice at Nuremberg, Robert E. Conot The Great Escape, Paul Brickhill.