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Wat was die status van kleinboere wat na die People's Crusade gegaan het?

Wat was die status van kleinboere wat na die People's Crusade gegaan het?

By die People's Crusade in 1096 is meestal boere aangesluit, onder leiding van die priester Peter die kluisenaar onafhanklik van hul here. Wat was die status van die reis van hierdie boere? Was hulle vry om uit te gaan en nie hul here te dien nie, of het dit onder een of ander uitsondering geval, of het hulle hul feodale verpligting oortree deur op hierdie reis te gaan?


Die kruistog is moontlik aangehits deur die getuienisse van Petrus die kluisenaar, maar dit is onderskryf deur pous Urbanus die Tweede:

… Pous Urbanus die Tweede, wat die vergadering voorgesit het, het die voorstel van Petrus die kluisenaar met soveel krag en welsprekendheid gesekondeer dat die hele raad eenparig uitgeroep het "God wil dit; laat ons vertrek !!"

en van dieselfde bladsy:

Nie Phillip van Frankryk of die ander Europese monarge het by die liga aangesluit nie, maar het hulle vasale en onderdane toegelaat om te volg die algemene beweging.

Bogenoemde uit The Universal Chronologist, and Historical Register, from the ..., Volume 1 Deur William Henry Ireland, Joseph Martin

Dit blyk dus dat hierdie boere waarskynlik toestemming gehad het van hul onderskeie here, aangesien dit deur die pous onderskryf is, en die ondersteuning van 'n saak wat deur die kerk onderskryf word, sou moontlik die guns van hierdie edeles kon hê, terwyl weiering die kerke se toorn kon veroorsaak het.


Sy naam in Frans is Pierre l'Ermite. Die struktuur van hierdie naam in Frans, anders as in Engels, het daartoe gelei dat sommige frankofoon -geleerdes l'Ermite eerder as 'n van as 'n titel behandel het.

Volgens sommige skrywers is hy omstreeks 1050 gebore en was hy die seun van Renauld L'Ermite van Auvergne, en sy vrou Alide Montaigu, de Picardie. [4] Ander beweer dat hy 'n lid van die L'Hermite familie van Auvergne in Nederland. [5] Hierdie bewerings word betwis deur ander skrywers, wat beweer dat niks kan bevestig dat 'die kluisenaar' 'n werklike van was nie en dat vanne eers na sy dag ontwikkel het. [6] [7]

Volgens Anna Comnena's Alexiad, [8] Petrus het voor 1096 'n pelgrimstog na Jerusalem probeer, maar is deur die Seljuk -Turke verhinder om sy doel te bereik en is na berig word mishandel. Hierdie ervaring het veroorsaak dat hy ontstellende uitsprake oor die Turke aan Christene ontstel het. Daar bestaan ​​egter twyfel of hy ooit so 'n reis gemaak het.

Bronne verskil oor die vraag of hy teenwoordig was by Pous Urbanus II se beroemde Raad van Clermont in 1095. Dit is seker dat hy daarna een van die predikante van die kruistog in Frankryk was, en sy eie ervaring het moontlik daartoe bygedra dat die kruistog veroorsaak is. . Volgens die tradisie in Huy was hy daar toe die kruistog aangekondig is en hy het dadelik begin preek. Hy het spoedig bekendheid verwerf as 'n emosionele herlewingswese, en die oorgrote meerderheid bronne en historici is dit eens dat duisende kleinboere gretig die kruis geneem het. [1]

Hierdie deel van die Eerste Kruistog was ook bekend as die kruistog van die "armes", 'n term wat in die Middeleeue 'n status as verarmde of mendikante wyke van die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk aangedui het. Petrus het die armes georganiseer en gelei as 'n geestelik gesuiwerde en heilige groep pelgrims wat vermoedelik deur die Heilige Gees beskerm sou word. Dit is ook moontlik dat die People's Crusade ook goed bewapende soldate en edeles ingesluit het. [9] ('n Lys van bekende deelnemers aan Peter se leër kan gevind word by The Digital Humanities Institute. [10])

Voordat Petrus op sy kruistog gegaan het, het hy toestemming gekry van patriarg Simeon II van Jerusalem. [11] Peter kon werf uit Engeland, Lorraine, Frankryk en Vlaandere. [11] Peter die kluisenaar arriveer op Heilige Saterdag, 12 April 1096 in Keulen, Duitsland. [12] In die lente van 1096 was Peter een van die prominente kruisvaardersleiers wat betrokke was by die Rheinland -slagtings teen die Jode. [13] Peter en sy volgelinge het deelgeneem aan die marteling en slag van Jode in Lorraine, Keulen en Mainz. [11] In Mainz vermoor Petrus se volgelinge 'n groot groep Jode wat deur 'n plaaslike biskop skuiling gekry het.

Hy lei die eerste van die vyf afdelings van die People's Crusade na die bestemming van hul pelgrimstog, die Kerk van die Heilige Graf, en begin (met 40 000 mans en vroue) uit Keulen in April 1096 en arriveer (met 30 000 mans en vroue) by Konstantinopel einde Julie. Die Bisantynse keiser Alexios I Komnenos was minder tevrede met hul aankoms, want saam met die hoof van die Oosters -Ortodokse Kerk, patriarg Nikolaas III van Konstantinopel, moes hy nou sorg vir die versorging en versorging van die groot menigte armes vir die res van hul reis.

Voordat Petrus en sy volgelinge egter Konstantinopel bereik het, het hulle probleme ondervind. [12] In Zemun was die goewerneur, afstammeling van 'n Ghuzz -Turk, en 'n kollega, bang vir die grootte van die leër en besluit om die regulasies op 'n grens te verskerp. Dit sou goed gewees het as daar nie 'n geskil was oor die verkoop van 'n paar skoene nie. [12] Dit het tot 'n oproer gelei en teen Peter se wense is die stad aangeval en die vesting bestorm. Dit het daartoe gelei dat 4000 Hongare doodgemaak is en baie proviand gesteel is. Op 26 Junie 1096 kon Petrus se leër die Sava -rivier oorsteek. Toe marsjeer die leër na Belgrado, steek die stad aan die brand en steek dit plat. [12] Die weermag het daarna na 'n agt dae vertraging na en deur Niš gegaan. Nadat hulle deur Nish gery het, het die kruisvaarders na Sofia gegaan toe hulle op die pad aangeval is. Die weermag het groot verliese gely. Hulle het 1/4 van hul mans verloor, maar het egter op 12 Julie in Sofia aangekom. [12] Die magte het toe op 1 Augustus 1096 in Konstantinopel aangekom. Na 'n rukkie het hulle by 'n kasteel met die naam Xerigordon aangekom en dit ingeneem. Hulle het die kasteel verower deur die bron en die put van die kasteel in besit te neem. Nadat hulle na Civetot vertrek het, het hulle kamp opgeslaan naby 'n dorpie met die naam Dracon. Dit is waar die Turke 'n hinderlaag vir Petrus en sy magte gelê het. Dit was die laaste stryd van die People's Crusade wat Peter gelei het.

Die meeste armes kon nie uit die Katolieke jurisdiksie kom nie. Die meerderheid was nie in staat om deur die verskillende heerskappye en bisdomme onderweg voorsien te word nie en het óf honger gely, teruggekeer huis toe of in slawerny gesit, terwyl 'n aansienlike aantal deur die verskillende Slawiese rowerbaronne op die Balkan gevang en in slawerny verkoop is. die siening van die Balkan -Slawiërs as onredde rowers en skurke. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Peter het by die enigste ander afdeling aangesluit wat daarin geslaag het om Konstantinopel, [1] van Walter Sans Avoir, in 'n enkele groep te bereik en laer die nog talle pelgrims rondom Konstantinopel opgeslaan terwyl hy onderhandel het oor die versending van die People's Crusade na die Heilige Land. Die keiser het intussen versuim om vir die pelgrims voldoende te sorg, en die kamp het 'n toenemende oorlas veroorsaak, omdat die steeds honger armers hulle na die keiserlike winkels gaan bedwelm.

Alexios, bekommerd oor die toenemende wanorde en bang vir sy posisie voor die komende gewapende kruisvaardersleërs, het vinnig onderhandel en hulle begin Augustus oor die Bosporus na die Asiatiese kus gestuur, met beloftes van wagte en deurgang deur die Turkse linies. Hy het die People's Crusade gewaarsku om op sy bevele te wag, maar ondanks sy waarskuwings het die armes die Turkse gebied binnegekom. Die Turke het begin skermutsel met die grootliks ongewapende gasheer. Petrus keer desperaat terug na Konstantinopel en soek die hulp van die keiser.

By afwesigheid van Petrus is die pelgrims in 'n hinderlaag in detail deur die Turke, wat meer gedissiplineerd was, in die Slag van Civetot in 'n hinderlaag gelê en in stukke gesny. Ondanks Petrus se uitsprake van goddelike beskerming, is die oorgrote meerderheid van die pelgrims deur die swaarde en pyle van die Turke geslag of was hulle tot slaaf gemaak. In die winter van 1096–1097, met 'n klein aantal oorlewende volgelinge in Konstantinopel, met min hoop om Byzantynse steun te verseker, het die People's Crusade gewag op die koms van die gewapende kruisvaarders as hul enigste beskermingsbron om die pelgrimstog te voltooi.

Toe die vorste opdaag, het Petrus in Mei 1097 by hulle aangesluit as lid van die raad, en met die min gevolg het hulle saamgetrek deur Klein -Asië na Jerusalem. Terwyl sy 'armes' nooit die getalle voor die Slag van Civetot herwin het nie, word sy geledere toenemend aangevul met ontwapende, beseerde of bankrot kruisvaarders. Afgesien van 'n paar opwindende toesprake om die kruisvaarders te motiveer, het hy nietemin 'n ondergeskikte rol gespeel in die oorblywende geskiedenis van die Eerste Kruistog, wat op hierdie stadium duidelik op 'n militêre veldtog besluit het om die pelgrimsroetes en heilige plekke in Palestina te beveilig.

Aan die begin van 1098 verskyn Petrus as 'n poging om te ontsnap uit die ontbering van die beleg van Antiochië - en wys homself, soos Guibert van Nogent sê, 'n 'gevalle ster'. Guibert en ander bronne skryf verder dat Petrus verantwoordelik was vir die toespraak voor die halfhonger en dooie kruisvaarders wat hul saligheid uit die poorte van Antiochië en hul daaropvolgende verpletterende nederlaag van die oorweldigend superieure Moslemleër wat die stad beleër het, gemotiveer het. Nadat hy sy statuur herwin het, is hy in die middel van die jaar deur die vorste gestuur om Kerbogha uit te nooi om alle verskille op te los via 'n tweegeveg, [1] wat die emir daarna geweier het.

In 1099 verskyn Petrus as die tesourier van die aalmoese by die beleg van Arqa, en as leier van die smeekoptogte om die mure van Jerusalem voordat dit val, en later binne Jerusalem wat die kruisvaarders se verrassende oorwinning voorafgegaan het in die Slag van Ascalon (Augustus ). Aan die einde van 1099 gaan Peter na Latakia en vaar daarvandaan na die Weste. Van hierdie tyd af verdwyn hy uit die historiese rekord. Albert van Aix teken aan dat hy in 1131 gesterf het, net soos voor 'n kerk van die Heilige Graf wat hy in Frankryk gestig het. [1]

Albert van Aix in syne Historia Hierosolymitanae Expeditionis [14] beweer dat Petrus die kluisenaar die ware skrywer en oorspronklike van die Eerste Kruistog was. Hierdie verhaal verskyn later op die bladsye van Willem van Tirus, wat daarop dui dat die afstammelinge van die kruisvaarders selfs 'n paar geslagte na die kruistogte geglo het dat Petrus die oorsprong daarvan was. Moderne historici het hierdie mite verwerp deur Heinrich von Sybel. [15] Verskeie historiese bronne vertel ook dat Jesus tydens 'n vroeë besoek aan Jerusalem, êrens voor 1096, aan Petrus die kluisenaar in die Kerk van die Heilige Graf verskyn het en hom die kruistog gebid het. Die oorsprong van hierdie legende is 'n saak van belang. Von Sybel het voorgestel dat in die kamp van die armes (wat langs die ridders bestaan ​​het, toenemend groter geword het namate die kruistog al hoe swaarder op die beursies van die kruisvaarders geëis het) reeds begin, parallel met die soortgelyke verheerliking van Godfrey van Bouillon deur die Lorrainers. [1]

Daar is baie min konkrete rekords oor sy lewe nadat hy na Europa teruggekeer het, en baie van wat bekend is, is spekulasie of legende. Albert van Aix teken egter aan dat hy in 1131 gesterf het, net soos voor die kerk van die Heilige Graf wat hy in Frankryk [16] [17] [1] of Vlaandere gestig het. Daar word vermoed dat Petrus tydens die beleg van Antiochië gedurende die dae van hongersnood en koue weer probeer het om te vlug om slegs deur die Norman Tancred gevange geneem te word en in 1112 terug op die slagveld geplaas te word [1]. Peter het ook voorbidding gehou vir Latynse en inheemse rekrute. Petrus het Grieke en Latyne aangeraai om ook optogte te vorm. [3]

Daar word algemeen aangehaal dat hy 'n Augustynse klooster in Frankryk gestig het, vernoem na die Kerk van die Heilige Graf. Dit was egter eintlik in Vlaandere [16] [17] by Neufmoustier naby Huy, [18] of Huy self, wat moontlik sy tuisdorp was. Sy graf is in die Neufmoustier Abbey, dus word vermoed dat dit sy Abbey was, maar in 'n ander tradisie beweer die nabygeleë Solières Abbey dat dit sy fondament was.

Die doodsberig van Peter is in die kroniek van Abbey Neufmoustier, Huy. [19] Op sy bladinskrywing van 8 Julie 1115 lui die kroniek dat hierdie dag “die dood van Dom Pierre, van vroom nagedagtenis, eerbiedwaardige priester en kluisenaar was, wat verdien het om deur die Here aangestel te word om die eerste aan die Heilige Kruis aan te kondig "en die teks gaan voort met" na die verowering van die heilige land, keer Pierre terug na sy geboorteland "en ook dat" hy hierdie kerk gestig het en 'n ordentlike begrafnis vir hulle kies ". Hierdie rekord ondersteun ook die eis van Neufmoustier as sy grondslag.

Sedert sy dood het verskillende legendes rondom Petrus ontstaan. Een legende het sy wortels in die geskrifte van Jacques de Vitry, wat dit gerieflik gevind het om mense uit die bisdom van Luik te oortuig van die meriete van deelname aan die Albigensiaanse kruistog deur die verhaal van Petrus te manipuleer. [20] [21]

'N Ander legende word in die 14de eeu gegee deur die Franse troebadoer Jehan-de-Bouteiller, wat die nagedagtenis sing van 'n diktaat Peter die Hermit-afstammeling 'n graaf van Clairmont deur 'n Sieur d'Herrymont [wat] met 'n Montagut getroud is'. Peter die Hermit se ouers sou dus Renauld de Hérimont en Aleidis Montaigu wees (Aleidis staan ​​in Huy bekend as die "moeder van Dom Pierre, met 'n huis in Huy"). [22]

Daar is ook 'n sterk en ou tradisie dat Petrus die Kluisenaar die eerste was wat die gebruik van die Rozenkrans bekendgestel het. [16] [17] Dit volg dat hy hierdie tradisie in ongeveer 1090 begin het. [23] As dit die geval is en as hy ook op 'n vorige pelgrimstog na Jerusalem was, is dit moontlik dat hy hierdie praktyk uit soortgelyke Islamitiese gebruike ontleen het .


Voorbereidings vir die kruistog

Na die toespraak van pous Urban, het voorbereidings begin in beide die Ooste en die Wes. Keiser Alexius, wat ongetwyfeld die byeenkoms van 'n soort hulpmag verwag het, het blykbaar gou agtergekom dat hy 'n veel groter toestroming van krygers sou moes versorg en onderneem. In die Weste, toe die leiers begin om hul leërs bymekaar te maak, wou diegene wat die kruis geneem het, geld insamel, dikwels deur eiendom te verkoop of te verpand, vir die onmiddellike aankoop van toerusting en vir die langtermynbehoeftes van die reis.

Terwyl voorbereidings aan die gang was, het verskeie minder georganiseerde groepe ridders en kleinboere, algemeen bekend as die 'People's Crusade', in Europa vertrek. Die bekendste hiervan, byeengebring deur 'n merkwaardige gewilde prediker, Peter die Eremiet, en sy medewerker Walter Sansavoir, het Konstantinopel bereik nadat hulle groot onrus in Hongarye en Bulgarye veroorsaak het. Alexius het Petrus hartlik ontvang en hom aangeraai om te wag op die aankoms van die belangrikste kruistogmag. Maar die rang en stam het onreëlmatig geword, en op 6 Augustus 1096 is hulle oor die Bosporus gebore. Terwyl Petrus in Konstantinopel was om aanvullende hulp te vra, is sy leër in 'n hinderlaag in Cibotus (Civetot genoem deur die Kruisvaarders) en alles behalwe deur die Turke vernietig.

Petrus die kluisenaar se prediking in Duitsland het ander groepe kruisvaarders geïnspireer, wat ook nie daarin kon slaag om Jerusalem te bereik nie. Een van hierdie groepe is gelei deur die berugte graaf Emicho en was verantwoordelik vir 'n reeks pogroms, of slagtings, van Jode in verskeie Rynse dorpe in 1096. Tradisioneel erken as 'n belangrike keerpunt in Joodse en Christelike verhoudings in die Middeleeue - in trouens, dit word dikwels as 'n belangrike oomblik in die geskiedenis van antisemitisme genoem-hierdie aanvalle het eers in Speyer plaasgevind en daarna met toenemende woede in Worms, Mainz en Keulen. Die Jode van hierdie dorpe het dikwels die beskerming van die biskop gesoek en soms ontvang, of hulle het tevergeefs hul toevlug geneem by plaaslike huise en tempels. Deur die kruisvaarders gedwing om tot bekering of sterwe te kom, het baie Jode die dood gekies. Daar is berigte oor Jode wat selfmoord pleeg en selfs hul kinders vermoor het eerder as om hulle tot die teregstelling deur die Kruisvaarders te onderwerp. Alhoewel ywer van hierdie aard nie uniek is aan die Christendom nie, het hierdie slagtings selfs deur mede -Christene nie opgemerk nie. Sommige hedendaagse Christelike verslae skryf die nederlaag van die People's Crusade aan hulle toe. Na die slagtings het die kruisvaarders na Hongarye getrek, waar hulle deur die Hongaarse koning gelei is en groot verliese gely het. Emicho, wat moontlik nie aan al die pogroms deelgeneem het nie, het ontsnap en in skande huiswaarts gekeer.

Die belangrikste kruisvaardermag, wat in Augustus 1096 vertrek het volgens Urban se opdrag, het uit vier groot kontingente bestaan. 'N Kleiner, vyfde mag onder leiding van Hugh van Vermandois, broer van koning Filips I van Frankryk, vertrek voor die ander, maar word verminder deur skipbreuk terwyl hy die Adriatiese See van Bari na Dyrrhachium (nou Durrës, Albanië) oorsteek. Godfrey van Bouillon, leier van die eerste groot leër wat vertrek het en hertog van Neder -Lorraine sedert 1087, was die enigste groot prins uit die Duitse koninkryk wat by die kruistog betrokke was, hoewel hy en sy medewerkers grootliks Frans gepraat het. Saam met sy broers, Eustace en Baldwin, en 'n familielid, Baldwin van Le Bourcq, het Godfrey die landroete geneem en Hongarye sonder voorval oorgesteek. Markte en voorraad is in die Bisantynse gebied voorsien, en behalwe vir plundery, het die leër op 23 Desember 1096 sonder ernstige probleme Konstantinopel bereik.

'N Tweede mag is gereël deur Bohemond, 'n Normandie uit Suid -Italië. Bohemond, die seun van Robert Guiscard, was op 'n bekende terrein oorkant die Adriatiese See, waar hy met sy vader baklei het en deur die Bisantyne verstaanbaar gevrees is. Hy was egter 40 jaar oud toe hy op 9 April 1097 in Konstantinopel aankom en vasbeslote was om winsgewende afsprake met sy voormalige vyand te bereik.

Die derde en grootste leër is saamgestel deur Raymond van Saint-Gilles, graaf van Toulouse. Op die ouderdom van 55 was hy die oudste en prominentste van die vorste op die kruistog, en hy het daarna gestreef en miskien verwag om die leier van die hele ekspedisie te word. Hy is vergesel deur Adhémar, biskop van Le Puy, wat die pous as legaat vir die kruistog genoem het. Raymond het sy volgelinge gelei, waaronder 'n aantal nie -stridende pelgrims wat hy op eie koste ondersteun het, deur Noord -Italië, om die kop van die Adriatiese See, en dan suidwaarts na die Bisantynse gebied. Hierdie groot liggaam veroorsaak groot probleme in Dalmatië en bots met Bisantynse troepe toe dit die hoofstad nader, waar Raymond op 21 April aankom.

Intussen het die vierde leër, onder Robert van Vlaandere, die Adriatiese See van Brindisi oorgesteek. Saam met Robert was sy neef Robert van Normandië (broer van koning Willem II van Engeland) en Stephen van Blois (die skoonseun van Willem die Veroweraar). Geen koning het aan die Eerste Kruistog deelgeneem nie, en die oorwegend Franssprekende deelnemers het by die Moslems bekend gestaan ​​as Franken.

Die teenwoordigheid naby Konstantinopel van massiewe militêre magte, wat miskien 4 000 berede ridders en 25 000 infanterie getel het, het Alexius 'n ernstige probleem opgelewer, en daar was af en toe wanorde. Die keiser was verplig om keiserlike belange in ag te neem, wat, soos dit duidelik geword het, anders was as die doel van die kruisvaarders, en vereis dat elke kruistogleier onder eed beloof om die verowerde gebied wat aan die ryk behoort het voor die Turkse invalle en om lojaliteit aan hom te sweer terwyl die kruisvaarders in sy domein bly. Aangesien daar nooit 'n plan was vir die kruistog om die verre grense van die ou Romeinse Ryk te oorskry nie, sou dit eintlik alle verowerings aan die keiser gee. Net Bohemond het die keiser se eed gewillig afgelê. Die ander het dit onder dwang gedoen, en Raymond het slegs 'n lou eed gesweer om die eiendom en die persoon van die keiser te respekteer. Desondanks het Raymond en Alexius goeie vriende geword, en Raymond was die sterkste verdediger van die keiser se regte gedurende die kruistog.


Kronologiese volgorde van die kruistog [wysig | wysig bron]

Raad van Clermont [wysig | wysig bron]

In Maart 1095 stuur Alexius I gesante na die Raad van Piacenza om pous Urbanus II om hulp te vra teen die Turke. Die versoek van die keiser het 'n gunstige reaksie van Urban ontvang, wat gehoop het om die Groot Skeuring van 40 jaar tevore te genees en die Kerk weer onder pouslike voorrang te verenig as 'hoofbiskop en prelaat oor die hele wêreld' (soos hy na homself in Clermont verwys het) ), Ώ ] deur die Oosterse kerke te help in hul nood.

Die Raad van Piacenza versterk die gesag van die pous in Italië tydens 'n tydperk van 'n pouslike krisis (meer as 3 000 geestelikes en ongeveer 30 000 leke het opgedaag, sowel as ambassadeurs van die Ooste wat al die 'hulp van die Christendom teen die ongelowiges' gesmeek het). Met die doel van pous Urbanus II om sy gesag in Italië weer te bevestig, kon hy hom nou volledig toespits op die aanpak en optrede van 'n kruistog waarvoor die oostelike ambassadeurs uit die Bisantynse Ryk hoofsaaklik gekom het. Urban was ook bewus daarvan dat Italië nie die land was wat 'ook tot 'n uitbarsting van godsdienstige entoesiasme sou ontwaak tydens die dagvaarding van 'n pous met 'n steeds betwiste titel nie.' eed, om die keiser die getrouste te help vir sover hulle dit teen die heidene kon doen "het min geword.

By die Raad van Clermont, wat op 27 November 1095 in die hart van Frankryk vergader het, het Urban 'n gepassioneerde preek gehou vir 'n groot gehoor van Franse edeles en geestelikes. Hy het die gehoor ontbied om die beheer van Jerusalem uit die hande van die Moslems te bewerkstellig. Volgens hom was Frankryk oorvol en die land Kanaän was vol melk en heuning. Hy het gepraat oor die probleme van edel geweld en die oplossing was om swaarde in God se eie diens te draai: "Laat rowers ridders word". Ώ ] Hy het gepraat van belonings op aarde sowel as in die hemel, waar vergifnis van sondes aangebied is aan almal wat in die onderneming sou sterf. Urban het dit beloof deur die krag van God wat in hom belê is. Die skare was opgewonde tot entoesiasme en onderbreek sy toespraak met uitroepe Deus lo volt! ("Dit is God se wil!").

Urban se preek is een van die belangrikste toesprake in die Europese geskiedenis. Daar is baie weergawes van die toespraak op rekord, maar almal is geskryf nadat Jerusalem ingeneem is, en dit is moeilik om te weet wat eintlik gesê is en wat herskep is na die suksesvolle kruistog. Dit is egter duidelik dat die reaksie op die toespraak baie groter was as wat verwag is. Gedurende die res van 1095 en in 1096 het Urban die boodskap in Frankryk versprei en sy biskoppe en legate aangemoedig om ook in hul eie bisdomme elders in Frankryk, Duitsland en Italië te preek. Urban het probeer om sekere mense (insluitend vroue, monnike en siekes) te verbied om by die kruistog aan te sluit, maar dit was byna onmoontlik. Uiteindelik was die meerderheid van diegene wat die oproep aangeneem het, nie ridders nie, maar boere wat nie ryk was nie en weinig vegvaardighede gehad het, maar waarvan die duisendjarige en apokaliptiese verlange vrygelaat is van die daaglikse onderdrukking van hul lewens, in 'n uitstorting van 'n nuwe emosionele en persoonlike vroomheid wat nie maklik deur die kerklike en leke -aristokrasie ingespan is nie.

People's Crusade [wysig | wysig bron]

Die leiers van die Eerste Kruistog.

Urban beplan die vertrek van die kruistog vir 15 Augustus 1096, die Fees van die Hemelvaart, maar maande voor dit het 'n aantal onverwagte leërs van kleinboere en nederige ridders georganiseer en op hul eie na Jerusalem vertrek. Hulle is gelei deur 'n charismatiese monnik en 'n kragtige redenaar met die naam Petrus die kluisenaar van Amiens. Die reaksie was bo verwagting: hoewel Urban moontlik 'n paar duisend ridders sou verwag het, het hy uiteindelik 'n migrasie van tot 100,000, al was dit meestal ongeskoolde vegters, insluitend vroue en kinders.

By gebrek aan militêre dissipline, en in wat vir die deelnemers waarskynlik 'n vreemde land (Oos -Europa) met vreemde gebruike gelyk het, beland die eerste kruisvaarders vinnig in die moeilikheid op Christelike gebied. Die probleem was die aanbod sowel as die kultuur: die mense het voedsel en voorrade nodig, en hulle het verwag dat gasheerstede die kos en voorrade vir hulle sou gee of ten minste teen pryse sou verkoop wat hulle redelik voel. Nadat hulle Wes -Europa vroeg verlaat het, het hulle die groot oes van daardie lente, na jare van droogte en slegte oes, misgeloop. Ongelukkig vir die kruisvaarders was die inwoners nie altyd dit eens nie, en dit het vinnig tot gevegte en skermutselinge gelei. Op pad na die Donau het Petrus se volgelinge die Hongaarse gebied geplunder en aangeval deur die Hongare, die Bulgare en selfs 'n Bisantynse leër naby Nish. Ongeveer 'n kwart van Petrus se volgelinge is dood, maar die res het in Augustus grootliks ongeskonde by Konstantinopel aangekom. Konstantinopel was groot vir die tydperk in Europa, maar so ook Petrus se "leër", en kulturele verskil en 'n huiwering om so 'n groot aantal inkomende mense te voorsien, het tot verdere spanning gelei. In Konstantinopel was Petrus se volgelinge ook nie die enigste groep kruisvaarders nie - hulle het saam met ander kruisvaarders uit Frankryk en Italië aangesluit. Alexius, wat nie geweet het wat hy nog sou doen met so 'n groot en ongewone (en buitelandse) leër nie, het hulle vinnig deur die Bosporus gebring.

Nadat hulle na Klein -Asië gekom het, het die kruisvaarders begin twis en die leërs het in twee afsonderlike kampe opgebreek. Die Turke was ervare, vaardig en het plaaslike kennis gehad, die grootste deel van die People's Crusade - 'n klomp amateurkrygers en ongewapende vroue - is vermoor toe hulle die Seljuk -gebied binnegekom het. Petrus het egter oorleef en sou later by die belangrikste kruisvaardersleër aansluit. 'N Ander leër van Boheemse en Sakse het nie verby Hongarye gekom voordat hulle uitmekaar was nie.

Duitse kruistog [wysig | wysig bron]

Die Eerste Kruistog het 'n lang tradisie van georganiseerde geweld teen Jode in die Europese kultuur laat ontstaan. Alhoewel antisemitisme eeue lank in Europa bestaan ​​het, was die eerste kruistog die eerste massale georganiseerde geweld teen Joodse gemeenskappe. In Duitsland het sekere leiers verstaan ​​dat hierdie oorlog teen die ongelowiges nie net van toepassing was op die Moslems in die Heilige Land nie, maar selfs op die Jode in hul eie land. In die vroeë somer van 1096 vertrek 'n Duitse leër van ongeveer 10 000 soldate onder leiding van Gottschalk, Volkmar en Emicho noordwaarts deur die Rynvallei, in die teenoorgestelde rigting van Jerusalem, en begin met 'n reeks pogroms wat sommige historici noem " die eerste Holocaust ". Hierdie begrip van die idee van 'n kruistog was egter nie universeel nie, en Jode het 'n toevlug gevind in heiligdomme, met een voorbeeld die pogings van die aartsbiskop van Keulen om die Jode van die stad te beskerm teen die slagting wat die stad se bevolking.

Die prediking van die kruistog het verdere antisemitisme geïnspireer. Volgens sommige predikers was Jode en Moslems vyande van Christus, en moes vyande geveg of tot die Christendom bekeer word. Die algemene publiek het blykbaar aangeneem dat 'baklei' beteken 'veg tot die dood', of 'vermoor'. Die Christelike verowering van Jerusalem en die vestiging van 'n Christelike keiser daar sou glo die Eindtyd begin, waartydens die Jode hulle tot die Christendom moes bekeer. In dele van Frankryk en Duitsland is gedink dat Jode verantwoordelik was vir die kruisiging, en hulle was meer onmiddellik sigbaar as die verre Moslems. Baie mense het gewonder hoekom hulle duisende kilometers moes ry om nie-gelowiges te beveg as daar reeds ongelowiges nader aan die huis was.

Die kruisvaarders het noordwaarts deur die Rynvallei getrek na bekende Joodse gemeenskappe soos Keulen, en dan suidwaarts. Joodse gemeenskappe het die opsie gekry om hulle tot die Christendom te bekeer of om geslag te word. Die meeste sou nie tot bekering kom nie, en namate die nuus van die massamoorde versprei het, het baie Joodse gemeenskappe massamoord gepleeg in gruwelike tonele. Duisende Jode is vermoor, ondanks sommige pogings deur plaaslike geestelikes en sekulêre owerhede om hulle te beskerm. Die slagtings is geregverdig deur die bewering dat Urban se toespraak in Clermont beloning van God beloof het omdat hy nie-Christene van enige aard vermoor het, nie net Moslems nie. Alhoewel die pousdom hierdie en toekomstige kruistogte teen die suiwering van Moslem en Joodse inwoners verafsku en gepreek het, was daar talle aanvalle op Jode na elke kruistogbeweging.

Princes Crusade [wysig | wysig bron]

Die Princes 'Crusade, ook bekend as die Barons' Crusade, het later in 1096 op 'n meer ordelike wyse vertrek, gelei deur verskillende adellikes met riddersgroepe uit verskillende streke van Europa. Die vier belangrikste hiervan was Raymond IV van Toulouse, wat die ridders van Provence verteenwoordig, vergesel van die pouslike legaat Adhemar van Le Puy Bohemond van Taranto, wat die Normanders van Suid -Italië verteenwoordig saam met sy neef Tancred The Lorrainers onder die broers Godfrey van Bouillon , Eustace en Baldwin van Boulogne en die Noord -Franse onder leiding van graaf Robert II van Vlaandere, Robert van Normandië (ouer broer van koning Willem II van Engeland), Stephen, graaf van Blois en Hugh van Vermandois, die jonger broer van koning Philip I van Frankryk, wat die pouslike vaandel Α ] gedra het. Koning Philip self is verbied om aan die veldtog deel te neem aangesien hy uitgesluit is.

Maart na Jerusalem [wysig | wysig bron]

Die verskillende leërs het in Augustus ongeveer die vasgestelde tyd verlaat en het verskillende paaie na Konstantinopel geneem en tussen November 1096 en Mei 1097 buite die stadsmure vergader, twee maande na die uitwissing van die People's Crusade deur die Turke. By die ridders was baie arm mans (armes) wat basiese klere en miskien 'n ou wapen kon bekostig. Petrus die kluisenaar, wat by die Princes Crusade by Konstantinopel aangesluit het, word as verantwoordelik vir hul welstand beskou, en hulle kon hulself in klein groepies organiseer, miskien soortgelyk aan militêre kompanie, dikwels gelei deur 'n verarmde ridder. Een van die grootste van hierdie groepe, bestaande uit die oorlewendes van die People's Crusade, noem homself die 'Tafurs'.

Die vorste het met min kos in Konstantinopel aangekom en verwagte voorsiening en hulp van Alexius I. Alexius was begryplik agterdogtig ná sy ervarings met die People's Crusade, en ook omdat die ridders sy ou Normandiese vyand, Bohemond, ingesluit het. Terselfdertyd het Alexius hoop gehad om beheer uit te oefen oor die kruisvaarders, wat volgens hom die potensiaal het om as 'n Bisantynse gevolmagtigde te funksioneer. In ruil vir voedsel en voorrade het Alexius die leiers versoek om hom trou te sweer en te beloof om enige grond wat van die Turke verhaal is, terug te keer na die Bisantynse Ryk. Sonder kos of voedsel het hulle uiteindelik geen ander keuse gehad as om die eed af te lê nie, maar nie totdat alle partye tot verskeie kompromieë ingestem het nie, en eers nadat oorlog in die stad amper uitgebreek het. Slegs Raymond vermy die eed en sweer slim by Alexius as die keiser die kruistog persoonlik sou lei. Alexius het geweier, maar die twee het bondgenote geword en het 'n algemene wantroue in Bohemond gehad.

Alexius het ingestem om 'n Bisantynse leër onder bevel van Taticius uit te stuur om die kruisvaarders deur Klein -Asië te vergesel. Their first objective was Nicaea, an old Byzantine city, but now the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm under Kilij Arslan I. The city was subjected to a lengthy siege, which was somewhat ineffectual as the crusaders could not blockade the lake on which the city was situated, and from which it could be provisioned. Arslan, from outside the city, advised the garrison to surrender if their situation became untenable. Alexius, fearing the crusaders would sack Nicaea and destroy its wealth, secretly accepted the surrender of the city the crusaders awoke on the morning of June 19, 1097 to see Byzantine standards flying from the walls. The crusaders were forbidden to loot it, and were not allowed to enter the city except in small escorted bands. This caused a further rift between the Byzantines and the crusaders. The crusaders now began the journey to Jerusalem. Stephen of Blois wrote home, stating he believed it would take five weeks. In fact, the journey would take two years.

The crusaders, still accompanied by some Byzantine troops under Taticius, marched on towards Dorylaeum, where Bohemond was pinned down by Kilij Arslan. At the Battle of Dorylaeum on July 1, Godfrey broke through the Turkish lines, and with the help of the troops led by the legate Adhemar, defeated the Turks and looted their camp. Kilij Arslan withdrew and the crusaders marched almost unopposed through Asia Minor towards Antioch, except for a battle, in September, in which they again defeated the Turks. Along the way, the Crusaders were able to capture a number of cities such as Sozopolis, Iconium and Caesarea although most of these were lost to the Turks by 1101. Β]

The march through Asia was unpleasant. It was the middle of summer and the crusaders had very little food and water many men died, as did many horses. Christians, in Asia as in Europe, sometimes gave them gifts of food and money, but more often the crusaders looted and pillaged whenever the opportunity presented itself. Individual leaders continued to dispute the overall leadership, although none of them were powerful enough to take command still, Adhemar was always recognized as the spiritual leader. After passing through the Cilician Gates, Baldwin of Boulogne set off on his own towards the Armenian lands around the Euphrates. In Edessa early in 1098, he was adopted as heir by King Thoros, a Greek Orthodox ruler who was disliked by his Armenian subjects. Thoros was soon assassinated and Baldwin became the new ruler, thus creating the County of Edessa, the first of the crusader states.

Siege of Antioch [ edit | wysig bron]

The crusader army, meanwhile, marched on to Antioch, which lay about half way between Constantinople and Jerusalem. They arrived in October 1097 and set it to a siege which lasted almost eight months, during which time they also had to defeat two large relief armies under Duqaq of Damascus and Ridwan of Aleppo. Antioch was so large that the crusaders did not have enough troops to fully surround it, and thus it was able to stay partially supplied. As the siege dragged on it was clear that Bohemond wanted the city for himself.

In May 1098, Kerbogha of Mosul approached Antioch to relieve the siege. Bohemond bribed an Armenian guard of the city to surrender his tower, and in June the crusaders entered the city and killed most of the inhabitants. However, only a few days later the Muslims arrived, laying siege to the former besiegers. At this point a minor monk by the name of Peter Bartholomew claimed to have discovered the Holy Lance in the city, and although some were skeptical, this was seen as a sign that they would be victorious.

On June 28 the crusaders defeated Kerbogha in a pitched battle outside the city, as Kerbogha was unable to organize the different factions in his army. While the crusaders were marching towards the Muslims, the Fatimid section of the army deserted the Turkish contingent, as they feared Kerbogha would become too powerful if he were to defeat the Crusaders. According to legend, an army of Christian saints came to the aid of the crusaders during the battle and crippled Kerbogha's army.

Bohemond argued that Alexius had deserted the crusade and thus invalidated all of their oaths to him. Bohemond asserted his claim to Antioch, but not everyone agreed, and the crusade was delayed for the rest of the year while the nobles argued amongst themselves. It is a common historiographical assumption that the Franks of northern France, the Provençals of southern France, and the Normans of southern Italy considered themselves separate "nations" and that each wanted to increase its status. This may have had something to do with the disputes, but personal ambition was just as likely to blame.

Meanwhile, a plague (perhaps typhus) broke out, killing many, including the legate Adhemar. There were now even fewer horses than before, and Muslim peasants refused to give them food. In December, the capture of the Arab town of Ma'arrat al-Numan took place, and with it the first known incident of cannibalism by the crusaders. The minor knights and soldiers became restless and threatened to continue to Jerusalem without their squabbling leaders. Finally, at the beginning of 1099, the march was renewed, leaving Bohemond behind as the first Prince of Antioch.

Siege of Jerusalem [ edit | wysig bron]

Proceeding down the coast of the Mediterranean, the crusaders encountered little resistance, as local rulers preferred to make peace with them and give them supplies rather than fight. On June 7 the crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuks by the Fatimids of Egypt only the year before. Many Crusaders wept on seeing the city they had journeyed so long to reach.

As with Antioch, the crusaders put the city to a lengthy siege, in which the crusaders themselves suffered many casualties, due to the lack of food and water around Jerusalem. Of the estimated 7,000 knights who took part in the Princes' Crusade, only about 1,500 remained. Faced with a seemingly impossible task, their morale was raised when a priest, by the name of Peter Desiderius, claimed to have had a divine vision instructing them to fast and then march in a barefoot procession around the city walls, after which the city would fall in nine days, following the Biblical example of Joshua at the siege of Jericho. On July 8, 1099 the crusaders performed the procession as instructed by Desiderius. The Genoese troops, led by commander Guglielmo Embriaco, had previously dismantled the ships in which the Genoese came to the port of Jaffa Embriaco, using the ship's wood, made some siege towers and seven days later on July 15, the crusaders were able to end the siege by breaking down sections of the walls and entering the city. Some Crusaders also entered through the former pilgrim's entrance.

Over the course of that afternoon, evening and next morning, the crusaders murdered almost every inhabitant of Jerusalem. Muslims, Jews, and even eastern Christians were all massacred. Although many Muslims sought shelter in Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Jews in their synagogue by the Western wall, the crusaders spared few lives. According to the anonymous Gesta Francorum, in what some believe to be an exaggerated account of the massacre which subsequently took place there, ". the slaughter was so great that our men waded in blood up to their ankles. " Γ] . Other accounts of blood flowing up to the bridles of horses are reminiscent of a passage from the Book of Revelation (14:20). Tancred claimed the Temple quarter for himself and offered protection to some of the Muslims there, but he was unable to prevent their deaths at the hands of his fellow crusaders. According to Fulcher of Chartres: "Indeed, if you had been there you would have seen our feet coloured to our ankles with the blood of the slain. But what more shall I relate? None of them were left alive neither women nor children were spared". Δ ]

However, the Gesta Francorum states some people managed to escape the siege unharmed. Its anonymous author wrote, "When the pagans had been overcome, our men seized great numbers, both men and women, either killing them or keeping them captive, as they wished". Ε] Later it is written, "[Our leaders] also ordered all the Saracen dead to be cast outside because of the great stench, since the whole city was filled with their corpses and so the living Saracens dragged the dead before the exits of the gates and arranged them in heaps, as if they were houses. No one ever saw or heard of such slaughter of pagan people, for funeral pyres were formed from them like pyramids, and no one knows their number except God alone". Ζ ]

Raymond of Toulouse was offered the kingship of Jerusalem but refused, saying that he wouldn't wear "a crown of gold" where Christ had worn "a crown of thorns". In the days following the massacre, Godfrey of Bouillon was made Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("Protector of the Holy Sepulchre"). In the last action of the crusade, he led an army which defeated an invading Fatimid army at the Battle of Ascalon. Godfrey died in July 1100, and was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin of Edessa, who took the title King of Jerusalem.

Crusade of 1101 and the establishment of the kingdom [ edit | wysig bron]

Having captured Jerusalem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the crusading vow was now fulfilled. However, there were many who had gone home before reaching Jerusalem, and many who had never left Europe at all. When the success of the crusade became known, these people were mocked and scorned by their families and threatened with excommunication by the clergy. Many crusaders who had remained with the crusade all the way to Jerusalem also went home according to Fulcher of Chartres there were only a few hundred knights left in the newfound kingdom in 1100. In 1101, another crusade set out, including Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, both of whom had returned home before reaching Jerusalem. This crusade was almost annihilated in Asia Minor by the Seljuks, but the survivors helped reinforce the kingdom when they arrived in Jerusalem. In the following years, assistance was also provided by Italian merchants who established themselves in the Syrian ports, and from the religious and military orders of the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitaller which were created during Baldwin I's reign.


Agtergrond

Die Great Seljuk Empire at its largest extent, in 1092

In the Eastern Mediterranean after Muslim forces defeated the Eastern Roman/Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, the control of Palestine passed through the Umayyad Dynasty , die Abbasid Dynasty . en die Fatimids . [35] [36] [37] Toleration, trade, and political relationships between the Arabs and the Christian states of Europe ebbed and flowed until 1072 when the Fatimids lost control of Palestine to the rapidly expanding Great Seljuk Empire . [38] Byvoorbeeld, die Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre , only to have his successor allow the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it. [39] The Muslim rulers allowed pilgrimages by Catholics to the holy sites. Resident Christians were considered people of the book and so were tolerated as Dhimmi or “subjugated people” accorded a second-class status, and inter-marriage was not uncommon. [40] Cultures and creeds coexisted as much as competed, but the frontier conditions were not conducive to Latin Catholic pilgrims and merchants. [41] The disruption of pilgrimages by conquering Seljuk Turks prompted support for the Crusades in Western Europe. [42]

Image of Seljuk keiser Alp Arslan humiliating Romanos IV in 1071 after Manzikert. Alp Arslan actually treated Romanos IV well and let him return to Constantinople , where he was killed by the Byzantines. Image from a 15th-century illustrated French translation of Boccaccio ‘s De Casibus Virorum Illustrium.

The Byzantine Empire was resurgent from the end of the 10th century, with Basil II spending most of his 50-year reign on campaign, conquering a great amount of territory. He left a growing treasury, at the expense of neglecting domestic affairs and also ignoring the cost of incorporating his conquests into the Byzantine Ecumene . None of Basil’s successors had any particular military or political talent, and governing the Empire increasingly fell into the hands of the civil service. Their efforts to spend the Byzantine economy back into prosperity only resulted in burgeoning inflation. To balance the increasingly unstable budget, Basil’s large standing army was dismissed as unnecessary, and native thematic troops were cashiered and replaced by foreign mercenaries . Following the defeat of the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk Turks had taken over almost all of Anatolië , and the Empire descended into frequent civil wars. [43] In the Western Mediterranean the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslims began in the 8th century and reached its turning point with the recapture of Toledo in 1085. [44] At the subsequent Council of Clermont in 1095. [45] Urban II tied the ongoing wars in Iberia to his preaching of the First Crusade and the crusading effort but it was not until the papal encyclical in 1123 by Pope Calixtus II that these wars attained the status of crusades. [46] After this, the papacy declared Iberian crusades in 1147, 1193, 1197, 1210, 1212, 1221 and 1229. Crusading privileges were also given to those people who were helping the military orders – both the traditional Templars and Hospitallers as well as the specifically Iberian orders that were founded and eventually merged into two main orders – that of the Order of Calatrava en die Order of Santiago . From 1212 to 1265, the Christian kingdoms of Iberia drove Muslim rule into the far south of the Iberian Peninsula, confined to the small Emirate of Granada . In 1492, this remnant was conquered and Muslims and Jews were expelled from the peninsula. [47]

In Western Europe an aggressive and reformist papacy came into conflict with both the Eastern Empire and Western secular monarchs, leading to the East-West Schism in 1054, [48] en die Investiture Controversy , which had started around 1075 and was still on-going during the First Crusade. The papacy began to assert its independence from secular rulers, marshaling arguments for the proper use of armed force by Catholics. The result was intense Catholic piety, interest in religious affairs, and religious propaganda advocating “ Just War ” in order to retake Palestine from the Muslims. The majority view was that non-Christians could not be forced to accept Christian baptism or should not be physically assaulted for having a different faith as opposed to a less common opinion that vengeance was a response to injuries such as the denial of Christian faith, government or the opportunity for justified forcible conversion. [49] Taking part in such a war was seen as a form of penance , which could remit sins. [50] Meanwhile, in Europe, the Germans were expanding at the expense of the Slawe . [51] Terwyl Sicilië was conquered by the Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard in 1072. [52]

Illumination from the Livre des Passages d’Outre-mer (c. 1490) of Urban II at the Council of Clermont ( Bibliothèque Nationale )

Keiser Alexios I Komnenos requested military assistance from Pope Urban II at the Council of Piacenza to fight the Seljuqs in 1095, probably envisaging this in the form of mercenaries to reinforce his tagmata and exaggerating the dangers facing the Eastern Empire in order to secure the needed troops [53] On the penultimate day of the subsequent council at Clermont, attended by nearly 300 clerics from throughout Frankryk from 19 to 28 November, Urban raised the problems in the Εast and the struggle of the Oos -Romeinse Ryk teen Moslems . There are six main sources of information on the Council: the anonymous Gesta Francorum (“The Deeds of the Franks”) dated c. 1100/1101, by Fulcher of Chartres who was present at the council Robert the Monk , who may have been present as well as Baldric, archbishop of Dol , en Guibert de Nogent , who were not. All the accounts were written retrsopectively and differ greatly. [54] Robert the Monk—Historia Iherosolimitana, written in 1106/7— writes that the pope asked western Christians, poor and rich, to come to the aid of the Byzantine Empire because “ Deus vult,” (“God wills it”) adding that Urban promised Absolution for those who took part, although other sources claim instead, it was remission of all penance due from sins, later called an indulgence . In the accounts Urban emphasizes reconquering the Holy Land more than aiding the Emperor, listing gruesome offences committed by Muslims and focussing on the reconquest of the Holy Land. The propogand for this call to arms was preached across France with Urban himself writing those “waiting in Flanders ” lamenting that Turks, in addition to ravaging the “churches of God in the eastern regions,” have seized “the Holy City of Christ, embellished by his passion and resurrection—and blasphemy to say it—have sold her and her churches into abominable slavery.” While not explicitly calling for the reconquest of Jerusalem he does call for the military “liberation” of the Eastern Churches and appoints Adhemar of Le Puy to lead the Crusade, commencing on the day of the Assumption of Mary , 15 August. [55]


A fief, an estate of land, was provided to a free man from a lord in exchange for services and loyalty. The main service provided was a military allegiance in the event that war broke out and the lord needed to raise an army.

An apprentice in the Middle Ages could became a journeyman after three to four years of practice at a craft, which they often started as young as 10 years old. As a journeyman, they were still training to become an expert, but they could start working within the marketplace.


Oorsprong

Popular movements of religious revivalism like the Children’s Crusade usually appeared when official Crusades were preached. Preaching aroused collective enthusiasm, particularly in areas with a long tradition of Crusading, as in the town of Chartres and its surrounding region (the Chartrain) in north-central France. Beginning at the time of the First Crusade in the late 11th century and continuing into the 13th century, successive waves of Crusading fervour swept over this region. During the winter of 1211 and the spring of 1212 the Albigensian Crusade was preached against the heretical Cathars of southern France, resulting in strong military recruitment from the Chartrain. Spain, on Christendom’s western frontier, was the scene of another Crusading crisis. A Muslim invasion from North Africa in 1210 led to the fall of the castle of Salvatierra in 1211. A climactic battle was expected by Pentecost in 1212. Pope Innocent III anxiously attempted to mobilize the prayers of Christians on behalf of the threatened Spanish church by holding processions in Rome on May 16, 1212.

It is likely that similar processions were held at Chartres on May 20. In all probability, a shepherd boy, Stephen of Cloyes, and some of his fellow workers took part in them. The enthusiasm generated by these processions gave birth to a popular Crusading movement whose aims were summed up in acclamations shouted out by the pueri: “Lord God, raise up Christendom!” and “Lord God, return to us the True Cross!”


2nd Crusade (1147-1149)

The Muslims deeply angered by their uncalled for killing, rallied and organized into and army and fought back. This resulted in a tie of power and struggle as both the Muslims and Christians were evenly matched. After a while, the Muslims were finally able to reconquer parts of Palestine. This caused the Pope to call for another Crusade this time led by King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany. Fortunately, these leaders were ineffective at military leadership. According to History.com, the Turks annihilated Conrad’s forces at Dorylaeum, the site of a great Christian victory during the First Crusade (History.com Staff, 2010). Then after, both King Louis and King Conrad decided to combine their forces at attack the city of Damascus together. This lead to a crushing defeat for the Crusaders as the Muslims called to aid for help from an ally and also combine their Muslim forces. This ended the second Crusade and the Crusaders were then forced to go back home in humiliation at their defeat.


Key Elements of Warcraft

Military Orders (Hospitallers, Templars)

The Military Orders were among the most important institutions and fighting forces during the Crusades. They combined the discipline of monks with the martial skills of the knights. From their rather modest beginnings, the Military Orders increased not only in importance as military units but in land holdings. As time went on, the Crusaders increasingly depended on their manpower to garrison the fortresses of the Holy Land.

Origin of the Templars

The Templars were the first and most famous Military Order. Hugh of Payns and eight companions established the order in 1119 in order to protect pilgrims on the road from Jaffa to Jerusalem. The group was granted use of the Al-Aqsa mosque on the Temple Mount (where the Temple of Solomon was once located) for their headquarters. From this location, their name evolved into the Templars.

The Templars were granted a formal rule by Bernard of Clairvaux in 1129. With Bernard’s support and a general enthusiasm for their work, the order grew quickly. Temples, as their monasteries were often called in Europe, were established in Europe, and these served as recruiting offices. In the 1130s, with their expanded manpower, the Templars received several castles to defend.

Most of the Templars came from noble families as most knights did, but the majority of the Templars were sergeants. Sergeants were the backbone of all European armies. They were professional soldiers who served as infantry or as cavalry, but were of common background. Although they could never be knights, they often fought in the same manner.

In addition, regular priests could join in order to provide religious services. Because of increased garrisoning duties, the Templars also hired mercenaries to serve with them. The Templars were easily recognizable as they wore white tunics emblazoned with a red cross.

Like monks, they took an oath of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The Templars—and for that matter, all of the military orders—had to maintain daily liturgical hours, even while in the field. They were governed by a Grand Master located in Jerusalem. All of their properties were divided and governed by commanders who answered to the Grand Master proceeds were sent to the east.

Creation of the Hospitallers

The second most important Military Order were the Knights of St. John, also known as the Hospitallers. Originally founded by Italian merchants in Jerusalem, they were a monastic order that offered hospital services. The hospital was attached to a monastery dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The papacy recognized it as a monastic order in 1113, but it did not acquire a military component until the 1130s. Although the military wing became more dominant, it never abandoned its hospital work, which provided services to pilgrims to the Holy Land regardless of wealth or social status.

Its organization and membership was similar to that of the Templars. Originally, the military wing of the Hospitallers was probably created to protect the hospitals that the order established in various towns in the Kingdom of Jerusalem. As the Crusader states were chronically short of manpower, they often called upon the Hospitallers for assistance.

Like the Templars, they were disciplined fighters. Initially they wore black tunics with a white cross, but after 1259 they wore red surcoats with a white cross. Soon, they also acquired many castles to garrison, the most important being Krak des Chevaliers in Syria. This mammoth structure served as their headquarters.

Like the Templars, the Hospitallers also had offices throughout Europe and were subject only to the pope’s authority. There was a rivalry between the two orders that was not very conducive to the well being of the Crusader states. However, they could also cooperate. On campaigns, due to their discipline and prowess, the Templars served as the vanguard of the army, while the Hospitallers served as the rear guard.

After the fall of Acre in 1291, the Hospitallers moved to Cyprus and then Rhodes, which became their headquarters in 1309. Forced to become a naval power by this relocation, they acted essentially as pirates on Muslim shipping. Eventually, the Ottomans forced them from Rhodes in 1523. Homeless for seven years, they were granted the island of Malta, where they stayed until their destruction by Napoleon in 1798.

In the twenty-first century, the Hospitallers live on as a monastic order in Rome.

Siege Engines

Although the Crusades were known for knights in armor and famous warriors such as Bohemund, Saladin, and Richard the Lionheart, the vast majority of battles took place in the form of sieges rather than field battles. Part of this was due to a chronic lack of manpower on the part of the Crusaders. It was easier to control territory with castles than large armies. For both sides, a disastrous encounter in the field could leave an entire region exposed to conquest, so most decided to stay in their fortresses and wait out marauding armies.

Because of the emphasis on siege warfare, both fortification and siege engines advanced significantly. Many of the castle designs and weaponry used in the Crusades spread into Europe and even into China.

Ladders, battering rams, and sapping (digging tunnels to undermine the foundations of a wall) had been standard parts of siege warfare for centuries. However, none of these tactics were successful unless they were used in conjunction with siege engines such as towers, catapults, and trebuchets.

Design of a Siege Tower

Siege towers were critical at Jerusalem and Ascalon, and it is doubtful if the sieges would have been successful without them. This construct was essentially a wooden tower on wheels that could be pushed up to the wall. Typically, it was designed to be higher than the wall, since this allowed archers or catapults to dominate their sector.

As they were made from wood, towers were susceptible to fire (particularly Greek fire which could only be extinguished with vinegar). To help shield it, animal hides covered a tower, as the hides tended to resist the fire, or if set aflame, could be cut away before the fire ignited the entire structure.

Towers often had one or more openings. Battering rams could be used to open a breach, or a bridge could be lowered to allow troops to cross over to the enemy’s walls.

Machines of Destruction

Catapults had been standard siege engines since the ancient period. Those used in the Middle Ages were based on torsion and tension. One such device was the mangonel, which was powered by twisted rope. A bowl-shaped holder held a projectile and was attached to an arm. When fired, the energy stored in the ropes released the arm, which hit a crossbeam, sending the projectile forward. It was not accurate, but it could be effective.

Another weapon was a trebuchet. This was simply a long beam with a sling attached to it. The arm was attached to a framework and powered by men pulling ropes attached to the other end of the arm. The longer end with the sling would move forward and release the missile. These were known as traction trebuchets. Their range and power was based on the number of people pulling the ropes.

The most destructive weapon was the counterweight trebuchet. Rather than having men pulling ropes, a box filled with heavy weights would power it. When released, the weights would swing down with more force, giving the missile greater range and velocity, and consequently causing more damage. Many of these engines were given colorful nicknames, such as “Bad Neighbor.” A European invention, the first recorded use of them was around 1187 by Saladin.

Another weapon in common use was the ballista. This was an oversized crossbow. Although oversized bolts could be used, it was more common to use stones. As trebuchets became more common, the ballista gradually declined in use.


Agtergrond

The origins of the crusades in general, and of the First Crusade in particular, stem from events earlier in the Middle Ages. The breakdown of the Carolingian empire in previous centuries, combined with the relative stability of European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings and Magyars, gave rise to an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight among themselves and terrorize the peasant population.

Outlets for this violence took the form of campaigns against non-Christians. The Reconquista in Spain was one such outlet, which occupied Spanish knights and some mercenaries from elsewhere in Europe in the fight against the Islamic Moors. Elsewhere, the Normans were fighting for control of Sicily, while Pisa, Genoa and Aragon were all actively fighting Islamic strongholds in Majorca and Sardinia, freeing the coasts of Italy and Spain from Muslim raids.

Because of these ongoing wars, the idea of a war against the Muslims was not implausible to the European nations. Muslims occupied the centre of the Christian universe, Jerusalem, which, along with the surrounding land, was considered one giant relic, the place where Christ had lived and died. In 1074, Pope Gregory VII called for the milites Christi ("knights of Christ") to go to the aid of the Byzantine Empire in the east. The Byzantines had suffered a serious defeat at the hands of the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert three years previously. This call, while largely ignored, combined with the large numbers of pilgrimages to the Holy Land in the 11th century, focused a great deal of attention on the east. It was Pope Urban II who first disseminated to the general public the idea of a Crusade to capture the Holy Land with the famous words: "God wills it!"

The East in the late eleventh century

Western Europe's immediate neighbour to the southeast was the Byzantine Empire, who were fellow Christians but who had long followed a separate Orthodox rite. Under emperor Alexius I Comnenus, the empire was largely confined to Europe and the western coast of Anatolia, and faced enemies in the Normans in the west and the Seljuks in the east. Further east, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt were all under Muslim control, but were politically and, to some extent, culturally fragmented at the time of the First Crusade, which certainly contributed to the Crusade's success. Anatolia and Syria were controlled by the Sunni Seljuks, formerly in one large empire ("Great Seljuk") but by this point divided into many smaller states. Alp Arslan had defeated the Byzantine Empire at Manzikert in 1071 and incorporated much of Anatolia into Great Seljuk, but this empire was split apart by civil war after the death of Malik Shah I in 1092. In the Sultanate of R m in Anatolia, Malik Shah was succeeded by Kilij Arslan I and in Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095. Tutush's sons Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively, further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as towards Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul. These states were on the whole more concerned with consolidating their own territories and gaining control of their neighbours, than with cooperating against the crusaders.

Elsewhere in nominal Seljuk territory were the Ortoqids in northeastern Syria and northern Mesopotamia. They controlled Jerusalem until 1098. In eastern Anatolia and northern Syria was a state founded by Danishmend, a Seljuk mercenary the crusaders did not have significant contact with either group until after the Crusade. The Hashshashin were also becoming important in Syrian affairs.

Egypt and much of Palestine were controlled by the Arab Shi'ite Fatimids, whose empire was significantly smaller since the arrival of the Seljuks Alexius I had advised the crusaders to work with the Fatimids against their common Seljuk enemies. The Fatimids, at this time ruled by caliph al-Musta'li (although all actual power was held by the vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah), had lost Jerusalem to the Seljuks in 1076, but recaptured it from the Ortoqids in 1098 while the crusaders were on the march. The Fatimids did not, at first, consider the crusaders a threat, assuming they had been sent by the Byzantines and that they would be content with recapturing Syria, leaving Palestine alone they did not send an army against the crusaders until they were already at Jerusalem.


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