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Seël van John Balliol

Seël van John Balliol


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Seël van John Balliol - Geskiedenis

Balliol College -argiewe en manuskripte

'N Kort geskiedenis van Balliol College

Oorsprong

Die vroeë geskiedenis van die antieke Universiteit van Oxford is gehul in onsekerheid. Dit het ongeveer agthonderd jaar gelede ontstaan, maar in die beginjare het dit nie organisasie en fasiliteite gehad nie. Studente moes in klein groepies hulself regkry, gebaseer op herberge en losies. Dit is uit hierdie klein groepies dat die moderne universiteit, bestaande uit 'n vereniging van outonome kolleges, ontwikkel het.

Stigters

John Balliol, een van koning Henry III van Engeland se mees lojale here tydens die Baronsoorlog van 1258-1265, was getroud met 'n Skotse prinses, Dervorguilla van Galloway. Hulle seun, ook genoem John Balliol, was koning van Skotte 1292-1296. Hy was 'n welgestelde man met uitgebreide boedels in Engeland en Frankryk waar sy familie sy wortels gehad het en sy naam gekry het van Bailleul-en-Vimeu in Picardie. Omstreeks 1260 besluit hy, met leiding van die biskop van Durham, om 'n wesenlike liefdadigheidshandeling uit te voer. Dit het hy gedoen deur 'n huis in die voorstede van Oxford te huur, en 'n paar arm studente daarin te onderhou.

Die stigtingsdatum van die kollege wat hieruit gegroei het, word tradisioneel as 1263 gereken. Daar is eintlik geen bewyse vir so 'n presisie nie, maar ons weet wel dat die klein samelewing wat John Balliol begin het, teen Junie 1266 bestaan ​​het, toe die afhanklikheid daarvan van hom genoem word in 'n koninklike geskrif. Wat ook al die presiese datum, as die ouderdom van 'n kollege bereken moet word vanaf die datum waarop sy lede die eerste keer gemeenskaplik gewoon het waar hulle vandag woon, dan is Balliol die oudste kollege aan die universiteit.

Toe John Balliol in 1269 sterf, het sy weduwee Dervorguilla sy reëlings permanent getref, en sy word vereer as mede-stigter saam met hom. Sy het 'n kapitaalgeld gegee, statute (1282) geformuleer en die kollege sy eerste seël gegee, wat dit nog het.

U kan die digitale faksimilee van die kollege se middeleeuse stigtingsdokumente hier sien.

Middeleeuse Balliol

Daar was eers sestien studente wat elk 'n toelaag van agt sent per week ontvang het. Die kollege het die eerste tweehonderd -en -vyftig jaar van sy geskiedenis klein gebly, maar het in daardie tyd verskeie noemenswaardige alumni gehad, waaronder John Wyclif, die vertaler van die Bybel, wat ongeveer 1360 jaar lank meester was. William Gray, die bibliofiele biskop van Ely was ook 'n lid: tydens sy Europese reise in die middel van die vyftiende eeu het hy 'n aansienlike versameling manuskripboeke versamel wat hy aan die kollege gegee of nagelaat het, en wat die kollege nog steeds skat: in Engeland.

Die Reformasie

Gedurende die onrus van die sestiende eeu was die kollege standvastig in sy trou aan Rome. Dit probeer weerstaan ​​toe Henry VIII in 1534 sy eis stel om erkenning te gee aan sy oppergesag teenoor die pous, terwyl die meester en vyf genote hul voorlegging onderteken en verseël slegs nadat hulle bygevoeg het dat hulle niks bedoel het om die goddelike wet, die heerskappy van die ortodokse, te benadeel nie. geloof, of die leer van die Heilige Moeder Katolieke Kerk '. Alle ander bekende voorleggings is sonder enige kwalifikasie ingedien. Strepe van die katolisisme het sterk gebly in die Balliol -genootskap tot ver in die bewind van Elizabeth I: Saint Alexander Briant was lid. Hy is in 1581 in Tyburn tereggestel.

Die Burgeroorlog

Balliol het welvarend geword in die tydperk 1585-1635, waartydens Laurence Kemis (een van sir Walter Raleigh se kapteins), John Evelyn die dagboekskrywer en Nathanael Konopios, wat veronderstel was om koffiedrink aan Engeland bekend te stel, lid was.

Die Burgeroorlog het egter 'n skielike afname in studentegetalle en gevolglike vermindering in inkomste veroorsaak. Om die saak te vererger, was die kollege gedwing om die leër van die koning te ondersteun en moes hy nie net die meeste van sy gereed kontant (& pond210) nie, maar ook al sy binnelandse silwer (ter waarde van £ 334) in 1642-3 'leen'. Geen terugbetaling van hierdie skuld nie - die Kollege het nog dokumentêre bewyse daarvan - is nog nooit aangebied nie. Die finansies van die kollege was teen 1665 in 'n baie swak toestand. Die kas was leeg, toegang was wisselvallig en die verlies aan huurgeld uit die Londense eiendom ná die groot brand van 1666 was byna die laaste strooi. 'N Genootskap is onderdruk - in moderne jargon is 'n pos gevries' - maar hierdie ekonomie was nie genoeg nie, en in 1670 is 'n beroep ingestel. Dit was gedeeltelik suksesvol, maar die kollege was eers weer finansieel veilig aan die einde van die meesterskap van Roger Mander (1687-1704).

18de eeu

Die poort waarvoor die agtiende-eeuse Oxford berug is, het begin intree kort nadat Theophilus Leigh in 1726 tot meester verkies is. Sy belangrikste kwalifikasie vir die pos, wat hy vir bykans sestig jaar beklee het, was dat hy die neef van die besoeker was. Sy verkiesing was 'n bisarre en skandalig gevoerde aangeleentheid, insluitend lekkernye soos 'n poging om die houer van 'n kritiese stemming kranksinnig te laat verklaar.

Dit is 'n eienaardige paradoks dat Balliol een van sy grootste seuns in Leigh se bewind gevoed het. Adam Smith, van Die Rykdom van Nasies roem, woon as 'n uitstaller ondersteun deur die voordeel van John Snell 1740-1746.

Vroeë 19de eeu: hervorming

Onder Leigh het die kollege nogmaals ernstig in die skuld beland, ter waarde van meer as & pond2000 teen 1780. Maar finansiële redding het gekom in die vorm van 'n verhoogde inkomste uit ou boedels in Northumberland, wat blykbaar bo-op steenkool geleë was. nate en die akademiese siel van die kollege is gered deur die verkiesing van John Parsons tot meester in 1798. Parsons was 'n akademiese dissipline wat die lot van die kollege omgedraai het deur daarop aan te dring dat genootskappe toegeken moet word na 'n oop kompetisie, en in 1827 sy ewe ywerige opvolger Richard Jenkyns het dieselfde beginsel uitgebrei tot Beurse.

Dit het vinnig gelei tot 'n gereelde opvolging van die slimste jong mans in die land wat as geleerdes na Balliol gekom het. Onder die vroegste verkiesings was AC Tait ('n ander Snell -uitstaller) en Benjamin Jowett, wat albei Balliol -genootskappe gewen het en toonaangewende tutors geword het. Jowett sou later meester word, Tait aartsbiskop van Canterbury. Sukses wat sukses behaal, lok sukses en bevorder groei, sodat Balliol binne 'n paar jaar die Universiteit oorheers het.

Laat 19de eeu: Benjamin Jowett

Onder Jowett, meester 1870-1893, maar effektiewe leier van baie vroeër, is akademiese briljantheid aangemoedig, maar oorspronklikheid ook, en daar is baie klem gelê op karakter, leierskap, plig en openbare diens. Die streng benadering van die vorige generasie is verslap, en meer informele intieme verhoudings tussen onderwysers en geleerdes - byvoorbeeld by vakansie -leespartytjies - het 'n belangrike komponent van die Balliol -etos geword.

Verskeie genote, soos Jowett, was prominent in die debatte van 1850-1870 oor universiteitshervorming, wat die kollege self in verskeie opsigte verwag het. Sommige (veral T. H. Green) was ook effens later aan die voorpunt in die veldtog om hoër onderwys en grade aan vroue beskikbaar te stel. Dames is toegelaat om vanaf 1884 kollege -klasse by te woon, mits hulle deur 'n ouer persoon bygewoon is.

Die laat Victoriaanse tydperk het ook 'n kosmopolitiese tradisie tot stand gebring. Van besondere belang is die bywoning van verskeie gebore Japanners, in 'n tyd toe die kontak tussen Japan en die Verenigde Koninkryk min was, wat in 1873 begin met Tomotsune Iwakura, seun van Tomome Iwakura, hoofraadslid. Die kollege is steeds internasionaal (ongeveer veertig nasionaliteite word in sy huidige lidmaatskap verteenwoordig) en het 'n hoë profiel aan die Universiteit van Oxford.

Op die hoogtepunt van die Britse Ryk was Balliol-mans sy leiers: drie opeenvolgende Viceroys of India 1888-1905, byvoorbeeld. En dit is miskien gepas dat die likwidasie van die Britse Ryk onder toesig was van 'n Balliol-man (Rt Hon Christopher Patten, laaste goewerneur van Hong Kong).

Vroeë 20ste eeu

AL Smith en AD Lindsay was opeenvolgende meesters 1916-1924 en 1924-1949. Albei was ondersteuners van volwasse onderwys in die werkersklas, en Balliol het 'n gereelde plek geword vir somerskole in vakansies. Vorige tradisies is in die kollege self voortgesit, en die akademiese prestasie bereik 'n hoogtepunt in 1928, toe meer as 40 persent van die kandidate van die kollege in die finale eerskole eerste was, maar daar was baie veranderinge. Daar was 'n groot behoefte om meer huisvesting te bied, maar die kollege -terrein was reeds volledig opgebou en is heeltemal ingesluit deur ander kolleges en paaie. Die enigste ekstra kamers wat in die twintigerjare gebou kon word, moes bo -op bestaande trappe sit. Dit is gedoen met die hulp van 'n destyds onbekende voorgraadse weldoener, waarvan bekend is dat hy wyle Coola was. Hy was daarna 'n groot weldoener op ander maniere, veral deur sy Pathfinder -plan, wat meer as tweehonderd studente van die kollege in staat gestel het om 'n lang vakansie in die Verenigde State deur te bring.

Holywell Manor

Die mees ingrypende ontwikkeling tussen die twee Wêreldoorloë was die verkryging en uitbreiding van Holywell Manor vir gebruik as 'n residensiële bylae. Die nodige fondse vir die oorspronklike uitbreiding, en ook vir die Martin- en Dellal -geboue, wat in die sestiger- en tagtigerjare by die Holywell -kompleks gevoeg is, is almal ingesamel deur baie suksesvolle appèlle. 'The Manor' het ontwikkel tot 'n nagraadse instelling met 'n lewendige karakter, terwyl dit 'n integrale deel van die kollege is. Die toename in die getal en proporsie van gegradueerde toelatings (wat tans ongeveer 'n derde van alle toelatings het) is 'n fundamentele verandering wat slegs deur die toelating van vroue gelykgestel word.

Vroue

Balliol was in 1973 die eerste van die tradisionele manlike kolleges wat 'n vrou as 'n genoot en dosent gekies het, en die kollege het vroue sedert 1979 as studente toegelaat: een van hulle, Masako Owada (Balliol 1988-90, woonagtig in Holywell Manor 1988-9), was in Junie 1993 getroud met HIH The Crown Prince of Japan.

Verskeie lyste van vooraanstaande gegradueerdes is hier beskikbaar.

Die name van die belangrikste weldoeners van die kollege word in sy gebedsgebed opgesom.

Sien A Balliol Gazetteer vir aantekeninge oor plekke met Balliol -verbindings.

'N Faksimilee van die eerste geskrewe geskiedenis van die kollege, Henry Savage's Balliofergus van 1668, is aanlyn beskikbaar via EEBO (Early English Books Online). Dit is 'n intekeningdiens, beskikbaar via die meeste akademiese biblioteekrekeningstelsels.

Ander geskiedenis van Balliol College:

Vir die mees onlangse geskiedenis van die kollege, sien J. Jones, Balliol College: 'n Geskiedenis, Oxford University Press, 2de uitgawe 1997. 'n Hersiene 2de uitgawe verskyn in 2005, waaroor verdere inligting en 'n bestelvorm vir lede en vriende van die kollege beskikbaar is. Die aanhangsel G bevat bronne van inligting oor die kollege, sy lede uit die verlede, sy boedels en sy skatte (soos die portretversameling).

U hoef nie toestemming te vra om een ​​kopie van die beelde op hierdie bladsye af te laai of af te druk vir u persoonlike privaatstudie of navorsingsdoeleindes nie.
U moet skriftelik toestemming vra om enige van hierdie beelde te gebruik vir enige publikasie in enige formaat, insluitend enige gebruik op 'n webwerf.


Seël van John Balliol - Geskiedenis

BALIOL, JOHN, koning van Skotland, was die seun van John de Baliol, van Bernard ’s Castle in die graafskap Durham, 'n man met groot weelde, besit van dertig ridders en#8217 fooie (gelykstaande aan 12.000 moderne geld ,) en wat 'n vaste aanhanger van Henry III. was, in al sy burgeroorloë. Die moeder van Baliol was Devorgilla, een van die drie dogters en mede-erfgename van Allan, Lord of Galloway, deur Margaret, oudste dogter van David, graaf van Huntingdon, broer van Malcolm IV. en Willem die Leeu, konings van Skotland. Die eerste van die Engelse familie van Baliol was 'n Normandiese edelman, eienaar van die herehuise van Baliol, Harcourt, Dampat en Horne in Frankryk, en wat saam met die Veroweraar 'n seun, Guy, wat William Rufus aangestel het, agtergelaat het. Heer van die woud van Teesdale en Marwood, en gee hom terselfdertyd die lande Middleton en Guiseford in Northumberland. Guy was die vader van Bernard, wat die sterk kasteel op die Tees gebou het, wat van hom gebel is Bernard se kasteel. Eustace, die seun van hierdie adellike, was die vader van Hugh, die vader van John de Baliol, [John de Baliol het hom onderskei in die Engelse literatuurgeskiedenis, deur een van die kolleges van Oxford te stig, wat nog steeds sy naam dra. Aangesien hierdie instelling op meer as een manier met Skotland verbind is, kan die volgende verslag oor die stigting daarvan, uit Chalmers ’ History of Oxford, met belangstelling gelees word. Die rykdom en politieke gevolge van John de Baliol was waardig deur 'n liefde vir leer en 'n welwillendheid van gesindheid, wat hom ongeveer 1263 (of 1268, soos Wood meen,) aangespoor het om sekere arme geleerdes van Oxford in getal te handhaaf sestien, deur uitstallings, miskien met die oog op 'n meer permanente onderneming, wanneer hy die vrye tyd sou hê om 'n plan daarvoor te ontwikkel. By sy dood, in 1269, wat uit hierdie omstandigheid skielik blyk te wees, kon hy slegs die voorwerpe van sy oorvloed aan sy dame en sy eksekuteurs aanbeveel, maar het geen skriftelike akte of gesag nagelaat nie; en soos wat hy vroeër gegee het, was van sy persoonlike boedel, nou in ander hande, sou die verdere sorg van sy geleerdes na alle waarskynlikheid opgehou het, as sy dame nie oortuig was om sy voorneme op die eerbaarste manier te vervul deur die toekomstige instandhouding daarvan te aanvaar nie. * * * * Die eerste stap wat Lady Devorgilla geneem het om die geleerdes te versorg, was om 'n huis te hê in Horsemonger Lane, daarna Canditch (van Candida Fossa) in die St Mary Magdalene parochie, en op die plek waar die huidige kollege staan ​​en in sy ontwerp ondersteun word deur haar eksekuteurs van haar man, het die voorsiening voortgegaan wat hy toegeken het. In 1282 gee sy hulle statute onder haar seël en stel Hugh de Hartipoll en William de Menyle aan as prokureurs of goewerneurs van haar geleerdes. * * * * In 1284 het Lady Devorgilla 'n huurhuis van 'n burger van Oxford, Mary ’s Hall, gekoop as 'n ewige skikking vir die skoolhoof en geleerdes van die House of Baliol. Hierdie gebou, na die nodige herstelwerk en aanbouings, is New Baliol Hall genoem, en hul vorige woning het toe die naam Old Baliol Hall begin ontvang. Dieselfde jaar het sy sekere lande in die graafskap Northumberland oorbetaal, waarvan die grootste deel daarna verlore gegaan het. Die stigting is egter omstreeks hierdie tyd bevestig deur Oliver, biskop van Lincoln, en deur die seun van die stigter, wat daarna koning van Skotland was, en wie se toestemming hom in hierdie aangeleentheid aanspraak maak op die verering van die samelewing. * * * * Die inkomste van die kollege was aanvanklik klein en het slegs agt sent gekry per week aan elke geleerde, of sewe en twintig pond nege sjielings en vierpenne vir die geheel Jaarliks, wat gou onvoldoende gevind is. 'N Aantal weldoeners het egter die doel van die stigter bevorder deur die onderneming te verryk met geskenke van grond, geld en kerklike lewens. & Quot

Mnr Chalmers noem ook dat in 1340 'n nuwe stel statute vir die kollege onder meer die bevestigende seëls ontvang het van Edward Baliol, koning van Skotland, naamlik die kleinseun van die stigter. Die seël wat Devorgilla aan die oorspronklike statute geheg het, bevat 'n portret van haar. Sy sterf in 1289.] die vader van die koning van Skotland.

Die omstandighede wat gelei het tot die verskyning van John Baliol in die Skotse geskiedenis, kan dus kortliks vertel word. By die dood van Alexander die derde, het die kroon van Skotland op die Maagd van Noorweë, Margaret, die enigste kind van Alexander se dogter, wyle koningin van Noorweë, toegewy. Aangesien sy slegs drie jaar oud was en in vreemde dele woon, het die konvensie van boedels tydens haar afwesigheid of minderheid die keuse van ses edeles gemaak om regente van die koninkryk te wees, maar spoedig ontstaan ​​daar onenigheid tussen hulle, Eric, die koning van Noorweë, en het gevolmagtigdes gestuur om met Edward koning van Engeland te behandel oor die aangeleenthede van die babakoningin en haar koninkryk. Edward het reeds 'n plan gevorm om Engeland en Skotland te verenig deur die huwelik van sy oudste seun met Margaret, en gevolglik stuur hy 'n ambassade op 18 Julie 1290 na konferensies in Salisbury, met volle mag om hierdie geprojekteerde alliansie te behandel. Die standpunte van Edward word vrolik deur die parlement van Skotland gehuldig: 'n verdrag is eerbiedig opgestel vir beide partye, waarin 'n mens kan waak teen enige gevaar wat uit so 'n streng alliansie met so 'n kragtige en ambisieuse buurman kan ontstaan ​​en die vryheid en Die onafhanklikheid van Skotland is ten volle erken en verseker, en kommissarisse is na Noorweë gestuur om die jong koningin in haar heerskappy te lei. Maar hierdie eerlike hoop op blywende vrede en eenheid is dadelik omvergewerp deur die dood van die prinses tydens haar uittrede na Brittanje en die kroon van Skotland het 'n twispunt geword tussen verskillende mededingers, waarvan die hoof John Baliol, heer van Galloway, was. , Robert Bruce, heer van Annandale, en John Hastings, heer van Abergavenny. Om die gronde van hul verskillende bewerings te verstaan, is dit nodig om hul geslagsregister kortliks op te spoor.

By die dood van die Maagd van Noorweë, Alexander se kleinkind, het die kroon van Skotland afgestaan ​​op die nageslag van David, graaf van Huntington, jonger broer, soos reeds genoem, van die konings Malcolm en William. David het drie dogters, Margaret, Isabella en Ada, agtergelaat. Margaret, die oudste dogter, trou met Allan, die heer van Galloway, deur wie sy die enigste dogter gehad het, Devorgilla, getroud met John Baliol, deur wie sy John Baliol gehad het, die onderwerp van hierdie artikel, wat dus agterkleinseun was David Earl van Huntington, deur sy oudste dogter. Isabella, die tweede dogter van David, trou met Robert Bruce, by wie sy Robert Bruce, die mededinger, gehad het, wat deur sy tweede dogter kleinseun van die graaf van Huntington was. Ada, die jongste dogter van David, is getroud met John Hastings, deur wie sy John Hastings gehad het, wat dus 'n kleinseun was van David deur sy derde dogter. Hastings kon geen aanspraak op die kroon hê nie, terwyl die nageslag van die oudste dogters van David bestaan ​​het, maar hy dring daarop aan dat die koninkryk in drie dele verdeel moet word en dat hy een daarvan moet erf. Aangesien die koninkryk egter ondeelbaar verklaar is, is sy pretensies uitgesluit, en die moeilikheidsgraad van die vraag lê tussen die twee groot mededingers Baliol en Bruce, of dit nou die meer afgeleë was, afkomstig van die oudste dogter of die nader met een graad, afkomstig van die tweede dogter, die beter titel gehad?

Die verdeelde toestand van die nasionale gesindheid oor die opvolging bied 'n gunstige geleentheid aan die ambisieuse monarg van Engeland om 'n ontwerp uit te voer wat hy lankal gekoester het teen die onafhanklikheid van Skotland, deur die ongegronde aanspraak van die feodale superioriteit van Engeland daaroor te hernu. Daar word algemeen aangeneem dat hy deur die regente en die state van Skotland as arbiter gekies is in die kompetisie om die kroon, maar dit blyk dat sy inmenging slegs deur 'n paar Skotse adellikes aangevra is wat in sy eie belang was. Aangesien dit egter die oproep van die nasie is en 'n weermag versamel om sy ongeregtigheid te ondersteun, versoek hy die adel en geestelikes van Skotland en die mededingers om die kroon om hom te ontmoet in Norham in die Engelse gebiede. Daar, na baie beroepe van goeie wil en liefde vir Skotland, het hy 'n reg van Lord Paramount daaroor geëis en vereis dat hierdie reg onmiddellik erken moet word. Die Skotte was verbaas oor hierdie onverwagse eis, maar hulle kon heeltemal in sy mag voel en kon net tyd vra vir die oorweging van sy eis. 'N Ander vergadering is gehou en tydens die tussenpose gebruik hy elke metode om sy party in Skotland te versterk, en deur dreigemente en beloftes om soveel as moontlik sy superioriteit te erken. Sy doel is sterk versterk deur die wedersydse wantroue en jaloesie wat onder die Skotte bestaan ​​het, en die ambisie van die mededingers wat nou vermenigvuldig is met die aantal dertien, het waarskynlik die vraag laat verwar, en ander, miskien, veroorsaak deur ydelheid. Op die aangewese dag (2 Junie 129l) in 'n vlakte oorkant die kasteel van Norham, is die superioriteit van die Engelse kroon bo die kroon van Skotland ten volle erken deur al die mededingers vir laasgenoemde, sowel as deur baie baronne en Predate, en sodoende het Edward die doel gekry waarop sy hart lank was, deur 'n skandelike optrede vir homself, net soos diegene wat die regering en voogdyskap van Skotland in gedagte gehou het. Al die koninklike kastele en sterk plekke in die land is in sy hande gelê, onder die sekuriteit dat hy binne twee maande vanaf die datum van toekenning die volle terugbetaling moet doen, en met die oënskynlike rede dat hy 'n koninkryk kan hê die persoon aan wie dit geoordeel moet word. Nadat hy sy wens verkry het, het hy 'n paar stappe gedoen om die eis van die deelnemers te bepaal. Kommissarisse is aangestel om in Berwick te vergader en na verskeie beraadslaging is die kroon uiteindelik op 19 November 1292 aan John Baliol geoordeel, en die volgende dag sweer Baliol trou aan Edward in Norham.

Baliol is kort daarna op Scone gekroon, maar om sy afhanklikheid nie te vergeet nie, het Edward hom onmiddellik na sy kroning na Engeland teruggeroep en hom sy hulde en trou in Newcastle laat hernu. Hy was spoedig belaai met vars verontwaardigings. In die loop van 'n jaar het hy nie minder nie as ses aanhalings ontvang om voor Edward in die Engelse parlement te verskyn om privaat en onbelangrike klagtes te beantwoord wat deur sy onderdane teen hom verkies is. Alhoewel Baliol gelei is deur 'n verraderlike beleid en sy eie ambisie tot die mees vernederende toegewings, lyk dit asof Baliol nie gebrek aan gees was nie, of dat hy die grimmigheid wat hom opgelê is, sonder wrok ontvang het. In een van die oorsake voor die parlement van Engeland, gevra vir sy verdediging — & quot; ek is die koning van Skotland, & quot het hy gesê, & quot ek durf nie antwoord nie hier sonder die advies van my volk. nie durf of sal op hierdie plek antwoord nie, sonder die advies van my mense. & quot Edward versoek dat hy 'n vertraging vra vir die oorweging van die vraag, maar Baliol, in die besef dat sy handeling dit sou uitmaak in 'n erkenning van die jurisdiksie van die Engelse parlement geweier.

Intussen, toe 'n oorlog tussen Frankryk en Engeland uitbreek, het Baliol dit aangegryp as 'n gunstige geleentheid om 'n juk wat ondraaglik geraak het, weg te sny. Hy onderteken 'n verdrag met Philip, die Franse koning, op 23 Oktober 1295, waardeur ooreengekom is om mekaar by te staan ​​teen hul gemeenskaplike vyand, die koning van Engeland, en geen afsonderlike vrede te sluit nie. Terselfdertyd verloën Baliol plegtig sy trou aan Edward en ontvang hy van die pous 'n afwyking van die eed van trou wat hy gesweer het. Die rede vir sy afstanddoening was dat Edward onopsetlik en op geringe voorstelle hom na sy howe ontbied het dat hy sy Engelse boedels, sy goed en die goed van sy onderdane in beslag geneem het, en dat hy met geweld weggevoer en nog steeds sekere behou het. inboorlinge van Skotland en dat hy, toe hy herbespeurings gemaak het, in plaas van regstelling, hierdie beserings voortdurend vererger het. Edward word gesê dat hy Baliol se verloëning met meer minagting as woede ontvang het. "Die dwase verraaier," het hy uitgeroep, en omdat hy nie na ons toe sal kom nie, sal ons na hom toe gaan. .

Terwyl Edward na Berwick gevorder het, het 'n klein leër Skotte in Northumberland en Cumberland ingebreek en die land geplunder. Die kasteel van Werk is ingeneem en duisend man, wat Edward gestuur het om dit te bewaar, in 'n hinderlaag geval, is gedood. 'N Engelse eskader, wat Berwick oor see geblokkeer het, is verslaan en sestien van hul skepe het gesink. Maar hierdie gedeeltelike suksesse is gevolg deur noodlottige verliese. Die koning van Engeland was 'n dapper en bekwame generaal. Hy het 'n magtige leër teen 'n swak en moedelose nasie gelei, onder leiding van 'n ongewilde prins, en afgelei deur party vyande. Sy uiteindelike sukses was dus so volledig as wat verwag kon word. Hy het die Tweed by Coldstream oorgesteek, Berwick geneem en al die garnisoen en inwoners aan die swaard gesteek. Die kasteel van Roxburgh is in sy hande gelewer en hy het Warenne Graaf van Surrey vorentoe gehaas om Dunbar te beleër. Warenne word daar ontmoet deur die Skotse leër, wat die voordeel van hul situasie laat vaar het, woelig op die Engelse neergeslaan en met vreeslike slagting afgeweer is. Na hierdie nederlaag het die kastele van Dunbar, Edinburgh en Stirling in Edward se hande geval, en hy was spoedig in besit van die hele suide van Skotland.

Baliol, wat agter die rivier Tay afgetree het, met die verpletterde oorblyfsels van sy leër, wanhoop om enige effektiewe weerstand te bied, het boodskappers gestuur om die genade van Edward te smeek. Die hoogmoedige Plantagenet het die harde voorwaardes meegedeel waarop hy alleen kon hoop op wat hy gevra het, naamlik 'n ongekwalifiseerde erkenning van sy 'onregverdige en goddelose opstand' en 'n onvoorwaardelike oorgawe van homself en sy koninkryk in die hande van sy meester. Baliol, wie se lewe 'n vreemde variëteit van grootmoedige pogings en vernederende selfvernedering bied, stem in tot hierdie toestande en die seremonie van sy agteruitgang het gevolglik op 2 Julie 1296 plaasgevind in die kerkhof van Stracathro, 'n dorpie naby Montrose. Onder leiding van geweld en uit vrees vir sy lewe, in die teenwoordigheid van die biskop van Durham en die Engelse adellikes, gemonteer op 'n treurige perd, het hy die eerste bevel gekry om af te klim en sy verraad verkondig, en hulle het hom van sy koninklike ornamente ontneem . Die kroon is uit sy kop geruk, die hermelien wat uit sy mantel geskeur is, die septer uit sy hand en elke ding wat van hom verwyder is, behoort aan die staat en waardigheid van 'n koning. Net geklee in sy hemp en laaie en met 'n wit stok in sy hand, volgens die manier van boetes, het hy erken dat hy deur boosheid en valse raad en deur sy eie eenvoud sy leërheer ernstig beledig het, al die laat transaksies en erken dat hy sy koninkryk beroof is. Daarna vrygestel hy sy volk van hul trou en teken 'n akte waarin sy soewereiniteit oor hulle in die hande van koning Edward bedank, en gee sy oudste seun as gyselaar vir sy trou.

Die erkenning van 'n Engelse uitnemendheid was te alle tye so onaangenaam vir die Skotse volk, en die omstandighede van hierdie verloëning van die koninkryk is so uiters vernederend vir die nasionale trots, dat John Baliol sedertdien in haat en minagting gehou is en het skaars 'n plek in die gewone rolle van die Skotse vorste toegelaat. Daar moet egter in sy verweer gesê word dat sy eerste erkenning van die belangrikste nie meer was as wat sy mededinger Bruce en die grootste deel van die edeles van die koninkryk ook skuldig was nie, terwyl hy beslis geregtig is op krediet vir sy pogings om die juk af te skud, hoe ontoereikend hy ook al was om dit te doen, of watter ongeluk hy ook al beleef het in die poging. Ten spyte van enkele onomwonde omstandighede in sy daaropvolgende geskiedenis, moet hy in sy afsetting slegs as die slagoffer van 'n oorweldigende mag beskou word.

Die geskiedenis van John Baliol na sy afsetting word in die algemeen nie baie minagtend behandel deur die Skotse historici nie, wat almal blykbaar soveel as moontlik hul oë wou toemaak vir die hele bedanking en probeer vergeet dat die die belangrikste persoon daarin was ooit koning van Skotland. Hierdie geskiedenis is egter nuuskierig. Die monarg en sy seun wat onmiddellik uitgespreek is, word onmiddellik saam met die steen van Scone, die verslae van die koninkryk en alle ander gedenktekens van die nasionale onafhanklikheid na Londen oorgedra, waar die twee ongelukkige vorste toegewyd was aan 'n soort eerbare ballingskap in die toring . Alhoewel die land deur die Engelse weermag verminder is, het verskeie opstande wat in die daaropvolgende jaar uitgebreek het, getoon dat die harte van die mense nog nie ingetoë was nie. Hierdie opstandelinge het altyd in die naam van die afgesette koning John opgestaan ​​en 'n besluit afgelê om hulle aan geen ander gesag te onderwerp nie. Dit is ook die moeite werd om op te let, as 'n omstandigheid wat gunstig is vir die aansprake en karakter van Baliol, dat hy steeds erken word deur die pous, die koning van Frankryk en ander kontinentale prinse. Toe Wallace opstaan ​​om al die ontevrede geeste van die koninkryk te verenig in 'n groot poging teen die Engelse juk, verklaar hy homself as slegs die goewerneur van die koninkryk in die naam van koning John, en daar bestaan ​​nog 'n handves waarop die held aangeheg is die seël van Baliol, wat per toeval blykbaar in sy hande geval het. Die roemryke ridder van Elderslie erken gedurende sy hele loopbaan geen ander soewerein as Baliol nie en, wat miskien meer merkwaardig is, die vader van Robert Bruce, wat vroeër 'n superieure titel aan die kroon toegeken het, en wie se seun daarna die Die Baliol -dinastie verskyn in die wapen teen Edward ten gunste van koning John en sluit in sy naam verskeie wapenstilstand met die Engelse offisiere. Daar bestaan ​​'n akte wat op 13 November 1299 uitgevoer is deur William, biskop van St Andrews, Robert Bruce, graaf van Carrick, en John Comyn die jonger, en hulself as voogde van die koninkryk Skotland stel waarin hulle koning Edward versoek 'n staking van vyandelikhede, om, soos hulle hulself daarna uitdruk, as vreedsame onderdane onder hulle soewereine koning John te lewe.

Daar is egter geen rede om te veronderstel dat hierdie verrigtinge in ooreenstemming was met enige geheime instruksies van Baliol, wat, indien hy nie bly was om van sy ongemaklike soewereiniteit te ontslae te raak nie, ten tyde van die bedanking daarvan blyk te wees dat hy dit ten minste agterna gehad het geen wens vir die herstel daarvan nie. 'N Aantal tyd voordat sy opstandige verteenwoordigers namens hom die bogenoemde verklaring afgelê het, vind hy 'n daad van die volgende tenoor: & quotIn die naam van God, Amen. In the year 1298, on the 1st of April, in the house of the reverend father, Anthony, Bishop of Durham, without London. The said Bishop discoursing of the state and condition of the kingdom of Scotland, and of the inhabitants of the said kingdom, before the noble lord John Baliol the said John, of his own proper motion, in the presence of us, the Notary, and the subscribing witnesses, amongst other things, said and delivered in the French tongue to this effect, that is to say, that while he, the said realm of Scotland, as King and Lord thereof, held and governed, he had found in the people of the said kingdom so much malice, fraud, treason, and deceit, that, for their malignity, wickedness, treachery, and other detestable facts, and for that, as he had thoroughly understood, they had, while their prince, contrived to poison him, it was his intention never to go or enter into the said kingdom of Scotland for the future, or with the said kingdom or its concerns, either by himself or others, to intermeddle, nor for the reasons aforesaid, and many others, to have any thing to do with the Scots. At the same time, the said John desired the said Bishop of Durham, that he would acquaint the most magnificent prince, and his Lord, Edward, the most illustrious king of England, with his intention, will, and firm resolution in this respect. This act was signed and sealed by the public notary, in the presence of the Bishop of Durham aforesaid, and of Ralph de Sandwich, constable of the Tower of London, and others, who heard this discourse." [Prynne’s Collections, iii. 665.]


Seal of John Balliol - History

BALIOL, or BALLIOL , the name of a Norman baron, whose descendant was declared king of Scotland in 1292. He was possessor of Balleul, Harcourt, and other manors in Normandy, from the former of which he derived his name. His son, Guy de Baliol, came over to England with the Conqueror s son, William Rufus, who appointed him lord of the forest of Teesdale and Marwood, and bestowed on him the lands of Middleton and Biwell in Northumberland. He had also lands in Yorkshire. His son, Bernard de Baliol, built the strong castle on the Tees, in the county of Durham, called Bernard Castle, and was forced by David the First of Scotland, in 1135, to swear fidelity to Matilda. Previous to the battle of the Standard, in 1138, the English sent Robert de Bruce and Bernard de Baliol to the Scottish army under David the First, to endeavour to procure peace, but the proposal was rejected with disdain, when Bruce renounced the homage which he had performed to David for a barony in Galloway, and Baliol also gave up the fealty, sworn to Matilda three years before. Adhering to the fortunes of King Stephen, Baliol was taken prisoner at the battle of Lincoln, with that monarch, 2d February 1141. On the incursion into Northumberland of the Scots in 1174, he was among the Yorkshire barons who, with Robert de Stutteville, hastened to the relief of Alnwick castle, then besieged by the Scottish king. During their hurried march a dense fog arose, and the more cautious advised a retreat, when Baliol exclaimed, "You may retreat, but Ek will go forward alone, and preserve my honour." In consequence they all advanced, and the returning light enabled them to descry the battlements of Alnwick castle. William, the Scottish king, was then in the fields with a slender train of sixty horsemen. At the head of these, however, he instantly charged the new comers, whose force was much larger. Being overpowered, and unhorsed, he was made prisoner by Baliol, and sent first to the castle of Richmond and afterwards to Falaise in Normandy. (Hailes Annals, vol. ek. bl. 115.) This feudal chief married Agnes de Pinkeny. His son, Eustace de Baliol, was the father of Hugh de Baliol, who, in 1216, was joined with Philip de Hulcotes in defence of the northern borders, and when Alexander the Second of Scotland had subdued the whole of Northumberland, these two barons held out stoutly all the fortresses upon the line of the Tees, particularly that of Bernard castle, the seat of the Baliol family, which was assaulted by Alexander, and before which Eustace de Vesci, the husband of his illegitimate sister, Margaret, was slain. Hugh de Baliol s eldest son, John de Baliol, was one of the magnates of Henry the Third of England, whose cause he strenuously supported in his struggles with his barons. He was possessed of great wealth, having thirty knights fees, equal to twelve thousand pounds of modern money. He married Devorgilla, one of the three daughters and co - heiresses of Allan, lord of Galloway, by Margaret, eldest daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, and in right of his wife he had large possessions in Scotland, and was one of the Regents during the minority of Alexander III. In 1263 he laid the foundation of one of the colleges at Oxford, which was completed by his widow, and still bears his name. He died in 1268. His son, John de Baliol, became temporary king of Scotland, by the award of Edward the First. Of this John de Baliol a notice is given below.

Alexander de Baliol, the brother of John, king of Scots, being in the retinue of Antony Beck, the celebrated bishop of Durham, in the expedition of Edward the First to Flanders, was restored to all his bother s lands in Scotland in 1297, and on 26th September 1300, he was summoned by writ to parliament till the 3d November 1306, under the title of Baron Baliol. He married Isabell, daughter and heiress of Richard de Chilham, and widow of David de Strathbogie, earl of Athol, by whom he obtained for life the castle and manor of Chilliam in the county of Kent. Dying without issue, the barony of Baliol in consequence became extinct.

There were several collateral branches of the name of Baliol in Scotland, whose names appear as donors and witnesses in the cloister registers. In the Ragman Roll, also, four or five of them are mentioned. One of these, Alexander de Balliolo, Camerarius Scotiae, was baron of Cavers in Teviotdale. As chamberlain of Scotland he has a place in the Lives of the Officers of State, (page 266.) The name of Baliol is supposed, (Nesbit's Heraldry, vol. ek. bl. 178,) to have been changed to Baillie (see BAILLIE), having become odious in Scotland.

BALIOL, JOHN, some time king of Scotland, -was the son of John de Baliol of Bernard castle, county of Durham, the founder of Baliol college, Oxford, as already stated, by his wife, the Lady Devorgilla, granddaughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, and is supposed to have been born about 1260. On the death, in 1290, of Margaret the "Maiden of Norway," granddaughter of Alexander the Third, no less than thirteen competitors came forward for the vacant throne of Scotland. Of these, John de Baliol and Robert de Bruce, lord of Annandale, were the principal. Baliol claimed as being great-grandson to the earl of Huntingdon, younger brother of William the Lion, by his eldest daughter, Margaret and Bruce as grandson by his second daughter, Isabella that is, the former as direct heir, and as nearest of right, and the latter as nearest in blood and degree. According to the rules of succession which are now established, the right of Baliol was preferable but the protest and appeal of the seven earls of Scotland to Edward, brought to light by Sir Francis Palgrave, shows that in that age the order of succession was not ascertained with precision, and that the prejudices of the people and even the ancient laws of the kingdom favoured the claims of Bruce, and to this circumstance the unhappy results which followed may in a great measure be attributed. The competitors agreed to refer their claims to the arbitration of Edward the First of England, who straightway asserted and extended his claim of feudal superiority to an extent never attempted by any of his predecessors. He met the Scottish nobility and clergy at Norham on the 10th May, 1291, and required them to recognise his title as lord paramount. At their request he granted them a term of three weeks in order that they might consult together, at which period he required them to return a definitive answer. In the meantime he had commanded his barons to assemble at Norham with all their forces, on the 3d June. On the 2d he gave audience to the Scots in an open field, near Upsettlington, on the north bank of the Tweed, opposite to the castle of Norham, and within the territory of Scotland. At this assembly eight of the competitors for the crown were present, who all acknowledged Edward as lord paramount of Scotland, and agreed to abide by his decision. Bruce was among them, but Baliol was absent. The next day Baliol appeared, and on being asked by the chancellor of England whether he was willing to make answer as the others had done, after an affected pause, he pronounced his assent.

Edward, going beyond his mere claim as overlord or superior of Scotland, now brought forward a right of property in the kingdom, and demanded to be put in possession of it, on the specious pretext that he might deliver it to him to whom the crown was found justly to belong. Even this strange demand was acceded to, all the competitors agreeing that sasine of the kingdom and its fortresses should be given to Edward. On the 11th, therefore, the regents of Scotland made a solemn surrender of the kingdom into Edward s hands, and the keepers of castles surrendered their castles. The only demur was on the part of Gilbert de Umfraville, earl of Angus, who would not give up the castles of Dundee and Forfar, without a bond of indemnification. (See ante, page 127.) Edward immediately restored the custody of the kingdom to the regents, Fraser, bishop of St. Andrews, Wishart, bishop of Glasgow, John Comyn of Badenoch, and James, the steward of Scotland. The final hearing of the competition took place, on the 17th November 1292, in the hall of the castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed, when Edward confirmed the judgments of his commission and parliament by giving judgment in his favour. On the 19th the crown was formally declared to belong to him, and the next day he swore fealty for it to Edward at Norham. On the 30th of the same month, Baliol was crowned at Scone, and being immediately recalled to England, was compelled to renew his homage to Edward at Newcastle. In the course of a year, Baliol was four times summoned to appear before Edward in the parliament of England. Roused by the indignities heaped upon him while there, he ventured to remonstrate, and would consent to nothing which might be construed into an acknowledgment of the jurisdiction of the English parliament. Having, on the 23d October, 1295, concluded a treaty with Philip, king of France, Baliol, who at times was not without spirit, which, however, he wanted firmness to sustain, solemnly renounced his allegiance to Edward, and obtained the Pope s absolution from the oaths which he had taken. Edward received the intelligence of his renunciation with contempt rather than with anger. "The foolish traitor," said he to Baliol s messenger, "since he will not come to us, we will go to him." With a large army he immediately marched towards Scotland. In the meantime, a small party of Scots crossed the borders, and plundered Northumberland and Cumberland. They took the castle of Werk, and slew a thousand of the English. King Edward, on the other hand, having taken Berwick, put all the garrison and inhabitants to the sword. The Scots army were defeated at Dunbar, 28th April, 1296, and the castles of Dunbar, Edinburgh, and Stirling falling into Edward s hands, Baliol was obliged to retire beyond the river Tay. On July 10, 1296, in the churchyard of Stracathro, near Montrose, in presence of Anthony Beck, bishop of Durham and the English nobles, he surrendered his crown and sovereignty into the hands of the English monarch, and was divested of everything belonging to the state and dignity of a king. He was thereafter, with his son, sent to London, and imprisoned in the Tower, where he remained till July 20, 1299, when, on the intercession of the Pope, he and his son were delivered up to his legate. "Thus ended," says Lord Hailes, "the short and disastrous reign of John Baliol, an ill-fated prince, censured for doing homage to Edward, never applauded for asserting the national independency. Yet, in his original offence he had the example of Bruce at his revolt he saw the rival family combating under the banners of England. His attempt to shake off a foreign yoke speaks him of a high spirit, impatient of injuries. He erred in enterprising beyond his strength in the cause of liberty it was a meritorious error. He confided in the valour and unanimity of his subjects, and in the assistance of France. The efforts of his subjects were languid and discordant and France beheld his ruin with the indifference of an unconcerned spectator." Baliol retired to his estates in France, where he died in 1314. At left is a cast of the seal of John Baliol, while king of Scotland, from Anderson s Diplomata Scotiae.

During the subsequent contest in Scotland under Wallace, the assertors of the national independence maintained the rights of Baliol, and Wallace, so long as he held authority, acted as governor of the kingdom under him and in his name. To the unpopularity of the family and of Baliol s brother, who had taken part with Edward, may in part be attributed the partial support which the great patriot received in his struggle. For the rest of his life, John Baliol resided as a private man in France, without interfering in the affairs of Scotland. Some writers say that he lived till he was blind, which must have been the effect of some disease and not of old age, as he could not have been, at the time of his death, above fifty-five years old at the utmost. He married Isabel, daughter of John de Warren, earl of Surrey. The Scots affixed the contemptuous epithet of Toom Tabard (empty jacket) to Baliol, their temporary king. Dalrymple s Annals of Scotland, vol. ek.

BALIOL, EDWARD, eldest son of the preceding, succeeded, on the death of his father, to his estates in France, where he resided in a private manner for several years. In 1824 he was invited over by Edward the Second of England, to be brought forward as a rival to Robert the Bruce, and in 1327, at the request of Edward the Third, he again visited England with the same object. His first active appearance on the scene was on the following occasion: Some of the Anglo-Norman barons possessed estates in Scotland, which were forfeited during the war with England. By the treaty of Northampton in 1328, whereby the independence of Scotland was secured, their estates in that country were restored to the English barons. Two of these, Thomas Lord Wake, and Henry de Beaumont, having in vain endeavoured to procure possession, joined Baliol, when, after the death of Bruce, he resolved to attempt the recovery of what he considered his birthright. In Caxton s Chronicle it is stated, that in 1331, having taken the part of an English servant of his who had killed a Frenchman, Baliol was himself imprisoned in France, and only released on the intercession of the Lord de Beaumont, who advised him to come over to England, and set up his claim to the Scottish crown. King Edward did not openly countenance the enterprise. With three hundred men at arms, and a few foot soldiers, Baliol and his adherents sailed from Ravenspur on the Humber, then a port of some importance, but overwhelmed by the sea some centuries since, and landing at Kinghorn, August 6, 1332, defeated the earl of Fife, who endeavoured to oppose them. The army of Baliol, increased to three thousand men, marched to Forteviot, near Perth, where they encamped with the river Earn in front. On the opposite bank lay the regent of the kingdom, the earl of Mar, with upwards of thirty thousand men, on Dupplin Moor. At midnight, the English force forded the Earn, and attacking the sleeping Scots, slew thirteen thousand of them, including the earls of Mar and Moray. Baliol then hastened to Perth, where he was unsuccessfully besieged by the earl of March, whose force he dispersed. On the 24th of September, 1332, Edward Baliol was crowned king at Scone. On the 10th of February 1333, he held a parliament at Edinburgh, consisting of what are known as the disinherited barons, with seven bishops, including both William of Dunkeld, and it is said Maurice of Dunblane, the abbot of Inchaffray, who there agreed to the humiliating conditions proposed by Edward the Third. His good fortune now forsook him. On the 16th December, within three months after, he was surprised in his encampment at Annan by the young earl of Moray, the second son of Randolph, the late regent, Archibald Douglas, brother of the good lord James, Simon Fraser, and others of the heroes of the old war of Scotland s independence, and his army being overpowered, and his brother Henry, with many of his chief adherents, slain, he escaped nearly naked and almost alone to England. Having on the 23d of November preceding sworn feudal service to the English monarch, the latter marched an army across the borders to his assistance, and the defeat of the Scots at Halidon Hill, July 19, 1333, again enabled Baliol to usurp for a brief space the nominal sovereignty of Scotland. At right is a cast of the seal of Edward Baliol from Anderson's Diplomata Scotiae.

He now renewed his homage to Edward III., and ceded to him the town and county of Berwick, with the counties of Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles, Dumfries, and the Lothians, in return for the aid he had rendered him. In 1334 he was again compelled to fly to England. In July 1335 he was restored by the arms of the English monarch. In 1338, being by the regent, Robert Stewart, closely pressed at Perth, where this restless intruder, supported by the English interest, held his nominal court, he again became a fugitive. After this he made several attempts to be re-established on the throne, but the nation never acknowledged him their allegiance being rendered to David the Second, infant son of Robert the Bruce. At last, worn out by constant fighting and disappointment, in 1356 he sold his claim to the sovereignty, and his family estates, to Edward the Third, for five thousand merks, and a yearly pension of two thousand pounds sterling, with which he retired into obscurity, and died childless at Doncaster in 1363. With him ended the line of Baliol. Tytlers s History of Scotland.


Geskiedenis

Balliol has existed as a community of scholars on its present Broad Street site without interruption since about 1263. By this token it claims to be the oldest college in Oxford, and in the English-speaking world.

In 1260 a dispute between John de Balliol and the Bishop of Durham erupted into violence and Henry III condemned Balliol’s behaviour. The Bishop had Balliol whipped, and imposed a penance on him of a substantial act of charity. This he did, by renting a property and creating a house of scholars, which was soon known by his name.

After John de Balliol’s death in 1269, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway, guaranteed the future of the ‘House of the Scholars of Balliol’ by establishing a permanent endowment and giving it Statutes in 1282 – so bringing into being Balliol College as we know it today. For more about the founders of the College, see this webpage on the founders of Balliol and their families. The College celebrated its 750th anniversary in 2013.

The College’s patron saint is St Catherine of Alexandria. The College arms, taken from the back of Dervorguilla’s seal, show a lion rampant for Galloway and an orle for Balliol.

You can read more about the College’s history by visiting Balliol College Archives and Manuscripts.


John and the Guardians rebel: 1294–1295

Between June 1294 and July 1295 it would appear that John was effectively sidelined by his own nobility. There is a considerable amount of debate about this among historians, but we can say with some certainty that the Council of 12 was appointed to help John in this crisis. Most of this Council hailed from the Comyn side, and few if any were loyal to the Bruce faction. Four bishops, four earls and four barons made up the council, and they are credited with sending envoys to the French court in July 1295 asking for an alliance against King Edward.

The alliance was eventually sealed on 23 February 1296 and ratified at Dunfermline by King John, the Comyn faction of nobles and many burgesses and bishops. Bruce and his faction were again absent.

Meanwhile Edward was unable to punish the Scots for their defiance until 1296. He was busy putting down a major rebellion in Wales led by Madog Llywelyn.


John Balliol

John Balliol [1] (c. 1249 – late 1314), known derisively as Toom Tabard (meaning "empty coat"), was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296. Little is known of his early life. After the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, Scotland entered an interregnum during which several competitors for the Crown of Scotland put forward claims. Balliol was chosen from among them as the new King of Scotland by a group of selected noblemen headed by King Edward I of England.

Edward used his influence over the process to subjugate Scotland and undermined Balliol's personal reign by treating Scotland as a vassal of England. Edward's influence in Scottish affairs tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a Council of Twelve to rule instead. This council signed a treaty with France known as the Auld Alliance.

In retaliation, Edward invaded Scotland, starting the Wars of Scottish Independence. After a Scottish defeat in 1296, Balliol abdicated and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Eventually, Balliol was sent to his estates in France and retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306. John Balliol's son Edward Balliol would later exert a claim to the Scottish throne against the Bruce claim during the minority of Robert's son David.


Abdication

In retaliation, Edward I invaded, commencing the Wars of Scottish Independence. The Scots were defeated at Dunbar and the English took Dunbar Castle on 27 April 1296. [ 6 ] John abdicated at Stracathro near Montrose on 10 July 1296. [ 6 ] Here the arms of Scotland were formally torn from John's surcoat, giving him the abiding name of "Toom Tabard" (empty coat). [7]

John was imprisoned in the Tower of London until allowed to go to France in July 1299. When his baggage was examined at Dover, the Royal Golden Crown and Seal of the Kingdom of Scotland, with many vessels of gold and silver, and a considerable sum of money, were found in his chests. Edward I ordered that the Crown should be offered to St. Thomas the Martyr and that the money should be returned to John for the expenses of his journey. But he kept the Seal himself. [ 8 ] John was released into the custody of Pope Boniface VIII on condition that he remain at a papal residence. He was released around the summer of 1301 and lived the rest of his life on his family's ancestral estates at Hélicourt, Picardy.

Over the next few years, there were several Scottish rebellions against Edward (for example, in 1297 under William Wallace and Andrew Moray). The rebels would use the name of "King John", on the grounds that his abdication had been under duress and therefore invalid. This claim came to look increasingly tenuous, as John's position under nominal house-arrest meant that he could not return to Scotland nor campaign for his release, despite the Scots' diplomatic attempts in Paris and Rome. After 1302, he made no further attempts to extend his personal support to the Scots. Effectively, Scotland was left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.


12. Don Shipley – BUD/S Class: 131

Besides the fact that falsely claiming to be a Navy SEAL is unethical, men like Don Shipley have made such acts of stolen valor particularly dangerous.

After serving 23 years in the Navy as a SEAL, Shipley has become an internet sensation due to his Youtube channel which features videos of Shipley and his wife, Dianne, confronting fake Navy SEALs.

Shipley calls his videos “Phony Navy SEAL of the week” and, as the name implies, there are more than enough imposters out there to keep the Shipleys busy.

While the FBI estimates that for every living SEAL there are 300 men claiming to be SEALs, Shipley, based on his personal interactions with hundreds of these fakers, estimates that number as significantly low.

Instead, he estimates in somewhere in the realm of 1,000 for every living, breathing Navy SEAL.

Even after retirement, Shipley unyielding service to honor the SEAL brotherhood easily earns him a place as one of the most famous Navy SEALs.


Balliol College

With almost 400 undergraduate students and an equal number of graduates, Balliol is one of the largest colleges of the University of Oxford. It also has a claim to being the oldest, having been established in 1263 and continuously operated as a residential community in this location since. Balliol is renowned for producing Prime Ministers (Herbert Asquith, Harold Macmillan, and Edward Heath), as well as literary figures (Robert Southey, Matthew Arnold, Algernon Swinburne, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Hilaire Belloc, Aldous Huxley, Nevil Shute, Anthony Powell, Graham Greene, Robertson Davies, and Robert Browning). Four Nobel-prize winning scientists studied there: Oliver Smithies, C.N. Hinshelwood, Baruch Blumberg, and Anthony Leggett.

John Wycliffe, who inspired the first translations of the Latin Bible into English, was one of the College’s Masters in the 14th century. Adam Smith, of Die Rykdom van Nasies fame, was at Balliol from 1740-1746. In the 20th century, Balliol graduate William Beveridge led the development of modern social welfare.

More recent well-known alumni have included Paul Almond, Richard Dawkins, Peter Snow, Bill Drayton, Christopher Hitchens, Cressida Dick, Nicola Horlick, Robert Peston, Boris Johnson, Yvette Cooper, Stephanie Flanders, Amit Chaudhuri, Rana Dasgupta, and Dan Snow.

The early history of the ancient University of Oxford is shrouded in uncertainty. It came into existence about eight hundred years ago, but in its early days it lacked organization and facilities. Students had to fend for themselves in small groups based on inns and lodging houses. It was from these small groups that the modern University, consisting of an association of autonomous colleges, evolved.

John Balliol, one of King Henry III of England’s most loyal Lords during the Barons’ War of 1258-1265, was married to a Scottish princess, Dervorguilla of Galloway. Their son, also named John Balliol, was King of Scots 1292-1296. He was a wealthy man with extensive estates in England and France his family had its roots in and took its name from Bailleul-en-Vimeu in Picardy. About 1260, with guidance from the Bishop of Durham, he decided to carry out a substantial act of charity by renting a house in the suburbs of Oxford for financially needy students. When John Balliol died in 1269, his widow Dervorguilla continued his generosity, and she is honored with him as co-founder of the college. She provided a capital endowment, formulated Statutes (1282), and gave the college its first seal, which it still has.

Medieval Period

There were at first 16 students, each receiving an allowance of eight pence a week. The College remained small for the first 250 years of its history, but in that time had several notable alumni, including John Wycliffe the translator of the Bible.

William Gray, the bibliophile Bishop of Ely, was also a member: during his mid-15th century European travels, he accumulated a substantial collection of manuscript books which he gave or bequeathed to the college, and which the college still treasures as the largest single medieval manuscript collection to survive in England.

The Reformation

During the turmoil of the 16th century, the College was staunch in its allegiance to Rome. It tried to resist when Henry VIII made his demand for acknowledgement of his supremacy over the Pope in 1534, the master and five fellows signing and sealing their submission only after adding that they intended “nothing to prejudice the divine law, the rule of the orthodox faith, or the doctrine of the Holy Mother Catholic Church.” Balliol grew prosperous in the period 1585-1635, during which Laurence Kemis (one of Sir Walter Raleigh’s captains), John Evelyn the diarist, and Nathanael Konopios, who is supposed to have introduced coffee-drinking to England, were members. The Civil War, however, caused an abrupt drop in student numbers, and a consequent reduction in revenue.

18de eeu

The torpor for which 18th-century Oxford is notorious began to set in soon after Theophilus Leigh was elected Master in 1726. His principal qualification for the position, which he held for nearly 60 years, was that he was the Visitor’s nephew. His election was a bizarre and scandalously conducted affair, including an attempt to have the holder of a critical vote declared insane. It is a curious paradox that Balliol nurtured one of its greatest sons in Leigh’s reign. Adam Smith resided as an exhibitioner supported by the benefaction of John Snell 1740-1746.

Early 19th Century: Reform

Under Leigh, the College slid seriously into debt, to the tune of more than £2,000 by 1780. But financial salvation came in the form of increased income from ancient estates in Northumberland, which turned out to be nicely sited on top of coal-seams and the college’s scholarly soul was saved by the election of John Parsons as master in 1798. Parsons was an academic disciplinarian who turned the fortunes of the college around by insisting that fellowships should be awarded after open competition, and in 1827 his equally zealous successor Richard Jenkyns extended the same principle to scholarships.

This led quickly to a regular succession of the cleverest young men in the country coming to Balliol as scholars. Among the earliest elections were A.C. Tait (another Snell exhibitioner) and Benjamin Jowett, both of whom went on to win Balliol fellowships and become leading tutors. Jowett was later to be master, Tait Archbishop of Canterbury. Success bred success success attracted benefactions and fostered growth, so that within a very few years Balliol came to dominate the University of Oxford.

Late 19th Century: Benjamin Jowett

Under Jowett, master 1870-1893, academic brilliance was encouraged, but so was originality, and there was a heavy emphasis on character, leadership, duty and public service. The strict approach of the previous generation was relaxed, and more informal intimate relations between teachers and students – at vacation reading parties, for example – became a vital component of the Balliol ethos. Several Fellows, like Jowett, were prominent in the debates of 1850-1870 on university reform, which the college itself anticipated in several respects. Some (notably T. H. Green) were also to the front in the campaign somewhat later to make higher education and degrees available to women. Ladies were allowed to attend College classes from 1884, provided that they were “attended by some elder person.”

The late Victorian period also saw the creation of a cosmopolitan tradition. Of particular interest is the attendance of several high-born Japanese students, at a time when contacts between Japan and the UK were few, beginning in 1873 with Tomotsune Iwakura, son of Tomome Iwakura, Chief Counsellor of State. The college is still international (around forty nationalities are represented in its present membership), and has a high profile in the University of Oxford. At the height of the British Empire, Balliol men were its leaders: three successive Viceroys of India 1888-1905, for example. And it is perhaps appropriate that the winding-up of the British Empire was supervised by a Balliol graduate, Christopher Patten, last governor of Hong Kong.

Early 20th Century

A.L. Smith and A.D. Lindsay were successive masters (1916-1924 and 1924-1949). Both were supporters of working-class adult education, and Balliol became a regular venue for summer schools in vacations. There was a great need to provide more accommodation, but the college site was already fully built up, and was completely hemmed in by other colleges and roads. The only additional rooms which could be built in the 1920s had to be perched on top of existing staircases. This was done successfully.

Holywell Manor

The most far-reaching development between the two World Wars was the acquisition and extension of Holywell Manor for use as a residential annex. “The Manor” has evolved into a Graduate Institution with a vibrant character of its own, whilst remaining an integral part of the college. The increase in the number and proportion of graduate admissions (now running at around a third of all admissions) in recent times is a fundamental change equaled only by the admission of women. Balliol was in 1973 the first of the traditional all-male colleges to elect a woman as a fellow and tutor.

Balliol Today

The current Master of the College, Drummond Bone, describes some of the more recent achievements of the Balliol community: “Today, our students may be found presenting engineering projects at CERN or volunteering in London’s East End to help deprived communities two of our Fellows are involved in the Quantum Technology Hubs that will explore how the properties of quantum mechanics can be harnessed for use in technology one of our Research Fellows is credited with discovering the oldest surviving non-biblical manuscript from Scotland an Emeritus Fellow is honoured for pioneering work on the heart and one of our alumni has given the Reith Lectures, another has worked on an app that will aid cancer research, while others have received honours for public service or been elected Fellows of the Royal Society or Fellows of the British Academy.”

Additional information on the college is found in web pages on the history of the Chapel and the history of the Library.


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