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Joseph Glidden doen aansoek om 'n patent op sy doringdraadontwerp

Joseph Glidden doen aansoek om 'n patent op sy doringdraadontwerp

Op 27 Oktober 1873 dien 'n boer van De Kalb, Illinois, genaamd Joseph Glidden, 'n aansoek by die Amerikaanse patentekantoor in vir sy slim nuwe ontwerp vir 'n omheiningsdraad met skerp hakies, 'n uitvinding wat die gesig van die Amerikaanse Weste vir ewig sal verander.

Glidden’s was geensins die eerste doringdraad nie; hy het eers sy ontwerp bedink nadat hy 'n uitstalling van Henry Rose se enkelstrengs doringdraad by die De Kalb-graafskap gesien het. Maar die ontwerp van Glidden het aansienlik verbeter op Rose's deur twee draaddrade aanmekaar gedraai te gebruik om die doringdraad stewig vas te hou. Die draad van Glidden was ook spoedig baie geskik vir massaproduksietegnieke, en teen 1880 is meer as 80 miljoen pond goedkoop doringdraad in Glidden-styl verkoop, wat dit die gewildste draad in die land maak. Boere in Prairie en Vlakte het vinnig ontdek dat Glidden se draad die goedkoopste, sterkste en duursaamste manier is om hul eiendom te omhein. Soos een waaier geskryf het, "dit verg geen ruimte nie, put geen grond uit nie, beskadig geen plantegroei nie, is 'n bewys teen sterk wind, maak geen sneeustortings nie, en is duursaam en goedkoop."

Die effek van hierdie eenvoudige uitvinding op die lewe in die Groot Vlaktes was groot. Aangesien die vlaktes grootliks boomloos was, het 'n boer wat 'n heining wou bou, weinig ander keuse as om duur en lywige houtrails te koop wat per trein en wa uit verre woude gestuur is. Sonder die alternatief wat goedkoop en draagbare doringdraad bied, sou min boere probeer het om op die Groot Vlakte te woon, aangesien hulle dit nie sou kon bekostig om hul plase teen weidingskuddes beeste en skape te beskerm nie. Doringdraad bring ook 'n vinnige einde aan die era van die oopvee-industrie. Binne 'n paar jaar het baie boere ontdek dat duisende kleinboere oor die oop veld omhein het waar hul vee vryelik rondgedwaal het, en dat die ou tegniek om beeste oor kilometers onomheinde grond na spoorkoppe in Dodge City of Abilene was nie meer moontlik nie.


Joseph Glidden doen aansoek om 'n patent op sy doringdraadontwerp - GESKIEDENIS



Doringdraad
Joseph F. Glidden
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Joseph Farwell Glidden is gebore op 18 Januarie 1813 in New Hampshire. Hy en sy broer, Josiah, het tydens die boerdery van 1841-1842 in DeKalb County, Illinois, aangekom. Deur die persoonlike dors van korrels en die wins wat dit meegebring het, het Joseph 600 hektaar grond ongeveer 'n kilometer wes van die jong dorpie DeKalb gekoop. Hy bou 'n houthuis en begin as boer in die Midde -Weste. Deur die jare het Joseph verskillende landbougebiede gevolg en die boerderykuns as 'n baie aangename lewenswyse beskou. Die aansoek van 1873 om 'n patent op doringdraad, sy ruim grondbydrae vir die ligging van die Northern Illinois State Normal School en sy burgerlike verantwoordelikhede in die omgewing, bewys alles waarom hy 'die Grand Old Man van DeKalb County' genoem is.

Lucinda Warne Glidden was Joseph se tweede vrou en was al meer as 20 jaar sy lewensmaat toe die patent vir "The Winner" goedgekeur is. Haar huwelik met die wewenaar Glidden was 'n gebeurtenis van belang vir almal in die DeKalb -gemeenskap. 'N Kort tydjie ná hul huwelik het die rooi baksteenhuis die houthuis vervang. Dit het 'n plek geword vir vriendelike byeenkomste en uitdagende besprekings. Die probleme van swart aardeboerdery was konstante onderwerpe.

In latere herinneringe vertel Lucinda hoe sy in die winter van 1872-1873 gevind het dat haar groot draadspeldjies uit 'n melkglasskottel op haar kommode verdwyn. Eers het sy gedink Elva Frances, haar 20-jarige dogter, neem hulle. By navraag het Elva geantwoord: "Nee, ma." Die raaisel het Lucinda steeds gepla, tot sy een aand ná aandete opgemerk het hoe haar man in sy hempsak gryp en twee van haar vermiste haarnaaldjies uithaal. "Joseph, wat maak jy met my haarspelde?" sy het gevra. Hy het geantwoord dat hy besig was met 'n idee vir 'n heining.


Ander uitvinders het voorspelbaar probeer om die ontwerp van Michael Kelly te verbeter, onder wie Joseph Glidden, 'n boer van De Kalb, IL.

In 1873 en 1874 is patente uitgereik vir verskillende ontwerpe om mee te ding met Micheal Kelly se uitvinding. Maar die erkende wenner was die ontwerp van Joseph Glidden vir 'n eenvoudige draadhaak wat aan 'n dubbelstrengdraad vasgemaak was.

Die ontwerp van Joseph Glidden het doringdraad meer effektief gemaak, hy het 'n metode uitgevind om die hakies vas te sluit en die masjinerie uitgevind om die draad in massa te vervaardig.

Joseph Glidden se Amerikaanse patent is op 24 November 1874 uitgereik. Sy patent het die hofuitdagings van ander uitvinders oorleef. Joseph Glidden het die oorhand gekry in litigasie en verkope. Vandag is dit steeds die bekendste styl van doringdraad.


Joseph Glidden doen aansoek om 'n patent op sy doringdraadontwerp - GESKIEDENIS

Die ontwikkeling van doringdraad

Voor 1863 het verskeie individue omheiningsvorme geskep wat as doringdraad beskou kan word. Nie een van hierdie skeppings het ooit die massamark bereik nie. In 1863 het Michael Kelly 'n tipe heining ontwikkel met punte wat op gedraaide draadjies aangebring is. As sy uitvinding behoorlik bevorder is, kon hy onderskeiding verwerf het as die Vader van doringdraad. Eers tien jaar later het 'n ander uitvinder 'n patent ingedien wat die ontwikkeling van die doringdraadbedryf sou veroorsaak.

Op die graafskapbeurs in DeKalb, Illinois, in 1873, het Henry M. Rose 'n nuwe idee van omheining ten toon gestel. Dit was 'n houtrail met 'n reeks skerp spykers wat aan die kante van die spoor uitsteek. Die heiningrail, wat vroeër daardie jaar op 13 Mei gepatenteer is, is ontwerp om aan 'n bestaande heining vasgemaak te word om 'n dier te "prik" wanneer dit met die spoor in aanraking kom en te voorkom dat vee deurbreek.

Hierdie heining trek die aandag van elk van die drie mans, Joseph Glidden, Jacob Haish en Isaac Ellwood. Elke man het die idee gehad om Rose se heining te verbeter deur die spykers (hakies) direk aan 'n stuk draad vas te maak. Elkeen het sy eie manier gegaan om te werk aan 'n uitvinding wat hulle binnekort bymekaar sou bring.

Volgens die legende het Lucinda se vrou Lucinda hom aangemoedig met sy idee om haar tuin te sluit. Glidden het geëksperimenteer deur 'n kort draad om 'n lang stuk reguit draad te buig deur 'n koffiemolen te verander. Twee penne aan die een kant van die meul, een gesentreer en die ander net genoeg van die middel af sodat 'n draad tussenin kan pas. Toe die kruk draai, draai die penne die draad om 'n lus te vorm. Die draad is dan ongeveer een duim aan elke kant skuins afgesny om 'n skerp punt te vorm. Hakies is op een van twee parallelle draaddrade geplaas. Die twee draadjies was aan 'n haak aan die kant van 'n ou slypwiel vasgemaak. Terwyl die hakies geposisioneer is, draai die wiel om die twee draadjies en draai die hakies vas.

Gedurende hierdie tyd was Isaac Ellwood, 'n hardeware -handelaar, nie daarin geslaag om sy eie weergawe van doringdraad te vervolmaak nie. Toe Joseph Glidden op 24 November 1874 'n patent ontvang vir sy skepping, bekend as "The Winner", het hy en Ellwood 'n vennootskap gevorm om Die Barb Fence Company.

Jacob Haish het teen hierdie tyd ook sy eie draad gepatenteer, maar het nie 'n ernstige poging aangewend om dit te verkoop en te verkoop nie. Haish, wat self die eer vir doringdraad wou hê, hou nie van die idee dat Glidden en Ellwood 'n vennootskap sou stig nie, en het daarna gestreef om dit te laat val. Toe Haish verneem dat Glidden laat 1873 om 'n patent aansoek gedoen het, maar geweier is, het Haish in Julie 1874 'n patent vir sy skepping, die “S-Barb ”, ingedien. 'N Paar dae later het hy interferensiedokumente teen Glidden ingedien en 'n intense regsgeskil het ontstaan. Alhoewel Haish eers 'n patent gekry het, het Glidden die geskil gewen omdat hy sy patent voor Haish ingedien het. Haish was onwillig om 'n nederlaag te erken en het die titel van “ Die uitvinder van doringdraad geëis.

Die inwerkingtreding van die Homestead Law in 1862 het duisende setlaars na die nuwe deelstaat Kansas gelok. Namate setlaars hul lande begin omhein het om gewasse teen die vrylopende beeste en Bison te beskerm, was daar 'n behoefte om verantwoordelikheid te definieer as vee die gewas sou beskadig. Daarbenewens was daar 'n behoefte om 'n wettige heining te definieer, aangesien daagliks kilometers heinings gebou word. In Kansas het wetgewers die kwessie bespreek en wetlik bindende definisies van behoorlike omheining geskryf. Toe die land aangrensend was aan die grond wat vir weiding gebruik is, het die statuut van Kansas eers die las op die grondeienaar gelê om beeste wettiglik in die algemeen uit te weer. Hierdie bepaling was gebaseer op vrylopende weidingswette wat beeste toegelaat het om onbeperk te wei. Alhoewel die boer verantwoordelik was vir die bou van die heining, het hy baie voordele gebied mits die heining aan vasgestelde kriteria voldoen. In latere jare het die verantwoordelikheid egter verskuif en boere het verantwoordelik geword vir die omheining van hul vee. 'N Vereiste om hulle te "omhein" het 'n vereiste geword om hulle in te sluit. [


Spoorweë en doringdraad

Spoorweë moes 'n wettig gedefinieerde heining langs die pad maak waar spore wettig omheinde privaat grond kruis. Spoorweë het egter nie dieselfde voordele ontvang wat aan grondeienaars toegestaan ​​is nie. Hulle is vrygestel van regsregte (soos aan grondeienaars gegee) toe vee hul reg van weg oortree.

'N Ander probleem was dat naburige boere en boere draad vir hul eie gebruik by spoorwegheinings begin "leen" het. Aangesien die enorme aantal doringdraadheinings wettig verkoop is, was dit byna onmoontlik om die dief te vind en die gesteelde draad terug te vind. Om die probleem te bekamp, ​​is unieke variasies van "The Winner" uitsluitlik geskep vir spoorweggebruik. Die ontwerp bestaan ​​uit een of meer vierkantige draadjies wat tussen een of meer tradisionele ronde lyne geweef is. Spoorwegondernemings was jare lank die belangrikste kliënte van Die Barb Fence Company. Weer het doringdraad 'n oorwinning behaal in die strewe om die ongetemde Weste te vestig. [Meer ]

Die draad wat die Weste omhein het, deur Henry D. en Frances McCallum, University of Oklahoma Press, 1985 (uit druk).

Die Bobbed Wire Bible IX, deur Jack Glover, Cow Puddle Press, 1996 (uit druk).


Geskiedenis van doringdraad

Gedurende die twintigste eeu het doringdraad die simbool geword van oorlog, dood, vernietiging en menslike lyding. Ons ken almal die beelde uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, die niemandsland besaai met doringdraad en lyke wat daarin hang. Maar dit het nie net in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gebly nie, doringdraad is immers waansinnig effektief en koste-effektief. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Duitsers dit gretig vir konsentrasiekampe gebruik, en na die oorlog het die ystergordyn en die primitiewe weergawe van die Berlynse muur uit doringdraad bestaan.

En dit word steeds gebruik om grense te beskerm en selfs vandag nog gevare vir die samelewing in die gevangenis te hou. Maar die uitvinding van hierdie simbool van oorlog was nie uit 'n militêre noodsaaklikheid nie. Gedurende die laat 19de eeu wou 'n sakeman en veeboer uit die Verenigde State sy beeste in 'n spesifieke gebied hou en het 'n bietjie eksperimenteer. Min het hy geweet dat sy uitvinding nie net sy persoonlike fortuin sou verander nie, maar die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State en die hele wêreld. Sy uitvinding bring 'n einde aan die Wilde Weste en beïnvloed die manier waarop oorlogvoering in die eeu daarna plaasgevind het. Daar is 'n rede waarom inheemse Amerikaners na doringdraad die 'duiwels tou' genoem het.

Vroeë weergawes

Doringdraad is in 1874 uitgevind deur die Amerikaanse sakeman en boerdery Joseph Farwell Glidden. Dit is die tipe doringdraad wat ons vandag nog ken, robuust, stewig en kostedoeltreffend. Dit is effektief in sy eenvoud: twee staaldrade wat gereeld met hakies toegedraai word. Glidden het dit aanvanklik uitgevind as 'n manier om beeste op massiewe Amerikaanse boerderye te sluit en om privaat eiendom te merk.

Voordat ons by Glidden se weergawe van doringdraad kom wat ons vandag ken, wil ek vinnig na die vorige weergawes kyk.

Want in 1860 het Léonce Eugène Grassin-Baledan 'n Franse uitvinder 'n patent gekry vir sy weergawe van doringdraad. Hy het 'n vorm geskep wat gebruik is om bome te beskerm teen wild en diere. Daar word gesê dat hierdie weergawe gedoen het wat dit bedoel was om te doen, maar dit was 'n uitdaging om op groot skaal te vervaardig en te gebruik. Boere en boere het nog nie noodwendig nut daarvoor gevind nie. Sewe jaar later het Lucien B. Smith 'n patent gekry op sy weergawe van doringdraad, wat hy "doringdraad" genoem het, hoewel dit ook geen massaproduksie of nut gehad het nie. Volgens 'n Popular Science -artikel is tussen 1867 en 1874 meer as 200 verskillende patente vir 'omheining' verwerk. Daar was variasies in die ontwerp, sommige het afwisselende spykers of hout met studs -punte. Al hierdie tipe doringdraad is nog steeds met die hand gemaak, wat dit ondoeltreffend maak vir massaproduksie.

Wat Joseph Glidden betref, sy sukses was deels te danke aan die gunstige omstandighede. Sy tydsberekening was perfek en sy produk was beter as dié van sy mededingers omdat dit meganies vervaardig kon word. Wat die tydsberekening betref, in 1862 het Abraham Lincoln's Homestead Act miljoene hektaar oopgemaak. Elke volwassene kan aansoek doen om 160 hektaar op te eis as hy bereid is om op die grond te boer. Maar weens die rowwe toestande was daar 'n gebrek aan bome, en houtheinings was nie so doeltreffend om grond af te sluit nie.

In die klein Amerikaanse stad Dekalb in Illinois het Glidden 243 hektaar grond gekoop waar hy 'n veeboerdery wou vestig. Dit was 'n uitdaging om die beeste in die omheinde gebied te hou. Die storie lui dat die beeste gereeld uitgebreek het, net om te begin wei in die groentetuin waarna sy vrou geneig was. Na 'n dinkskrum het Joseph aan 'n oplossing gedink: hy het verskeie rolle ysterdraad gekoop. Daarna gebruik hy 'n koffiemolen om die draad styf om die doringdraad te draai, en 'n tweede draad om die hakies op hul plek te hou. Die finale produk was baie effektief. Dit het die beeste in toom gehou en was terselfdertyd 'n uitstekende manier om sy lande te merk.

Hy het doringdraad in 1874 gepatenteer, maar kort voor lank het vrae ontstaan ​​oor die oorspronklikheid daarvan. Glidden was betrokke by 'n regsgeskil wat eers in 1892 besleg is. U kan die oorspronklike saak van 1892 op die amptelike webwerf sien, waarvan die skakel in die beskrywing is. Reeds voordat Glidden die saak wen, stig hy die "Barb's Fence Company" in DeKalb. Dit het daartoe gelei dat hy vinnig genoeg verdien het om 'n welgestelde en welgestelde sakeman te word. Glidden beland met vyf patente op doringdraad en teen 1877 vervaardig hy reeds jaarliks ​​drie miljoen pond doringdraad.

Vanweë sy eenvoud het nuus vinnig versprei en in die omgewing het tientalle doringdraadfabrieke ontstaan. Nie al hierdie fabrieke het die patent nie, en as sodanig het die onwettige vervaardiging van doringdraad te veel toegeneem. Een van die beste voorbeelde is die van John "Bet-A-Million" Warne Gates. Volgens die Texas State Historical Association het hy die grootste vervaardiger en verspreider van ongelisensieerde, nie-gepatenteerde, sogenaamde maanskyn, doringdraad gebou, wat hom 'n groot fortuin besorg het.

Die gewildheid van doringdraad het oor die hele land toegeneem, en as nuus oor hierdie doeltreffende metode om vee in die Verenigde State versprei te hou, wou almal 'n stuk hê. Die draad lyk met die eerste oogopslag nie so stewig soos 'n houtheining nie. Dink dus aan die verrassing toe 'n goedkoop en oënskynlik swak draad daarin geslaag het om te keer dat beeste uitbreek. Dit dra net by tot die entoesiasme rondom die produk.

Om u 'n idee te gee: in 1884 het die koerant 'The Prairie Farmer' 'n spesiale uitgawe gepubliseer oor die 'verskynsel wat in die geïndustrialiseerde geskiedenis nie gelyk was nie.' En die verkoopgetalle het dit ondersteun. In 1882 publiseer dieselfde koerant 'n paar statistieke oor doringdraad: daardie jaar is 82 miljoen kilo verkoop, 'n 18000-voudige toename sedert 1874. Joseph Gidden het daarin geslaag om 'n miljoenêr te word, 'n seldsame prestasie destyds. Deur die jare heen word hy, behalwe 'n sakeman, die balju, lid van die Raad van Toesighouers van Dekalb County en lid van die uitvoerende komitee van landbou. In 1876 was hy selfs die kandidaat vir die demokratiese party vir die Amerikaanse senaatsverkiesings. Ten tyde van die dood van Glidden in 1906, was hy een van die rykste mans in die Verenigde State, met 'n netto waarde van ongeveer 'n miljoen dollar, waaronder die Glidden House Hotel, die DeKalb Rolling Mill, 'n fabriek, die DeKalb Chronicle -koerant en boerderygronde in Illinois en Texas. Die klein dorpie Glidden in Iowa is na hom vernoem.

Doringdraad in oorlog

Die uitvinding van doringdraad het 'n beduidende invloed op die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State en ook die wêreldgeskiedenis gehad. Wat die Verenigde State betref, dit het gelei tot die vinnige vordering van die laaste fase van kolonisasie en die trek weswaarts. Doringdraad het dit baie maklik gemaak om privaat gebiede te sluit, wat gelei het tot die einde van die ware Wilde Weste.

Die hoeveelheid konfrontasies tussen boere en veeboere het toegeneem. Boere wat hul gebied met doringdraad gemerk het, het dit in werklikheid vir derde partye afgesluit en dit vir ander beeste onmoontlik gemaak om daarop te wei. Daar is selfs 'n Lucky Luke -verhaal oor hierdie ontwikkeling: Prikkeldraad op die Prairie. In werklikheid moes die cowboys en veeboere die Wilde Weste met boere begin deel. As gevolg van die vermoë om eiendom af te weer, het die gaping tussen grondlose en grondbesitsklasse duideliker geword as wat dit was.

Teen 1885, slegs 11 jaar nadat Glidden met die massaproduksie van doringdraad begin het, is die hele Texas Panhandle bedraad. Die gevolge daarvan, afgesien van botsings tussen veeboere en boere, was rampspoedig vir die natuurlewe. Skielik kon baie diere hul natuurlike habitat nie meer uitbuit nie, en verloor weivelde waarop hulle gewei het of fonteine ​​waaruit hulle gedrink het. Wildebuffels, wat bekend is vir sy gesiggestremdheid, kon nie die draad sien nie en het dikwels daarin verstrengel geraak van honger, dors of wonde. Dit was die rede waarom inheemse Amerikaners daarna verwys het as die duiwel se tou.

Afgesien van die Wilde Weste, het doringdraad 'n ikoon geword van die gruwels van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. . Afgesien van die loopgrawe, is dit gebruik om grense af te sluit. Een van die berugte voorbeelde is die Dodendraad, die draad van die dood: 'n dodelike elektriese heining wat deur die Duitse weermag opgerig is om die Nederlands-Belgiese grens tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog te beheer. Hierdie heinings is opgerig om smokkel en militêre verlate te voorkom. Die doodsdraad op die grens het tientalle sterftes tussen 1915 en 1918 veroorsaak, wat dikwels smokkelaars doodgemaak het, maar soms ook onbewuste burgers.

Maar die Dodendraad is 'n redelik ongewone voorbeeld vir die gebruik van doringdraad. Omdat slootoorlogvoering en die niemandsland tussen die Duitse en Franse loopgrawe meer kragtige ikone is van die ellende van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Meer as 'n miljoen myl doringdraad is tydens die oorlog aan die Westelike front gelê. Almal ken die foto's van lyke wat daarin hang. Gedurende hierdie oorlog het doringdraad 'n simbool geword van die hopeloosheid van slootoorlogvoering en die miljoene lewens wat op die voorste linies vermors is, in selfmoordklagte.

Alhoewel dit dodelik was en vir die gruwels gebruik is, kan ons dit nie ontken nie. 'N Bewys van die sukses van doringdraad is die ongelooflike hoeveelheid variasies daarvan. In Jack Glover se 'The Bobbed Wire Bible', wat in 1972 gepubliseer is, word meer as 700 soorte doringdraadknope gelys. En selfs vandag is ontwikkelings nog nie klaar nie. In die 1980's is die stof van die staaldrade gemeng met koolstofvesel, wat meer buigsame, maar tog sterk en duursame drade skep. Deur die drade aan uiterste hitte te onderwerp, kristalliseer die koolstofmolekules. As gevolg van hierdie chemiese reaksie, verminder dit kortliks die gewig van die draad, terwyl dit sterk bly. Boonop het die inhoud van die deklaag van roes teen die draad gedurende die vroeë 21ste eeu verander. Dit het gelei tot die verdriedubbeling, indien nie verviervoudiging van die lewensverwagting van doringdraad. Selfs al het amptelik doringdraad gedurende die 19de eeu die verhoog binnegekom en dit die hele wêreld verander, selfs vandag is dit nog nie voltooi nie.


Die omheining van die doringdraad

Terwyl baie aan doringdraad gely het, het Joseph Glidden en sy sakevennoot Isaac Ellwood The Barb Fence Company gestig en het hulle gedy van die oplewing in hierdie nuutgestigte bedryf. In 1875 is 'n fabriek gebou om die doringdraad te vervaardig. Daardie jaar, meer as 600,000 lbs. van doringdraad is saamgestel. Glidden verkoop sy deel van die onderneming in 1876, maar Ellwood bly in die belegging en verdien steeds 'n fortuin.

John Warne Gates het 'n beroemde verkoopsman van doringdraad in Texas geword en uiteindelik sy eie doringdraadonderneming, die Southern Wire Company, gestig. Hierdie vervaardigde doringdraad was sonder lisensie en word 'maanskyn/nie-gepatenteerde' doringdraad genoem.


Beanz Tydskrif

Doringdraad en sagteware het tot eindelose regsgedinge, afslaan en innovasies gelei. Nie veel veranderings nie, of hoe?

Onlangs het ek 'n halfuur om dood te maak, so ek het 'n deel van 'n episode van gekyk Amerikaanse plukkers, 'n Amerikaanse vertoning oor twee ouens wat deur die Verenigde State reis op soek na oudhede en gemors wat hulle aan versamelaars verkoop. Hulle het 'n obskure museum gevind waar die eienaar wou afsluit eerder as om sy stad $ 750 vir 'n museumlisensie te betaal. Maar wat my interesseer, was sy versameling doringdraad.

U dink miskien dat doringdraad uiters vervelig is en geen verband of parallelle met rekenaarwetenskap of programmering het nie. Dit is 'n draad wat gedraai en geslyp en tussen heiningpale vasgemaak is, einde van die verhaal.

Doringdraad is 'n tegnologie. Daar is honderde miskien duisende patente vir verskillende soorte doringdraad. En die geskiedenis van doringdraad as 'n tegnologie en in die veld is vandag so omstrede soos sagtewarepatente.

Dit het my aan die dink gesit, aangesien hierdie Off Beat -artikel handel oor die gebruik van die navorsingsvaardighede wat ek gebruik om hierdie tydskrif te skep, presies, hoe patenteer u doringdraad? Is daar werklik soveel verskille, die een baie beter as die ander? En het mense mekaar gedagvaar om patente te verdedig?

Laat ons dus 'n draai gaan en doringdraad, patente en 'n onduidelike hoek van die tegnologiese geskiedenis verken.

Doringdraad? Regtig?

Sonder om soos u oupa of ouma te klink, of iemand wat regtig oud is, was die Amerikaanse ekonomie vroeër versprei. Vandag kan u dieselfde model rekenaar koop by Best Buy in New York of Kalifornië. Dit is 'n nuwe verskynsel, nie 'n ervaring wat die meeste mense selfs vyftig jaar gelede beleef het nie. Baie mense het hoenders in stedelike stede gehou. Sommige het ook tuine gehad om baie van hul voedsel te voorsien. Lees byvoorbeeld Jane Austen of Mark Twain, en u sal nie karakters vind wat by Trader Joe ’s of Safeway gaan eet nie. Mense wat by markte gekoop het, gebruik die plaaslike winkel in hul stad, wat ons 'n geriefswinkel kan noem, wat voedsel, gewere, klere, speelgoed en ander goedere bevat.

Wat het dit met doringdraad te doen?

Terwyl mense hulle in die VSA vestig (tot nadeel van inheemse Amerikaners, moet ek daarop let), wou hulle hê dat heinings hul plase en eiendomme moet afmerk. Aan die ooskus van die VSA het mense klippe gebruik om eiendomsgrense af te merk. Elders het mense houtheinings gebou. Doringdraad het die probleem van betreders op die plat prairies in die uitgestrekte vlaktes in die middel van die VSA opgelos. Doringdraad het jou vee tuis gehou.

Omheinde erwe op die vlaktes het dit egter moeiliker of onmoontlik gemaak om koeie van Texas in die noorde na Chicago oor jou land te laat opgaan. Boere wat groot kuddes na slagplase ry, was in stryd met die behoeftes van boere. En inheemse Amerikaners wat minder omgee vir heinings.

Vandag kan 'n groot harige sagtewareprogrammeringsprobleem wees oor hoe om aktiwiteitsdata vir miljoene gebruikers oor lande en kontinente versprei, op te slaan en op te haal. Met doringdraad was 'n groot harige probleem werklik groot en harig: 'n bul of koei wat geweier het dat doringdraad hulle verhinder om vry te dwaal.

Die geskiedenis van doringdraad

Noudat u (hopelik) saamstem dat doringdraad 'n tegnologie is wat ontwerp is om 'n probleem op te los en hoe u Bessie op u grond kan hou, kan u die geskiedenis van doringdraad ondersoek.

Die eerste soekresultaat vir die geskiedenis van doringdraad is 'n opvallende feit: die persoon wat doringdraad uitgevind het, was nie die eerste om geld te verdien nie. Of die eerste wat 'n patent besit. Die idee is gesteel, met ander woorde.

Henry M. Rose, 'n boer, het 'n houtrail met skerp draadpunte op die DeKalb County Fair in 1873 vertoon. Vandag woon u tegnologiekonferensies by om te leer hoe om 'n beter sagteware -programmeerder te word. In 1873 het u die landskou bygewoon om meer te wete te kom oor die nuutste produkte en om mense te ontmoet wat u kan help om 'n beter boer te word.

Drie mans het die uitvinding van Rose ondersoek en dit in 'n produk verander. In plaas van 'n houtrail, is die skerp punte vasgemaak aan 'n enkele draad wat tans gebruik word.

Die drie mans was Jacob Haish, Joseph Glidden en Isaac Ellwood. Geïnspireer deur Rose se ontwerp, het Glidden en Ellwood onafhanklik hul eie draadontwerpe geskep. Toe Ellwood die weergawe van doringdraad van Glidden sien, erken hy dat Glidden die beter oplossing het. Hulle het saam sake gedoen om doringdraad te patenteer en te bemark. Intussen het Jacob Haish toe Glidden se weergawe van doringdraad gesien, jaloers geword, sy ontwerp aangepas en daarna 'n patent ingedien. Daarna het hy inmengingsdokumente ingedien om te keer dat Glidden en Ellwood patente indien vir hul draadontwerp.

Kan u sê, doringdraad -trol? Klink soos patentrol. Dit is ook interessant: die vraag wat beter werk, open source of eienaarskap van sleuteltegnologie -idees, en onmiddellik met doringdraad ontstaan ​​het. Eiendomsreg het tot 'n klomp regsgedinge gelei en oor dekades baie advokate in diens geneem, baie vermorsde onproduktiewe aktiwiteite.

In elk geval, terug na die storie. Haish versus Glidden en Ellwood het daartoe gelei dat beide maatskappye gestig is om doringdraad te vervaardig en te verkoop. 'N Ooskusprodusent van enkeldraadheinings, die Washburn and Moen Company van Massachusetts, het Haish genader om 'n vennoot te maak en hulle die nuwe soort draad te laat verkoop. Haish het hulle verwerp. Glidden en Ellwood het transaksies gemaak. Glidden het 'n tantième betaal. Ellwood het sy werk saamgesmelt met Washburn Moen. Hulle het gou baie van die eerste doringdraadpatente gekoop om hul posisie te versterk. Dit het dekades se kompetisie begin. En regsgedinge.

Patente en regsgedinge met doringdraad

Een van die interessante stukke oor die geskiedenis van doringdraad is blykbaar dat daar geen feitelike geskiedenis bestaan ​​nie. Voorbeelde van doringdraad bestaan ​​voor die heiningrail van Rose ’s met skerp drade verskyn het. Nie een is egter in groot hoeveelhede vervaardig en verkoop nie. En die geskiedenis bestaan ​​uit die regsgedinge tussen Haish en Ellwood.

Dit was Jacob Haish wat patente gebruik het om Glidden en Ellwood te bemark. Van daar af was die spel aan.

Hoeveel maniere kan u doringdraad ontwerp?

'N Webwerf met die naam InsaneTwist.com sê 800 met ongeveer 2 000 variasies. 'N Amerikaanse National Park Service -webwerf sê meer as 500 patente. Die onderneming van Ellwood het vinnig gegroei om die mark vir doringdraad te oorheers. Dit het daartoe gelei dat ongeveer 150 kleiner produsente met mededingende patente en ontwerpe regsgedinge teen sy onderneming ingedien het vir die monopolisering van die mark. Hierdie klein braaddraadprodusente is moonshiners genoem.

Die National Park Service -webwerf merk ook op dat daar meer as 2000 variasies is op die meer as 500 patente omdat individuele boere hul eie doringdraad gerol het. Hulle gebruik ontwerpe wat hulle gesien het, verbeterde ontwerpe wat hulle gesien het, of skep hul eie idees.

'N Opvallende detail: van die Haish ’s -patentgedinge om Glidden en Ellwood te blokkeer, het die patentsaakspel ontwikkel tot ander wat die Ellwood ’s -onderneming dagvaar voordat dit na die Ellwood ’s -onderneming oorgegaan het met die gebruik van regsgedinge om die klein braai -maanhouers af te sluit.


Doringdraad, van cowboy plaag tot bekroonde relikwie van die ou weste

Waarom sou iemand $ 500 betaal vir 'n geroeste stuk doringdraad? As die 18-duim lange monster of snit die enigste bekende voorbeeld is van die Thomas J. Barnes-patent van 1907 (hierbo getoon), kan sommige mense selfs meer betaal as dit. Trouens, vir versamelaars van doringdraad, of doringdraad soos dit ook genoem word, was die afgelope paar jaar 'n ware roesbui, aangesien voorbeelde van seldsame draad wat al dekades lank weggedwaal het, die mark binnekom.

Dit is nie die dinge wat u vandag langs die pad sien nie, alhoewel die ontwerp van doringdraad in meer as 100 jaar nie so baie verander het nie. Wat doringdraadversamelaars opgewonde maak, is skaars voorbeelde van draad wat van 1874 tot in die eerste dekade van die 20ste eeu vervaardig is, toe doringdraad 'n onderneming van 'n miljoen dollar was en almal 'n stukkie aksie wou hê.

Die mark vir draad is aangedryf deur die nuwe vraag na omheining. Spoorweë moes hul nuut aangelegde ritte regkry (die laaste piek is in 1869 op die transkontinentale spoorlyn gery), terwyl boere genoodsaak was om hul vee binne eiendomslyne te hou eerder as om hulle op die oop baan te laat wei, wat toenemend toeneem omskep in landbougrond.

"Daar was baie ergernis oor doringdraad toe dit die eerste keer uitgekom het," sê Harold L. Hagemeier, wie se "Doringdraadidentifikasie -ensiklopedie" die stokperdjie se amptelike gids is. 'Die ou veewagters hou niks daarvan nie. Tot dan was die reekse oop. Die boere het spesiale spanne gestuur om die heinings te kap en die pale te verbrand, wat ook al nodig was. Dit het miskien tien jaar aangegaan, waarskynlik nie eers so lank nie. Hier in Texas het die goewerneur uiteindelik 'n wet onderteken wat dit 'n misdaad maak om heinings te kap, en baie ander state het dieselfde gedoen. Dit was doringdraad wat die reeks oorloë veroorsaak het. ”

Die deugde van doringdraad word in hierdie 19de-eeuse advertensie voorgehou. Foto van die Ellwood House Museum.

Doringdraad mak die Weste wat in die laat 19de eeu gewild geword het in ons nostalgiese siening van die cowboy -kultuur. "Daar was baie roetes uit Texas na Montana en ander gebiede," sê Hagemeier. 'Toe doringdraad opgesit is, het dit die roetes van die bestuurders afgesny. Volgens Karl Parker, 'n Montana-leerlooier wat 'n paar van sy 400 plus stukke doringdraad op Show & amp Tell geplaas het as doringdraad, was die laat 19de eeu 'n tyd toe ons weswaarts uitbrei. Almal het probeer om die doringdraad in te span, want dit was destyds groot geld, miljoene en miljoene dollars. Almal wat 'n draad kon patenteer, het 'n draad gepatenteer. "

'Daar was baie wrok oor doringdraad toe dit die eerste keer uitgekom het. Die ou veehouers het dit glad nie gehou nie. ”

Terwyl veeboere met boere gespan het, is die regstelsel deur regsgedinge verstrengel oor doringdraadpatente. Almost from the moment Jacob Haish and Joseph Glidden filed their first patents for barbed wire in 1874, the two men were squaring off in court. That same year, a hardware-store owner named Isaac Ellwood bought a 50-percent share in Glidden’s patent for $265. By the time the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Glidden’s favor in 1892 (his “Winner” design is used on most fences today), hundreds of patents for as many designs of barbed wire had been filed, and many more unpatented variations were on the market.

This legacy is of keen interest to people like Parker, who collect mostly 18-inch-long sections of wire, which are often mounted on boards so the twisted strands and barbs don’t get all tangled up. There were some 800 unique barbed-wire patents, and many more unpatented variations for a total of perhaps 2,000 types of barbed wire. Some feature wire barbs attached to single or double strands. Others sport stationary barbs or rotating rowels made of sheet metal in decorative shapes, from leaves to diamonds to stars. Some barbed wire isn’t wire at all, made instead out of ribbons of sheet metal that have been punctured or sliced to create nasty points.

Bronson Single Strand Double Loop Barb, patented in 1877 by Adelbert E. Bronson, Chicago, Ill. Photo by railman.

Like many collectors, Parker was familiar with barbed wire long before it ever occurred to him to collect it. “I grew up with cows and fixed a lot of fence in my day,” he says. “I didn’t like barbed wire then, and I still don’t like to fix fence today. But when I was a little boy, my father took me to one of his friends’ houses. He was a collector and had a bunch of wire. I was always fascinated with it, but it never really stuck until I was out of high school. I’d be helping someone fix a fence and I’d see a new wire. I’d take small pieces home and it sort of escalated from there.”

These days, Parker concentrates his collecting efforts on rare wire. “I like the figure barbs and some of the more complex bends,” he says. “It’s fascinating to me that they did this with the machinery they had back then. Now it’s easy, but in the late 1800s, the ingenuity of the machines they built to bend the wire and insert a barb was amazing.”

TheGateKeeper is another Show & Teller who credits his rural roots for his interest in barbed wire. “I grew up on a farm outside of Dallas,” he says. “Our farm was fenced with a strange-looking barbed wire with these metal plates in it. I cut myself and ripped my pants on that stuff for a long time. After I got married in 1961, we moved to the little town of Carrollton, also outside of Dallas. On our back fence were four different kinds of old wire that I had never seen before. That got me interested.”

A collection of ornamental fence stays and inline tighteners, mounted for display by TheGateKeeper.

Though his collection is not as large as Parker’s, TheGateKeeper has hundreds of pieces. “Right now I have 280,” he says. “I’m trying to keep my collection below 300 because I can only display that much in my office. Anything more than that I have to put in a box and hide somewhere. If I can’t display it, I don’t want it.”

“In a lot of cases, the patent attorney ended up owning the patent because the guy who came up with it couldn’t pay the fees.”

For collectors like TheGateKeeper, maintaining a collection at a manageable size had not been too difficult because the number of rare pieces available to collectors had been limited. But in the last few years, he says, a couple of large collections have come onto the market. “People have passed on, gotten tired of it, or whatever. There’s some really neat stuff coming out of these collections, which makes it really tough to decide what to keep and what to get rid of.”

Most collectors specialize to give their collections focus. “I’ve concentrated my efforts on rare wire that has sheet metal incorporated into it somehow,” he says “either as a metal strip, ribbon, or a sheet-metal barb. I also like the wires that had wooden blocks in them as warning devices. Most wooden blocks burned up in grass fires, so those are pretty rare pieces of wire.”

Robinson Shock Absorber two point. Photo by gotwire.

TheGateKeeper is particularly enamored with ornamental wire, which, he says, was used to surround yards, cemeteries, and other areas where barbed wire was not necessary. “Ornamental wire was also used as stay wires between fence posts,” he says. “The shapes are really beautiful, and they’re an inch to two inches wide, which makes them very visible. Barbs could be added, but barbed ornamental wire evidently did not achieve wide acceptance.”

Star wire looks ornamental to contemporary eyes, but it was definitely used for containment and boundary fencing. “Utilizing sheet metal rather than wire as the barb medium made the barb more visible,” says TheGateKeeper. “In some designs it was also more humane because the barbs rotated. I’m also fascinated by all the symbolism in the designs. Each star shape has a different religious meaning.”

Railroad wire is another popular subset. “There were special ‘marker’ wires made for each railroad,” he says. “They’d change up the number of strands, twist a square strand with a round one for example, so that if the wire was stolen from a remote area, it would be easy to identify. Some people collect nothing but that.”

The Devil’s Rope Museum is just off historic Route 66. Photo by Rick Vanderpool.

One of the most interesting subsets for barbed-wire collectors doesn’t even involve barbed wire at all. “The barbed wire was cutting up the animals,” says TheGateKeeper, “so they started making barbed-wire liniment. A whole new industry grew out of that. There are a ton of different liniment bottles from the 1800s that people collect. In fact, a collection of bottles was just donated to the Devil’s Rope Museum in Texas.”

There are numerous museums in the United States known for their association with barbed wire history, as well as institutions that collect the material itself. Naturally the three founders, if you will, of the U.S. Barbed wire industry are well represented. The Ellwood House Museum in DeKalb, Illinois, is devoted to the legacy of Isaac Ellwood, whose early investment in Joseph Glidden’s patent made him a rich man. Glidden’s more modest Homestead & Historical Center is located nearby. Jacob Haish’s legacy is maintained online by one of the great 19th-century inventor’s relatives.

To see good examples of wire, collectors routinely travel to the Kansas Barbed Wire Museum in La Crosse or the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City. And then there’s Devil’s Rope.

The Devil’s Rope Museum includes barbed wire art, such as this cowboy hat. Photo by Bernie0405.

Delbert Trew and his wife, Ruth, have been the public faces of the Devil’s Rope Museum in McLean, Texas (which is east of Amarillo near the Oklahoma border) since it opened in 1991. “The museum was put together by barbed wire collectors associations,” he says. “At the time, there were about seven or eight associations scattered throughout the Midwest mostly, and about 300 to 400 major collectors across the county. Most of them were getting old and wondering what to do with their collections. That’s where the museum’s collection really came from, those collectors.”

Back then Trew was not a barbed wire collector. “My deal was mostly tools,” he says. “But it did so happen that I lived near McLean where they decided to establish the museum. So my wife and I have been the local people that tend to everything. She’s been a treasurer and secretary all these years and I’ve been the museum’s supervisor.”

While the town of McLean did not have any particular historical association with barbed wire, it had other things going for it. “One of the priorities of the founding members was a building large enough that it could hold everything. And they wanted it to be on a major highway. It just so happened we had an empty brassiere factory right on old Route 66. They made brassieres for Sears Roebuck and Co., and had a hundred women working there for 20 years. After the factory moved out, to Mexico, I think, the owners of the building donated it to the city of McLean.”

This Hunt’s Link variation was patented in 1877 by George G. Hunt of Bristol, Ill. Each link is 6.5 inches long. Photo by railman.

If you’re into barbed wire, Devil’s Rope is a must stop on your rusty pilgrimage. Trew estimates they have some 7,000 artifacts, including cowboy hats made out of barbed wire, exhibits on the history of entanglement wire (what Trew calls “war wire”), and probably 100 or so post-hole diggers. The centerpieces of the collection, though, are the sections of barbed wire. “The Smithsonian tells us we’ve got a better collection than they’ve got,” he says proudly.

“Some of these guys have been collecting wire for 40 years they’ve seen just about everything.”

Tom Knapik, who teaches high school mathematics and posts his wire on Show & Tell as railman, could probably open his own small barbed-wire museum, but it wouldn’t be filled with just anything. “The Glidden ‘Winner’ was patented in 1874,” he says, “but to me, it’s one of the most dull, boring wires that has ever been created, even though it was the most successful. Probably the most outrageous and fantastic patent was the Thomas J. Barnes of 1907. It had flared barbs at the end of a tube that rolled and moved as an animal rubbed up against it. It’s an extremely rare wire. As far as I know, there’s only one 18-inch section that has survived the years.”

Knapik, who has maybe 120 pieces of wire in his collection, is always on the lookout for rare wire new to the collecting pool. For example, the collection of Robert Campbell, who wrote “Barriers: An Encyclopedia of Barbed Wire Fence Patents,” was sold a while back. “His collection contained the rarest of the rare,” says Knapik. “From what I’ve been told, he had riders who would go out and find new wires for his collection. He amassed one of the biggest collections ever.”

The Hart’s Eight Point Spreader was patented in 1885 by Hubert Hart of Unionville, CT. From point to point, the barb length is 2.25 inches. Photo by railman.

Most of the Campbell collection got split up into two pieces, says Knapik. “The rare stuff went to Jim Goedert, the other half went to Dan Sowle. And then, within the last year, Jim decided to sell his collection, too. That means 1,600 of the rarest of the rare just got back into the hobby. It has spurred a lot of interest because people like me are now able to buy wires that were completely unobtainable before.”

“I fixed a lot of fence in my day. I didn’t like barbed wire then, and I still don’t like to fix fence today.”

What’s an example of a rare wire? Well, that Barnes from 1907 to begin with. “Another is called the Utter,” says Knapik. “It was actually posted on Collectors Weekly. It was patented by a man from Cuba, New York, in 1887. It’s kind of like a rolling barb, but it rolls horizontally, not vertically like the Barnes. It’s a fantastic patent. From what I understand, maybe a dozen 18-inch-long specimens have been collected.”

The Barnes and Utter patents are just two examples of wire that were developed to keep the hides of livestock like cattle from getting torn up by static, inflexible barbs. “They started incorporating these unusual spinning designs that would poke rather than cut the animal as it was rubbing up against the wire,” says Knapik. “There was another one called the Greg’s patent that looked like a spring. It would retract if an animal pressed up hard against it. The idea was to herd them, not hurt them, to get them to change the direction. There was an understanding of what was happening to the animals, so inventors modified their patents to accommodate that.”

The cover and a sample page from Harold Hagemeier’s authoritative book.

With so many patents and so many different types of wire, collectors like Knapik turn to various books to identify what they have and are about to buy. Most of them have their favorites, but all collectors use Hagemeier’s “Barbed Wire Identification Encyclopedia.” Featuring hand-drawn illustrations by Hagemeier’s wife, LaNell, the “Encyclopedia” was first published by Hagemeier in 1998. The book’s fifth and final edition came out in 2010, although a supplement was recently published, adding 108 newly identified specimens to the main book’s inventory of more than 1,700 different wires.

“You get to the point,” says Hagemeier, “where you think, ‘well, this is all of them’, and sure enough, somebody comes up with some more. A lot of the new wires are what we call variations. And I hate to tell you this, but there are also wires that I wouldn’t doubt are being made by some individual. I’m not accusing anybody, but I think that’s a good possibility.”

Naturally Hagemeier does what he can to keep fakes out of his encyclopedia. “There are about five or six collectors I contact when a new wire shows up,” he says, “to get their opinion, find out if they’ve ever seen one like it before, things like that. But that’s about as far as you can go. Some of these collectors have been collecting wire for 40 years, so they’ve seen just about everything that you could imagine. But you just got to make a judgment.”

The Matoushek Two Strand Star Barbis an exact execution of the patent description. Photo by railman.

Unlike Delbert Trew, who did not begin as a barbed-wire collector, Hagemeier has been at it for a while. “I started collecting wire in the late 1960s, early 1970s, by accident. I had a friend who had a ranch here in Texas, and he gave me about five or six wires that he had found. After that, I collected about 25 wires. I thought, ‘well, that’s probably all there is’. Then I happened to go to a wire show here in Texas. What I had was just a drop in the bucket.

In the process of collecting wires, Hagemeier noticed that a lot of his specimens were not identified correctly. So he started investigating the history of each wire as best he could, eventually organizing a group of four barbed-wire collectors to compare notes and figure out just exactly what they had. The result was the first book in 1998.

The Mouck Three to One Barb on Parallel Strands was patented in 1893 by Solomon Mouck of Denver, CO. Photo by railman.

One of the things Hagemeier learned is that there are about 800 barbed wire patents, but some of those are military-wire patents, leaving the number of actual barbed-wire patents at about 750. “When barbed wire first came out, everybody tried to get rich. A man by the name of ‘Bet-a-Million’ Gates had 10 or 11 factories in and around St. Louis, Missouri, just to manufacture wire. He changed his wire just enough to get around the patents. That happened a lot, and as a consequence, the variations outnumbered the actual patent wires. Gates ended up owning the American Steel and Wire Company.”

Like all collectors, Hagemeier has his favorites. “I guess the wire I appreciate most is the Hodge Spur Rowel. It’s a two-strand wire with a barb that looks like a spur rowel on a little shaft that connects the two strands together. There are probably 20 unpatented variations on it.”

Although barbed wire was seen as a way to get rich quick, Hagemeier says it usually didn’t work out that way. “In a lot of cases, the patent attorney ended up owning the patent for the wire because the guy who came up with it couldn’t pay the patent fees, and whatnot. Often a wire would never get successful because it was too expensive to manufacture.”

The McAlister Plate and Sheet Metal Spinner is example of a “mechanical” wire. Photo by railman.

In fact, many of the specimens prized by collectors are the samples submitted to the patent office. That’s all that was ever made, which means that’s all there is on the market today. Well, almost. “There are also, I’m sure, a lot of ‘replicas’. Let’s put it that way,” sighs Hagemeier.

“They started incorporating spinning designs that would poke rather than cut the animal.”

The other big customers for barbed wire were the railroads. “The railroads had special wires, what we call railroad wires, which were a lot different. For instance, the wire strands might be oval rather than round or something special like that. People don’t realize that the development of a lot of this country would have been a lot slower if it hadn’t been for barbed wire.”

Today, the pace of barbed wire collecting is accelerating, although in the world of barbed wire, speed is a relative thing. Two of the most anticipated events are just around the corner. The first is the Antique Barbed Wire Society’s annual “Super Show,” which is hosted this year by the Colorado Wire Collector’s Association in Pueblo, Colorado, on September 23 and 24 and should be attended by as many as 500 people.

American Steel and Wire in DeKalb, Illinois, at Tenth Street looking northeast, DeKalb, circa 1901. Photo from Sycamore Public Library.

“It’s the biggest show of the year in barbed wire,” says Knapik. “Last year it was in New Mexico. There will be hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of wires all mounted on boards and listed with their patent information. It’s a real history lesson in the West. It should be a grand time.”

Still, even the dates chosen for the Super Show reflect the taut ways of the barbed-wire collecting community. “There’s been a little bit of controversy about when it’s best to hold the show,” allows Knapik. “Currently the shows are held on Friday and Saturday, but having it on Friday and Saturday seems to limit the number of families that can attend, and anybody who works can’t go on a Friday. They have to take time off, as I’ll have to. So that’s a little bit of an issue.”

The effectiveness of barbed wire on animals, dramatized and set in a circus ring. Photo from the Ellwood House Museum.

The last event of the season, the ABWS’s annual Symposium, is held in LaCrosse, Kansas, from October 6 to 8. Of all the aspects of barbed-wire collecting, this is probably the one that’s most curious to people who pursue things like Art Deco radios and Fenton glass. “The Symposium sets all the value on wires,” says Hagemeier. “There is a special committee of about 10 to 12 men who review the value of not only wire but tools and other things. They set the prices for a year.”

Creating this level of market predictability and price transparency is intended to keep the hobby accessible to as many potential collectors as possible. But some collectors will tell you privately that the clubby nature of events like the Symposium is not the sort of thing that’s likely to attract young people to the hobby. “Many of the older collectors are selling off their collections,” says one. “I don’t see a lot of new people coming up. I would hate to see the hobby just fade away.”


Coffee with the Hermit

In case you didn't know, barbed wire was a very cheap and useful tool on the prairie.

Although there were many versions of the stuff, one of the most popular and strongest was patented by Joseph Glidden. This article from History.com can tell you a little more about it, if you are interested!


On this day in 1873, a De Kalb, Illinois, farmer named Joseph Glidden submits an application to the U.S. Patent Office for his clever new design for a fencing wire with sharp barbs, an invention that will forever change the face of the American West.

Glidden's was by no means the first barbed wire he only came up with his design after seeing an exhibit of Henry Rose's single-stranded barbed wire at the De Kalb county fair. But Glidden's design significantly improved on Rose's by using two strands of wire twisted together to hold the barbed spur wires firmly in place. Glidden's wire also soon proved to be well suited to mass production techniques, and by 1880 more than 80 million pounds of inexpensive Glidden-style barbed wire was sold, making it the most popular wire in the nation. Prairie and plains farmers quickly discovered that Glidden's wire was the cheapest, strongest, and most durable way to fence their property. As one fan wrote, "it takes no room, exhausts no soil, shades no vegetation, is proof against high winds, makes no snowdrifts, and is both durable and cheap."

The effect of this simple invention on the life in the Great Plains was huge. Since the plains were largely treeless, a farmer who wanted to construct a fence had little choice but to buy expensive and bulky wooden rails shipped by train and wagon from distant forests. Without the alternative offered by cheap and portable barbed wire, few farmers would have attempted to homestead on the Great Plains, since they could not have afforded to protect their farms from grazing herds of cattle and sheep. Barbed wire also brought a speedy end to the era of the open-range cattle industry. Within the course of just a few years, many ranchers discovered that thousands of small homesteaders were fencing over the open range where their cattle had once freely roamed, and that the old technique of driving cattle over miles of unfenced land to railheads in Dodge City or Abilene was no longer possible.

Riding the fence line was a full time job on the bigger spreads, checking to make sure that the wire and post were still in good order. No telling how many miles of the wire were strung back in the olden days, but I reckon it was a lot!

Well, looks like we can have our coffee out on the patio this morning. How about some fresh fruit today?

9 comments:

Yeah, I've heard there were quite a few folks shot over wire in the beginning.

Hey Gorges.
That's my understanding as well!

Thanks for coming over today!

When we moved here and started repairing a rock wall, we found plenty of barbed wire. Most of it had flat, thin razor sharp little blades on it. Nasty stuff. Chilly here at 28 - the patio and fresh fruit sounds great!

It's been said that it's really barbed wire that conquered the west.

I've been caught a few times on barbed wire - nasty stuff but very useful. Very chilly here 28, but sunny and windy. Coffee and fruit on your patio sounds good.

Another lesson learned here at Hermits place. Lots of stories about cutting wires and stealing cattle. Daardie was die dae.

It warmed up here again it only was 61 last night, had to turn on a/c yesterday and today will be 90! To Hot! Pass the fruit please sounds like a good idea.

28, sounds like winter is coming! Where was that?
It was 62 in the rv this morning but supposed to get into the 80s today. I'm down by the gulf, Rockport Texas today.

Howdy HJ,
Well, it ain't cheap ANYMORE. I NEED new fencing around my ranch.. The fence around it was put-up in the 1930s and has just about 'rotted/rusted' away the cedar posts are still SOLID/HARD. I priced, JUST THE MATERIAL, the other day and ONLY 3/4 mile was $24k .
YIKES . That's almost what I paid for the 'ranch' in 2000.

In Coleman county, TEXAS, Mabel Lea was trying to sell some of her land to farmers, in the 1880s and fenced-off several hundred acres..
'Fence-cutters' RUINED MILES of her fence, time after time, until the TEXAS Legislators finally passed a law against EVEN having a pair of pliers on you WAS AGAINST THE LAW.. There are still some large ranches left from the LEADAY Ranch.

Hope all is well in Cut 'n Shoot, this mawnin' and y'all have a HAPPY DAY .

Are there any of Roy Harris', the heavy-weight boxer's, folks still around down there.


The History of Barbed Wire

The swift emergence of this highly effective tool as the favored fencing method changed life in the wild west as dramatically as the rifle, six-shooter, telegraph, windmill, and locomotive.

Without fencing, livestock grazed freely, competing for fodder and water. Where working farms did exist, most property was unfenced and open to foraging by roaming cattle and sheep.

Before barbed wire, the lack of effective fencing limited farming and ranching practices, and the number of people who could settle in an area. The new fencing changed the West from vast and undefined prairies/plains to a land of farming, and widespread settlement.

Wooden fences were costly and difficult to acquire on the prairie and plains, where few trees grew. Lumber was in such short supply in the region that farmers were forced to build houses of sod.

Likewise, rocks for stone walls were scarce on the plains. Barbed wire proved to be cheaper, easier, and quicker to use than any of these other alternatives.

Michael Kelly - First BW Fencing

The first wire fences (before the invention of the barb) consisted of only one strand of wire, which was constantly broken by the weight of cattle pressing against it.

Michael Kelly made a significant improvement to wire fencing, he twisted two wires together to form a cable for barbs - the first of its kind.

Known as the thorny fence, Michael Kelly's double-strand design made fences stronger, and the painful barbs made cattle keep their distance.

Joseph Glidden - King of the Barb

Predictably, other inventors sought to improve upon Michael Kelly's design among them was Joseph Glidden, a farmer from De Kalb, IL.

In 1873 and 1874, patents were issued for various designs to compete against Micheal Kelly's invention. But the recognized winner was Joseph Glidden's design for a simple wire barb locked onto a double-strand wire.

Joseph Glidden's design made barbed wire more effective, he invented a method for locking the barbs in place, and invented the machinery to mass-produce the wire.

Joseph Glidden's U.S. patent was issued November 24, 1874. His patent survived court challenges from other inventors. Joseph Glidden prevailed in litigation and in sales. Today, it remains the most familiar style of barbed wire.

Living patterns of the nomadic Native Americans were radically altered. Further squeezed from lands they had always used, they began calling barbed wire the Devil's rope.

More fenced-off land meant that cattle herders were dependent on the dwindling public lands, which rapidly became overgrazed. Cattle herding was destined to become extinct.

BW and Warfare and Security

After its invention, barbed wire was widely used during wars, to protect people and property from unwanted intrusion. Military usage of barbed wire formally dates to 1888, when British military manuals first encouraged its use.

During the Spanish American War, Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders chose to defend their camps with the help of barbed fencing. In turn-of-the-century South Africa, five-strand fences were linked to blockhouses sheltering British troops from the encroachment of Boer commandos. During World War I, barbed wire was used as a military weapon.

Even now, barbed wire is widely used to protect and safeguard military installation, to establish territorial boundaries, and for prisoner confinement.

Used on construction and storage sites and around warehouses, barbed wire protects supplies and persons and keeps out unwanted intruders.


Aanlyn

"Wire," Compton's Encyclopedia Online v.3.0,http://www.comptons.com/encyclopedia (December 17, 2000).

"Glidden, Joseph Farwell," Encyclopedia Britannica,http://www.britannica.com (December 17, 2000).

"Glidden's Patent for Barbed Wire," National Archives and Records Administration, Teaching With Documents, Vol. 2.,http:nara.gov/education/teaching/glidden/wire.html (December 17, 2000). □

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