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Noord -spoorweg van Frankryk - Geskiedenis

Noord -spoorweg van Frankryk - Geskiedenis


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Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Franse uitspraak: [nɔʁ pɑ d (ə) kalɛ] (luister)) is 'n voormalige administratiewe streek van Frankryk. Sedert 1 Januarie 2016 is dit deel van die nuwe streek Hauts-de-France. [2] Dit het bestaan ​​uit die departemente Nord en Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais grens aan die Engelse Kanaal (wes), die Noordsee (noordwes), België (noord en oos) en Picardië (suid). Die meerderheid van die streek was eens deel van die historiese (Suidelike) Nederland, maar het geleidelik tussen 1477 en 1678 deel geword van Frankryk, veral tydens die bewind van koning Lodewyk XIV. Die historiese Franse provinsies wat Nord-Pas-de-Calais voorafgegaan het, is Artois, Frans-Vlaandere, Franse Henegouwen en (gedeeltelik) Picardië. Hierdie provinsiale benamings word steeds gereeld deur die inwoners gebruik.

Met sy 330,8 mense per km 2 op net meer as 12,414 km 2, is dit 'n digbevolkte streek met ongeveer 4,1 miljoen inwoners, 7% van die totale bevolking van Frankryk, wat dit die vierde mees bevolkte streek in die land maak, waarvan 83% woon in stedelike gemeenskappe. Die administratiewe sentrum en grootste stad is Lille. Die tweede grootste stad is Calais, wat dien as 'n belangrike kontinentale ekonomiese/vervoersknooppunt met Dover van Groot-Brittanje, 42 kilometer daarvandaan, en dit maak Nord-Pas-de-Calais die naaste kontinentale Europese verbinding met die eiland Groot-Brittanje. Ander groot dorpe sluit Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai en Saint-Omer in. Die streek verskyn in talle films, insluitend Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.


Spoorweggeskiedenis en bewaring - VSA en Kanada

American Steam Railroad Preservation Association - Onderwysorganisasie sonder winsbejag wat toegewy is aan die bewaring, vertoon en bedryf van historiese spoorwegtoerusting, insluitend Frisco -stoomlokomotief # 1352

American Time Table and Train Order System, The - Geskiedenis van die sleutelrol van die telegraaf in 'n unieke Noord -Amerikaanse spoorwegstelsel

Amtrak Historical Society - Bewaring van die geskiedenis van Amtrak

Vereniging van spoorwegmuseums - Lei in die bevordering van spoorwegerfenis deur opvoeding en voorspraak

Veilings op eBay - 100,000+ versamelstukke en railroadiana -items, insluitend vintage advertensies, kaarte, roosters, kaartjies, voorraadbewyse, horlosies, horlosies, tekens, lanterns, gereedskap, slotte, klere en meer

Birney Safety Car Museum - Geskiedenis, foto's en modelle van die Birney -trollie wat in die 1910's ontwikkel is

Bridgehunter.com - Databasis van historiese brûe en tonnels in die Verenigde State

Brûe, stasies en tonnels - Gids vir die vroegste, langste, hoogste en grootste spoorwegstrukture

Budd-RDC.org - Foto's, geskiedenis en huidige bedryfsinligting oor Budd Rail Diesel Cars (RDC's)

Kanada per spoor - Organisasie van Kanadese toeriste -spoorweë, museums, historiese verenigings, treintoeroperateurs, historiese treinstasies en erfenisgebiede

Canadian Railroad Historical Association (CRHA) - Bewaring en verspreiding van inligting rakende spoorwegerfenis in Kanada, met baie afdelings wat hul eie vergaderings, projekte en aktiwiteite organiseer

Canadian Railway Music - Lys met Kanadese spoorwegmusiek, insluitend klassieke, folk- en country -liedjies

Canadian Street Railways - Geskiedenis van straatspoorweë en interstedelike elektriese spoorweë in Kanada

Carknocker Railroad Stories - Verhale en foto's deur spoorwegmanne

Carolwood Pacific Historical Society - Toegewy aan die behoud van die persoonlike spoorweg -nalatenskap van Walt Disney

Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum - History of the Transcontinental Railroad and the linking the Central and Union Pacific Railroads on 10 May 1869 at Promontory Summit, Utah

Chapel Cars of America-Ongeveer dertien kerke op die spoor wat vanaf 1890 tot die veertigerjare die spoorweë wes gevolg het en die evangelie en sakramente gebring het aan die mense wat langs die spore woon

Klassieke stroomlyners - Artikels en foto's wat vintage passasierstreine, privaat treine, treinreise, toeriste -treine en meer vier

Conrail Cabins & Cabooses - Ruil inligting uit oor Conrail se vloot hutte en kajuitwaens

Korporatiewe geskiedenis van spoorweë in Noord -Amerika - Korporatiewe (familie) kaarte vir die ondersoek van 'n spesifieke familie of individuele spoorname

Dan's Wigwag Site - Geskiedenis, foto's en liggings van oorlewende wigwag -flagman -kruisingseine in die VSA

Gevaar vooruit: Historiese spoorwegrampe - 'n Ondersoek na beduidende spoorongelukke vanaf die vroegste dae van spoorvervoer tot op hede

Diesels From Schenectady - toegewy aan Alcos in die verlede en die hede met foto's en inligting

Driving the Last Spike - Geskiedenis van die Museum van die stad San Francisco

Vroeë spoorweë - Rekords en eerstes vir die bou en bedryf van spoorweë in die VSA en wêreldwyd

F40PH Preservation Society - Bewaar geskiedenis en artefakte wat verband hou met Amtrak se F40PH -diesellokomotiewe

Gevalle vlae en ander spoorwegfoto's - Uitgebreide fotogalerye van vlae vlae in Noord -Amerika

FallnFlags - Pre -Burlington Northern lokomotiefoto's, veral oor die Great Northern Railroad, sluit Great Northern Sky Blue en Orange verfskemas, Northern Pacific, Spokane Portland en Seattle en Burlington in

Forgotten Railways - Voortgesette projek om spoorwegverlate na te gaan, op te spoor en te karteer

Vriende van die Burlington Northern Railroad - Historiese samelewing fokus op die BN en BNSF

Stuurlokomotiefwerke - Bewaar en bevorder inligting oor stoomlokomotiewe in Noord -Amerika, waaronder Shay, Heisler, Climax, Byers, Gilbert, Dunkirk, Willamette, Davenport, Baldwin, Bell en meer

International Society for the Preservation of Women in Railroading - Reisuitstalling bied 'n opvoedkundige blik op die wêreld van vrouespoorweë

Spesiale belangegroep vir die yster- en staalbedryf - groep vir diegene wat belangstel in die spoorweë van staalwerke en ook die staalwerke self, sowel prototipe waaiers as modelleerders is welkom

John W. Barriger III National Railroad Library - Spesiale biblioteek in die St. Louis Mercantile Library aan die Universiteit van Missouri - St.

Johnson Farebox Company - Geskiedenis en foto's van Johnson en Cleveland -kassies wat tot in die 1960's in baie trollies, trams en busse gevind is

Lokomotiefrekords - Gids vir die vroegste, vinnigste, swaarste, grootste en kragtigste stoomlokomotiewe

Houtspoorweë van Noord -Amerika - 'n Lys met alle bekende spoorwegbedrywighede in Noord -Amerika

Merchant Navy Locomotive Preservation Society - toegewy aan die aktiwiteite van die MNLPS, eienaars en operateurs van MN Class loco 35028 "Clan line"

Merci Train - Foto's en geskiedenis van die trein met 49 motors, gevul met geskenke, wat Frankryk in 1948 aan die VSA gegee het

Mike's Railway History - Uitgebreide geskiedenis van wêreldspoorweë tot middel 1930's deur Michael Irlam

Multimodalways Railroad Archives - Versameling geskandeerde kaarte, spoorgrafieke en verskillende dokumente van die huidige en huidige Noord -Amerikaanse spoorweë

National Railway Historical Society (NRHS) - Amptelike webwerf van die Amerikaanse nasionale historiese organisasie

North American Railcar Operators Association - toegewy aan die bewaring en veilige, wettige werking van spoorwegtoerusting, histories gebruik vir die instandhouding van maniere

Noord -Amerikaanse spoorweg -familiebome - Kronologie van die voorgangers van die Noord -Amerikaanse spoorweg

Northern Pacific Railway Historical Association - toegewy aan die bewaring van die geskiedenis van Amerika se eerste noordelike transkontinentale spoorweg

Old Time Trains - Behoud van die Kanadese spoorwegerfenis met artikels, verhale, foto's en meer

Pacific Railway Act, The - 'n Wet van 1862 om te help met die bou van 'n spoorlyn en telegraaflyn van die Missouri -rivier na die Stille Oseaan

PCC Car - Not So Standard - Geskiedenis en foto's van PCC motors

PCC Cars - Foto's en inligting oor PCC motors deur Gerard Scheltens

Pennsy Railcar Restorations LLC-Bied advies ter plaatse en buite die werf vir die verkryging, vervoer en herstel van spoorwaens

Bewaarde rooster van elektriese spoorwegmotors in Noord -Amerika - Soekbare databasis van bewaarde Noord -Amerikaanse elektriese spoorwaens met motorspesifikasies, eienaarsgeskiedenis en foto's

Pullman -biblioteek - Meer as 'n miljoen tekeninge, oorspronklike spesifikasies, korrespondensie, foto's en dokumentasie met betrekking tot Pullman en Pullman -Standard passasiers- en vragmotors Illinois Railway Museum, Union, Illinois

Spoorweg- en straatkar -historiese merkers - Lys met spoorverwante langs die pad en ander permanente merkers met teks, foto's, kaarte, gedetailleerde liggingsinligting en kommentaar

Spoorwegmotorgeskiedenis - Publiseer elektroniese boeke oor spoorwegmotors en verwante onderwerpe

Railroad Evangelistic Association-Nie-konfessionele, nie-partydige Christelike spoorweggenootskap

RailRoad Genealogical Society - toegewy aan die opspoor, opstel en bewaring van elke rekord met betrekking tot die werknemers van die historiese spoorweë van Amerika

Railroad Heritage Blog - Dek beide moderne en vintage spoorlyne, met toerusting rondom toerusting, vintage foto's en bewaringsnuus

Spoorwegkaarte -argief - Historiese spoorwegkaarte van regoor die VSA, gratis beskikbaar by die Universiteit van Alabama

Spoorwegkaartversameling - Meer as 600 spoorwegkaarte van 1828-1900 uit die Library of Congress -argiewe

Spoorwegname - Gids vir byname wat aan die huidige en huidige Noord -Amerikaanse spoorweë gegee is

Spoorwegpolisie - Bevorder die geskiedenis van spoorwegpolisiëring

Railroad Signal Site - Gedetailleerde foto's en beskrywings van soeklig, colorlight, pruikwag en gyralight spoorwegseine

Spoorwegsein en kommunikasie - Foto's en inligting oor 'n verskeidenheid spoorwegseine en kommunikasietoerusting

Railroad Station Historical Society, Inc - Samestellings van bestaande spoorweg- / spoorwegstrukture in die VSA en Kanada, historiese navorsing oor depots, verwysings oor spoorwegstrukture en meer

Tuisblad van die spoorwegstasie, die - gewy aan die argitektuur en geskiedenis van spoorwegstasies regoor die wêreld

Spoorwegverhale - Versameling spoorwegverhale uit die laat 19de en vroeë 20ste eeu

Railroad.net - Tientalle railfan -forums, poskaarte, prototipe fotogalery en meer

RailroadRob.net - Ou poskaarte en dokumente vir spoorweë, die geskiedenis van die tramdiens in Grand Rapids MI, en 'n gids vir hotelle en vakansieoorde van spesiale belang vir spoorwaens en treinreisigers

Railway & Locomotive Historical Society - Bevorder navorsing en moedig die bewaring van dokumentasie aan wat betrekking het op sakegeskiedenis, finansies, arbeidsgeskiedenis, biografie en tegnologie

Spoorwegposdiens - Geskiedenis van posaflewering per spoor, van die USPS

Spoorwegbewaringsnuus - Aanlynjoernaal oor spoorweggeskiedenis en -bewaring, geredigeer deur Bob Yarger

Spoorweë in musiek - Geskiedenis van spoorweë in musiek, deur Philip Scowcroft

Railways of Canada Archives - Bewaring van die Kanadese spoorweggeskiedenis met tientalle artikels en foto's

RailwaySurgery.org - Bewaar die geskiedenis van spoorwegchirurge en hospitale en leer die publiek oor hul werk en bydraes tot medisyne

Skaars kaartversameling - Historiese spoorwegkaarte aanlyn beskikbaar by die Universiteit van Georgia

Spoorwegroetes opneem - Gids vir die hoogste, steilste en langste spoorweggraad ter wêreld

Richard Leonard's Rail Archive - Foto's en kommentaar oor stoomlokomotiewe wat in die 1950's op Noord -Amerikaanse spoorweë werk, insluitend die CB&Q, CPR, GTW, IC, NKP, NYC en UP

Richard's Parlor Car - gewy aan die geskiedenis van verskillende Noord -Amerikaanse passasiersmotors, meestal Kanadese, CNR, CPR en sommige Amerikaanse

Richard's Planet Sleeping -Car - Historiese inligting en data oor verskillende slaap- en salonmotors wat deur Canadian National, Canadian Pacific en Pullman in Kanada, die VSA en Mexiko bestuur word

RRSignal.com - Inligting en foto's van seine, CTC -toerusting, aflosse en meer

Semaphores.com - Uitgebreide lys van leef- en museum -semafore, foto's, semafoorgeskiedenis en meer

Slim Rails - Foto's en inligting oor smalspoorweë, waaronder Carson en Colorado, Durango en Silverton, Oos -Tennessee en Wes -Noord -Carolina en East Broad Top

St. Nicholas Mountain-Een van ses hoë-venster-waarnemingsmotors wat deur American Car & Foundry vir die Mid-Century Empire Builder gebou is, wat nou herstel word vir privaat treinreise

Stoom in die Amerikas - Dek die vooruitsigte vir werkende en byna werkende stoom in die Amerikas, sowel as die beklemtoning van enkele bewaarde stoomlokomotiewe en oorblyfsels

SteamLocomotive.com - Uitgebreide gids vir oorlewende stoomlokomotiewe in Noord -Amerika, insluitend enjins wat tans werk en onder herstel is

Streamliner Memories - Spoorwegbrosjures, advertensies, roosters, spyskaarte en kaartjies uit die 1950's en 60's

Streamliner -skedules - Skedules van die stroomlyners vanaf die middel van die 1930's tot die laat 1960's

Tap Lines - Bied geskandeerde spoorwegboeke vir historici en modelwerkers, insluitend amptelike gidse, toerustingregisters en lyste van lokomotiefbouers op CD en DVD

Tegniese Vereniging vir Spoorwegbedrywighede Veiligheid en sein - Fokus op veiligheid en sein bevat die lys van spoorwegname, inligting oor wrak-/voorvalle en historiese inligting oor seine en kruising.

The Birney Car - Aanlynboek met roosters en geskiedenis van trams deur die staat

Die Caboose -bladsy - Foto's van kabouters en inligting oor die gebruik daarvan

The Diesel Shop - 'n Omvattende bron vir roosterkraglyste en eerste generasie lokomotiewe

The Yard Limit: American Diesel Switchers - Spotter's guide, fotogalery, nuus en meer

Treinfilms-Gids vir meer as 130 klassieke treinfilms, baie nou skaars en uitgedruk, insluitend besonderhede oor verfilmingslokale en spoorweë, stasies en toerusting

Treinrekords - Gids vir die vinnigste, langste en swaarste treine in die Amerikaanse en wêreldgeskiedenis

Treinwrakke - Gids vir die vroegste, dodelikste en vreemdste treinwrakke, ongelukke, ontspoor en ongelukke

Transkontinentale spoorweg, die geskiedenis van die leiers, stigters en werkers op die Central Pacific Railroad

Vervoerbeplanning en treinsending - Historiese en tegniese inligting oor die versending, beplanning en bestuur van treine

Trolley Cars Dot Com - Restourasieprojekte, bewaring en meer

Ware verhaal van Casey Jones, The - Gepubliseer in "Erie Railroad Magazine" (April 1928)

Union Pacific Historical Society - Behoud van die geskiedenis van die Union Pacific Railroad vanaf die begin in 1862 tot die operasie soos dit vandag is

Union Pacific History & Photos - History of the Union Pacific (UP) Spoorweg, historiese spoorwegtoerusting en foto's

Vagel Keller se webwerf vir industriële erfenis - historiese en modelleringsinligting oor die steenkool-, yster- en staal- en spoorwegindustrie in Amerika


Noordspoorlyn van Frankryk - Geskiedenis

    (d-maps.com)
  • Atlas des colonies françaises, protectorats et territories sous mandat de la France, 1934 (G. Grandidier)
  • Atlas historique de la France depuis César jusqu ’à nos jours (Auguste Longnon, 1907) Versameling (Library of Congress) (American Geographical Society Library Digital Map Collection) (David Rumsey Map Collection) (WHKMLA) (Gallica - Bibliothèque nationale de France) (Columbia University) (oldmapsonline.org)
    (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1923) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe , c.1900) (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1905)
  • Frankryk omstreeks 1035 (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas. C.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas. C.1900) (Droysens. 1886) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926)
  • Frankryk in die dertiende eeu (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (R. Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926 ) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (Charles Colbeck, The Public Schools Historical Atlas, 1905)
  • La France en 1461 (à la mort de Charles VII) (Mirot, Manuel de géographie historique de la France, 1947) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (The British Library) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886 ) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (J. Bartholomew, A Literary & amp Historical Atlas of Europe, 1910) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) ( William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas , 1926) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas , 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge. 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (US Holocaust Memorial Museum)

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Atlas van Frankryk

La République française à la suite d'un long processus d'évolution étalé sur près de 2 000 ans d'histoire, est un État d'Europe dont le territoire metropolitain est situé in Europe de l'Ouest. La France est-parmi tous les grands États européens-le plus anciennement constitué, autour d’un domaine royal initialement centré sur l’Île-de-France, sa capitale étant Paris.

França es un país de l'Euròpa occidentala, es la pàtria del pòble francés e forma un estat. França es, demèst totes los grands Estats europencs, lo mai ancianament constituat, a l'entorn d'un domeni reial inicialament centrat sus l'Illa-de-França, que sa capitala istorica e culturala es uèi París.

La República Francesa, és un estat d'Europa el territori metropolità del qual és situat en l'Europa de l'oest. França és - dins el conjunt dels països més grans d'Europa - el més antigament constituit, a l'entorn d'un domini reial inicialment centrat en l'illa de França, la seva capital és París. Catalunya-nord esdevé francesa el 1659 amb el tractat dels Pirineus (Tractat no oficial perquè no ha estat mai aprovat per les Corts Catalanes de Barcelona).

Frankriich isch e Land, wo im weschtliche Europa leit. Dit is 'n wonderlike plek vir miljoene mense wat 543.965 km² groot is in Rusland en dr Oekraïne. Es Elsass isch e Stickel fun Frankriich un d'r Sproch, wo mer spricht, isch Elsässerditsch.

Die Franse Republiek is 'n land waarvan die metropolitaanse gebied in Wes -Europa geleë is en ook verskillende oorsese eilande en gebiede op ander kontinente bevat. Metropolitan Frankryk strek van die Middellandse See tot by die Engelse Kanaal en die Noordsee, en van die Ryn tot by die Atlantiese Oseaan. Frankryk grens aan ► België (► Vlaandere en ► Wallonië), ► Luxemburg, ► Duitsland, ► Switserland, ► Italië (met ► Aosta -vallei), ► Monaco, ► Andorra en ► Spanje (met ► Katalonië, ► Navarra en ► Baskenland. In sommige van sy buitelandse departemente deel Frankryk ook landgrense met ► Brasilië, ► Suriname en ► Sint Maarten ('n samestellende land van die Koninkryk van Nederland). Frankryk is ook via die kanaal verbind met die ► Verenigde Koninkryk Tunnel, wat onder die Engelse kanaal loop.
Frankryk bevat ook die oorsese streke/departemente van ► Guadeloupe, ► Frans -Guyana, ► Martinique, en ► Réunion, die oorsese kollektiwiteit/streek van ► Corsica, asook ► Frans -Polinesië, oorsese land, ► Nieu -Caledonië, entity sui generis, ► Mayotte, departementele kollektiwiteit en die ander oorsese kollektiwiteite van ► Saint-Barthélemy, ► Saint-Martin, ► Saint-Pierre en Miquelon, ► Wallis en Futuna asook die onbewoonde gebiede van ► Clipperton-eiland en die ► Franse Suider- en Antarktika Lande.


Railroaders in Olive Drab: The Military Railway Service in WWII

In Julie 1861 het die Konfederale Brigadier -Generaal Joseph E. Johnston die belangrikheid van spoorweë in moderne oorlogvoering dramaties demonstreer toe hy 12.000 troepe per spoor van Piedmont Station (nou Delaplane), Virginia, na Manassas Junction, 'n afstand van ongeveer vyftig myl, verplaas het om te versterk die Konfederale magte vergader suidwes van Washington, DC. Die stap het slegs ongeveer 'n derde van die tyd geneem wat die troepe sou neem om die afstand deur te marsjeer, en hulle het gereed gekom om te veg. Die versterkings het die Unie -magte verras en bygedra tot die rebelle -oorwinning op 21 Julie tydens die Eerste Slag van Bull Run. Dit was maar die eerste poging om 'n groot aantal soldate tydens die burgeroorlog per spoor te vervoer. Spoorweë was so belangrik dat die oorlogsdepartement die Amerikaanse militêre spoorweë en die spoorwegkonstruksiekorps georganiseer het om spoorlyne te herstel, te bedryf en te onderhou toe die Unie -weermag na die konfederale gebied beweeg. Beide organisasies het sterk staatgemaak op ervare spoorwegbestuurders en ingenieurs wat as vrywillige offisiere aangestel is en onder toesig van die kwartiermeester -generaal van die Unie -leër, generaal -majoor Montgomery C. Meigs, gewerk het.

Die konsep om ervare spoorwegmanne in die weermag in te neem, het in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog voortgegaan onder beskerming van die Militêre Spoorwegdiens (MRS) wat deur die Corps of Engineers bedryf is. Gereelde weermag -kolonels het bevel gekry oor ingenieurregimente wat as spoorwegeenhede georganiseer is. Professionele spoorweë wat as luitenant -kolonels aangestel is, dien as regiment -uitvoerende beampte. Tussen die Eerste en Tweede Wêreldoorloë het die Ingenieurskorps bepaal dat die regiment nie die beste organisasie was om spoorweë te bestuur nie. Ingenieur -reserwe -offisiere wat spoorwegmanne in hul burgerlike loopbane was, het gehelp om geskikte eenhede vir militêre spooroperasies te ontwerp. Hulle het besluit om die laagste organisatoriese element van Amerikaanse spoorweë, afdelings, as die basis van die nuwe organisasie te gebruik. In 'n spoorwegafdeling het 'n superintendent die verantwoordelikheid gehad om hooflynspore, sypaadjies, terminale, winkels en strukture in stand te hou wat nodig is om treine oor 'n aangewese deel van die spoorlyn te bestuur. Die afdeling het ook die lokomotiewe en motors onderhou en bedryf. Professionele spoorweë en ingenieurs van die weermag het 'n spoorwegbataljon ontwerp wat die funksies van die burgerlike spoorwegafdeling weerspieël.

Die missie van 'n spoorwegbataljon was om 'n aangewese afdeling van 'n militêre spoorweg in 'n operasieteater te bestuur en in stand te hou. Anders as burgerlike spoorweë, moes die bataljons egter ook voorbereid wees om die lyn wat dit bedryf het, te vernietig. Oor die algemeen kan 'n spoorwegbataljon tussen negentig en 150 myl spoorlyn onderhou en bedryf, hoewel die werklike verantwoordelikheidsgebied daarvan in oorlogstyd afhang van die militêre situasie. By die spoorbedrywighede in vriendelike gebiede of besette gebiede het die bataljon plaaslike tegniese en vaardige spoorwegpersoneel gebruik om sy vermoëns uit te brei, maar hulle moes onder toesig van militêre personeel wees om hulle te beskerm teen moontlike sabotasie. Dit bied ook uitdagings aan die Engelssprekende Amerikaanse soldate wat nie altyd vertroud was met hoe ander lande hul spoorweë bedryf nie.

Die organisasie van 'n spoorwegbataljon het 'n gelyke parallel aan 'n tipiese leërbataljon gelewer met 'n hoofkwartierkompanie en drie of vier kompanies met letters. Elke onderneming het 'n unieke organisasie met spesifieke vermoëns wat ooreenstem met die organisasie van 'n burgerlike spoorwegafdeling. Die hoofkwartier het treine, voorrade en seine gestuur. Maatskappy A herstel en onderhou baan en gepaardgaande toerusting soos skakelaars, brûe, watertenks, seintoerusting en geboue. Die maatskappy het twee peloton, een vir brug- en gebouonderhoud en een om die baan in stand te hou. Maatskappy B het die rondtehuis bedryf en rolmateriaal - lokomotiewe en motors herstel en onderhou. Dit het ook twee peloton, een om lokomotiewe te herstel, die ander om motors te herstel. Lokomotiewe en spoorwaens is nie aan die bataljon toegewys nie, maar het deur die hele spoorwegstelsel beweeg soos nodig. Kompanie C was die grootste eenheid in die bataljon met twee pelotone, wat elk vyf en twintig spanne gehad het om treine, werwe en stasies in die verantwoordelikheidsgebied van die bataljon te bestuur. In gebiede van die wêreld waar daar groot getalle elektriese treine was, soos Europa, kan 'n Kompanjie D by die bataljon gevoeg word om die elektriese toevoerstelsel te onderhou.

Die bataljonorganisasie weerspieël nie net die burgerlike spoorwegafdeling nie, maar die organisasietabel korreleer militêre posisies met hul burgerlike eweknieë. Die bataljonbevelvoerder, 'n luitenant -kolonel, was gelykstaande aan 'n afdeling -superintendent in 'n kommersiële spoorweg. Die kompanie -bevelvoerders, almal kapteins, het gelykgestel aan hul eweknieë in burgerlike spoorweë: 'n afdelingsingenieur was onder bevel van Kompanjie A, 'n meesterwerktuigkundige onder bevel van Kompanjie B en 'n treinmeester onder Kompanjie C. Die peloton -leiers het soortgelyke aangewese burgerlike spesialiteite gehad. Baie van die aangewese soldate was ervare spoorwegmanne wat in wese dieselfde werk in die weermag verrig het as in hul burgerlike beroepe. Terwyl die klem op spoorweg was, het die soldate basiese gevegsopleiding bygewoon en die bataljons het almal dissiplinêre, fisiese, gevegs- en tegniese opleiding uitgevoer in ooreenstemming met die toepaslike veldhandleidings van die weermag.

Om offisiere en manne vir die nuwe bataljons op te spoor en op te lei, het die Corps of Engineers 'n affiliasieplan ontwikkel waardeur kommersiële spoorweë in die Verenigde State spesifieke eenhede in die MRS geborg het. Volgens die plan het 'n kommersiële spoorweg beamptes genomineer op grond van hul tegniese pligte. Nadat hulle 'n fisiese ondersoek afgelê het, is hulle aangestel as reserwe -offisiere in die weermag en is hulle aangewys in geskikte posisies in die bataljon wat deur die spoorweg geborg is om 'n kader professionele spoorwegmanne te voorsien.

Die volgende hoër hoofkwartier vir 'n spoorwegbataljon was 'n spoorwegafdeling wat ooreenstem met die kantoor van 'n algemene superintendent in 'n burgerlike spoorweg en toesig gehou het oor die bedrywighede van verskeie afdelings. 'N Groot afdeling het gewoonlik drie of vier operasionele bataljons, 'n winkelbataljon en 'n basisdepotmaatskappy ingesluit. Winkelbataljons het groot herstelwerk, konstruksie en opknapping van toerusting behartig terwyl die basisdepotmaatskappy voorraad verskaf het. Operasieteaters met meer as een groot afdeling het 'n hoofkwartier van die MRS gestig.

Op 18 Junie 1941 organiseer die weermag die 711ste spoorwegbataljon, die eerste in sy soort, in Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Anders as ander spoorwegbataljons, het dit nie 'n burgerlike onderneming gehad wat dit borg nie. Die bedoeling was om beamptes en manne deur die bataljon te laat draai vir kort rondleidings vir opleiding. Beamptes van tien verskillende Amerikaanse spoorweë het die bataljon beman, en 'n kader van agt-en-twintig aangewese mans kom van die Engineer School Detachment in Fort Belvoir. 'N Honderdtal manne met spoorwegervaring is ook by die ingenieurvervangingsentrum op die pos aangewys. Binne agt-en-veertig dae na aktivering het die bataljon die lang verwaarloosde Quartermaster-spoorlyn van vier en 'n half kilometer gerehabiliteer wat die pos bedien het. Die werk behels onder meer die vervanging van duisende bande, die herstel van verskeie brûe en die installering van twintig riviere. Die volgende opdrag was 'n bietjie meer uitdagend.

Die bataljon het in Augustus 1941 na Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, verhuis, waar dit begin werk het aan 'n opleidingsfasiliteit vir spoorwegbataljons, soos hulle tot aktiewe diens geroep is. Werk is begin gebruik van gehuurde grondverskuiwingstoerusting wat in die 711de deur soldate bedryf is totdat weermagtoerusting beskikbaar was. Die eerste baan is in September gelê, en in Oktober het die 91ste en 93e Ingenieursbataljons, albei beman deur Afro -Amerikaanse soldate, aangekom om te help met die bouwerk. Meer as 6000 troepe het aan die lyn gewerk. Tydens die bou van die spoorlyn het die 98ste, 383d, en 331ste ingenieurbataljonne, asook verskeie vragmotorondernemings, aan die projek gewerk. Op 11 Julie 1942 was 'n "goue piek" -seremonie die voltooiing van vyftig kilometer se gradering en baanlegging tussen Camp Claiborne en Fort Polk. Die leerlinge, wat bekend staan ​​as die C & ampP Railroad vir Claiborne en Polk, noem dit die "Crime and Punishment" of die "Worst Railroad on Earth" omdat dit op onstabiele grond gebou is, wat ontsporings algemeen maak. Om die opleiding meer realisties te maak, is die vyf-en-twintig brûe langs die baan periodiek opgeblaas sodat onderhoudspanne van die bataljons tydens opleiding dit kon herbou. Die C & ampP het spoorweë aan elke einde van die lyn en motorfasiliteite by Camp Claiborne ingesluit. Die telegraaf- en telefoonlyn wat gebruik is om treine te stuur, is deur die 26ste Signal Construction Battalion opgerig. Rollende voorraad het nege olieverbrandende lokomotiewe en byna 100 motors ingesluit, waaronder busse, gondels, bakkarre, bakkies, yskaswaens en bakkies.

Nadat die Verenigde State in Desember 1941 die Tweede Wêreldoorlog binnegegaan het, het die weermag addisionele spoorwegbataljons onder die affiliasieplan geaktiveer. In March 1942, the 727th Railway Operating Battalion, sponsored by the Southern Railway Company, became the first battalion to be activated after the war began, followed in April by the 713th, affiliated with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company. Most of the officers and many of the enlisted men were experienced railroaders, but the new battalions included men drawn from Army training centers who needed to be trained. The newly organized battalions also had to learn how to operate efficiently as units, so the War Department contracted with commercial railroads to provide on-the-job training. For example, an Army train crew would accompany a train manned by civilians to learn operating rules and railroad techniques. The same procedure was followed for other specialties in the battalion with soldiers working alongside their civilian counterparts to learn the basics of railroading. The 713th trained on the Santa Fe line near Clovis, New Mexico, while the 727th went to Camp Shelby, Mississippi, to train on the Southern Railroad between Meridian, Mississippi, and New Orleans, Louisiana. When the 730th Railway Operating Battalion was activated in May, its sponsoring company, the Pennsylvania Railroad, trained the unit on its line near Fort Wayne, Indiana.

As the war effort increased, the War Department activated additional railway units including grand divisions to coordinate operations in overseas theaters of operations and shop battalions to support the operating battalions. In November 1942, the Transportation Corps assumed responsibility for the MRS. During World War II, the MRS operated in every theater of operations where there were American forces. At its peak, it included eleven grand divisions, thirty-three railway operating battalions, and eleven railway shop battalions. A variety of engineer, signal, and military police units provided support to the railroaders.

In September 1942, a detachment of men from the 713th and 727th Railway Operating Battalions became the first soldier railroaders to deploy outside the contiguous United States when they left Clovis, New Mexico, to assume operations of the White Pass and Yukon Railroad in Alaska. In November, the unit was designated the 770th Railway Operating Detachment. In December, two railway operating battalions deployed to theaters overseas. The 711th, which built the C&P Railroad in Louisiana, went to Iran while the 727th headed for North Africa.

The 711th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Khorramshahr, Iran, a port city on the Persian Gulf, and began operations in January 1943 making up trains and moving them out of the port before taking responsibility for sections of the line. The 711th was joined by the 730th Railway Operating Battalion (Pennsylvania Railroad) and two shop battalions, the 754th (Southern Pacific Company) and 762d (American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Company, Electro-Motive Corporation) Railway Shop Battalions. The 702d Railway Grand Division, staffed mainly by railroad men from the Union Pacific Railroad, coordinated the operations of the four battalions in operating the Iranian State Railway which carried three out of five tons of Lend-Lease material shipped to the Soviet Union through the Persian Corridor during World War II. Although the railway operating battalions were designed to operate ninety to 150 miles of line, in Iran the 711th operated 388 miles, and the 730th 289 miles. Creation of the 1st Provisional Railway Operating Battalion, later designated the 791st Railway Operating Battalion, by taking men from the battalions already in Iran plus personnel from other units in the command who had prewar railroad experience, helped reduce the distances. The new unit took over a 221-mile stretch of mountainous country, leaving the 711th with 258 miles and the 730th with 198, still more than the doctrinal guidelines.

During the time the MRS operated the Iranian State Railway, it handled more than four million long tons of freight. In addition to the freight, special passenger trains carried 16,000 Iranian military personnel, 14,000 Polish war refugees, 40,000 British troops, and 15,000 Russian ex-prisoners of war. During the Muslim holy days from 22 February to 21 April 1944, 21,000 pilgrims traveled on trains operated by the MRS. The last American soldier railroaders left Iran in July 1945.

When the Americans and British began planning for an invasion of North Africa, logisticians estimated that it would require thirty-four trains a day to move 5,000 tons a month from the ports of debarkation at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers to keep Allied forces supplied. The MRS deployed five operating and two shop battalions to keep the required supplies moving. The first railway operating battalion, the 727th, arrived in Africa in December 1942. In January 1943, the 701st Railway Grand Division, sponsored by the New York Central Railroad, was activated at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. After a brief training period in St. Paul monitoring troop trains and studying car records and other documents in the Twin City terminals, the headquarters traveled by train to New York where it boarded the USS Orizaba as part of the Allied forces bound for North Africa. By May, the 701st was in Casablanca where it coordinated the work of three railway operating battalions, the 715th (Illinois Central Railroad), 719th (Texas and New Orleans Railroad Company), and 759th (Missouri Pacific Railroad).

Railroading in North Africa proved to be a challenge. Trains were operated by British, French, and American crews assisted by Arab civilians. With a variety of languages among the railroaders, the crew often used hand signals, although that was not always a solution. For example, the U.S. signal for “go” or “highball it” in railroad terms meant “stop!” in the French system used in North Africa. Another quirk was that French locomotives in North Africa did not have seats for engineers or firemen as American ones did, so crews had to stand for hours on end while they were underway.

In spite of the difficulties, the MRS was moving about 90,000 tons of freight a week by June 1943. At its peak the MRS operated 1,905 miles of railway in North Africa. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, impressed with the work of the soldier-railroaders, wrote that “When we went into North Africa the railway could deliver a maximum of 900 tons of supplies…Yankee energy and modern American methods of operation…increased the daily tonnage to 3000.”

After freeing North Africa from German occupation the Allies’ next move was to Sicily, and MRS personnel went with them. Three days after the initial landings on 10 July 1943 the 727th Railway Operating Battalion went ashore at Licata, Sicily, and immediately began work on the Sicilian railway. Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr. later wrote that the battalion “organized national rail workers, located equipment, had steam up, and made a reconnaissance of the rail lines four hours after landing.” In its first twenty-four hours of operations, the 727th moved 400 tons of supplies forward to the 3d Infantry Division. By the third day it was moving 800 tons. During the campaign in Sicily, the 727th operated 1,373 miles of railway using 300 locomotives and 3,500 freight cars that carried an average of 3,400 tons a day to supply Seventh Army.

On 9 September 1943, the Allies made their first landing on the European mainland at Salerno, Italy. After encountering heavy German resistance, they spent the rest of the month building up men and supplies in the beachhead in preparation for an offensive to capture the port city of Naples. Three days after the first Allied troops entered Naples, the advance party of the 703d Railway Grand Division (Atlantic Coast Railroad Company) reached the port only to find that the combination of Allied bombing and German demolition had left the rail yard in shambles. Technical Sergeant Louis L. Russel of the 713th Railway Operating Battalion described the scene on Wednesday 6 October: “Charred and twisted cars were strewn around haphazardly, with lengths of rail cross ties still attached, pointing toward the sky.” It was a mess, but the next day, First Lieutenant R.H. Anderson, a yardmaster from Newton, Kansas, was optimistic when he said, “I believe we can get a train out of this by Sunday.” With everybody in the battalion, including conductors, engineers, and firemen working to clear the debris, Anderson proved correct. On Saturday, a test train consisting of an old Italian locomotive pushing five cars moved four miles out of the yard. Four days later, six trains moving an average of 450 tons each, rolled to the forward railhead.

With the rail yard back in operation, Naples became the primary port for supplying Fifth Army. From January through September 1944, an average of 136,567 tons of freight a month moved out of Naples by rail. By July 1944, all of the MRS troops that had been in North Africa were in Italy operating 2,478 miles of railway with an average of 250 military trains a day in addition to civilian passenger and freight service. Fifth Army commander Lieutenant General Mark Clark recognized the contributions of the soldier-railroaders in Italy when he presented them with a plaque in 1944 that read in part: “The services performed by the Allied Force Military Railway Service have contributed materially to the military operation of the Fifth Army.”

At the same time Allied forces were fighting in North Africa and Italy, they began to build up forces in England for an invasion of France. In July 1942, the MRS organized the 761st Transportation Company at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, with men taken from the 713th, 727th, and 730th Railway Operating Battalions. In September, the company deployed to Scotland where it operated the Melbourne Military Railway and provided switching service to depots being established by American forces. The first railway operating battalion to arrive in England was the 729th (New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company) in July 1943. By June 1944, when Allied forces landed at Normandy, the MRS had two grand divisions, three operating battalions, and four shop battalions in England. While in England, the American railroaders conducted technical training, prepared American steam and diesel locomotives for use on the continent, and assembled prefabricated railcars shipped from the United States. They also operated sections of the British rail system that carried American troops and supplies.

As in Italy, railroads and yards were prime targets for Allied bombers in the months before the landings in Normandy, France. Two years of bombing raids had destroyed railroad facilities and twisted tracks into extraordinary shapes. Eleven days after the Allies landed on 6 June 1944, a small detachment of MRS troops arrived to assess the railroad facilities in the beachhead, estimate damage to rails and yards, and locate available locomotives. Using a Jeep equipped with flanged wheels, the detachment surveyed the lines from the landing area to the port of Cherbourg. On 2 July, the 729th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Normandy and took over operations at the Cherbourg terminals. Assisted by French engine crews and volunteers, the American railroaders repaired roundhouses, shop buildings, engines, and rolling stock while Army engineers cleared the rail line from Cherbourg to Carentan. Nine days after arriving in France, the 729th operated the first passenger train between the two cities.

The 720th Railway Operating Battalion (Chicago and North Western Railway) arrived in France on 15 July and began to rehabilitate and operate approximately sixty-two miles of track between Bayeux and Lisieux. Three days later, the 757th Railway Shop Battalion (Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad) went to work at Cherbourg. In August, another three operating battalions and two more shop battalions arrived. By the end of the month, the MRS was operating 1,006 miles of track and had carried 29,450 passengers on 251 trains and moved 136,169 tons of military freight on 991 trains.

On 15 August, the Allies landed in southern France. One of the goals of that operation was to open the ports of Toulon and Marseilles and establish a southern line of communications to augment the flow of equipment and supplies to the Allied armies in Europe. MRS troops supporting the operation came from Italy. Two of the most experienced operating battalions, the 713th and 727th, deployed to Marseilles and began operations at the end of August. Unlike the situations in Italy and northern France, the ports were not heavily damaged by Allied bombing or German demolitions. In October, the MRS operated 1,897 trains hauling 640,561 tons of freight in support of the Sixth Army Group. General Jacob Devers, commanding the army group, commended MRS troops when he wrote: “I want to send my congratulations to you and your splendid achievement in opening and maintaining the railroad system in southern France since the invasion of our forces.”

Grand divisions, operating battalions, and shop battalions continued to deploy to both northern and southern France to support the Allied forces rolling into Germany. As new battalions arrived, the ones already on the continent moved forward behind the advancing armies. In March 1945, the 729th, the first operating battalion to arrive in France, began transporting rail and construction material to Army engineers building a bridge over the Rhine River at Wesel, Germany. On 9 April, the 720th operated the first train across the new bridge. In its first thirty days of operation, 273,141 tons of freight moved east across the bridge while another 403,656 tons and 309,000 displaced persons moved west.

In May 1945, when the war in Europe ended, the MRS included seven grand divisions, twenty-four operating battalions, seven shop battalions, and a variety of depot and maintenance units as well as eight battalions and two separate companies of military police. Between D-Day at Normandy and V-E Day, MRS loaded and moved more than eighteen million tons of military freight. On 7 June 1945, American railroaders were operating 1,937 locomotives, 34,588 freight cars, and 25,150 miles of track in western Europe. Demobilization of railway units began shortly after V-E Day. The largest contingent of American soldier railroaders was in western Europe with more than 26,600 officers and enlisted men serving there by the end of the war. The last MRS unit, the 716th Railway Operating Battalion (Southern Pacific Company) left Europe in February 1946.

In addition to Europe and North Africa, MRS units operated railroads in India, Burma, and the Philippine Islands. Railway units in India supported construction of the Ledo Road and the airfield used for the airlift over the Himalaya Mountains that provided logistical support to the Chinese. They also supported British and the American forces fighting the Japanese in Burma. The 705th Railway Grand Division (Southern Pacific Company) oversaw military rail operations in India and Burma. The division, along with five railway operating battalions, the 721st (New York Central Railroad), 725th (Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company), 726th (Wabash Railroad Company), 745th (Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad), and 748th (Texas and Pacific Railway company) all sailed from Los Angeles aboard the SS Mariposa in December 1943. After thirty-one days at sea they arrived at Bombay, India, in January 1944 to begin operation of sections of the Bengal and Assam Railway.

In India, each of the five operating battalions managed an average of 133 miles of railway. By implementing American techniques, the tonnage carried by the Bengal and Assam Railway increased forty-six percent in the first twenty-six days after the MRS took over. Compared to American railroads, the Indian system was relatively primitive. A unique aspect of railroading in India was the use of elephants to switch cars when locomotives were not available. India also had little in the way of telegraph, telephone, or signal communications. American railroaders installed modern communications equipment to coordinate the increased train movements. They also added 100 miles of double track to facilitate traffic flow. The improvements paid off. Between February 1944 and September 1945, the MRS moved 6,217,143 tons of freight and operated 5,559 passenger trains. The last American railway units left India in October 1945.

There were no requirements for railway units in the Pacific Theater until the Allies reached the Philippine Islands in late 1944. Shortly after the amphibious landings on the island of Luzon in January 1945, a company of MRS troops arrived on the island and began to rehabilitate the rail lines so they could operate the Manila Railway Company. The railroad was in terrible condition due to lack of maintenance, American bombing, and Japanese destruction. While Army engineers rebuilt bridges along the rail line, railway troops repaired locomotives and railcars. The Manila Railway Company had about 712 miles of track on Luzon, but the American forces used only 234 of them designated the Luzon Military Railway. The first train on the line ran on 19 January for a distance of about thirty miles. Because there was no coal the locomotives burned driftwood, pulpwood, and coconut hulls.

Railway supplies began to reach Luzon in February, including locomotives, cars, shop machines, and track material. Eventually fifty-three American-built locomotives and 990 cars reached the island. Several mobile railway workshops deployed to Luzon in March, and in April, two operating battalions, the 737th (New York Central) and the 749th (New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad Company) arrived to operate sections of the Luzon Military Railway. By October, MRS troops in the Philippines reached its peak strength of 3,200 officers and enlisted men and 6,010 civilians. Between 1 June and 31 December, they operated a total of 7,410 trains with 48,131 cars. The Army returned control of the Luzon Military Railway back to the Manila Railway Company on 1 January 1946, and the last MRS personnel left the Philippines three months later.

The Military Railway Service was a remarkable team effort made possible by the Affiliation Program the Army and American railroaders developed in the 1930s and implemented as the clouds of global war appeared on the horizon. During World War II the service operated and maintained railroads in Europe, North Africa, Asia, and the Pacific that totaled more than 22,000 miles. Some 43,500 soldier-railroaders, most of whom brought years of experience with them, served in the Army in every theater of operations moving personnel and freight, often under enemy fire and through extreme weather conditions. Their efforts proved vital to the Allied victory.


2000-present day

Metros and monorails are thriving within cities. Online ticketing system started in 2000’s and is one of the major ways of booking train ticket, today. 4.5 billion km was additionally covered in just ten years (2001-2010). Now, the train tracks cover more than 120,000 km of area in India and special amenities like Wi-Fi, customer information system, ergogenic designs and green technologies have taken Indian Railways to the next level.

Recent developments of railway system include technological amenities in unreserved class, high horsepower electric locomotive, GPS based passenger information system, sliding doors, private catering services and many others. (Source)

There is always a next step for Indian Railway. By 2019, more than 7000 stations around the world would receive free Wi-Fi service. The technology team is diving deep into finding greener source of powers.


Wheelchairs

Most, if not all, TGV trains have dedicated spaces for wheelchairs, however, they are all located in the first class cars. But fear not, the price is that of second class, so you’ll not be paying extra to travel with a wheelchair. There’s even space for 2 fellow travellers, and the wheelchair area is located close to the wheelchair-accessible toilets.

Almost all stations in France are now fully equipped to accommodate wheelchairs, including ramps and elevators. But it’s important and highly recommendable that you notify the railroad that you are planning to travel with a wheelchair.


North Railway of France - History

  • 600 - The colony of Massalia is founded by the Ancient Greeks. This would later become the city of Marseille, the oldest city in France.
  • 400 - Celtic tribes begin to settle in the region.
  • 122 - Southeastern France (called Provence) is taken over by the Roman Republic.
  • 52 - Julius Caesar conquers Gaul (most of modern day France).




The Storming of the Bastille


Napoleon is Defeated in Russia

Brief Overview of the History of France

The land that today makes up the country of France has been settled for thousands of years. In 600 BC, a portion of the Greek Empire settled in Southern France and founded the city that is today Marseille, the oldest city in France. At the same time, Celtic Gauls were becoming prominent in other areas of France. The Gauls would sack the city of Rome in 390 BC. Later, the Romans would conquer Gaul and the area would become a productive part of the Roman Empire until the 4th century.


In the 4th century, the Franks, which is where the name France comes from, began to take power. In 768 Charlemagne united the Franks and began to expand the kingdom. He was named the Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope and is today considered the founder of both the French and German monarchies. The French monarchy would continue to be a great power in Europe for the next 1000 years.

In 1792, the French Republic was proclaimed by the French Revolution. This didn't last long, however, as Napoleon grabbed power and made himself Emperor. He then proceeded to conquer most of Europe. Napoleon was later defeated and in 1870 the Third Republic was declared.

France suffered greatly in both World War I and World War II. During World War II France was defeated and occupied by the Germans. Allied forces liberated the country in 1944 after four years of German rule. A new constitution was set up by Charles de Gaulle and the Fourth Republic was formed.


“Cock o’ the North”

COMPETITION is always stimulating. There is no question that the competition of other forms of transport has stirred the locomotive engineers considerably. Diesel rail- cars, for example, have established a new mode of high speed transport on rails. Electrification, where traffic conditions are sufficiently dense to warrant the heavy expenditure involved, has been carried out on an extensive scale. Competition from outside the railways, on the roads, and in the air has to be fought unceasingly.

But “King Coal” is determined to hold his own. On a thermal efficiency basis the steam locomotive of traditional design does not rank very high. Even in the best conditions, not much more than seven per cent of the heat units developed by the burning of the coal on the locomotive fire- grate is turned into useful work in moving the locomotive and its train.

There are, as previously explained, many reasons to account for this figure. The use of the exhaust steam to furnish a draught for the fire necessarily means that power for the purpose must be thrown to waste out of the chimney, whereas in a stationary power- station the steam would be condensed, and its heat, at least, would be trapped. Similarly the limitations imposed in length and diameter on the locomotive boiler involve the loss up the chimney of much of the heat from the fire.

Some years ago the locomotive engineers of the Paris- Orleans Railway of France made an exhaustive study of all the features of locomotive design which have a bearing on efficiency. Their study concentrated on the “flow” of the steam from the time it left the boiler until the moment of its rejection, as exhaust, from the chimney. It was realized that much could be done by the use of larger and more direct steam- pipes and passages, and of improved inlet and exhaust valves to the cylinders, to facilitate that flow. Measures could also be taken to speed up the circulation of the water in the boiler, and this would increase the capacity to raise steam.

An existing “Pacific” locomotive was rebuilt in the Paris- Orleans workshops at Tours to embody the results of this research. The effect was startling. The reconditioned engine, though weighing no more than one of the London and North Eastern “Pacifics”, created new standards of combined speed and weight haulage on what was already a very speedy line. It was proved that trains weighing over 800 tons could be hauled not merely to scheduled time but well within it.

HERALD OF A NEW ORDER. The striking appearance of the great LNER locomotive is indicative of the revolutionary changes in design that she embodies. The “Cock o’ the North” was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

A series of these earlier “Pacifics” was reconditioned, and the next experiment was to convert another “Pacific” to the 4- 8- 0 wheel arrangement, with a similar boiler, cylinders, and valves, for working over the extremely difficult route through Central France from Vierzon (to which point the trains are worked electrically from Paris) to Toulouse. Again the results were successful.

These developments attracted attention all over France. Other French railways followed suit, and as some of the Paris- Orleans steam locomotive stock was becoming superfluous, owing to the extension of main line electrification from Paris to Tours as well as Vierzon, the Paris- Orleans rebuilt many more of its “Pacifics” for transfer to the Nord and the Est Companies. The news of these Paris- Orleans transformations spread to England when the London and North Eastern Railway was about to build new locomotives for service over the heavily- graded east coast main line between Edinburgh and Aberdeen.

This is one of the most difficult main routes, from the locomotive point of view, in Great Britain. Gradients as steep as 1 in 70 abound. There are also numerous sharp curves demanding reductions of speed, most of them at the beginning of long adverse gradients so that the drivers are compelled to slow down severely just when they are in most need of the impetus for the climb that follows.

THE LEADING DIMENSIONS of this 110- ton locomotive, as given in these diagrams were supplied by the courtesy of the LNER Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Department.

From Inverkeithing, for example, after slowing round the curve to twenty miles an hour, drivers of south- bound trains have an ascent for two miles at 1 in 70 on to the Forth Bridge, and north- bound trains face a similar, though shorter, grade up to Dalgetty.

From every intermediate stop, also, the trains have to accelerate up steep gradients, in some cases, indeed - as in both directions from Arbroath and Montrose, and southwards from Aberdeen - long and arduous climbs. The consequence has been that most of the heavy modern East Coast expresses have needed “double- heading” - that is, the provision of an assistant locomotive - over this section. The new type of engine had to be sufficiently powerful to obviate this.

It was decided that to give an increased tractive force to enable the engines to get away more rapidly from these frequent stops and slowings, and also to move these heavy trains at higher speeds up the banks, the driving wheels should be reduced in diameter from the 6 ft 8 in of the “Pacifics” to 6 ft 2 in, and the diameter of the cylinders increased from the 19 in of the high- pressure “Pacifics” to 21 in. The next essential was to provide greater adhesion, so that this increased power might be transmitted to the rails without slipping, and the decision was made to use eight- coupled instead of six- coupled driving wheels.

These points are important, as “Cock o’ the North” was not designed, as has been widely supposed, for high- speed long- distance running, but for the difficult conditions of the Edinburgh- Aberdeen route. It was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

However desirable it might have been to provide the engine with a leading four- wheeled bogie, the increased length would have made it necessary to replace the turntables along the route by tables of larger diameter. It was not thought necessary to incur this additional expense, and the locomotive was therefore designed, like the “Moguls”, with a two- wheeled radial truck at the leading end. Another pair of wheels at the rear end carries the immense firebox, and the wheel arrangement of the engine is thus the 2- 8- 2, or “ikado” type, as it is generally known.

Examination of the internal economy of the “Cock o’ the North” shows that the designer of this notable locomotive - Mr. H. N. Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the LNER, - has adapted to British conditions certain of the principles which proved so effective on the Paris- Orleans Railway, and has incorporated them in the engine.

THE TENDER contains an automatic water pickup apparatus (shown dotted) to the left of the coal- space.

HEAD- ON DIMENSIONS should be compared with the fine view of this locomotive shown below.

The fine sectional picture of the engine, which appears below, reveals what a mass of detail has been crowded within the smooth external casing of the locomotive. It also shows the difficulties experienced by the designer of the modern locomotive in compressing, within the narrow limits of the British loading gauge, all the working parts of an engine capable of exerting over 2,000 hp on the draw- bar of it train.

The magnificent centre- spread to this photogravure supplement: a fine broadside photograph of No.2001 and a corresponding sectioned cut- away drawing of the locomotive. In addition to the explanatory tabs, there are a further 52 numbered items, each identified by the key in the top right hand corner of the centre- spread.

At a working pressure of 220 lb per sq in, steam passes from the boiler through a series of long narrow slots up into a cavity of pressed steel, which has been riveted on to the top of the boiler at the rear of the dome. From the regulator the steam passes into a main steam- pipe having the unusually large diameter of 7 in. The next stage of its journey is through a 43- element superheater, from which it is led down to the cylinders.

Large poppet- valves of 8- in diameter admit the steam to the cylinders, and 9- in valves are provided for the exhaust the valves are worked by a rotary cam arrangement, instead of the ordinary Walschaerts valve- motion.

The last stage of the journey of the steam is into a blast pipe which branches into two, leading up to a double chimney which has three telescopic sections from the bottom to the top, and is known as the “K.C.” blast- pipe, after its designer, Monsieur K. Chapelon [ sic ], of the Paris- Orleans Railway.

All these arrangements so facilitate the passage of the steam that the engine is capable of doing high- speed work with heavy trains at no more than ten per cent cut- off - that is to say, steam is admitted for one- tenth of the stroke only, and for the remaining nine- tenths does its work by expansion.

FACTS AND FIGURES OF THE “COCK O' THE NORTH”. Cylinders (three) diameter 21in stroke 26 in. Driving wheels, diameter 6 ft 2 in. Heating surface, tubes and flues, 2,477 sq ft firebox, 237 sq ft superheater, 776.5 sq ft total, 3,490.5 sq ft. Firegrate area, 50 sq ft. Working pressure, per sq in, 220 lb. Tractive effort (at 85 per cent working pressure), 43,460 lb. Adhesion weight, 80½ tons. Weight of engine (in working order) 110¼ tons. Coal capacity of tender, 8 tons. Water, 5,000 gals. Weight of engine and tender, 165½ tons. Length of engine and tender (overall), 73 ft 8½ in.

One result of this ultra- short cut- off working is that the pressure at which the steam is finally exhausted is very low, and there would be a tendency for it to drift along the top level of the boiler and obscure the front windows of the driver’s cab, were special precautions not taken to prevent this. It is here that the external casing at the front end of the engine, with its wings on either side of the smoke- box, serves both as streamlining and also to make a strong up- current of ail when the engine is running at speed, which lifts the exhaust steam from the double chimney, and carries it well clear of the cab.

The cab- front also is V- shaped, to assist in the streamlining effect, but, despite the enormous size of the boiler, there is an excellent look- out ahead. Inside the external boiler casing there is found another aid to efficiency in the feed- water heater, of the A.C.F.I. type, which uses some of the exhaust steam in order to heat up the feed- water on its way from the tender into the boiler. This means that less heat is required inside the boiler to convert the feed- water into steam.

A novelty is provided in the shape of a chime whistle in front of the chimney, which was the only convenient place in which it could be put. The tender is of the standard LNER eight- wheeled type. “Cock o’ the North” is the heaviest locomotive built, up to the time of writing, for passenger service in Great Britain, and weighs 110¼ tons in running trim with the tender the total weight is 165½ tons.

Shortly after the “Cock o’ the North” had emerged from Doncaster Works, a test run was made, with a train weighing 650 tons, from King’s Cross to Barkstone, just beyond Grantham, and back. The long gradient to Stoke Summit, partly at 1 in 200 and partly at 1 in 178, was surmounted at an average speed of a mile- a- minute for the whole distance, and without speed at any time falling below 56 miles an hour. The engine developed at the draw- bar the hitherto unprecedented figure for Great Britain of 2,090 hp.

Whether we like it or not, locomotive fashions are fast altering. Both internally and externally revolutionary changes are being made, and from recent developments - of which the “Cock o’ the North” is only one example - it is clear that we must accustom ourselves to locomotives unlike those which have become familiar.

Those who lament the radical external changes in locomotive design sometimes forget that higher and even higher speeds are being called for in this hurrying age. The greater the speed the more potent is the resistance of the air through which the vehicle passes. Streamlining has become essential for all vehicles designed for rapid motion, and we must expect, therefore, that streamlining should be extended to the steam locomotives of the future. It is not the aim of the designer merely to obtain higher speeds. If he can lessen the resistance at high speeds coal consumption will be reduced, and efficiency will be increased proportionately. The “Cock o’ the North” is one of the heralds of the new order of things in the locomotive world.

FROM THE FRONT the feature of the “Cock o’ the North” that chiefly interests the layman is the pair of side- plates, curving upwards to form “shoulders”. The object of these side- plates is to aid visibility from the cab- windows when the engine is running. Owing to the shape of the side- plates a strong current of air sweeps upwards, carrying the exhaust steam and smoke with it clear of the cab- windows.


Kyk die video: A Historian Reacts - History Summarized: Scotland by Overly Sarcastic Productions (Mei 2022).