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Curtiss XP-46

Curtiss XP-46

Curtiss XP-46

Die XP-46 was een van 'n reeks pogings om die prestasie van die P-40 Warhawk te verbeter, waarvan nie een in produksie gekom het nie. Die werk aan die XP-46 is in September 1939 begin. Dit het 'n kragtiger Allison V-1710-39-enjin gebruik wat by die opstart 1,150 pk kon lewer. Die ontwerp is skoongemaak om die weerstand te verminder, en 'n topsnelheid van meer as 400 mph is voorspel.

Die XP-46A, sonder gewere, het die eerste keer op 15 Februarie 1941 gevlieg. Die prestasie was nie naastenby so goed soos verwag nie-die topsnelheid was slegs 355 mph op 12.000 voet. Dit was slegs 'n geringe verbetering in vergelyking met die van die P-40D wat destyds in produksie was, beslis nie 'n groot genoeg verbetering om produksie te onderbreek nie, en daarom is die werk aan die XP-46 laat vaar.


Curtiss XP-62

Die sukses van Curtiss Aeroplane met die aflewering van 'n Amerikaanse weermagvegter was in die klassieke P-40 "Warhawk" -lyn. Dit was egter deur en deur 'n vooroorlogse ontwerp en baie pogings van die onderneming om bykomende weermagkontrakte in die vegterrein te bekom, het uiteindelik misluk. Daar was ook pogings om die oorspronklike P-40-produk self te verbeter, en dit het ook tevergeefs gegaan toe mededingers soos Lockheed, Republiek en Noord-Amerika ingedring het om die potensieel winsgewende weermagooreenkomste op die tafel te kry.

Die XP-62 is deur Curtiss ontwerp om 'n baie vinnige vegplatform te bou rondom die destyds grootste radiale suier-enjin wat beskikbaar was-die Wright R-3350 "Cyclone 18". Die werk het begin nog voordat die Verenigde State hom sou verbind tot die Wêreldoorlog wat in Desember 1941 plaasgevind het. Gedurende Januarie van daardie jaar het Curtiss die Amerikaanse weermagowerhede met sy planne genader en hulle oortuig van die potensiaal van die vegter, en daarin geslaag om finansiering vir die probeer voor die einde van die maand.

Die sikloon -enjin was reeds aan die gang, in 1936 begin, maar dit was heeltemal temperamenteel tot die mate dat vertragings algemeen was. Behalwe sy groot grootte, het die enjin 'n nominale kapasiteit van meer as 2 000 perdekrag en was dit die beste gebruik as die dryfveer vir die beroemde Boeing B-29 "Superfortress" swaar bomwerper wat nog sou kom (hierdie bomwerper het vier sulke enjins gebruik). Interessant genoeg was die gebruik daarvan om 'n meer kompakte vegvliegtuig aan te dryf, wat hom ongeëwenaarde snelheids- en prestasiefaktore gegee het. Gedurende hierdie tydperk was die Wright-produk een van die kragtigste in sy soort-die Wright R-3350-17-model is gekies om die XP-62-ontwerp aan te dryf en meer as 2300 perdekrag te lewer. 'N Turbo-aanjaer sou ook deel uitmaak van die enjin se installasie. As gevolg van die kragte wat gespeel word, sou 'n kontra-roterende skroef met 'n groot deursnee (meer as 13 voet) aan die voorkant van die vliegtuig aangebring word.

Behalwe sy massiewe radiaal, sou die vliegtuig moderne metaalvelkonstruksie hê, 'n kajuit onder druk vir vlug op groot hoogte en 'n indrukwekkende bewapening van 12 x 0,50 kaliber Browning-swaar masjiengewere. Alternatiewelik kan die masjiengewere vervang word deur 'n battery van vier tot agt 20 mm kanonne vir 'n nog kragtiger "punch" aan die voorkant.

Die eindproduk het 'n stewige eenvliegtuig geword met 'n diep romp met sy turbo-aanjaer-inlaatkanaal wat onder die neus aangebring is, en buiswerk word gebruik om lug na die eenheid te stuur. 'N Verhoogde romprug agter die kajuit beperk uitsig na agter, maar voeg 'n interne volume by vir brandstof, lugvaart en ander belangrike komponente. Die kajuit was bedek met 'n kweekhuisstyl en net agter die enjininstallasie. Die sterteenheid het bestaan ​​uit 'n afgeronde vertikale stertvin wat uit die ruggraat sowel as middelste horisontale vliegtuie kom. Die onderstel was van die tipiese stert-sleep-opstelling en heeltemal intrekbaar. In plaas van die beoogde masjiengeweer, was die bewapening nou spesifiek gerig op die hele kanonbewapening - soveel as agt.

Curtiss het die vliegtuig ontwikkel onder die produknaam "Model 91" en het in April 1940 sy vaartbelynde voorstel ingedien. laat 1942. Terwyl Curtiss -ingenieurs aan die werk gegaan het, is dit gou ontdek dat die lastige enjin nie betyds gereed sou wees nie.

Ten spyte hiervan was 'n bespreking beskikbaar vir hersiening gedurende Desember 1941. Teen hierdie tyd het die gewig van die produk opgeblaas en is beveel om dit ligter te maak (dit het gelei tot 'n kanonbewapening van 4 x 20 mm volgens die ooreengekome standaard). Die weermag het Curtiss in Mei 1942 'n amptelike produksiekontrak gegee om die afgehandelde P-62A te vervaardig. Hierdie kontrak is egter so vroeg as Julie herroep toe die Boeing B-29-projek die geselekteerde Wright-enjinvoorraad benodig. Weermagowerhede was ook bekommerd oor die ontwrigting van die Curtiss-verbintenis tot die vervaardiging van sy P-40 en die Republiek P-47 "Thunderbolt" -vegters.

Die XP-62-prototipe het in 'n verminderde toestand voortgegaan, aangesien dit nie meer die dringendheid van die vorige tyd was nie. Die eerste vlug is uiteindelik op 21 Julie 1943 aangeteken, maar hierdie model is nog steeds van die belangrikste komponente gestroop en nie verteenwoordigend van enigiets naby 'n produksie -vegvliegtuig nie. Binne 'n paar maande is die XP-62-program ten volle gekanselleer (wat op 21 September 1943 plaasgevind het), aangesien beter alternatiewe vir die weermag beskikbaar was in die laaste jare van die oorlog. Curtiss het probeer om die weermag te oortuig van die verdienste om die nuwe vliegtuig om te skakel na 'n grondaanvalplatform op 'n lae hoogte, maar daar was reeds baie mededinging op hierdie gebied van bestaande effektiewe tipes sowel as ontwikkelingsmodelle.

Uiteindelik was die XP-62 een van die laaste Curtiss-produkte wat gedurende die oorlogsjare verskyn het. Die P-40-ontwerp was sy enigste klassieke vegterbydrae en is nooit verbeter voor die einde van die konflik nie. Slegs 'n enigste prototipe van die XP-62 is gerealiseer en die vlugtyd was net van korte duur. As dit voltooi is, sou die XP-62 'n maksimum spoed van tot 450 myl per uur vertoon het (die oorspronklike spesifikasie was nader aan 470mph), 'n reikafstand tot 1500 myl en 'n diensplafon van 35.700 voet (vandaar die drukstelsel van die kajuit) - wat ook problematies was). Die afmetings het 'n lengte van 39,5 voet, 'n vlerkspan van 54 voet en 'n hoogte van 16,25 voet ingesluit.


Curtiss C-46: Kommando gaan

Die Curtiss C-46 Commando het die swaargewigkampioen van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geword.

© John M. Dibbs/The Plane Picture Company

Die Curtiss C-46 het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog 'n nis gevul vir 'n swaar sleepwa op groot hoogte wat vanaf rowwe vliegbane in verafgeleë plekke kon werk

Hulle noem dit die Curtiss Calamity, Ol 'Dumbo, die Flying Whale en, meer onlangs, Miss Piggy. Die C-46 Commando was die grootste tweemotorige vliegtuig ter wêreld toe dit die eerste keer gevlieg het-langer, langer en met 'n groter vlerkspan as 'n B-17 of B-24. Om 'n C-46 te vlieg, was om te worstel met 20 tot 26 ton aluminium en staal, afhangende van die model en modusse. Daar was vlieëniers wat gesê het dat as jy 'n C-46 kan vlieg, jy enigiets kan vlieg. Ander beweer dat as jy dit kan taxi, jy dit kan vlieg. Nog ander noem dit 'n ellendige grondloop -sonofabitch en wou niks daarmee te doen hê nie.

Curtiss het oorspronklik die C-46 ontwerp om 'n luukse vliegtuig onder druk te wees met genoeg reikafstand om die goue roete tussen New York en Chicago ononderbroke en bo die meeste weersomstandighede te vlieg. Dit sou 'n 24- tot 36-sitplek "sub-stratosfeer-vervoer" wees, het die bemarkers van die onderneming optimisties voorspel, met die opsie om met kruisliggies slaapplekke opgestel te word. Maar dit sal nooit onder druk wees nie, nooit luuks wees nie, nooit 'n ware vliegtuig wees nie. Op sy beste is honderde kommando's van oorlogsoorskot aan die einde van die veertigerjare en vroeë vyftigerjare bedryf deur nie-geskeduleerde vrag- en passasiersvervoerders. Nadat die regering $ 313,500 elk gekos het, is C-46's as surplus verkoop vir so min as $ 5,000.

Toe die ontwerp van die Curtiss CW-20-vliegtuig in 1936 begin, was oorlog 'n verre bedreiging vir die nie-intervensionistiese Verenigde State, en die Douglas DC-3 het reeds die moontlikheid van ernstige kommersiële lugreise getoon. Die Doug het die Boeing 247 en Curtiss se tweekleppige tweestoel-intrekbare Condor II-tweedekker verouder. Curtiss kyk na toekomstige mededinging van Boeing se viermotorige 307 Stratoliner en die Douglas DC-4.

In die 1920's en 30's was Curtiss 'n enkelmotorige vegvliegtuigmaatskappy, met 'n lang reeks tweevliegtuie vir die weermag en vloot, en daarna die P-36 en P-40 Hawk-vegters vir die Army Air Corps en uitvoer. Die CW-20 Condor III was verreweg die grootste en mees komplekse ontwerp wat die onderneming ooit onderneem het.

In beheer was 'n produktiewe ingenieur, George A. Page Jr., wat uiteindelik 60 Curtiss -ontwerpe gelei het. Page was 'n pionier -vlieënier, nadat hy in 1913 solo's gespeel het, en hy het selfs kort as vlieënier gewerk. Die kommando was die hoogtepunt van sy loopbaan. Sy CW-20-ontwerp is breedvoerig getoets in die windtunnel van Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratories van 10 voet in Caltech. Tunneltoetsing het hom aangemoedig om ongewone nacelle te ontwerp vir die C-46, met kapdekke net op die onderste helfte van die peule. Dit het vermy dat turbulente koel lugvloei oor die boonste hefoppervlakke van die vlerke gevoer word.

Die windtunnel het ook een van die belangrikste kenmerke van die CW-20/C-46 geverifieer-die vaartbelynde, onstabiele kajuitglas wat die Commando sy perfekte sigaarvorm gegee het. 'N Klein aantal C-46's is gebou met konvensionele voorruite, dit staan ​​bekend as 'n gebreekte neus-kommando.

Die ander kenmerkende Commando-kenmerk wat Page by Caltech bevestig het, was die dubbele borrel van die vliegtuig met 'n syfer-agt deursnit. Die CW-20 was onder druk om te kompeteer met die Boeing 307, die wêreld se eerste vliegtuig onder druk. Curtiss wou ook hê dat die CW-20 'n groot, aparte bagasiebak onder die hoofkajuit moes hê, 'n innovasie vir daardie era. Om 'n ruim kajuit en 'n aanvullende vragarea binne 'n enkele sirkelvormige deursnit te omvat - die ideaal vir druk - sou 'n romp skep met 'n groot frontarea en sodoende groter vormweerstand. So skets Page 'n gedeeltelike sirkel wat stewig vasgemaak is aan 'n wye vloer om die passasierskajuit te bevat, en 'n aparte kleiner eiervormige gebied, wat van onder op die vloer geheg is, vir die bagasie -area sonder druk.

Die resultaat was veral minder trek, maar dit was 'n nuttelose oefening. Curtiss het nie tyd gehad om 'n drukstelsel te ontwikkel te midde van die oorlogstydse eise nie, en na die oorlog het 'n gebrek aan belangstelling in die lugredery in 'n burgerlike weergawe van die vliegtuig die onderneming sonder rede gelaat. Geen CW-20 of C-46 is ooit onder druk geplaas nie.

Die CW-20-prototipe het 'n lang aluminium kuip om die vou tussen kajuit en bagasieruim te verberg, maar die ekstra metaal weeg 275 pond, verhoog die vervaardigingskompleksiteit en doen niks aerodinamies nie. Dit was vinnig ses-en-tagtig en het die C-46 se kenmerkende rompvorm naak gelaat. Page is 'n ontwerppatent toegestaan ​​op die konfigurasie van die CW-20, net soos Coca-Cola wat die vorm van sy bottel met 'n wesp-middel patenteer. Dit is onduidelik hoe Boeing die patent omseil het om die dubbelborrel Model 377 Stratocruiser net vyf jaar later te skep, hoewel Boeing en Douglas die dubbelborrel 707 en DC-8 ontwerp het nadat die Curtiss-patent verstryk het.


C-46's was onder krag totdat Curtiss hul 1.700-pk Wright Twin Cyclones vervang het met 2.000 pk Pratt & Whitney Double Wasps. (Nasionale Argief)

In Maart 1940 neem die Boeing -toetsvlieënier, Eddie Allen, die groot Curtiss vir sy eerste vlug. Allen was verreweg die mees ervare motorvliegtuigvliegtuig in die land en het tientalle eerste vlugte in alles onderneem, van die Douglas DC-2 tot die Boeing 314-vlieënboot. In die klubwêreld van Weskus -vliegtuie was hy vry om af en toe vryskut te wees.

Teen daardie tyd het oorlogswolke opgeduik, en Curtiss het die CW-20 agter in die hoofbuffel van Buffalo, NY, geparkeer terwyl dit die produksie van P-40's vir die Britte verhoog het. Volgens die legende het majoor-generaal Henry "Hap" Arnold, terwyl hy in September 1940 op vliegtuigvervaardigingsfasiliteite gereis het, Curtiss besoek, die CW-20 gesien en vermoedelik verklaar: "Ek wil die vliegtuig hê." Sedertdien het die lugkorps reeds die prototipe gekoop en dit getoets-onder die aanwysing van C-55-dit was waarskynlik toe Arnold bewus geword het van sy vrag- en troepedragpotensiaal.

Ongelukkig was die C-55 'n rou, onvoltooide prototipe. Die enigste wesenlike verandering wat Curtiss gemaak het na die aanvanklike vlugtoetsing, was om die oorspronklike tweelingstert te vervang met die kommando se groot vertikale vin en roer Eddie Allen het gekla oor lae spoedstabiliteit en enkelmotorige hantering. Die Air Corps het die C-55 teruggestuur na Buffalo met 'n lang lys nodige oplossings en mods, maar Hap Arnold se vraag na die ontwerp het gelei tot 'n bestelling van 200 van wat die C-46 sou word.

Die eerste 25 C-46's wat afgelewer is, was eenvoudig CW-20's met 'n kaal binnekant. Die 26ste sluit 'n belangrike verandering in: Curtiss se 1,700 pk Wright R-2600 Twin Cyclone-enjins was verby, vervang deur die beste, betroubaarste groot radiaal wat ooit gebou is-Pratt & amp; Whitney se R-2800 dubbele wesp van 2 000 pk. Met sy tweestadige aanjaer, het die R-2800 hierdie eerste ware Commando-hoëvermoë gegee wat geskik was vir 'n vliegtuig onder druk.

Hoogteprestasie was die sleutel tot die groot bydrae van die C-46 tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog: dit was die enigste vragvliegtuig op groot hoogte wat beskikbaar was om die Himalaja oor te steek op die beroemde "Hump" -roete tussen China en Birma-Indië, lugvaart lewer aan die weermag van Chiang Kai-Shek nadat die Japannese die Birma-pad gesluit het. C-47's het u gewerk om die wat Hump-vlieëniers die Rockpile genoem het, oor te steek, en uiteindelik sou die viermotorige C-54 die gewilde hefboom word wanneer Japannese terugtogte 'n Hump-roete op 'n laer hoogte oopmaak. C-46's het egter die grootste deel van die Hump-bolaagwerk gedoen tydens die eerste jare van die heraanbodroete.

Maar die C-46 was niemand se gunsteling nie. Een-en-dertig van die 230 kommando's wat op die Hump-roetes gebruik is-meer as 13 persent van die vloot-het in vlug ontplof. Daar word lank gedink dat drome van 55 liter avgasvrag die oorsaak was, en hoe vurig die gelaaide oostelike vlug na China was, die C-46-spanne sou nie die kajuitverwarmer raak voordat hulle leeg na Indië teruggekeer het nie. skoon van gasdampe. Uiteindelik is ontdek dat brandstof deur klein lekplekke in die vlerkenks en brandstofleidings in die C-46 se ongedwonge vleuelwortels saamgevoeg is, waar 'n verdwaalde vonk dit uiteindelik sou veroorsaak. Na die oorlog is alle C-46's aangepas met behoorlike vents, vonklose brandstofversterkingspompe en afskermde bedrading van die vleuel.


'N C-46 pak sy bekendste uitdaging aan, die & quotHump & quot-roete deur die Himalaja tussen Indië en China. (Nasionale Argief)

Kommando's het ook 'n reputasie gekry vir die sluiting van brandstofleidings op hoogte wanneer 'n bemanning probeer om van tenk te skakel. Die enigste oplossing was om af te daal en weer te begin, wat skaars 'n opsie in die Himalajas was. Na-oorlogse burgerlike C-46's het almal dompelpompe vir elektriese brandstof in hul tenks geïnstalleer om brandstof met geweld deur 'n dampborrel te druk.

Ontelbare gepubliseerde bronne noem vergasserversiersel as 'n C-46 bugaboo tydens Hump-operasies, maar dit is 'n verkeerde benaming. Vir 'n vlieënier beteken 'vergasser-versiersel' interne obstruksie van 'n vergasser deur vogbelaaide lug wat skielik deur verkoeling deur die koolhidraatventurie afgekoel word, wat die vogtige lug na ys verander. Wat Kommando's eintlik teëgekom het - en wat hulle gereeld in die Himalajas gedoen het - was versiersel of fisiese obstruksie van die eksterne vergasser van die vergasser deur sneeu, ysreën en onderverkoelde reën. Stik die induksie -lugbron van 'n suier -enjin af en dit is buite werking. Die enigste oplossing is 'n vinnige seleksie van 'alternatiewe lug' uit 'n sekondêre luginlaat in die warm enjin, voordat die groot Pratt sterf. Dit kan 'n uitdaging wees om 'n warm maar dooie R-2800 op 20.000 voet weer te begin.

Die C-46 se vierbladige Curtiss-elektriese stutte was ook 'n gevaar. Die elektriese kontakte het in die vogtige Indië gekorrodeer, en die rekwisiete sou skielik te vinnig versnel. "Dit was SOP tydens die opstyg vir die vlieënier om sy vingers op die skakelaars van die oorheersingstelsel te hê, ingeval die rekwisiete te vinnig spoed," het die voormalige kommando -vlieënier Don Downie in sy uitstekende boek geskryf Die bult vlieg. C-46's het uiteindelik drie-lem Hamilton-Standard-skroewe gekry, en een van die belangrikste redes waarom daar nog so min kommando's vlieg, is dat die groot rekwisiete vandag so skaars is dat dit in wese onvervangbaar is.

Die vliegtuig was ook 'n onderhoudsvark, hoofsaaklik vanweë die lekkende hidrouliese stelsel. Op Bult-reise sou vaardige bemanningshoofde 'n drom van 55 liter hidrouliese vloeistof saamneem om te verseker dat hulle genoeg het om die stelsel op te vul tydens die ommekeer in China. Onder die vele ander byname is die Kommando dus Leaky Tiki genoem. Omdat Curtiss aangeneem het dat so 'n groot vliegtuig aangedrewe kontroles benodig, het dit hidrouliese stelsels wat die ailerons, hysbak en roer bestuur, sowel as die landingsgestel en kleppe. Die beheer-hupstootstelsels is uiteindelik verwyder, en die C-46 blyk goed te vlieg sonder hulle. Alhoewel ten minste een C-46 Hump-vlieënier gesê het dat die toewysing van 'n C-47-rit "was soos om 'n sportmotor te bestuur"-lofprysinge wat miskien nog nooit vantevore op die Gooney Bird toegepas is nie.

'N Kommando het tipies die bult gevlieg met 'n bemanning van drie — twee vlieëniers en 'n radiooperateur. Ten spyte van talle bronne wat beweer dat C-46's vliegtuigingenieurs gehad het, is daar nie so 'n posisie in die kajuit nie. Dikwels sal 'n bemanning ook 'n bemanningshoof insluit wat as 'n gekombineerde vragmeester en werktuigkundige optree.

Aan die ander kant van die bemanningspektrum is af en toe C-46's deur veral ervare vlieëniers oor die Rockpile gelaai. Al die bedieningselemente en stelsels van die vliegtuig was toeganklik vanaf die linker sitplek, anders as die C-47, wat uit die stoel van die vlieënier gesleep is vir maklike toegang tot die kapkleppe. Die C-46 het ook 'n deurdagte kenmerk wat die laai van vragte baie gehelp het: die kajuitvloer net binne-in die groot vragdeur was gelyk toe die vliegtuig geparkeer was. 'N Vurkhyser-of, soos soms in Indië die geval was, 'n olifant met 'n petrolvat toegedraai in die kattebak-het 'n plat vloer gekry eerder as die opdraande kant van 'n C-47. Die Commando het ook 'n besonder lang stertwielbeen, om die neiging van die opdraande vloer te parkeer.

Die historikus Barbara Tuchman blameer Madame Chiang Kai-Shek vir die mislukkings van die C-46. "The Dragon Lady het Roosevelt so onophoudelik vir meer vliegtuie gepla dat hy C-46's gestuur het voordat hulle gereed was," het Tuchman geskryf. Een C-46-vlieënier het aangehaal Die bult vlieg onthou dat sy 'n groot hoeveelheid Kotex vir Madame Chiang vervoer het en 'n paar goeie wyn uit Kalifornië vir haar man. " Dit op 'n tydstip toe drie Amerikaanse bemanningslede sterf vir elke duisend ton vrag wat na China ingevoer is, op missies wat aansienlik gevaarliker was as bomwerpers oor Europa.

Alhoewel C-46's tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog hoofsaaklik in die CBI-teater opereer, het hulle ook vrag oor die Suid-Atlantiese Oseaan vervoer, tussen Brasilië en Noord-Afrika en verder na Calcutta om oor die bult te gaan. Die Marine Corps het ook die Navy-weergawe van die C-46-die Curtiss R5C-1-gevlieg ter ondersteuning van die amfibiese veldtog van die Suid-Stille Oseaan.

Slegs 'n paar C-46's het in Europa gedien, veral tydens Operasie Varsity, die lugdrukkomponent van die Geallieerdes aan die einde van Maart 1945 oor die Ryn in Duitsland. Tydens die aanval is 19 van die 72 betrokke kommando's neergeskiet. C-47's het baie beter gevaar omdat hulle toegerus was met self-verseëlende brandstoftenks. Die C-46's het nie net standaard metaaltenks nie, hulle het steeds probleme ondervind met vlerkwortel. Duitse flak het hulle teen 'n gewetenlose tempo aangesteek, en aangesien baie afgevalde kommando's die hele klomp valskermsoldate saamgeneem het, het die Amerikaanse bevelvoerder, majoor genl. Matthew Ridgway, besluit dat die C-46's nooit weer 'n 82ste soldaat in die lug sou opneem nie.


Die kommandos se handelsvoorraad was die vermoë om groot hoeveelhede voorrade na afgeleë onvoorbereide vliegvelde soos hierdie, en ook oral in China, te vervoer. & Quot (National Archives)

Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was ver van die laaste van die C-46 se oorloë. 'N Aantal kommando's het deel geword van die lugmag van die Republiek van China, wat die Rooi Chinees van Mao bestry het, en verskeie het saam met die Franse lugmag in Indochina gedien, wat uiteindelik die voorraad laat val het tydens die oorlogsbeëindiging van Dien Bien Phu. Die Israeliese lugmag het kommando's gevlieg tydens die Arabies-Israeliese oorlog in 1948, met lisensie-geboude Messerschmitt Avia S-199-vegters uit Tsjeggo-Slowakye na Israel via Suid-Amerika en Noord-Afrika. C-46's was aktief in die Amerikaanse lugmag tydens die Koreaanse oorlog en in Viëtnam, waar een C-46, wat 152 Viëtnamese van Saigon na Bangkok vervoer het, die laaste vastevlerkvliegtuig was wat Suid-Viëtnam verlaat het voordat die land oorval is. Die Kommando is uiteindelik in 1968 by die USAF afgetree, alhoewel dit moontlik is dat Reserve-eenhede tot in 1972 nog 'n paar C-46's gebruik het.

Die Central Intelligence Agency was 'n jarelange C-46-gebruiker, beide in sy vals lugrederye-Air America en sy voorganger, die Chinese burgerlike lugvervoer (CAT)-sowel as in 'n verskeidenheid klandestiene bedrywighede. Die bekendste hiervan was die poging tot 'n inval in die baai van Pigs in Kuba in April 1961. Diegene wat die rampspoedige CIA-operasie onthou, sal 'n bont bemanning van warbirds onthou-T-33's, Sea Furys, B-26 Invaders-maar min onthou dit vyf C-46's was ook 'n belangrike deel van die anti-Castro-inval.

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog-bultbedrywighede het 'n C-46 sy eerste oorwinning in die luggeveg behaal toe kaptein Wally Gayda 'n Browning Automatic Rifle uit sy kajuitvenster steek en die hele tydskrif leegmaak by 'n aanvallende Nakajima Ki.43 Oscar. Gayda het die niksvermoedende vlieënier getref, en die Oscar het afgegaan. Tydens die Bay of Pigs-operasie het 'n C-46 die Kommando se tweede 'doodmaak' behaal. Die vervoer was op pad terug na die geheime Guatemala -basis van die CIA toe dit deur een van Castro's Hawker Sea Furies aangeval is. Iets het skeefgeloop, waarskynlik 'n te entoesiastiese te lae, te stadige stalletjie/draai, en die Hawker het die Karibiese Eilande ingevaar en die vlieënier doodgemaak.

Curtiss se C-46-ontwikkeling het geëindig in 1946, toe Eastern Air Lines sy bestelling vir CW-20E's, 'n voorgestelde Wright R-3350-aangedrewe variant van die Commando, gekanselleer het. Eastern het besef dat daar honderde goedkoop C-47's op die oorskotmark kom, en die Gooneys kon die kort-/mediumafstandroetes doeltreffender vlieg as die brandstofhonger C-46. Dit het Curtiss nietemin baie tyd gegee om naoorlogse tydskrifadvertensies te publiseer, met die stralende stewardesses wat die voorgestelde nuwe vliegtuig aandui: "Daarom is ek vir lugrederye wat met kommando vlieg!" Ons kan net aanneem dat die jong dames hul onderbroek aangehou het.

C-46-opgraderings het die spesialiteit geword van verskeie maatskappye wat meer kragtige R-2800-weergawes oorgeplant het en verskillende bruto-gewigopgraderings aangebring het. Die maksimum gewig van sommige C-46's, oorspronklik vliegtuie van 40 000 pond, het tot 52,500 pond gestyg.

Vragoperateurs was dol oor die enorme kajuitvolume en die hefvermoë van die Curtiss Calamity, en die C-46 was onder meer verantwoordelik vir die aanvang van onder meer Slick Airways. Earl Slick het 17 C-46's gekoop vir $ 14,500 stuk-sowat $ 175,000 in 2016 dollar-en dit begin gebruik om lang lengtes olieboorpyp vir Texas wildcatters te dra. Slick was binnekort die grootste lugvragvervoerder in die land.

Suid- en Sentraal -Amerikaanse lugrederye was ook mal oor die kommando, in lande waar lugvervoerders die enigste regte pad na die binneland was, waar berge volop was en waar baie vliegvelde hoog, kort en primitief was. Die kombinasie het my die enigste geleentheid gegee om 'n C-46 te vlieg. Tydens 'n reisopdrag in Costa Rica in 1968, bevind ek my aan boord van 'n Lacsa (vandag Avianca Costa Rica genoem) C-46. Ek was 'n nuwe privaat vlieënier en het 'n briefie na die kajuit gestuur waarin ek soveel aankondig. Die kaptein nooi my nie net vooruit nie, maar gly uit sy sitplek en nooi my om 'n rukkie te vlieg. Ek onthou min van die ervaring behalwe dat die halfsirkelvormige stuurwiel so groot was as 'n toiletsitplek.

Verskillende wêreld, verskillende tye.

Vir verdere leeswerk beveel die bydraende redakteur Stephan Wilkinson aan: Die bult vlieg, deur Jeff Ethell en Don Downie C-46 Kommando in aksie, deur Terry Love Bultvlieënier, deur Nedda R. Thomas en Over the Hump: The History of U.S. Air Force Airlift Operations, deur luitenant -generaal William H. Tunner.

Hierdie funksie verskyn oorspronklik in die Mei 2016 -uitgawe van Lugvaartgeskiedenis. Klik hier om in te teken!


Die vliegtuigvanCurtiss

Op aandrang van die Aeronautical Society of New York om dit te verteenwoordig in die Gordon Bennett Cup -wedloop in 1909.

Die eerste Curtiss-geboude vliegtuig wat as sodanig aangewys is, was die enkelsitplek-model wat op 2 Maart deur die Aeronautical Society of New York bestel is.

In 1909 besluit Glenn Curtiss om die $ 10 000 -prys wat die New York World -koerant vir die eerste keer uitgee het, te probeer.

Die eerste suksesvolle vlug van wat oorspronklik 'n hidro -aero -vliegtuig of bloot hidro genoem is, maar staan ​​nou bekend as 'n watervliegtuig,.

Die Model D was tipies van die relatief verouderde vliegtuigtipes wat destyds in die Verenigde State gebou is,.

Die tweede Curtiss -hidro was 'n opvallende uitsondering op die standaard -ontwerp. Die ongenoemde masjien wat Curtiss vir sy vlug gebruik het.

Die eerste Curtiss-vliegboot wat op 10 Januarie 1912 in San Diego probeer is, was meer 'n hidro as 'n ware boot. A.

Die definitiewe 1913 -model F is deur die Amerikaanse weermag sowel as die Amerikaanse vloot gebruik en aan verkoop.

Die Curtiss JN-4 tweesitplek tweedekker het spoedig die bynaam 'Jenny' gekry wat gedurende die tussenoorlogse jare wyd gebruik is. Dit was.

Aan die begin van 1915 verskyn die prototipe Curtiss Model R, wat in 1935 gegee is met die terugwerkende benaming.

Die S-2 was in wese die model S-1 met nuwe vlerke en 'n stutreëling wat die behoefte ontwrig het.

Vier voorbeelde van die Model L-2-drievliegtuig is gebou, drie vir die Amerikaanse vloot en een vir die Amerikaanse weermag.

Die oorspronklike Model S-1, ook bekend as Baby Scout, was die kleinste vliegtuig wat Curtiss rondom die 90 pk OX-enjin kon bou. Konstruksie.

Ten tyde van die konstruksie in 1915-16 was die Curtiss Model T-vliegboot die grootste seevliegtuig ter wêreld. .

Gedurende 1917 werk die US Navy Bureau of Construction and Repair saam met Glenn Curtiss in 'n poging om 'n.

In wese 'n drievlak-afgeleide van die S-2 Wireless (wat dui op 'n gebrek aan drade met vleuelstut), 'n ongewapende tweedelige "verkenner", die S-3 of "Triplane".

'N Verfynde weergawe van die S-3 met hersiene stutte wat die middelste gedeelte van die boonste vleuel en die wortelaanhegsels dra.

Die Curtiss H.16, waarvan die prototipe aan die einde van 1917 verskyn het, was die grootste en doeltreffendste Amerikaner.

Dit was 'n drievliegtuig soortgelyk aan die S-3 wat bedoel was as 'n watervliegtuigverkenner vir die Amerikaanse vloot. Dit was.

Vroeg in 1917, voor die verbod op privaat vlieg in die VSA in die oorlog, het die beroemde aviatrix wat Katherine Stinson vir Curtiss opdrag gegee het.

Gedurende 1917 het die Amerikaanse vloot 'n kontrak aan die Curtiss-onderneming uitgereik vir vyf enkel-sitplek-vegvliegtuie wat deur 'n.

Die CB (Curtiss Battleplane), nie-amptelik bekend as die 'Liberty Battler', was 'n eksperimentele tweesitplekvegter wat vroeg in 1918 ontwikkel en gevlieg is.

Ontwerp deur kapt B Smith van die US Marine Corps as 'n twee-sitplek patrollie-vegvliegtuig vir gebruik in die.

Die derde HA float fighter prototipe het aansienlike herontwerp as die HA-2 verpersoonlik. Aangedryf deur 'n 12-silinder Liberty 12 watergekoelde enjin,.

Die Curtiss 18-T tweesits-vegvliegtuig, ontwerp deur Charles B Kirkham, is op 30 Maart 1918 deur die Amerikaanse vloot bestel.

Die belangstelling van die Amerikaanse weermag in die 18-T het Curtiss aangespoor om dieselfde basiese ontwerp in twee-baai tweeklank-konfigurasie en 'n bestelling aan te bied.

Die eerste enkelstoelvegter van inheemse Amerikaanse ontwerp om produksiestatus te behaal, is die Model D bedoel rondom die Hispano-Suiza H van 300 pk.

Twee prototipes van die PN-1 is ontwerp deur die Amerikaanse weermag-ingenieursafdeling as 'n gespesialiseerde enkelvegter, en is deur Curtiss,.

Met die gewone wedywering tussen die Amerikaanse weermag en die Amerikaanse vloot, het die Amerikaanse weermag besluit dat Curtiss 'n renvliegtuig moet hê.

Stamvader van die beroemde Hawk-reeks vegters, die PW-8 (die "PW" -voorvoegsel wat aandui dat "Pursuit Watergekoel" is) was 'n tweesnelle tweevliegvliegtuig met twee sitplekke.

Die eerste Curtiss-vegter wat onder die Amerikaanse vloot-aanwysingstelsel gebou is, wat die tipe, ontwerpvolgorde en vervaardiger kombineer, die F4C-1 (F2C en.

In Maart 1925 het die Amerikaanse vloot nege P-1's bestel met voorsiening vir dryf as F6C's (die F5C-benaming was nie.

Op 7 Maart 1925 het Curtiss 'n kontrak gekry vir 15 produksie-voorbeelde van die XPW-8B as die P-1, dit wil sê.

Die eerste Curtiss-tweedekker met die naam Falcon was die Liberty-aangedrewe Curtiss L-113 (Model 37) wat in 1924 verskyn het.

Die eerste Hawk met radiale motors het ontstaan ​​as gevolg van die paring van 'n P-1A-vliegtuig met 'n 390 pk Curtiss R-1454-enjin as die XP-3.

Installasie van die nuwe 600 pk Curtiss V-1570-1 Conqueror-enjin in 'n P-2-vliegtuigraam vir deelname aan die lugwedrenne in September 1927 by.

Die eerste Curtiss-vegter wat van meet af aan ontwerp was vir gebruik aan boord, in teenstelling met 'n aanpassing van 'n landgevegter, die.

In ontwikkeling, terselfdertyd met die Keystone XB-1, was die Curtiss XB-2 nogal soortgelyk, maar dit was die voortreflike vliegtuig. .

Om te voldoen aan die Amerikaanse Marine Corps-vereiste vir 'n tweesitplekjagter met bombarderings- en waarnemingsvermoë, het Curtiss die vliegtuigraamwerk van die.

In 'n USAAC-kontrak wat op 14 Mei 1927 geplaas is, is vyf vliegtuie benodig met vliegtuigraamwerke wat in wese soortgelyk is aan dié van die P-1,.

Op 18 Junie 1928 het die USAAC 'n kontrak met Curtiss gesluit vir een prototipe van die XP-10 enkelstoelgevegter aangedryf deur 'n.

Alhoewel dit in die F8C-reeks aangewys is, het die XF8C-2 en XF8C-4 baie verskil van die F8C-1 en -3, en was dit 'n dubbele rol.

Die XP-17 bestaan ​​uit die vliegtuigraamwerk van die eerste P-1 wat gekoppel is aan die nuwe 480 pk Wright V-1460-3 Tornado omgekeerde inlyn lugverkoelde enjin,.

Gedurende 1928 het die 600-pk Curtiss H-1640 Chieftain 12-silinder lugverkoelde radiaal 'n belofte getoon as 'n vegkragstasie, en Curtiss.

Ontwerp om te voldoen aan 'n liggewig -vereistes vir die bestuur van die boord - ander aanspraakmakers is die Berliner Joyce XFJ -1 en General Aviation XFA -1 - die.

Die soeke na spoed het gelei tot die vervaardiging van twee mededingende monoplane -prototipes om 'n aanvalsbomwerper van die Amerikaanse weermag te ontmoet.

In 1931 is die derde produksie P-6 (wat omgeskakel is na P-6A-standaard) uit diens geneem en na Curtiss teruggekeer.

Om nie te verwar met die Curtiss B-2 of die ontwikkeling van die 18 passasiers Condor-vliegtuig nie, was die Condor 'n kommersiële 15-passasier.

Die XP-31 of Curtiss Shrike van 1932-3 was 'n all-metal, laagvlerk, stut-gestutte vegterontwerp wat sterk op die.

Die Curtiss XP-23 was die laaste tweedekker in die agtervolgreeks. In die meeste opsigte 'n heeltemal nuwe ontwerp en.

Die eerste YA-8 is gebruik om die haalbaarheid van 'n radiale enjin aangedrewe weergawe van die Curtiss A-8 te toets. .

The Hawk II was essentially an export version of the XF11C-2 with a Wright R-1820F-3 Cyclone rated at 710hp at 1676m .

The fourth production F11C-2 (Goshawk) was completed with manually-operated retractable main undercarriage members accommodated by a deepened forward fuselage. It was powered .

Based on a US Navy Bureau of Aeronautics design for a two-seat fighter, the XF12C-1 all-metal parasol monoplane, ordered on 30 June .

Perhaps the most unusual single-seat fighter developed by Curtiss was the Model 70, which was designed from the outset to be flown .

On 16 April 1932, the US Navy ordered two prototypes of a new shipboard fighter under the designations XF11C-1 and XF11C-2, the .

The US Army had ordered 46 of the A-8B Shrike, but maintenance problems with the liquid-cooled engines of the .

Last of the Curtiss biplanes to be used operationally by the US Navy, the SOC Seagull has a service history .

Requiring a new two-seat fighter, the US Navy ordered a prototype from Curtiss in 1932 under the designation XF12C-1. .

The P-36 or Curtiss Model 75 Hawk, commonly called the Mohawk, began life as a private venture, soldiered bravely .

Soon after receiving an order from the USAAC for an evaluation quantity of its Model 75 fighter, Curtiss began to consider .

The CW-19L Coupe was designed by George Page as an advanced all-metal two-seat cantilever low-wing monoplane for the private owner. .

Designed by Donovan R Berlin to participate in a USAAC fighter contest scheduled to take place on 27 May 1935, the Model .

The export version of the BF2C-1, the Hawk III, differed from the US Navy fighter-bomber in reverting to the wooden wing .

The 'long-nosed' P-37 was a Curtiss attempt in the late 1930s to couple the P-36 Mohawk design with the .

One of the early production Curtiss P-36 aircraft was given an 864.4kW Allison V-1710-19 (G-13) engine (and designated XP-40) instead .

Completed late in 1938 as a company-owned demonstrator, the Hawk 75-R was essentially similar to the USAAC's P-36A. Its Pratt & .

In 1938, chief engineer Willis Wells of the St Louis Airplane Division of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation began the development of a single-seat .

The Curtiss XP-42, a conversion of a P-36A Mohawk airframe, was employed as a testbed at Wright Field, Ohio, beginning .

In 1937 the US Navy invited proposals for the design of a scout monoplane which would offer improved performance over .

The experimental contract for the Helldiver was awarded by the US Navy on 15 May 1939 and the prototype XSB2C-1 .

The Commando was evolved from the Curtiss-Wright CW-20 which was originally laid out as a 36-passenger pressurised commercial transport in .

The prototype Curtiss Wright CW-22 two-seat low-wing general-purpose or advanced training monoplace was developed at the Curtiss-Wright St Louis factory in .

Prior to the final termination of P-40 development, some effort was expended in combining aerodynamic refinement with increased power to produce .

The P-60 designation applies to a family of widely different Curtiss fighters, each reflecting the urgency of the builder's unsuccessful .

The XP-46 of 1939 was a late attempt by Curtiss to capitalize on lessons from early fighting in Europe and .

In 1940, with Europe already at war, the US Army Air Corps knew that it was essential to begin preparations .

The Curtiss XP-55 Ascender is perhaps best known of the three pusher fighters built for a 1941 competition in response .

On 30 June 1941, Curtiss received a prototype development contract for the XF14C-1 single-seat shipboard fighter designed around the 2,200hp Lycoming XH-2470-4 liquid-cooled .

The Curtiss XP-62 was the final propeller-driven fighter built by its manufacturer and the second largest single-seat fighter of orthodox .

Development of the Curtiss SC Seahawk began in June 1942, when the US Navy requested the company to submit proposals .

In May 1944, Curtiss indicated to the AAF that it wished to abandon further work on the P-60 series fighters because .

In late 1943 Curtiss received a US Navy order for two single-seat torpedo-bomber aircraft prototypes under the designation XBTC-1. A .

US Navy interest in the mixed-power concept for shipboard fighters - aircraft employing a piston engine for cruise and an auxiliary turbojet .

The Curtiss XF-87 Blackhawk fighter was an eye-catching and truly graceful all-black aircraft which attracted plenty of attention in flights .


Die Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. The P-40 design was a modification of the previous Curtiss P-36 Hawk which reduced development time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational service. The Warhawk was used by most Allied powers during World War II, and remained in frontline service until the end of the war. It was the third most-produced American fighter of World War II, after the P-51 and P-47 by November 1944, when production of the P-40 ceased, 13,738 had been built, all at Curtiss-Wright Corporation's main production facilities at Buffalo, New York.

Die North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in April 1940 by a design team headed by James Kindelberger of North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission. The Purchasing Commission approached North American Aviation to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under license for the Royal Air Force (RAF). Rather than build an old design from another company, North American Aviation proposed the design and production of a more modern fighter. The prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed, and first flew on 26 October.

Die Curtiss P-36 Hawk, ook bekend as die Curtiss Hawk Model 75, is an American-designed and built fighter aircraft of the 1930s and 40s. A contemporary of both the Hawker Hurricane and Messerschmitt Bf 109, it was one of the first of a new generation of combat aircraft—a sleek monoplane design making extensive use of metal in its construction and powered by a powerful radial engine.

Die Ryan XF2R Dark Shark was an American experimental aircraft built for the United States Navy that combined turboprop and turbojet propulsion. It was based on Ryan Aeronautical's earlier FR Fireball, but replaced the Fireball's piston engine with a turboprop engine.

Die Seversky P-35 is an American fighter aircraft built by the Seversky Aircraft Company in the late 1930s. A contemporary of the Hawker Hurricane and Messerschmitt Bf 109, the P-35 was the first single-seat fighter in United States Army Air Corps to feature all-metal construction, retractable landing gear, and an enclosed cockpit.

Die Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender is a 1940s United States prototype fighter aircraft built by Curtiss-Wright. Along with the Vultee XP-54 and Northrop XP-56, it resulted from United States Army Air Corps proposal R-40C issued on 27 November 1939 for aircraft with improved performance, armament, and pilot visibility over existing fighters it specifically allowed for unconventional aircraft designs. An unusual design for its time, it had a canard configuration, a rear-mounted engine, swept wings, and two vertical tails. Because of its pusher design, it was sarcastically referred to as the "Ass-ender". Like the XP-54, the Ascender was designed for the Pratt & Whitney X-1800 engine, but was re-designed after that engine project was canceled. It was also the first Curtiss fighter aircraft to use tricycle landing gear.

Die Republic P-43 Lancer was a single-engine, all-metal, low-wing monoplane fighter aircraft built by Republic, first delivered to the United States Army Air Corps in 1940. A proposed development was the P-44 Rocket. While not a particularly outstanding fighter, the P-43A had a very good high-altitude performance coupled with an effective oxygen system. Fast and well-armed with excellent long-range capabilities, until the arrival of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, the Lancer was the only American fighter capable of catching a Japanese Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah" reconnaissance plane at the speeds and heights at which they flew. In addition, the P-43 flew many long-range, high-altitude photo recon missions until replaced by F-4/F-5 Lightnings in both the USAAF and RAAF.

Die Curtiss P-60 was a 1940s American single-engine single-seat, low-wing monoplane fighter aircraft developed by the Curtiss-Wright company as a successor to their P-40. It went through a lengthy series of prototype versions, eventually evolving into a design that bore little resemblance to the P-40. None of these versions reached production.

Die Curtiss XP-62 was a prototype single-engine interceptor aircraft, that was built at the request of the United States Army Air Forces, by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. It first flew in 1943.

Die General Motors/Fisher P-75 Eagle was an American fighter aircraft designed by the Fisher Body Division of General Motors. Development started in September 1942 in response to United States Army Air Forces requirement for a fighter possessing an extremely high rate of climb, using the most powerful liquid-cooled engine then available, the Allison V-3420. The program was cancelled after only a small number of prototypes and production aircraft had been completed, as it was no longer required in its original role, could not be quickly deployed, and possessed no significant advantages over aircraft already in production.

Die Grumman XP-50 was a land-based development of the shipboard XF5F-1 Skyrocket fighter, entered into a United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) contest for a twin-engine heavy interceptor aircraft. The USAAC placed an order for a prototype on 25 November 1939, designating it XP-50, but it lost the competition to the Lockheed XP-49.

Die McDonnell XP-67 "Bat" of "Moonbat" was a prototype for a twin-engine, long-range, single-seat interceptor aircraft for the United States Army Air Forces. Although the design was conceptually advanced, it was beset by numerous problems and never approached its anticipated level of performance. The project was cancelled after the sole completed prototype was destroyed by an engine fire.

Die Republic XP-69 was an American fighter aircraft proposed by Republic Aviation in 1941 in response to a requirement by the United States Army Air Corps for a high-speed fighter. Manufacturers were encouraged to consider unorthodox designs although the design was ordered as a prototype it was canceled because of delays with the engine that was to power it.

Die Vultee XP-54 Swoose Goose was a prototype fighter built by the Vultee Aircraft Company for the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF).

Die Bell P-76 was the proposed designation for a production model derivative of the XP-39E, a single-engine American fighter aircraft prototype of World War II.

Die Curtiss XP-42 was an experimental fighter built by Curtiss Aircraft in the late 1930s to research engine cooling and improving the performance of the Curtiss P-36.


The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was a WWII fighter aircraft that was developed from the P-36 Hawk, via the P-37. Many variants were built, some in large numbers, under names including the Hawk, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk.

Die Curtiss YP-20 was an American biplane fighter project developed by Curtiss for the United States Army Air Service.

Over twenty variants of the North American P-51 Mustang fighter were produced from 1940, when it first flew, to after the Second World War, some of which were employed also in the Korean War and in several other conflicts. Numerous examples of the aircraft survive to this day, often as warbirds or heavily modified air racers.

Die Curtiss P-37 was a fighter aircraft made by Curtiss-Wright in 1937. A development of the Curtiss P-36 Hawk, the P-37 never entered production.


Curtiss XP-40Q Fighter

Although not readily apparent at the time, Curtiss-Wright’s Airplane Division (Curtiss) was already in a state of decline at the start of World War II. The company’s final two truly successful aircraft, the P-40 Warhawk fighter and C-46 Commando transport, had already flown. While the Curtiss SB2C Helldiver carrier-based dive bomber would achieve some success toward the end of the war, its development was prolonged and plagued with issues, and the aircraft was never liked by its pilots and crews. Throughout the war years, Curtiss continually strove to develop world-beating aircraft but only managed to build one dead-end prototype after another. A brief glimmer of hope lay in the last model of the P-40, the P-40Q (Curtiss model 87X).

The Curtiss XP-40Q-1 (42-9987) with its standard canopy and sleek nose. Note the scoop for the engine air intake above the cowling.

XP-40Q development was initiated by 1943. The goal was to improve the P-40 to equal or surpass the performance of newer fighter aircraft. It was thought that the improved performance of the P-40Q would justify the aircraft entering production, and its similarities with P-40s then being produced would minimize tooling and production delays. In addition, there would be some part interchangeability with older P-40 aircraft, and current P-40 pilots and crews would be familiar with the new aircraft and its systems.

Three XP-40Q prototypes were built their origins and histories have always been a point of disagreement between sources. All XP-40Qs were built up from other P-40 airframes. They all had only four .50-cal machine guns with 235 rpg. All of the XP-40Q aircraft were powered by two-stage supercharged Allison V-1710 engines and a four-blade propeller.

Another view of the XP-40Q-1. Note the radiators and oil coolers mounted in the wing center section.

The XP-40Q-1 was the first aircraft, and it was built in 1943 from a P-40K-10 (serial 42-9987) that had been damaged in a landing accident on 27 January 1943. The Q-1 was painted olive drab and had the standard P-40 wing and canopy. The nose of the aircraft was lengthened to accommodate the V-1710-101 (F27R) engine. At 3,200 rpm, the -101 engine produced 1,500 hp (1,119 kW) at 6,000 ft (1,829 m) and 1,325 hp (988 kW) for takeoff. The Q-1’s engine air intake was positioned above the cowling. The radiator and oil cooler were moved from the P-40’s iconic chin location to the wing center section, just below the fuselage (similar to the XP-40K). The XP-40Q-1 had a 37 ft 4 in (11.4 m) wingspan and was 35 ft 4 in long (10.8 m)—about 2 ft (.6 m) longer than a standard P-40.

The Q-1’s first flight reportedly occurred on 13 June 1943 from the Curtiss plant in Buffalo, New York. It is not clear if the aircraft suffered another accident, or if Curtiss was unhappy with its configuration and decided to modify it further. Regardless, by November 1943, the Q-1 had been modified and redesignated XP-40Q-2. The aircraft’s rear fuselage was cut down and a bubble canopy installed. Engine coolant radiators were positioned in the wings just outboard of the main gear. The oil cooler and engine air intake were relocated to the classic P-40 chin position, but the scoop was shallower and more elegant. The Q-2 retained the olive drab paint.

The Curtiss XP-40Q-2 (still 42-9987) after modification with a bubble canopy. The oil cooler and engine air intake have been relocated to the scoop under the engine. The coolant radiators have been moved outside of the main gear. The wings are still the standard P-40 wings, but they were later clipped by about one foot.

Still utilizing the -101 engine, the Q-2 was noted for having excellent visibility and handling. The aircraft had balanced controls and was very maneuverable, with a tight turn radius. Capt. Gustav Lundquist had evaluated the Q-2 and judged it to be the best P-40 he had flown he recommended that further flight testing should be conducted. In December 1943, the Air Materiel Command recognized the XP-40Q-2’s performance and recommended that two additional prototypes be constructed.

Reportedly, the Q-2 was delivered to Eglin Field, Florida for testing in January 1944, but it was back at the Curtiss plant in Buffalo, New York in March for a series of flight tests. By this time, the Q-2 had its wingtips clipped about one foot each, and a V-1710-121 (F28R) engine was installed. The -121 produced 1,800 hp (1,342 kW) with water injection at 3,200 rpm up to 20,000 ft (6,096 m) and 1,425 hp (1,062 kW) for takeoff.

The XP-40Q-2A (42-45722) looking very much like the XP-40Q-2 but with clipped wings. This aircraft would change little throughout its existence.

A flight evaluation from April 1944 again noted the XP-40Q-2 as superior to all other P-40s and a very good aircraft overall. The XP-40Q-2 had a 35 ft 3 in (10.7 m) wingspan and was 35 ft 4 in (10.8 m) long. With full engine power at 3,000 rpm and water injection, the aircraft achieved 420 mph (676 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4,572 m) and had a maximum climb rate of 4,410 fpm (22.4 m/s) at 5,000 ft (1,524 m). At 3,200 rpm and with water injection, maximum speed was 422 mph (679 km/h) at 20,500 ft (6,248 m), and the climb rate increased by as much as 530 fpm (2.7 m/s) depending on altitude. However, the 3,200 rpm engine speed was only shown to offer an advantage between 12,000 and 33,000 ft (3,658 and 10,058 m). With just military power, the Q-2 recorded a speed of 407 mph (655 km/h) at 24,000 ft (7,315 m) and a climb rate of 3,210 fpm (16.3 m/s) at sea level. The aircraft could climb from sea level to 20,000 ft (6,096 m) in 4.8 minutes, 30,000 ft (9,144 m) in 8.9 minutes, and 39,000 ft (11,887 m) in 26.1 minutes. The Q-2’s service ceiling was 39,000 ft (11,887 m), and it had a gross weight of 9,000 lb (4,082 kg). The aircraft’s range was 700 miles (1,127 km).

The Q-2 was damaged when it nosed over after a test flight on 24 March 1944. The aircraft was repaired and then sent to Wright Field, Ohio in mid-1944. The aircraft was damaged again when it ground looped while landing on 31 July 1944. It is not clear if the aircraft was repaired or if the damage was too severe.

This image of the XP-40Q-2A illustrates the clipped wings. Note the size of the bubble canopy and how to could be a bit smaller. The four .50-cal wing guns are easily seen. The XP-40Q was definitely a nice looking aircraft.

The next aircraft was the XP-40Q-2A. It was built from the initial P-40K-1 (serial 42-45722) that had been converted to the (unofficial) XP-40N. During the XP-40N conversion, the aircraft had a bubble canopy installed. This modification predated and served as the template for the bubble canopy that was installed on the Q-2.

The Q-2A was very similar to the final configuration of the Q-2—with a bubble canopy, clipped wings, and -121 engine. However, some modifications to the cockpit and canopy were made, and automatic radiator and oil cooler shutters were added. The Q-2A had a natural metal finish.

The Q-2A’s first flight occurred prior to the end of March 1944. The aircraft was plagued with engine trouble that resulted in a number of forced landings. The Q-2A spent most of its test time down for repairs. As a result, the Army Air Force (AAF) focused on the next aircraft, the Q-3, and loaned the Q-2A to Allison for engine tests. The Q-2A most likely had the same specifications and performance as the -121-powered Q-2.

The XP-40Q-3 was the last aircraft in the series. The Q-3 was built in early 1944 from a P-40N-25 (serial 43-24571) and was the only XP-40Q actually classified as such by the AAF. The aircraft was very similar to the XP-40Q-2A except for some refinements to the canopy and windscreen. The canopy was a bit smaller, and the flat windscreen was longer and more angled than the windscreen used on the preceding aircraft. Overall, the changes improved pilot visibility. The Q-3 had a -121 engine and a natural metal finish.

The last of the Curtiss P-40Qs: the XP-40Q-3 (43-24571). This aircraft later had anti-glare paint applied to the upper cowling, its serial number painted on the the tail, and 󈫼” painted on the chin scoop. Note the radiator air inlets in the wings.

Delivered to AAF in April 1944, the Q-3 suffered an engine failure during an early test flight. The aircraft was moderately damaged in the subsequent forced landing. At this time, other aircraft with superior performance were available, and there was no AAF interest in repairing the Q-3 because there was no need for a P-40Q. It is doubtful that much performance testing was conducted on the Q-3, but the results should have been similar to those of the Q-2.

In March 1946, Allison still had the XP-40Q-2A (the second XP-40Q) when the AAF declared the aircraft as surplus. It is not clear if Allison purchased the aircraft and then later resold it or if it was sold as surplus directly from the AAF. Regardless, Joe Ziegler acquired the aircraft, and it was registered as NX300B. Given race number 82, the Q-2A was entered in the 1947 Thompson Trophy Race (run on 1 September 1947), but it did not qualify. Ziegler started the race anyway and was running in fourth place when the engine caught fire after just completing the 13th lap. Ziegler pulled up and off the course and bailed out of the Q-2A. Zeigler suffered a broken leg, and the Q-2A was destroyed.

This view of the XP-40Q-3 illustrates the revised canopy compared to the XP-40Q-2A. Note the oil cooler exit doors on the cowling just in front of the wing.

The story of the XP-40Q aircraft is a confusing one involving only three airframes but somewhere around eight designations and a number of different configurations. The P-40Q was one of the finest fighters Curtiss ever built, but the aircraft was two years or so too late. Its performance and capabilities were matched or exceeded by other aircraft already in service. Even if the P-40Q airframe had been ready two years earlier, the two-stage Allison engines would not have been ready, as they were still having developmental trouble in 1944. Sadly, the XP-40Q scenario was played out again and again as Curtiss tried to create another successful aircraft but only managed to produce aircraft that were ill-timed and outclassed.

Note: There is no indication that any of the XP-40Q aircraft used any type of a laminar flow wing. There is also no indication that any XP-40Q information was passed from Curtiss to North American Aviation (NAA) during the NA-73X’s (P-51’s) development. Not only are the two aircraft different in almost every way, there is no part of their separate developmental timelines that coincide. NAA did purchase some information from Curtiss at the request of the British government, but that information pertained to the XP-46 and arrived after the NA-73X was already designed.

The XP-40Q-2A seen at Cleveland, Ohio for the Thompson Trophy Race in 1947. Other than some paint, including its registration and race number, the aircraft had changed little since its AAF days. It is truly unfortunate that the aircraft would soon be destroyed as a result of an engine fire.


Curtiss XP-42

The Curtiss XP-42, a conversion of a P-36A Mohawk airframe, was employed as a testbed at Wright Field, Ohio, beginning in March 1939 to determine whether stream-lining could reduce drag in a radial-powered fighter and make it competitive with more advanced fighters employing inline engines. This concept was seen as an alternative to adapting the P-36A airframe to an inline powerplant, as had been done with the prototype P-40 Warhawk. Delivered to the Army in March 1939, the XP-42 was powered by a 783kW Pratt & Whitney R-1830-31 Twin Wasp radial enclosed by a bullet-shaped, sheet-metal cowling extended forward to culminate in a large, pointed spinner. An airscoop below the spinner provided cooling air, while smaller intakes above the engine provided air to the carburettor. It was immediately clear that this sleek, long-nosed configuration offered none of the advantages of the inline engine employed not only by the P-40 but also by such types as the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and North American Mustang. The aerodynamic nose shape provided almost no reduction in drag, and cooling problems proved almost insurmountable. While the XP-42 was marginally faster than the open-cowl P-36A, its performance did not compare favourably with the P-40 or with other, newer fighters of the immediate pre-war period.

A variety of nose configurations was tried on the XP-42, altering its fuselage length with each change, but none vindicated the enclosed radial engine and Curtiss's production facilities, in the event, were taken up with the inline-powered P-40. When hostilities began, the XP-42 had been ruled out as a possible production aircraft but continued to aid in research. In 1942, the XP-42 tested an all-flying stabilizer, similar to the stabilator found on modern jets. The XP-42 had begun flying in natural metal finish and was camouflaged during one of its minor rebuilds. The airframe, which contributed knowledge to designers and engineers, was eventually taken out of service as other wartime priorities beckoned. Curtiss would continue to explore new fighter ideas with XP-46, XP-60 and XF-87, but the company's predominant role in the fighter field was fast becoming history.

Sturm what are you talking about? At that point in US Air Corp history performance requirements were issued to all interested companies and designs were openly competed. A lot of attempts were made to improve the breed of several designs. The p-36 design went to the P-40, P-42, P-46 and P-60, just for one example. There were several variations on the P-60. None of them were improvements over existing designs, so why bother with them. The North American P-51 was not even asked for but offered to the British as a better design than the P-40. First an acceptable design did not really come into its own until the Allison engine was replaced by the Rolls Royce Merlin. So there is little evidence of favoritism. Had there been then Curtiss with its long line of fighters from the 1920's and 30's would have remained the favorite, clearly they did not. Certainly nothing, absolutely nothing in comparison to the NAZI's.
Leo, what do you mean in your question? The US Army Air Corp tried just about anything that came along. Just look at the P-45, -46, -48, -49, -50. And there are several more. No matter how you cut it the best designs were the more conservative designs.


Operateurs

  • Republic of China Air Force operated 50 Hawk II. [3]
  • Cuban Air Force received three P-6S fighters with the 450   hp (336   kW) Wasp radial engine.
  • Japan bought one P-6S, possibly updated with a Conqueror engine.
  • Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force received eight examples of a P-6D with the Conqueror engine in 1930, another six were license-built by Aviolanda in 1931 and sent to Dutch East Indies as well. Three P-6 were lost before war: two in midair collision on 27 February 1936 and one probably after crash-landing 5 February 1935.
  • Amerikaanse weermag se lugkorps
  • Bolivian Air Force used the P-6S during the Chaco War. On 22 December 1932 a P-6 Hawk from Fortín Vitriones attacked Paraguayan gunboat ARP Tacuary which was anchored at Bahía Negra near ( 20䓍󉎸″S 58䓊󉎉″W  /  20.23°S 58.16694°W  / -20.23 -58.16694 )

BOOK ON CURTISS FARM RECALLS ITS HISTORY

Every Christmas, the late Otto Schnering, owner of Cary-based Curtiss Candy Company Farms, threw a large company party in the bullpen of the farm, although, judging by the sentiments of former employees, it was more of a family affair.

Schnering "was very well-liked," Dean Dunn, a former employee said. "It was a big family."

Now, 28 years after the farm was sold to G.D. Searle, and subsequently moved to Elburn, several former employees have joined together to publish a 172-page book that tells the history of the farm. The book includes 165 photographs.

Readers got their first look at the finished product Dec. 20, when the book rolled off the presses.

"There area lot of people living around the valley today . . . that worked for the farm (which ran along Cary-Algonquin Road). That's the reason we're writing this," Dunn said. "At one time, it was estimated about half the town of Cary worked at the farm or was employed with it in some way."

Nancy Johnson Helmar of Cary, one of the co-authors of the book, grew up on the farm, where her father was employed caring for the chickens, turkeys and ducks.

Helmar remembered the farm as a fun place where she and her friends got together for baseball games and roller skating. She told how each year, horseback-riding competitions were held for the kids.

Helmar said that the farm was self-sufficient. It included a private well and dump, and Schnering gave free eggs, milk and chickens to the employees. He also dug and stocked several trout ponds on the property.

Helmar remembered growing up on the farm and wrote that portion of the book. But, internationally the farm was renowned for its top-quality cattle, Belgian horses, Shropshire sheep and Yorkshire hogs. It also was a leading enterprise in the field of artificial insemination of cattle.

According to Dunn, Schnering founded the farm in 1942 to produce milk for his candy products. At one time, Schnering's operation included 10,000 acres of farmland in four counties north and west of Chicago.

Schnering died in 1953, and the farm continued to operate until 1968.

"I called the kids that lived on the farm," Helmar said, "and found out what they were doing (when the book came out). I haven't seen them since I was a kid, but you never lose those friendships. They're friends for life."


Geskiedenis

In 1907, Glenn Curtiss was recruited by the scientist Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, to be among the founding members of Bell's Aerial Experimental Association (AEA), with the purpose of helping establish an aeronautical research and development organization. [1] According to Bell, it was a "co-operative scientific association, not for gain but for the love of the art and doing what we can to help one another." [2]

In 1909, the AEA was disbanded [3] and Curtiss formed the Herring-Curtiss Company with Augustus Moore Herring on March 20, 1909, [4] which was renamed the Curtiss Aeroplane Company in 1910. [5] [6]

Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company

Die Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company was created on January 13, 1916 from the Curtiss Aeroplane Company of Hammondsport, New York and Curtiss Motor Company of Bath, New York. Burgess Company of Marblehead, Massachusetts, became a subsidiary in February 1916. [7]

With the onset of World War I, military orders rose sharply, and Curtiss needed to expand quickly. In 1916, the company moved its headquarters and most manufacturing activities to Buffalo, New York, where there was far greater access to transportation, manpower, manufacturing expertise, and much needed capital. The company housed an aircraft engine factory in the former Taylor Signal Company-General Railway Signal Company. [8] An ancillary operation was begun in Toronto, Ontario that was involved in both production and training, setting up the first flying school in Canada in 1915. [9]

In 1917, the two major aircraft patent holders, the Wright Company and the Curtiss Company, had effectively blocked the building of new airplanes, which were desperately needed as the United States was entering World War I. The U.S. government, as a result of a recommendation of a committee formed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Assistant Secretary of the Navy, pressured the industry to form a cross-licensing organization (in other terms a Patent pool), the Manufacturer's Aircraft Association. [10] [11] [12]

Curtiss was instrumental in the development of U.S. Naval Aviation by providing training for pilots and providing aircraft. The first major order was for 144 various subtypes of the Model F trainer flying boat. [4] In 1914, Curtiss had lured B. Douglas Thomas from Sopwith to design the Model J trainer, which led to the JN-4 two-seat biplane trainer (known affectionately as the "Jenny"). [13] [14]

The Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company worked with the United States' British and Canadian allies, resulting in JN-4 (Can) trainers (nicknamed the "Canuck") being built in Canada. [15] In order to complete large military orders, JN-4 production was distributed to five other manufacturers. After the war, large numbers of JN-4s were sold as surplus, making influential as the first plane for many interwar pilots, including Amelia Earhart. [16] A stamp was printed to commemorate the Curtiss JN-4, however a printing error resulted in some having the aircraft image inverted, which has become very valuable, and one of the best known rare stamps, even being featured in a number of movies.

The Curtiss HS-2L flying boat was used extensively in the war for anti-submarine patrols and was operated from bases in Nova Scotia, Canada, France and Portugal. The John Cyril Porte of the Royal Navy and Curtiss worked together to improve the design of the Curtiss flying boats resulting in the Curtiss F5L and the similar Felixstowe F.3. Curtiss also worked with the US Navy to develop the NC-4, which became the first aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in 1919, making several stops enroute. By the end of World War I, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company would claim to be the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world, employing 18,000 in Buffalo and 3,000 in Hammondsport, New York. Curtiss produced 10,000 aircraft during that war, and more than 100 in a single week.

Peace brought cancellation of wartime contracts. In September 1920, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company underwent a financial reorganization and Glenn Curtiss cashed out his stock in the company for $32 million and retired to Florida. [17] He continued as a director of the company but served only as an advisor on design. Clement M. Keys gained control of the company and it later became the nucleus of a large group of aviation companies. [18]

Curtiss seaplanes won the Schneider Cup in two consecutive races, those of 1923 and 1925. The 1923 race was won by U.S. Navy Lieutenant David Rittenhouse flying a Curtiss C.R.3 to 177.266 miles per hour (285.282 km/h).

Piloted by U.S. Army Lt. Cyrus K. Bettis, a Curtiss R3C won the Pulitzer Trophy Race on October 12, 1925, at a speed of 248.9 miles per hour (400.6 km/h). [19] Thirteen days later, Jimmy Doolittle won the Schneider Trophy in the same aircraft fitted with floats with a top speed of 232.573 miles per hour (374.290 km/h).

The Curtiss Robin light transport was first flown in 1928, becoming one of the company's biggest sellers during the Great Depression, and the 769 built helped keep the company solvent when orders for military aircraft were hard to find.

Curtiss-Wright Corporation

On July 5, 1929, Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company together with 11 other Wright and Curtiss affiliated companies merged to became the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. One of the last projects started by Curtiss Aeroplane was the ambitious Curtiss-Bleecker SX-5-1 Helicopter, a design that had propellers located midpoint on each of the four large rotors that drove the main rotors. The design, while costly and well engineered, was a failure. [20]

Curtiss Aviation School

Curtiss also operated an flying school at Long Branch Aerodrome in Toronto Township, Ontario from 1915 to 1917 before being taken over by the Royal Flying Corps Canada. [21]

Atlantic Coast Aeronautical Station

Glenn H. Curtiss sponsored the Atlantic Coast Aeronautical Station on a 20-acre tract east of Newport News, VA Boat Harbor in the Fall of 1915 with Captain Thomas Scott Baldwin as head. Many civilian students, including Canadians, later became famed WW1 flyers. Victor Carlstrom, Vernon Castle, Eddie Stinson and General Billy Mitchell trained here. The school was disbanded in 1922.