Geskiedenis Podcasts

Heersers van Rome - Caesar en Pompei

Heersers van Rome - Caesar en Pompei

Waarom word Pompei Magnus se naam nie soveel geprys as die van Caesar as 'n Romeinse heerser nie, aangesien Magnus in die eerste plek Rome was?


Pompeius het nooit die hoogste mag bereik wat Caesar gehad het nie (kort voordat hy vermoor is). Alhoewel hy soms (soos tydens die stryd teen die seerowers of as konsul sine collegio in die laat 50's vC) groot gehad het imperium, was hy altyd óf huiwerig óf nie in staat om vir homself die arrogante te maak nie fontein van hierdie mag. Daarom was hy altyd óf lid van 'n magsdelingsreëling óf die kampioen van die konserwatiewe/reaksionêre party. Hy kan dus nie regtig as 'n liniaal gereken word nie.

As ek dit gesê het, moet ek sê dat sommige geleerdes die standpunt wat u voorgestel het, ondersteun - dat Pompeius as die eerste beskou kan word princeps. Omdat ek nie 'n professionele persoon was nie, het ek op die oomblik nie 'n duidelike verwysing daarvoor nie, maar 'n bietjie gegoogle het my gelei tot 'n bevestiging van hierdie stelling (p. 240 daar):

Pompeius die Grote, wat deur sommige as die eerste prinses beskou word, het 'n ongeëwenaarde invloed in Rome gehad, wat in stryd was met die Republikeinse stelsel wat so 'n konsolidasie van invloed beperk het (Beard en Crawford 85).

EDIT: Ek het dit gevind! Die groot Syme het self die onvergeetlike voorstel neergeskryf dat Pompeius sou wen sou hy aan die voet van sy eie standbeeld deur eerbare mans doodgemaak gewees het.


Biografie van Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar, grootgemaak in 'n bekende patrisiërsfamilie, was die een wat verantwoordelik was vir die val van die Romeinse Republiek. Tog word hy beskou as 'n groot leier en politikus wat na 'n veldtog teen Pompeius 'n konsul geword het. Hy is ook bekend vir die verowering van Gallië en wonderlik geskrewe dagboeke wat sy oorlogspogings beskryf. Alle heersers van Rome na hom het die "Caesar" -titel ingeneem, waarskynlik in die hoop dat 'n deel van sy roem ook hulle sou word.

Julius Caesar se jeug

Die geskiedenis van Julius Caesar begin op 12.07.102 of 100 vC, toe hy gebore is in 'n gesin wat deel was van die Julius -dinastie, wat volgens Aeneas gevind word. Caesar se pa werk as praetor en sterf toe Caesar op 16 -jarige ouderdom hom en sy twee susters wees gelaat het. Die toekomstige oorwinnaar is dus grootgemaak deur sy ma - Aurelia. Op die ouderdom van 17 trou hy met Cornelia, 'n kleindogter van Cornelius Cinna, wat die leier van die radikale party was. Maar sy geluk duur nie lank nie. In 82 v.C., nadat Lucius Cornelius Sulla die suksesvolle teenrevolusie gelei het, beveel Sulla Caesar om van Cornelia te skei. Caesar het geweier om hierdie bevel uit te voer en sou verban word en al sy skatkis weggeneem word en die titel "flamens Dialis" verloor - 'n priester van Jupiter. Caesar se vriende en familie het vir hom gepleit en danksy dit is hy onskuldig bevind. Moedeloos het Caesar oos gegaan en by die leër aangesluit. Hy was 'n uitstekende soldaat en het in baie gevegte geveg en selfs 'n lourierkrans gekry "korona vita" vir dapperheid.

Die begin van Caesar se politieke loopbaan

In 79 vC, toe Sulla sterf, keer Caesar terug na Rome om sy politieke loopbaan op 'n konvensionele manier te begin, deur as advokaat vir vervolging op te tree- natuurlik, in sy geval, teen prominente Sullan-kontrarevolusionêres. Maar hierdie aksie het nie 'n positiewe manier tot gevolg gehad nie - Caesar het nie beroemd geword nie en ook nie 'n groter kans om vir 'n amp gekies te word nie, en daarom het hy in 78 vC na Rhodes gegaan. Hy is tydens sy reis deur seerowers ontvoer en ná 40 dae nadat die losprys betaal is, vrygelaat. Hy keer terug na Milete, waar hy vinnig 'n vlootmag oprig en 'n oorlog begin teen die heersers van die wiele - hy wen en laat sy gevangenes kruisig. Hy het in 68 vC na Rome teruggekeer na die begrafnis van sy dogter Julia, wat hy om politieke redes gebruik het. Dit het die teenkanting van sy vrou teëgekom, maar Caesar het nie daaraan aandag gegee nie. Sy vrou is dieselfde jaar oorlede. Daarna het Caesar deur die Ryk gereis om 'n rewolusie te begin. Nadat sy planne misluk het, keer hy terug na Rome en trou met Pompeia, 'n verre familielid van Pompeius. Dit was 'n politieke huwelik wat Ceasar in staat gestel het om Pompeius se naaste medewerker te word. Terselfdertyd het Caesar 'n ooreenkoms met Pompeius se vyand gesluit - Marcus Licinius Crassus. In 65 vC word Caesar een van die kuriele aediele. Hy het destyds baie lenings aangegaan en die Olimpiese Spele georganiseer, waardeur hy beroemd geword het. Twee jaar later word hy die hoofpriester, maar hierdie verkiesing was baie omstrede. Caesar was ook deel van die sameswering van Catiline, wat gemik was op staatskaping. Hierdie komplot het ook misluk weens Cicero se optrede, maar Caesar is sedertdien bekend as 'n samesweerder.

Die eerste triumviraat

Na die ontvoering van Cicero het Caesar 'n praetor geword. Ongelukkig is hy dikwels gekritiseer en besluit om te ontvoer, maar is hy gekies as goewerneur van Spanje. Maar toe hy Rome wou verlaat, word hy deur sy skuldeisers gestop en slegs danksy Marcus Licinius Crassus se waarborg kan hy vertrek. Gedurende die jaar wat hy in Spanje deurgebring het, het hy 'n militêre ekspedisie gelei buite die noordwestelike grens van sy provinsie, waar hy genoeg geplunder het om sy soldate te betaal en nog steeds 'n fortuin vir homself het. Hy wou die goud gebruik om 'n kantoor te kry, maar die senaat het hom nie toegelaat om sy eie verkiesingsveldtog te begin nie. So het Caesar die geld gebruik om sy skuld te betaal en het hy 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan met Pompeius en Marcus Licinius Crassus in 60 vC. 'N Beroemde rykman en 'n bevelvoerder en 'n kandidaat vir die konsulkantoor het 'n driemanskap gestig om te verseker dat niks in die Romeinse Ryk sou gebeur nie. Danksy hierdie ooreenkoms het Caesar in 59 vC 'n konsul geword. Hy het baie hervormings ingestel wat sy vennote bly was. Terselfdertyd het Caesar die goewerneur van Gallië geword.

Die verowering van Gallië

In 58 vC begin Caesar met die verowering van Gallië. Sy hoofdoel was om so ryk as moontlik te word. Om 'n veilige posisie op die front te vestig, moes hy ontslae raak van die Duitsers, wat ook die Gallië wou verower, en daarna val hy Brittanje aan. Dit het 7 jaar geneem vir Caesar om die hele Gallië te verower, en slegs as gevolg van sy uitstekende strategiese talent was die veldtog so kort. Caesar het nie net baie skatte ontvang nie, maar ook die lojaliteit van sy soldate, wat verwag het dat hy hulle na ander suksesvolle gevegte sou lei. Na hierdie veldtog het Caesar besluit om saam met sy leër in Gallië te bly totdat hy as die nuwe konsul gekies is, wat die senatore mal gemaak het. Sy politieke teenstanders wou hê dat hy na Rome moet terugkeer en vervolg word vir die dinge wat hy gedoen het toe hy 'n konsul was. Caesar het 'n besluit geneem, wat gelei het tot die val van die Romeinse republiek. Hy het sy leërs oor die rivier van Rubicon gelei en die bekende gesê "Alea iacta est" en begin sy optog na Rome in Januarie van 49 vC.

Die val van die Romeinse Republiek

Caesar se optrede het 'n burgeroorlog tot gevolg gehad. Om homself te verskoon, het hy gesê dat hy die tribunes, wat onlangs uit Rome verdryf is, wil verdedig. Pompeius moes Rome saam met senatore verlaat om uit die leër van Ceasar te ontsnap. Een van Caesar se naaste medewerkers, Labienus, het hom verlaat, maar Caesar het hom vergewe. Die leër van Caesar het tydens sy opmars na Rome amper geen weerstand ondervind nie. Trouens, Pompeius se leër het Caesar verstrooi of hom aangesluit. As gevolg van hierdie oorlog het Caesar die veroweraar van Italië geword. Maar dit was nie genoeg vir hom nie, hy het na Spanje gegaan, waar Pompeius was. Dit het gelei tot vrede tussen die bevelvoerders van die legioen en Caesar en die oorlog met Spanje het sonder bloedvergieting geëindig. In Desember van 49 vC keer Caesar terug na Rome, maar slegs vir 11 dae. Dit was die nodige tyd om as die nuwe konsul verkies te word. Kort nadat hy sy leërs ooswaarts gelei en 'n reeks gevegte in Griekeland gevoer het. Pompeius het na Egipte ontsnap, waar hy vermoor is deur Ptolemeus, wat die keiser aan sy kant wou hê.

Caesar en Cleopatra

Terselfdertyd was daar 'n burgeroorlog in Egipte tussen Cleopatra en haar broer. Cleopatra, wetende dat Caesar 'n groot leër het, wou hom aan haar kant hê. Maar toe hy by haar aansluit, was hulle nie so suksesvol as wat hulle verwag het nie - hulle beland in die paleis van Alexandria, wat omring is deur 'n mal plaaslike bevolking. Verligting kom in 47 vC. Kort nadat Caesar Egipte verlaat het, het Cleopatra geboorte gegee aan Caesar se seun, Cesarion.

Caesar se oorloë

Caesar se doel was om die hele wêreld te verower. Hy gaan voort met sy oorloë en wen 'n oorwinning oor 'n usurpator in die koninkryk Piemont. Na hierdie oorwinning sê hy nog 'n bekende frase "veni, vidi, vici" - ek het gekom, ek het gesien, ek het gewen. In 46 vC verower Caesar Noord -Afrika en die jaar daarna Spanje, waar hy teen Pompeius se seuns veg. Tussen die veldslae keer Caesar terug na Rome, maar hy het probleme ondervind met die vasstelling van die grondslag van sy regering.

Die komplot teen Caesar

Sedert 59 vC is Caesar vyf keer tot konsul verkies en drie keer tot diktator. Uiteindelik, in 44 vC, word hy 'n ewige diktator. Dit was bedoel om 'n lewenslange titel te wees en dit was eintlik. Op 15 Maart 44BC is hy vermoor. Hy het 23 houe deur 'n dolk gekry en slegs een was op die been. Die belangrikste samesweerders was Gaius Cassius Longinus en Marcus Junius Brutus. "Et tu, Brute" ("Jy ook, Brutus") was die keiser se uitdrukking van sy besondere angs omdat hy gesteek is deur 'n man wat hy vergewe, vertrou en liefgehad het. Hulle was Caesar se naaste medewerkers, maar hy het hulle onderskat. Danksy Caesar het hulle 'n fortuin en hoë posisies bymekaargemaak, wat hulle nie kon uithou nie. Daarom het hulle hom vermoor. Formeel was Ceasarion nie die keiser se seun nie, dus het Caesar voor sy dood Gaius Octavius, die kleinseun van sy suster, as sy opvolger gekies. Op eerste Januarie 42BC is Caesar formeel tot god verklaar met die naam Divus Iulius (Divine Julius).

Gebruiker van hervormer?

Hoe om die lewe van Caesar weer te gee? Hy was beslis 'n usurpator. Danksy sy leër het hy sy posisie bereik, en dit was die belangrikste fondament van sy regering. Hy het 'n onbeperkte mag, wat sy doelwit vir sy hele lewe was. Maar as ons aan Caesar dink, sien ons nie net 'n usurpator nie, maar ook 'n groot meesterbrein en hervormer. Hy het alles in sy vermoë gedoen om wet en orde in Rome te verseker, wat na baie jare lange anargie begin uitmekaar val. Die beste beskrywing van Caesar is deur Cicero, een van sy politieke vyande, woorde: "Dit is die eienskappe: kalmte en vriendelike natuur verlustig hom in groot gedagtes waarna hy reg luister en net versoek en nie omgee vir diegene van die loopbaan nie, hy is slim en vorentoe. Ek kyk na sy waardigheid en geregtigheid en intelligensie ". As bevelvoerder en politikus het hy ontslae geraak van haat teenoor sy vyande. Sommige het hoë posisies en fortuine gekry. Caesar was ook 'n skrywer - hy het dagboeke geskryf en hy was geïnteresseerd in grammatika en het kunswerke versamel. Sy beste werke is Dagboeke uit die Galliese oorlog en Dagboeke uit die burgeroorlog. Albei is in uitstekende en pragtige Latyn geskryf. Dit was voorbeelde van hoe u u gedagtes vir baie eeue daarna kan neerskryf.


Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was 'n groot Romeinse leier aan die einde van die Romeinse Republiek. Julius Caesar is drie dae voor die Ides van Julie gebore, op 13 Julie in c. 100 vC. Die familie van sy vader was afkomstig van die patrisiërs van die Julii, wat sy afstamming herlei het na die eerste koning van Rome, Romulus, en die godin Venus. Sy ouers was Gaius Caesar en Aurelia, dogter van Lucius Aurelius Cotta. Caesar was deur 'n huwelik verwant aan Marius, wat die volksgenote ondersteun het, en teen Sulla, wat die optimiste ondersteun het.

In 44 vC het samesweerders beweer dat hulle bang was dat Caesar daarop gemik was om Caesar op die Ides van Maart vermoor te word.

  1. Julius Caesar was 'n generaal, 'n staatsman, 'n wetgewer, 'n redenaar en historikus.
  2. Hy het nooit 'n oorlog verloor nie.
  3. Caesar het die kalender vasgestel.
  4. Daar word vermoed dat hy die eerste nuusblad geskep het, Acta Diurna, wat op die forum geplaas is om almal wat dit wou lees, te laat weet wat die vergadering en die senaat doen.
  5. Hy het 'n blywende wet ingestel teen afpersing.

Let daarop dat hoewel die woord Caesar die heerser van die Romeinse keiser beteken, in die geval van die eerste van die Caesars, dit net sy naam was. Julius Caesar was nie 'n keiser nie.


Die Heersers van Rome

Tensy anders vermeld, is hierdie boeke te koop op Amazon.com. U aankoop deur middel van hierdie skakels lei tot 'n kommissie vir die eienaar van die Royalty.nu -webwerf.

Romeinse keisers en hul gesinne

Keisers van Rome deur David Potter. Vanaf die toetreding van Augustus, is dit 'n uitbundig geïllustreerde opname van die Romeinse Ryk deur die lewens van sy keisers.

Caesars 'Wives: Sex, Power, and Politics in the Roman Empire deur Annelise Freisenbruch. Vertel die verhale van vyf eeue magtige Romeinse vroue, van berugte Livia en skandalige Julia tot Galla Placidia, wat deur Goth invallers gevange geneem en getroud is met een van hulle konings.

A Pocket Dictionary of Roman Emperors deur Paul Roberts. Stel 27 belangrike keisers bekend, waaronder Augustus, Trajanus, Septimus Severus, Nero en Caligula. Geïllustreer met muntstukke, juweliersware, borste en ou monumente.

Lives of the Caesars onder redaksie van Anthony Barrett. Vertel die verhale van 12 van Rome se mees invloedryke heersers, waaronder berugte leiers soos Nero en Caligula, en minder bekende soos Diocletianus en Vespasianus. Met illustrasies, 'n tydlyn van die Romeinse geskiedenis en 'n grafiek van dinastieë.

Tien keisers: Romeinse keisers van Augustus tot Konstantyn deur Barry Strauss. Ondersoek die nalatenskap van Rome deur die lewens van Augustus, Tiberius, Nero, Vespasianus, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Diocletianus en Konstantyn.

Julio-Claudiaanse keisers

The Sons of Caesar: Imperial Rome's First Dynasty deur Philip Matyszak. Beoordeel die lang geskiedenis van die Juliaanse en Claudiaanse gesinne in Rome. In die kern van die verslag is die lewens van ses mans - Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius en Nero - wat Rome van 'n demokrasie na 'n persoonlike besitting verander het.

Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the House of Caesar deur Tom Holland. Die onstuimige geskiedenis van Rome se eerste vyf keisers: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius en Nero. Dit is 'n opvolg van Holland se vroeëre boek Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic.

Die twaalf keisers deur Matthew Dennison. Biografieë van die Romeinse keisers Julius Caesar, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasianus, Titus en Domitianus.

Aspekte van die Romeinse geskiedenis, 31 vC - 117 nC deur Richard Alston. 'N Gids vir die vroeë Romeinse geskiedenis met hoofstukke oor elke keiser, wat die suksesse en mislukkings van hul bewind ondersoek.

Die bou van outokrasie: Aristokrate en keisers in Julio-Claudiaanse Rome deur Matthew B. Roller. Hoe die keiserlike bewind daarin geslaag het om homself te vestig, en hoe die Romeinse elite daarvan sin gemaak het.

The Ruler's House: Betwisende mag en privaatheid in Julio-Claudian Rome deur Harriet Fertik. Hoe die keiser se huishouding en die ruimte wat hy die huis genoem het, het die Romeinse opvattings oor eenmanheerskappy gevorm.

Keiserlike lewe en dood

The Complete Roman Emperor: Imperial Life at Court and on Campaign deur Michael Sommer. Hoe keisers hul daaglikse lewens deurgebring het, die ryk bestuur het en hulle vroue, hofdienaars en amptenare bestuur het. Bevat biografieë van alle keisers. Geïllustreer.

Praetorian: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Imperial Bodyguard deur Guy de la B & eacutedoy & egravere. Die elite Praetorian Guard, gestig deur Augustus omstreeks 27 v.C., het kragtige politieke spelers geword. Baie lojaal aan sommige keisers het hulle diegene wat hulle ontevrede was, omvergewerp.

Riding for Caesar: The Roman Emperor's Horse Guard deur Michael P. Speidel. Volg die keiser se perdewag van hul saamtrek om Caesar te red by Noviodunum in 52 v.C. na hul laaste staanplek langs Maxentius by die Milvian Bridge.

Maak Caesar dood! Moord in die vroeë Romeinse Ryk deur Rose Mary Sheldon. Driekwart van die leiers van Rome is vermoor, en die grootste bedreiging kom van die naaste aan die keiser.

Keisers sterf nie in die bed deur Fik Meijer, vertaal deur S.J. Leinbach. Hierdie lewendige algemene inleiding tot die Romeinse keisers fokus op hul ongewone sterftes en wat hul laaste dae ons oor hul lewens vertel.

Keisers en goddelikheid

Heavenly Honors deur Ittai Gradel handel oor die aanbidding van die Romeinse keiser, van die keiser tot Konstantyn.

The Divinization of Caesar and Augustus: Precedents, Consequences, Implications deur Michael Koortbojian. Spreek die probleme wat verband hou met waarsêery in die komplekse nuwe imperiale stelsel aan.

Die Romeinse keiserlike mausoleum in die laat oudheid deur Mark J. Johnson. Bestudeer die simboliek en funksie van latere Romeinse mausolea wat as tempels en heiligdomme vir die goddelike keisers gedien het.

Boeke deur die antieke historikus Livy

Vroeë geskiedenis van Rome: Boeke I-V van die geskiedenis van Rome vanaf die stigting daarvan deur Livy, vertaal deur Aubrey De Selincourt. Die historikus Livy sterf in 17 nC.

Rome en Italië deur Livy, vertaal deur Aubrey De Selincourt. Bevat volumes 6 tot 10 van Livy se geskiedenis van Rome dek die Samnite Wars.

(Let wel: Boeke 11 tot 20 van Livy se geskiedenis van Rome bestaan ​​nie meer nie.)

The War With Hannibal deur Livy, vertaal deur Aubrey De Selincourt. Livy se verslag van die Tweede Puniese Oorlog, bestaande uit volumes 21-30 van sy geskiedenis van Rome.

Rome en die Middellandse See deur Livy, vertaal deur Henry Bettenson. Bevat boeke 31 tot 45 van Livy se geskiedenis.

(Boeke 46 tot en met 142 van Livy se geskiedenis van Rome bestaan ​​nie meer nie.)

Ander antieke verslae van die Romeinse geskiedenis

The Annals of Imperial Rome deur Cornelius Tacitus, vertaal deur Michael Grant. 'N Antieke Romeinse verslag van die regering van Tiberius, Claudius en Nero. (Die gedeelte oor Caligula bestaan ​​nie meer nie.)

The Twelve Caesars deur Suetonius, vertaal deur Robert Graves. Fassinerende, maklik om te lees, baie vermaaklike inleiding tot die lewens van die eerste 12 keisers van Rome. Suetonius, gebore in 60 nC, was sekretaris van keiser Hadrianus.

How to Be a Bad Emperor: An Ancient Guide to Truly Terrible Leaders deur Suetonius, vertaal en geredigeer deur Josiah Osgood. Bied nuwe vertalings van Suetonius se skokkende biografieë oor Julius Caesar, Tiberius, Caligula en Nero.

Die Romeinse geskiedenis deur Velleius Paterculus, onder redaksie van J. C. Yardley en Anthony A. Barrett. Spoor die Romeinse geskiedenis van Romulus en die stigting van Rome tot die bewind van die keiser Tiberius. Hierdie nuwe vertaling bevat aantekeninge, 'n kaart en 'n woordelys.

Die Latere Romeinse Ryk deur Ammianus Marcellinus. Die skrywer, wat in die 4de eeu nC geleef het, het 'n geskiedenis van die Romeinse ryk van 31 boeke geskryf van keiser Nerva tot die dood van die oostelike keiser Valens. Slegs die laaste 18 boeke, ongeveer die jare 353 tot 378, het oorleef.

Die Latere Romeinse Ryk deur Ammianus Marcellinus, vertaal deur Walter Hamilton. 'N Verkorte weergawe van Ammianus se geskiedenis van latere Rome.

Geskiedenis van die Romeinse Ryk

The Storm Before the Storm: The Begin of the End of the Roman Republic deur Mike Duncan. Kronieke oor die jare 133-80 v.C., 'n tyd van bloedige gevegte, politieke gemors en menslike drama.

The Origin of Empire: Rome From the Republic to Hadrian deur David Potter. Geskiedenis van die vroeë Romeinse Ryk vanaf 264 VHJ, toe die Romeinse leër na Sicilië oorgegaan het, tot die dood van Hadrianus in 138 nC.

A Dictionary of the Roman Empire deur Matthew E. Bunson. Meer as 1900 inskrywings wat meer as 500 jaar Romeinse geskiedenis dek, van Julius Caesar en die Galliese oorloë tot die val van Romulus Augustus, die laaste Romeinse keiser. Van Oxford University Press.

The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Roman Empire deur Eric Nelson, Ph.D. 'N Oorsig van die Romeinse geskiedenis en kultuur van 800 vC tot die 15de eeu nC.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World onder redaksie van John Boardman, Jasper Griffin en Oswyn Murray.

Die Romeine: 'n inleiding deur Antony Kamm. 'N Algemene, bondige inleiding tot alle aspekte van die Romeinse kultuur. Sluit foto's en kaarte in.

Chronologie van die Romeinse Ryk onder redaksie van Timothy Venning. 'N Kronologiese verwysing vir die hele Romeinse staat en sy bure. Gebeurtenisse van elke jaar word breedvoerig behandel, insluitend verkose konsuls, groot veldslae, politieke en sosiale geleenthede.

The Roman World, 44 vC-AD 180 deur Martin Goodman. Bestudeer die vertroue van Romeinse keisers op 'n groot militêre onderneming. Bevat 'n lang gedeelte oor die belangrike godsdiensveranderinge in hierdie tydperk.

Antieke Rome: 'n Militêre en politieke geskiedenis deur Christopher S. Mackay. Van die oorsprong van die stad in die Italiaanse ystertydperk tot die afsetting van die laaste keiser in 476 nC.

The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome deur Chris Scarre. Hierdie atlas pas by duidelike grafika met informatiewe teks en gee 'n goeie oorsig van die Romeinse geskiedenis uit die agtste eeu v.C. tot die opkoms van die Christelike teokrasie 'n millennium later. (Hersien en kopieer Amazon.com)

Gibbon se verval en val

Gibbon's The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire deur Edward Gibbon, onder redaksie van David Womersley. Verkorte weergawe van Gibbon se lang geskiedenis van die laaste dae van die Romeinse Ryk. Sien die onverkorte weergawe hieronder.

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire - Deel 1, 2 en 3 deur Edward Gibbon. Gibbon se werk, wat in die 18de eeu geskryf is, word as 'n meesterstuk beskou.

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire - Deel 6 deur Edward Gibbon. Die laaste deel van die reeks.

Ander boeke the Empire's End

Patricians and Emperors: The Last Rulers of the Western Roman Empire deur Ian Hughes. Beknopte biografieë van diegene wat die mag gehad het, van die moord op Aetius in 454 tot die dood van Julius Nepos in 480.

Blood of the Caesars: How the Murder of Germanicus Led to the Fall of Rome deur Stephen Dando-Collins. Stel voor dat die moord op Germanicus - kleinseun van Mark Antony, aangenome seun van Tiberius, vader van Caligula en grootvader van Nero - die Romeinse ryk vier eeue later laat ineenstort het.

The Tragedy of Empire: From Constantine to the Destruction of Roman Italy deur Michael Kulikowski. 'N Politieke geskiedenis van die onstuimige twee eeue wat gelei het tot die ondergang van die Romeinse Ryk.

Mortal Republic: Hoe Rome in tirannie geval het deur Edward J. Watts. Waarom die Romeinse Republiek in duie gestort het - en hoe dit kon gedy het.

Caligula

Caligula: The Abuse of Power deur Anthony A. Barrett. Ondersoek of Caligula werklik 'n verdorwe despoot was.

Caligula: The Mad Emperor of Rome deur Stephen Dando-Collins. Die kronieke oor die intrige van die paleis wat daartoe gelei het dat Caligula keiser geword het, beskryf die gruwels van sy maniese regering.

Caligula deur Sam Wilkinson. Hierdie biografie ondersoek die gebeure tydens die bewind van Caligula om te ondersoek of sy berugtheid ten volle verdien is.

Caligula: 'n biografie deur Aloys Winterling. Stel die verhaal van die keiser in die konteks van die politieke stelsel om sy berugte brutaliteit te verduidelik.

Caligula: 'n Onverwagte generaal deur Lee Fratantuono. Hierdie militêre geskiedenis bied 'n nuwe beoordeling van Caligula as 'n verbasend bekwame militêre strateeg.

Caligula's Nemi Ships deur Charles River -redakteurs. Die geskiedenis van die geheimsinnige luukse bote van die Romeinse keiser, wat in die 20ste eeu herwin is - en byna heeltemal vernietig is.

Claudius

Claudius deur Barbara Levick. Heroorweeg die bewind van die Romeinse keiser Claudius om 'n intelligente politikus te onthul wat meedoënloos vasbeslote was om sy posisie as heerser te verseker.

Claudius Caesar: Beeld en mag in die vroeë Romeinse Ryk deur Josiah Osgood. 'N Geïllustreerde studie van die onstuimige heerskappy van keiser Claudius (41-54 nC).

Claudius in fiksie

I, Claudius: Uit die outobiografie van Tiberius Claudius, gebore 10 v.C., vermoor en vergoddelik n.C. 54 deur Robert Graves. Hierdie fiktiewe outobiografie speel 'n baie goeie les in die dae van glorie en dekadensie in die Romeinse Ryk. Die beste is Claudius self, die hakkelaar wat almal laat dink het dat hy 'n idioot was (om nie te vergiftig nie), maar wat homself in die vertelling openbaar as 'n wrange en sympathieke waarnemer. (Hierdie resensie en kopieer Amazon.com.)

Claudius die God en sy vrou Messalina deur Robert Graves. Hierdie vervolg op I, Claudius, vertel die verhaal van Claudius se 13-jarige regering as keiser van Rome.

Jaar van die vier keisers

AD69: Keisers, leërs en anargie deur Nic Fields. Na die dood van die Romeinse keiser Nero, het generaals van die ryk in 'n bloedige magstryd verval om te besluit wie die keiserlike pers sou dra.

69 nC: Die jaar van vier keisers deur M. Gwyn Morgan. Tussen die selfmoord van Nero in Junie 68 en die triomf van Vespasianus in Desember 69, het drie ander keisers aan die bewind gekom in Rome: ou, stywe vuis, konserwatiewe Galba Otho, eens Nero se seëngenoot en traag, buitensporig Vitellius.

Die Romeinse opvolgingskrisis van 96-99 nC en die bewind van Nerva deur John D. Grainger. Ontdek hoe en waarom die berugte keiser Domitianus vermoor is, die heerskappy van sy opvolger Nerva, en Nerva se eie opvolger, Trajanus, wat 'n gerespekteerde keiser geword het.

The Histories deur Tacitus, vertaal deur Kenneth Wellesley. Beskryf die moorddadige jaar van die vier keisers, 69 nC, toe die Romeinse Ryk deur 'n burgeroorlog verskeur is. Penguin Classics -uitgawe.

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius deur Anthony R. Birley. 'N Wetenskaplike studie van 'n menslike keiser en regdeur sy lang bewind, wat gereeld deur oorloë onderbroke was.

Marcus Aurelius: A Life deur Frank McLynn. Biografie van die Romeinse keiser wat ook 'n filosoof was, gebaseer op alle beskikbare oorspronklike bronne.

Marcus Aurelius in Love deur Marcus Aurelius, inleiding en vertaling deur Amy Richlin. 'N Versameling passievolle liefdesbriewe tussen die Romeinse redenaar Marcus Cornelius Fronto en toekomstige keiser Marcus Aurelius.

Sy filosofie

The Emperor's Handbook: A New Translation of the Meditations deur Marcus Aurelius, vertaal deur C. Scot Hicks en David V. Hicks. Filosofiese refleksies van 'n 2de eeuse Romeinse keiser (oorspronklik in Grieks geskryf). Marcus Aurelius was die vader van keiser Commodus.

A Companion to Marcus Aurelius onder redaksie van Marcel van Ackeren Hierdie versameling essays ondersoek die biografie, agtergrond en rol van die keiser as leier en wetgewer.

The Inner Citadel: The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius deur Pierre Hadot. 'N Studie van die filosoof-keiser, die stoïsme en die Romeinse kultuur in die tweede eeu.

Marcus Aurelius: A Guide for the Perplexed deur William O. Stephens. 'N Beknopte inleiding tot die lewe en skryf van die Romeinse keiser Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.

Hoe om te dink soos 'n Romeinse keiser: Die stoïsynse filosofie van Marcus Aurelius deur Donald Robertson. Die beginsels van stoïsisme word geleer deur die verhaal van die bekendste voorstander daarvan.

Hadrianus

Hadrian: The Restless Emperor deur Anthony R. Birley. Bestudeer Hadrian se privaat lewe - insluitend 'n ongelukkige huwelik en toegewyde homoseksuele gehegtheid - en sy openbare werke. (Hierdie resensie en kopieer Amazon.com.)

Hadrianus en die triomf van Rome deur Anthony Everitt. Biografie van 'n dapper, skerpsinnige Romeinse keiser wat 'n bekwame jagter, digter en filosofiestudent was.

Hadrian: Empire & amp Conflict deur Thorsten Opper. 'N Nuwe beoordeling van die persoonlikheid, heerskappy en militêre rol van die Romeinse keiser, geïllustreer met belangrike kunswerke en voorwerpe.

Hadrian's Wall deur Adrian Goldsworthy. 'N Historiese en argeologiese ondersoek wat die feit van die legende skei terwyl die muur in die groter toneel van Romeinse Brittanje geleë is.

Na Hadrianus: 'n Tweede-eeuse reis deur die Romeinse Ryk deur Elizabeth Speller. Hierdie biografie vang die keiser as 'n bouer en 'n onwrikbare reisiger, wat lesers begelei op 'n groot toer deur die Romeinse Ryk op sy grootste, van die onvrugbare grense van Brittanje tot die stedelike glans van Rome self.

Hadrianus en die stede van die Romeinse Ryk deur Mary Taliaferro Boatwright. 'N Omvattende ondersoek na die lewendige stedelike lewe wat onder Hadrianus se bewind bestaan ​​het.

Fiksie

Memoirs of Hadrian deur Marguerite Yourcenar, vertaal deur Grace Frick. 'N Roman wat Hadrianus se moeisame jeugdigheid, sy triomfe en omkerings heroorweeg, en uiteindelik, as keiser, sy geleidelike herrangskikking van 'n oorloggeteisterde wêreld.

Die keiser deur Georg Ebers. Roman oor die keiser Hadrianus, geskryf deur 'n 19de -eeuse Egiptoloog.

Lady of the Eternal City deur Kate Quinn. Die elegante, geheimsinnige Sabina moet die vrede bewaar tussen twee dodelike vyande: haar man Hadrianus, Rome se briljante en sinistere keiser, en die gehawende vegter Vix, haar eerste liefde.

Elagabalus

The Crimes of Elagabalus: The Life and Legacy of Rome's Decadent Boy Emperor deur Martijn Icks. Die jong keiser Elagabalus het homself tot 'n god gemaak, grappe gespeel, was die onderwerp van kwaai gerugte en is op 18 -jarige ouderdom deur sy eie wagte vermoor. Hierdie biografie onderskei die werklikheid van sy lewe van mite.

Die keiser Elagabalus: feit of fiksie? deur Leonardo de Arrizabalaga y Prado. Die Romeinse keiser uit die derde eeu het Elagabalus Heliogabalus verkeerdelik na sy dood 'n mite gemaak. Hierdie boek identifiseer bekende feite oor sy bewind.

Theodosius I

Theodosius en die grense van die ryk deur Mark Hebblewhite. Hierdie biografie van die Romeinse keiser Theodosius I (379-395 nC) spoor sy opkoms tot mag en onstuimige heerskappy.

AD 381: ketters, heidene en die aanbreek van die monoteïstiese staat deur Robert Easton. In 381 het Theodosius besluit dat alle onderdane in die Drie -eenheid moet glo, en die uiteenlopende oortuigings in die ryk beëindig.

Galla Placidia

Galla Placidia: The Last Roman Empress deur Hagith Sivan. Biografie van Galla Placidia (c. 390-450), 'n bloeddorstige prinses wat 'n barbaarse bruid geword het en later die bedrieglike regent van die Wes-Romeinse ryk.

Rome's Christian Empress: Galla Placidia Rules at the Twilight of the Empire deur Joyce E. Salisbury. Die dogter van die Romeinse keiser Theodosius I, Galla Placidia, is gyselaar geneem na die val van Rome by die Gote.

Ander keisers

Vespasian deur Barbara Levick. Hierdie biografie van die oncharismatiese Romeinse keiser betwis die geldigheid van sy goeie reputasie en universeel erkende prestasies.

The Emperor Commodus: God and Gladiator deur John S. McHugh. Commodus word sedert sy eie tyd deur historici belaglik gemaak, en is sinoniem met losbandigheid en grootheid. Hierdie boek plaas sy heerskappy in historiese konteks, en toon aan dat hy 'n ryk geërf het wat deur plaag en oorlog verwoes is.

Caracalla: 'n Militêre biografie deur Ilkka Syv & aumlnne. Skuldig op baie moorde en slagtings (insluitend sy eie broer, eksvrou en dogter), was Caracalla nietemin gewild onder die weermag.

Keiser Alexander Severus: Rome's Age of Insurrection, 222-235 AD deur John S. McHugh. Alexander Severus het op die troon gekom deur die wrede moord op sy neef Elagabalus, en is self vermoor. Die jare tussenin was gevul met rebellies en hofintrige. Tog beskryf antieke bronne sy regering as 'n goue era van geregtigheid en verdraagsaamheid.

Maximinus Thrax: Van gewone soldaat tot keiser van Rome deur Paul N. Pearson. Maximinus, meer as sewe voet lank, het in 'n militêre staatsgreep keiser geword.

Theodosius II: Herbesinning oor die Romeinse Ryk in die Laat Oudheid onder redaksie van Christopher Kelly. Tien opstelle oor Theodosius II (408-450 nC), die langste regerende Romeinse keiser. Alhoewel hy as middelmatig en ondoeltreffend afgemaak is, het sy oostelike ryk sy integriteit behou terwyl die Weste deur barbaarse invalle verbreek is.

Galerius en die testament van Diocletian deur Bill Leadbetter. Bestudeer die keiserlike strategie van die keiser Diocletianus, oorloë, godsdienstige sienings en abdikasie en die mislukkings en suksesse van sy opvolger Galerius teen die agtergrond van Konstantyn se meedoënlose drif na mag.

Trajanus: Optimus Princeps deur Julian Bennett. Biografie van die Romeinse keiser.

Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, edited by Anthony Birley, is a biography of the emperor who ruled from 193 to 211. He was succeeded by his son Caracalla.

Philip the Arab: A Study in Prejudice by Yasmine Zahran. Originally from Syria, Roman emperor Philip I ruled from AD 244 to 249. He is remembered for being sympathetic to the Christian faith and bringing peace with the Sassanid Empire.

Empresses

Representing Agrippina: Constructions of Female Power in the Early Roman Empire by Judith Ginsburg. Agrippina the Younger, mother of the notorious emperor Nero, was one of the most powerful women in the history of the Roman empire. This book takes a fresh look at literary and material representations of Agrippina.

Julia Domna, Syrian Empress by Dr B. Levick. Julia Domna, who died in 217, was the Syrian-born wife of Roman emperor Septimius Severus, and mother of Emperor Caracalla. This book examines key questions about the powerful empress.

Other Topics

Coining Images of Power by Erika Manders. Patterns in the representation of Roman emperors on imperial coinage, A.D 193-284.

Contested Monarchy: Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD edited by Johannes Wienand. Reappraises the transformation of the Roman monarchy between the Principate and Late Antiquity, focusing on the century from Diocletian to Theodosius I (284-395).

Familia Caesaris: A Social Study of the Emperor's Freedmen and Slaves by P. R. C. Weaver. Shows how the emperor's slaves and freedman differed from others of their class.

Rome and the Friendly King: The Character of Client Kingship by David C. Braund. How a client king's power related to Roman authority and to his subjects.

Emperors and Usurpers in the Later Roman Empire: Civil War, Panegyric, and the Construction of Legitimacy by Adrastos Omissi. How successive imperial dynasties attempted to legitimate themselves and communicate with their subjects.

Emperors and Bishops in Late Roman Invective by Richard Flower. A study of texts written by three bishops who attacked Roman emperor Constantius II (337-61) for his tyrannical behaviour and heretical religious beliefs.

Roman Buildings

Houses, Villas, and Palaces in the Roman World by Alexander Gordon MacKay. Roman domestic architecture from the time of the Etruscans to the late Roman Empire. Geïllustreer.

A Monument to Dynasty and Death by Nathan T. Elkins. The story of Rome's Colosseum and the emperors who built it.

The Emperor and Rome: Space, Representation, and Ritual edited by Björn C. Ewald and Carlos F. Noreña. The impact of imperial building programs, representations of the emperor in the city, and rituals linking emperor and people.

Military & Law

The Emperor of Law: The Emergence of Roman Imperial Adjudication by Kaius Tuori. How the emperor of Rome came to assume the mantle of a judge, from Augustus to the days leading up to the Severan dynasty.

The Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235-395 by Mark Hebblewhite. Each emperor employed a range of strategies to convince the army that the empire could only prosper under his rule.

Fiksie

Colleen McCullough's "Masters of Rome" series of novels: Entertaining novels emphasizing personal lives and politics of real historical figures. The books in the series are The First Man in Rome (about Caesar's uncle by marriage, Gaius Marius) The Grass Crown (about Sulla) Fortune's Favorites (about Pompey, Sulla, and Caesar) Caesar's Women (about Aurelia, Servilia, and Julia) Caesar: A Novel (about Julius Caesar) The October Horse (about Caesar, Cleopatra and the fall of the Roman republic) and Antony and Cleopatra: A Novel. McCullough is also the author of The Thorn Birds and other bestsellers.

Caligula by Simon Turney. Was Caligula really a monster? Let his sister Livilla tell you how her quiet, caring brother became the most powerful man on earth and Rome was changed forever.

Commodus by Simon Turney. On the brink of disaster, Roman emperor Commodus tries to hold the empire together, but only one woman can hold him together.

The Course of Honour by Lindsey Davis. In ancient Rome, future emperor Vespasian falls in love with a slave in the household of the imperial family.

Master & God: A Novel of the Roman Empire by Lindsey Davis. Gaius Vinius is a reluctant member of Emperor Domitian's personal guard. Flavia Lucilla is a hairdresser in the imperial court. Together they watch Domitian unravel into madness.

The Emperors by Frank Manley. Poems about Roman emperors.

Kinderboeke

Movies and Documentaries

These DVDs are formatted for North American audiences.

Caligula: Reign of Madness. Documentary from A&E's "Biography" series. A compelling look at one of the most notorious rulers in history, whose name is synonymous with depravity and madness.

I, Claudius. Excellent, racy miniseries from BBC's "Masterpiece Theater" series.

Modern Marvels: Hadrian's Wall. Walk the 74-mile barrier that marked the edge of the Roman Empire with world-renowned scholars.

In Search of History: The Roman Emperors. Go deep into the private lives of the mighty emperors. Visit the remains of their opulent mansions and see stunning reconstructions of what these palaces looked like at their prime.

When Rome Ruled. Six-part National Geographic series. Episodes include The Real Caligula, Doomsday Pompeii, Killing Caesar, and Ancient Superpower.

Roman Vice. Luxury made the Roman world go round. This documentary uses recent archeological evidence to bring this tumultuous period to life. Explore Roman funeral practices, secret societies and mysterious cults, and the grand palaces of Nero and Tiberius.

Rome: The Complete Series. HBO television series starring Ciaran Hinds as Julius Caesar.


Historical and traditional accounts of the life of Pontius Pilate

According to the traditional account of his life, Pilate was a Roman equestrian (knight) of the Samnite clan of the Pontii (hence his name Pontius). He was appointed prefect of Judaea through the intervention of Sejanus, a favourite of the Roman emperor Tiberius. (That his title was prefect is confirmed by an inscription from Caesarea in ancient Palestine.)

Protected by Sejanus, Pilate incurred the enmity of Jews in Roman-occupied Palestine by insulting their religious sensibilities, as when he hung worship images of the emperor throughout Jerusalem and had coins bearing pagan religious symbols minted. After Sejanus’s fall (31 ce ), Pilate was exposed to sharper criticism from certain Jews, who may have capitalized on his vulnerability to obtain a legal death sentence on Jesus (John 19:12). The Samaritans reported Pilate to Vitellius, legate of Syria, after he attacked them on Mount Gerizim (36 ce ). He was then ordered back to Rome to stand trial for cruelty and oppression, particularly on the charge that he had executed men without proper trial. According to Eusebius of Caesarea’s Kerklike geskiedenis, Pilate killed himself on orders from the emperor Caligula.


Julius Caesar

Admittedly Julius Caesar is better known to history as the penetrated rather than the penetrator. Sexually speaking, however, he was both. Known as the &ldquobald adulterer&rdquo Julius Caesar fit the Roman political stereotype perfectly by sleeping his way to power. As a young man he spent a considerable amount of time at the court of King Nicomedes of Bithynia, fuelling a series of rumors about an affair in which Caesar was the submissive party. His return to Bithynia just a few days after leaving to &ldquocollect a debt&rdquo only fanned the flames.

The Roman biographer Suetonius tells us that this was the only stain on Caesar&rsquos masculinity. But it was a stain that proved difficult to wash out and he would be reminded of it throughout his prematurely ended life. One colleague, Bibulus, addressed Caesar as &ldquothe queen of Bithynia.&rdquo During an assembly, a man named Octavius hailed his co-consul Pompey as &ldquoking&rdquo and Caesar as &ldquoqueen&rdquo. Even the great Cicero couldn&rsquot resist a poke, writing that it was on a Bithynian couch that Caesar—the son of Venus—lost his virginity.

He was just as badly behaved in the provinces, his veni, vidi, vici mantra applying just as much to his sexual conquests as to his military. While in Egypt he had a fling with another historical A-lister, Cleopatra, who forced their introduction by having herself smuggled into his palace wrapped in a carpet. She clearly made an impression. Within nine months she gave birth to their son Caesarian an unfortunate child who wouldn&rsquot survive the purges of Caesar&rsquos successor Octavian. Caesar&rsquos behavior in Gaul didn&rsquot go unnoticed by his men either. During his military triumph celebrating his success there they chanted:

&ldquoMen of Rome, look out for your wives,

We&rsquore bringing the bald adulterer home.

In Gaul you fucked your way through a fortune

Which you borrowed here in Rome.&rdquo

With Caesar returning, there was good reason for men to lock up their wives (and, indeed, daughters). Caesar had slept his way through the rank and file of aristocratic Roman women, even seducing the wives of fellow consuls and political allies. But these weren&rsquot the only exploits his soldiers sang about on this triumphal occasion. They couldn&rsquot resist making reference to his submission to a certain Bithynian king (boys will be boys) and in the course of their banter also boomed out: &ldquoCaesar might have conquered the Gauls but Nicomedes conquered him!&rdquo

Homosexual tendencies weren&rsquot frowned upon in Roman culture per se. Granted, they might earn you the derision of your macho-militaristic cohort. But, as long as sexual favors were given for the purpose of advancing your own political career, they could be overlooked. At least it showed some degree of interest in the proper, political values an upper class Roman should have. This doesn&rsquot exonerate Caesar in his colleagues&rsquo eyes. But, when Gaius Scribonius Curio, an orator and outspoken opponent of Caesar, called him &ldquoa man to every woman and a woman to every man&rdquo, it at least took something of a sting out of the tail.


How Did Julius Caesar Change Rome?

Julius Caesar changed Rome in a number of significant ways, from conquering more lands and defeating invading armies in order to expand the Roman empire to quelling uprisings and relieving debt. He helped to turn Rome into a cultured and enlightened hub.

Julius Caesar is one of the most well-known and iconic rulers of ancient Rome. He was hugely influential in all aspects of the Roman Empire, including politics, the everyday life of citizens, war and economics. When Caesar first came to power, one of the biggest threats facing Rome was the huge mountain of debt. This caused poverty and civil war, with lenders clamouring for their money, and sent property and real estate value plummeting. There was also a distinct lack of coinage, as people hoarded currency. Caesar intervened, relieving the financial crisis and ending the civil unrest by providing free rent for a year, giving citizens the option of a new life and a fresh start in one of the foreign colonies, limiting how much currency could be kept per citizen and cancelling all interest payments due since the outbreak of the civil war. His creative and decisive action ended the civil war and relieved much of the debt and poverty at the heart of the Empire while managing to appease both lenders and borrowers.

He also sought to make Rome a cultural haven of enlightenment and beauty, attracting intellectuals, doctors and scientists from all over the Empire to the city of Rome. After his murder, his influence continued, as his will decreed that his property and estates were made public and that his amassed fortune was distributed to the citizens of Rome.


Where Roman Shadows End @ eng.expert.ru

Like its founder, the early Christian church prized spiritual purity over physical cleanliness, which facilitated sins of the flesh. Thus, a Christian ascetic who crawled with vermin and reeked of body odor was venerated as a paragon of virtue.

Medieval Christians proved their holiness by not washing. A monk came upon a hermit in the desert and rejoiced that he smelt the good odour of that brother from a mile away.

Cleanliness improved during the Middle Ages particularly after the Crusaders imported the Turkish bath. Islamic culture had preserved the Roman traditions of cleaning the body first, then soaking and socializing.

Deprived of sophisticated Roman plumbing, most medieval and renaissance people appear to have bathed less often, but with the same social enjoyment.

Public bath houses were popular and well run, and expectant mothers even used them for baby showers, or festive lying- in baths, with their female friends. Paris and London had many of these jolly communal stews a term later applied to houses of prostitution.

Because so much sex went on in the public baths of the middle ages, the term stew or stewhouse, which originally referred to the moist warmth of the bathhouse, gradually came to mean a house of prostitution.
The church chimed in that the baths encouraged concupiscence, and the stews were closed. From the mid-16th century well into the 19th century in much of Europe, a person could go from cradle to grave without a good wash.

In England, Elizabeth I declared that she bathed once a month whether I need it or not. In Spain during the Inquisition, Ashen burg says, Jew and Muslim alike could be condemned by the frightful words was known to bathe. Nor was sanitation prized in France, where feces left in the halls of Versailles were carted away once a week.

When John Wesley famously re marked, in 1791, that cleanliness is, indeed, next to godliness, he wasn t talking about the body, but about clothes.

In the long centuries of Christian Europe, when miserable conditions of life and religious repression conspired to minimize the expression of sexual longing, desire was driven underground to rise only momentarily during celebrations like Carnaval. Yet by the late nineteenth century, increasing privacy, prosperity, and good health again permitted the underlying biological urge for total body sex to express itself. Our section on the history of the bikini tells this story from a sixties and Brazilian perspective. The wise look to the past as a guide to the future which brings us to Pompeii.

Pompeii had public baths as early as the 4th Century BC, whereas Rome itself did not have them until the time of Augustus (late 1st Century BC). They assumed a character like the Greek gymnasium but incorporated advances which we can still appreciate today. The community of Pompeii was finishing one the grandest bathhouse ever built when Mount Vesuvius exploded in 79 AD, giving us a remarkable view of a different way of living life.

The resort city of Pompeii has yielded an amazingly large collection of erotic votive objects and frescoes. Many were removed and kept until their 21st century unveiling at the Naples Archeological Museum. They had been previously opened to public viewing for a brief period during the 1960s. [meer]

The city of Pompeii was the luxury destination for the Roman elite and many members of the upper classes lived almost full-time. Pompeii was a lively place, and evidence abounds of literally the smallest details of everyday life. In examining the street Latin graffiti at Pompeii, we can gather that well-known gladiators and actors frequented the city, and drinking and sex were commonplace and accepted as outlets of entertainment in the ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

While the Romans adopted the idealization of beauty like the Greeks, their genius was melding ideas, money, and slave labor into greater infrastructure than had ever been seen before. Their increasingly complex structures included the baths. The Romans built so many of them, the baths became an experimental laboratory to test out new concepts. The baths were available to all as community center and a daily ritual that defined what it meant to be Roman.

The locals and visitors frequented a magnificent 5,000-seat theatre and a 20,000-capacity amphitheatre while enjoying at least 81 takeaway food emporiums featuring hot food and fresh bread. The spiritual life of the elite was important too, as the surviving temples dedicated to Isis, Venus, Jupiter and Apollo show us.

Beneath the lava ruins rests a freeze-frame of high style Roman living. Twenty-five thousand people or more died, buried under what was a high tower of pumice pebbles that fell for twelve hours, and killed in an instant by a hundred-mile-an-hour surge of pyroplastic flow -- a superheated mixture of poisonous gas, lava foam, and rocks. When archaeologists began the large-scale uncovering of the city a century ago, they found that there were cavities in the rock, left over from the victims. The plaster casts of the victims that have made Pompeii Italy's #1 visitor attraction.

The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans are the three ancient cultures with the most important Carnaval lineage, and they all retain their glorious presence in the preserved record of Pompeii at the beginning of the last great age. Isis is the Egyptian deity most responsible for the truce between the Romans and Catholics at the Council of Nicea in 325 AD. O ne of the most important fine art cycles in the history of art is at the Villa of Mystery. Here it is likely that young women were initiated into the mysteries of life, death and rebirth under the watchful eyes of Dionysis and his consort Ariadne.

Pompeii was a rich and cosmopolitan Roman city of trade originally dominated by the Greek traders who also ruled Egypt under the Ptolemys. There are depictions of women as goddesses, seductresses, saints, sinners, and muses, which often have the female appearing nude.

Inside their villas, Pompeians chose many different ways to express themselves. The interior walls of Pompeii homes were enriched by warm and brilliantly colored decorations often with mythological, heroic and fantastic subjects. Some Pompeians had a great love for depicting the mythological stories of the Greeks in these paintings. The rich colors and great skills of all the work show that a support of the arts was a revered aesthetic among the citizens.

The large number of well-preserved frescoes throw a great light on everyday life and have been a major advance in art history of the ancient world, with the innovation of the Pompeian Styles (First/Second /Third Style).

In general, a Roman public bath was like a country club. For a small sum, it was a place to meet friends, go to the gym, play a few games, have a good meal, and spend a bit of time in a succession of cold, tepid, warm or hot baths. Lines on the road from the city s port led not only to brothels, but directed visitors to the heavily used bathhouses. Their great popularity in Pompeii likely contributed to making them an everyday life in the City of Rome and wherever Romans built their network of far-flung cities over the great empire.

Roman history bears witness to the fact that women's bodies were not their own, but lying at the intersection of public interest as they did, were constitutionally entrusted to males to regulate and administer for the good of the state. Women had no political rights. They were not allowed to vote, directly address the Senate, nor mill about in the forum.

In the earlier times of the republic there was a difference of hours for the two sexes. The therm were monopolized alternately by the women in the morning and then the men after they finished their workday in the early afternoon till dinner. Mixed bathing was generally frowned upon, although the fact that various emperors repeatedly forbade it seems to indicate that the prohibitions did not always work. Women who were concerned about their respectability would not frequent the baths when the men were there after 2 in the afternoon, but then the baths with its many small rooms and visitors on holiday would be an excellent place for prostitutes to ply their trade.

Of particular note for the ancient seaside trading community dominated by the Greeks for many centuries was the water system with a central natatorium or swimming pool, and an aqueduct that provided water for more than 25 street fountains, at least four public baths, and a large number of private houses (domus) and businesses.

Water was heated by furnaces in cavities beneath the marble floor. This rose through terracotta layering in the walls. The actual water would be supplied from the aqueduct constructed in the time of Augustus found in the city. The water-wheel in the Strabian Baths indicates that before this, water channeled through a well or a cistern.

Thanks to under-floor heating, and air ducts built into the walls, the whole room would have been full of steam when in use. Grooves in the ceiling allowed condensation to be channelled to the walls, rather than drip onto bathers. Cold water was piped into designated basins enabling bathers to cool off when they wanted.

The oldest bathhouse in Pompeii was the Strabian Baths, but there were several others - the Central, Suburban, Sarno, Amphitheatre en Forum baddens. This was in a resort city of 15,000-20,000 people. The smaller nearby town of Herculaneum also had two large bathing places. Baths were for people of every social class, but not too egalatarian. The inscription in the huge Villa of Julia Felix which made her baths public following the rebuilding from the quake in 62 AD reads ‘elegant baths for respectable people.’

It was very spacious, and contained all sorts of apartments, side rooms, round and square basins, small ovens, galleries, porticoes, etc., without counting a space for bodily exercises ( pal stra) where the young Pompeians went through their gymnastics. It houses a gymnasium, has walls painted of garden imagery, has several changing rooms and latrines for guests. This was a complete water-cure establishment.

Body care was continued in the "Grande Palestra" a huge rectangular area designed for gymnastic exercises. It measured over 100 metres along each side. A large pool was situated at its centre.
"How have you managed to preserve yourself so long and so well?"
asked Augustus of Pollio.
"With wine inside, and oil outside,"
responded the old man.
Woman with Flask: marble statue of a woman wearing a peplos and holding a glass perfume flask. Ostia, c. 30 CE. Rome, Vatican Museum.

Slave attendants addressed all your needs one of them cuts your nails, another plucks out your stray hair, and a third still seeks to press your body and rasp the skin with his brush, a fourth prepares the most fearful frictions yet to ensue, while others deluge you with oils and essences, and grease you with perfumed unguents. They were perfumed with myrrh, spikenard, and cinnamon there was the Egyptian unguent for the feet and legs, the Ph nician for the cheeks and the breast, and the Sisymbrian for the two arms the essence of marjoram for the eyebrows and the hair, and that of wild thyme for the nape of the neck and the knees.

These unguents were very dear, but they kept up youth and health.

The square basin (alveus or baptisterium) which served for the warm baths was of marble. It was ascended by three steps and descended on the inside by an interior bench upon which ten bathers could sit together.

This frigidarium or natatio is a circular room, which strikes you at the outset by its excellent state of preservation. In the middle of it is hollowed out a spacious round basin of white marble, four yards and a half in diameter by about four feet in depth an circular series of steps on the interior enabled the Pompeians to bathe in a sitting posture. Four niches, prepared at the places where the angles would be if the apartment were square, contained benches where the bathers rested. The walls were painted yellow and adorned with green branches. The frieze and pediment were red and decorated with white bas-reliefs. The vault, which was blue and open overhead, was in the shape of a truncated cone. It was clear, brilliant, and gay, like the antique life itself.

Do you prefer a warm bath? Retrace your steps and, from the apodyteros, where you left your clothing, pass into the tepidarium.

On quitting the stove, or warm bath, the Pompeians wet their heads in that large wash-basin, where tepid water which must, at that moment, have seemed cold, leaped from a bronze pipe still visible. Others still more courageous plunged into the icy water of the frigidarium, and came out of it, they said, stronger and more supple in their limbs.

The Forum baths held open-air sports area (palaestra) for exercise, and the game called harpastum which was popular throughout Rome may have been played at rectangular courts found at the Central and Strabian Baths.

Augustus lived a modest life, with few of the luxuries that his rank would have allowed him to have . Augustus also introduced laws to improve morality to regulate marriage and family life and to control promiscuity.

Livia, was the third wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Together they promoted the feminine ideal of the earliest years of Rome, although this was apparently more honored in the breach than observance even by her husband, despite his success in being the patriarch of domestic virtue.

The use of Egypt's immense land rents to finance the Empire's operations resulted from Augustus' conquest of Egypt and the shift to a Roman form of government. As it was effectively considered Augustus' private property rather than a province of the Empire, it became part of each succeeding emperor's patrimonium. The highly productive agricultural land of Egypt yielded enormous revenues that were available to Augustus and his successors to pay for public works and military expeditions, as well as bread and circuses for the population of Rome.

In AD 9, Augustus made adultery a criminal offence, although it is said this was more to intimidate wives than husbands. He first instituted the still encouraged practice of the Catholic church of many offspring by granting privileges to couples with three or more children. The Augustan era poets Virgil and Horace praised Augustus as a defender of Rome, an upholder of moral justice. Virgil's The Aeneid is considered a great epic classic in many ways, not only beating the drum for Roman virtue, but thoughtfully and artfully blending the complex relations at the heart of the Roman Empire into a belief system which served the stability of the realm immeasurably.

Emperor Augustus is also known for his famous last words: "Did you like the performance?", referring to the play-acting and regal authority that he had put on as emperor.

When Christianity banished the pagan gods over 1500 years ago, ending forever their lust-filled adventures, a sexual chill gripped Western Europe.

Even today, the current Pope tells all who will listen that having sex only for procreation and without protection is necessary to avoid the damnation of hell. The record shows that church leaders have few nice things to say about sex, declaring most manifestations of it sinful despite the fact that sexual desire is hard-wired into the brain.

In the late 13th century, the French bathhouses in Paris employed criers to announce when the water was hot.

"A crier patrolled the streets of thirteenth-century Paris to summon people to the heated steam-baths and bath-houses. These establishments, already numbering twenty-six in 1292 [Riolan, Curieuses Recherches, bl. 219],

Napoleon and Josephine were fastidious for their time in that they both took a long, hot, daily bath. But Napoleon wrote Josephine from a campaign, I will return to Paris tomorrow evening. Don t wash. Bathing had become rarer with time as 17th-century aristocratic Frenchman, thought cleanliness meant changing his shirt once a day, using perfume to obliterate both his own aroma and everyone else s.

Traditionally a predominantly Roman Catholic country, with anticlerical leanings, France has been a very secular country since the 1970s. However, public holidays are still largely traditional Catholic holidays and knowledge of facts about the history of Catholicism (for instance, the attribute of saints) is considered normal for an educated person. The French generally consider that since the 1905 law of separation of Church and State, they have struck an excellent balance between the rights of religious people and the neutrality of public institutions with respect to religious matters.

Much has been said about the sex lives of the French. The fact the late president, Fran ois Mitterrand, had a love child was an open secret. And the extramarital affairs of his successor, Jacques Chirac, were so well known that even his wife joked about them publicly.

Current French President, 53 year old Nicolas Sarkozy, has raised a few eyebrows since his 2007 election, managing to go through a divorce, courtship and marriage to a model/ pop singer 41 year-old Carla Bruni - all within the first 100 days of his presidency. Carla Bruni is a fascinating beauty who knows her way around a media frenzy. In April 2008 a nude photo of Ms. Bruni, was sold at auction for 91,000 euros. The photographer had persuaded the seller to donate the money from the sale to charity. The charity, a Children s Hospital Association in Cambodia headed by Swiss pediatrician and musician Beat Richner, refused the money.

Accepting money obtained from exploitation of the female body would be perceived as an insult. In Cambodia use of nudity is not understood in the way it is in the West . At the same time, for Cambodians and their government, Madame Bruni is now seen as the First Lady of France. Our reputation would be stained by what they would perceive as disrespect should we accept money of this nature.

Exploitation generally means to take unfair advantage, and perhaps nothing has created more controversy more regularly than exposing the female body, except perhaps exposing the sexual passions the feminine form stirs. However, the ideal of progress requires we deal with it. By celebrating beauty as a high artistic ideal the French and Brazilian cultures have become beacons for a new tomorrow where exploitation of superior power and the planetary suicide of war can be avoided.

Roman women obeyed these restriction with little fuss. Yet, at the end of the successful Second Punic War in 201 B.C., male Romans and women in towns beyond Rome again donned their rich clothing and rode about in carriages. Women in Rome, however, continued to be denied these luxuries because of the Oppian Law. With the end of the wars, upper class women chafted at these continuing restrictions and now wished to keep their inherited money for their own use.

In 195 B.C., some members of the Tribunal proposed eliminating the Oppian Law. Women throughout Rome kept an eye on these proceedings. When it seemed that the majority of Tribunal was about to veto the proposed repeal, they poured into the streets in protest. It was the first time anything by women on a scale such as this was seen in Rome. As a result of the women's protest, the tribunes withdrew their veto and approved the repeal.

For the entire duration of the Roman Empire, Naples and Pompeii was celebrated as a rich and elegant cultural centre, where the Roman emperors and aristocracy came to spend the summer months in their sumptuous villas along the Bay of Naples coast and as far as Sorrento on one side of the bay.

The Sybarites were a luxury-loving people who are credited with inventing the steam bath.in the 8th century B.C.,

The city of Naples was founded by Greek immigrants, who ruled over the Gulf of Naples. Then the area was dominated by the Etruscans (525-474). After their defeat, the city again was subjected to the rule of the Greeks (474-425). The cultural mixing began early as the Greeks would send only men out as colonizers.

The struggle for supremacy in the territory of Campania was resolved by another civilization, that of Samnites who came down from the mountains of the Sannio regions. The archaeological excavations have revealed a number of buildings, of Sannitic type, as well as various sculptural and pictorial works referable to the same period.

For more than 3 centuries Pompei remained under their influence, until the end of the III century when the Roman conquered Campania region. Pompei at first was declared "socia" of Rome and it maintained its own institutions and language, then in the year 80 BC. became a Roman colony with the name of "Colonia Veneria Cornelia Pompeii". From then Pompeii was a city with Roman language, customs, architecture, political and administrative life.

In 2002 another important discovery at the mouth of the Sarno River revealed that the port also was populated and that people lived in palafittes, within a system of channels that suggested a likeness to Venice to some scientists. These studies are just beginning to produce results.

Luciana Iacobelli, a lecturer in Pompeian antiquities at Bicocca University in Milan, said the graffiti also surprisingly reveals names of Roman women of various social classes. This suggests it wasn't only women doing the servicing.
"A recent study suggests that also men worked as prostitutes in the Lupanare. Their clients were both women and men," Iacobelli told Naples daily newspaper, "Il Mattino."
Unearthed in 1862, the Lupanare underwent several restorations. In 2006 the restoration lasted one year, mainly focused on the frescoes, which had begun to fade.

  • Caldarium - closest to the furnace. This room had a large tub or small pool with very hot water and a waist-high fountain (labrum) with cool water to splash on the face and neck.Hot air came through air ducts behind he walls and onto a marble floor held up by brick pillars.
  • Frigidarium -Cold bath, rather like a smaller version of a swimming pool.
  • Tepidarium - Warm bathing room, occasionally linked to a sweating room.
  • laconicum -dry heat like a sauna
  • apodyterium dressing room
  • palaestra - The large central courtyard was the exercise ground it was surrounded by a shady portico which led into the bathing rooms.
  • Vestibule - Entrance Hall to the bathhouses.

The Mount Vesuvius has been sleeping since 1944 under the watchful eyes of volcanologists, who regularly measure its temperature. Their observatory lies 608m high.

The region's volcanic band includes Stromboli, a remote island to the south, and Sicily's Mt. Etna, which demonstrated a significant period of activity in 2007.

Between 1933 and 1944 Mount Vesuvius buried several towns underneath more than 250 million cubic metres of lava. Even the cable car, well known through the folk song Funicul , funicul , fell victim to the lava .

The Finnish use of sauna is well documented back to the beginning of their history.

"The first examples of saunas were simple pits dug in the earth, with heated stones to generate the dry, hot atmosphere. Hot stones remain the hallmark of the sauna, radiating warmth into a small surrounding room, which today is typically built of wood. Dousing the stones with water creates a vapor called loyly by the Finns. Body brushes, called vihta of vahta, and birch branches, are used to stimulate the skin and a healthy sweat." (von Furstenberg, p. 93)


List of Roman Emperors

  • Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus
  • Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
  • Servius Sulpicius Galba
  • Marcus Salvius Otho
  • Aulus Vitellius Germanicus
  • Titus Flavius Vespasianus
  • Titus Flavius Vespasianus
  • Titus Flavius Domitianus
  • Marcus Cocceius Nerva
  • Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus
  • Publius Aelius Hadrianus
  • Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (Antoninus Pius)
  • Lucius Aurelius Verus
  • Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
  • Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus
  • Publius Helvius Pertinax
  • Marcus Didius Severus Julianus
  • Lucius Septimius Severus
  • Caracalla
  • Publius Septimius Geta
  • Marcus Opellius Macrinus
  • Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus
  • Elagabalus
  • Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander
  • Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (Maximinus I)
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian I)
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (Gordian II)
  • Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus
  • Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (Gordian III)
  • Marcus Julius Philippus (Philip the Arab)
  • Gaius Messius Quintus Decius
  • Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus
  • Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus
  • Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus
  • Publius Licinius Valerianus
  • Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus
  • Marcus Aurelius Claudius
  • Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus
  • Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
  • Marcus Claudius Tacitus
  • Marcus Annius Florianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Probus
  • Marcus Aurelius Carus
  • Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Carinus
  • Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus
  • Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius
  • Flavius Valerius Constantius (Constantius Chlorus)
  • Galerius Maximianus
  • Flavius Valerius Severus
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (Constantine I or Emperor Constantine)
  • Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
  • Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus (Maximinus II)
  • Valerius Licinianus Licinius
  • Flavius Claudius Constantinus (Constantine II)
  • Flavius Iulius Constantius (Constantius II)
  • Flavius Julius Constans
  • Flavius Claudius Iulianus (Julian the Apostate)
  • Flavius Iovianus (Jovian)
  • Flavius Valentinianus
  • Flavius Julius Valens
  • Flavius Gratianus
  • Flavius Valentinianus (Valentinian II)
  • Theodosius I
  • Flavius Arcadius
  • Flavius Honorius
  • Flavius Theodosius (Theodosius II)
  • Flavius Constantius (Constantius III)
  • Joannes
  • Flavius Placidius Valentinianus (Valentinian III)
  • Flavius Marcianus
  • Flavius Petronius Maximus
  • Eparchius Avitus
  • Flavius Iulius Valerius Maiorianus
  • Flavius Libius Severus Serpentius
  • Procopius Anthemius
  • Anicius Olybrius
  • Glycerius
  • Julius Nepos
  • Romulus Augustus
  • Flavius Valerius Leo (Leo I the Thracian)
  • Flavius Leo Junior (Leo II)
  • Flavius Zeno
  • Flavius Basiliscus
  • Flavius Anastasius
  • Flavius Iustinus (Justin I)
  • Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (Justinian I)
  • Flavius Iustinus (Junior) Augustus (Justin II)

Even though Romulus Augustus is considered to have been the last Roman emperor, he was actually an usurper, and is not included in the list. The decline of the Roman empire occurred due to increasingly strong enemies and treachery within the empire. However, no one can deny them the various achievements that marked the era, like their art, literature and architecture.


14 Century CE

1303 CE – Andronicus II takes into his service Grand Company of Catalans

1328 CE – Death of Andronicus II. Accession of Andronicus III

1341 CE – Andronicus II dies, succeeded by John V

1347 CE – John Cantacuzenus joint emperor

1354 CE – Cantacuzenus abdicates. John V sole emperor. Turks occupy Gallipoli

1361 CE – Turks capture Adrianople

1391 CE – Accession of Manuel II

1425 CE – Manuel II dies. Accession of John VI

1148 CE – John VI dies. Accession of Constantine XI

1451 CE – Accession of Mohammed the Conqueror in the east

1453 CE – Fall of Constantinople to Mohammed the Conqueror. Death of Constantine XI.


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