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Optrede van Tudela, 8 Junie 1808

Optrede van Tudela, 8 Junie 1808


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Optrede van Tudela, 8 Junie 1808

Die optrede by Tudela van 8 Junie 1808 was die eerste van drie pogings deur die Spanjaarde om 'n Franse leër wat na Saragossa marsjeer, te verslaan of te vertraag. Toe hy hoor dat Saragossa (en die res van Aragon) teen die Franse opstaan, stuur marskalk Bessières 'n kolom van 6000 sterk onder generaal Lefebvre Desnouettes om die opstand neer te sit.

Die verdediging van Aragon is toevertrou aan Joseph Palafox, die 28 -jarige tweede seun van 'n adellike gesin, wat by Bayonne teenwoordig was toe Ferdinand VII van Spanje deur Napoleon afgesit is. Hy is op 26 Mei as kaptein-generaal van Aragon aangestel en het gou getoon dat hy buitengewoon energiek en doeltreffend was, veral in vergelyking met sommige van sy mede-Spaanse bevelvoerders van 1808.

Een van sy eerste optrede was om 2 000 van die nuwe heffings wat in Aragon gehef is, te stuur na die Aragonese grensdorp Tudela, aan die Ebro -rivier, onder bevel van sy ouer broer, die markies van Lazan. Daar het drie of vierduisend gewapende boere en vrywilligers van Tudela by hom aangesluit, wat hom 'n mag gegee het wat byna gelyk was aan die kolom van die Lefebvre.

Alhoewel die Franse leër in Spanje in 1808 'n groot aantal van hul eie rou rekrute bevat het, het hulle ten minste opleiding ondergaan. Toe die twee magte op 8 Junie bots, het die Franse 'n maklike oorwinning behaal. Lazan moes noodgedwonge sestien myl terugtrek na Mallen, waar hy op 13 Junie 'n tweede standpunt sou neem. Lefebvre het lank genoeg by Tudela gestop om 'n paar van die voorste burgers tereg te stel en die stad te ontslaan voordat hy na Mallen gegaan het.

Napoleontiese tuisblad | Boeke oor die Napoleontiese oorloë | Onderwerpindeks: Napoleontiese oorloë


Slag van Tudela

Die Slag van Tudela was 'n stryd van die Skiereilandoorlog wat op 23 November 1808 naby Tudela, Spanje, geveg is. Die stryd het gelei tot die oorwinning van die Franse en Pole onder marskalk Lannes teen die Spaanse onder generaal Castaños.

19 000 Spaanse soldate het teen 30 000 Franse en Poolse soldate geveg, ongeveer 4 000 Spaanse het gesneuwel, vergeleke met slegs 650 Franse.

Daar is 'n legende oor hierdie geveg gegraveer op die Arc de Triomphe in Parys.


Die onverwagse geskiedenis agter die straatname van Jerusalem

Jerusalem is 'n stad van geskiedenis. Baie van die geskiedenis kan gevind word in die ou strukture van die Ou Stad.

Daar is egter 'n aspek van die geskiedenis van Jerusalem wat baie meer subtiel geïntegreer is in die aardrykskunde: die straatname.

Ontelbare paaie in die hoofstad is vernoem na belangrike figure in die plaaslike en Joodse geskiedenis. Alhoewel daar duidelike name soos Herzlstraat en Balfourstraat is, bring baie name op straattekens hulde aan minder bekende persoonlikhede.

ISRAEL21c bring u tien strate in Jerusalem, vernoem na invloedryke individue uit die verlede.

Hierdie voetgangersstraat, 'n middelpunt van kos, winkels en kuns, is vernoem na Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, die Hebreeuse leksikograaf wat die gesproke Hebreeuse taal laat herleef het.

Hy is gebore in 'n Litause dorp en het in sy vroeë kinderjare Hebreeus begin leer. Nadat hy geïnspireer is deur historiese herlewings van ander klassieke tale, het Ben-Yehuda 'n sterk Sionis geword. Hy verhuis na Palestina, waar die meeste inwoners Ladino, Jiddies of Arabies praat. Hy het sy plan begin om gesproke Hebreeus in die samelewing te herintegreer.

Ben-Yehuda se drie herlewingsmetodes was "Hebreeus in die huis", "Hebreeus in die skool" en "Woorde, woorde, woorde." Die Joodse volk kon as gevolg van sy invloed verbind en gewortel bly in hul historiese en Bybelse taal.

Die straat met sy naam is 'n bruisende, vermaaklike bestemming wat baie besienswaardighede bied, waaronder 'n reuse -eend in die middel van die straat en kleurvolle muurskilderye op winkelmure. In hierdie straat word die nalatenskap van Ben-Yehuda onthou in elke gesprek wat in Hebreeus tussen Israeliete en toeriste gepraat word.

Behar was nog 'n belangrike figuur in die herlewing van gesproke Hebreeus in Israel. Hy was 'n student van Ben-Yehuda en word van jongs af uitgesonder vanweë sy natuurlike vaardigheid in taalstudies.

Na sy opleiding in Konstantinopel en Parys, keer Behar terug na Jerusalem en word die stigterhoof van 'n plaaslike tak van die Alliance Israelite Universelle in Parys, waar hy 'n nuwe metode van onderrig in Hebreeus bekendstel.

In 1901 is hy gestuur om die Alliansie in Amerika te verteenwoordig. Daar stig hy die National Liberal Immigration League om te pleit teen wette wat immigrasie beperk en praat voor die kongres oor die aangeleentheid. Die lys van sy betrokkenheid by verskillende Joodse en sekulêre organisasies is lank.

Nissim Beharstraat in die buurt Nachlaot is een van die kleurvolste in Jerusalem. Geel, pienk en blou verf die verouderde mure. Dit hou die gees van ouer dae vas in sy mengsel van kommersiële en woonlewe. Alhoewel die straat slegs 'n paar blokke van die energieke Machane Yehuda -mark geleë is, laat die artistieke atmosfeer dit voel asof dit in sy eie borrel bestaan.

Hierdie straat is vernoem ter nagedagtenis aan die Judese koningin wat regeer het van 76-67 vC. Koningin Shlomzion (Salome Alexandra) was een van slegs twee vroue wat die antieke ryk gelei het en wou vrede maak terwyl sy aan bewind was.

Sy besleg die geskille tussen die Fariseërs en Sadduseërs wat haar koninkryk deurdring het tydens haar man Alexander Jannaeus se bewind. Haar suksesse met die versterking van die grense en dorpe van Judea het gelei tot haar titel Shlomzion, wat vertaal word na "vrede van Sion". Daar is gereeld gesê dat tydens haar bewind slegs reën op Judea op Shabbat geval het om die inwoners nie die res van die week te steur nie.

Shlomzion (ook gespel Shlomziyon) HaMalka -straat bied 'n multikulturele mengsel van kos en tradisies. Tydens 'n kort wandeling in hierdie boomryke straat vind u 'n Franse kafee, twee Mexikaanse restaurante, 'n burgerplek, 'n gat-in-die-muur-falafel, en boekwinkels wat literatuur in meer as vyf tale verkoop.

Dit is maklik om te dink hoe trots die koningin kan wees as sy vandag in hierdie straat stap, sy, 'n vrou wat haar krag gebruik het om konflik tussen strydende kultuurgroepe op te los, goed besef het hoe belangrik dit is om saam te lewe.

Moshe Ben Maimon, ook bekend as Maimonides of onder die akroniem Rambam, word algemeen beskou as die grootste Joodse filosoof van die Middeleeue. Hy het 'n enorme rol gespeel in die kodifisering van die Joodse reg, wat hy bereik het deur sy publikasie daarvan Mishneh Torah. Ben Maimon verdien ook respek van beide Joodse en Moslem -gemeenskappe nadat hy geskryf het Gids van die verwarrendes, 'n teologiese teks wat die kruisings van rabbynse Judaïsme en rasionalisme ondersoek het.

Die straat wat na Ben Maimon vernoem is, is ook belangrik in die geskiedenis van Israel. Dit grens aan die premier se woning, en word as sodanig dikwels gevul met politieke aktiviste.

As u deur hierdie grootse boulevard loop, is daar 'n gevoel dat u op die plek loop waar die geskiedenis bestaan ​​en steeds gemaak word. Met sierlike standbeelde bo -op geboue, heers daar 'n atmosfeer van waardigheid en agting, dit boots die reputasie van Ben Maimon self na.

Beruriya word verskeie kere genoem in die Babiloniese Talmoed en ander antieke tekste. Of sy werklik of fiktief was, is gedebatteer, hoewel die verhale rondom haar naam uitsonderlik is. Sy was 'n geleerde wat sedert haar kinderjare groot intelligensie getoon het.

Trouens, die Talmoed beskryf hoe Beruriya elke dag 300 onderwerpe van die Joodse reg bestudeer het. Vanweë haar diepgaande kennis, het die wysgere van haar tyd haar gereeld geraadpleeg en was sy een van die min vroue wat gesag gekry het in hierdie kompendium van die Joodse reg.

Sy is selfs meer intelligent en wyser as haar broer beskou, 'n seldsame uitsondering op die patriargale struktuur van die Talmoed. Alhoewel Beruriya dikwels net erken word vir haar verbintenis met die beroemde mans in haar lewe (insluitend haar man en pa), is sy op sigself opmerklik.

Hierdie straat, geleë in die Moslemkwartier van die Ou Stad, herdenk 'n historiese sultan wat van 1520-1566 oor die Ottomaanse Ryk geheers het. Die heerser word gewoonlik 'Suleiman the Magnificent' genoem vanweë sy langdurige bewind en sy militêre en kulturele prestasies.

Suleiman het sy ryk se geografiese grense uitgebrei deur gereelde oorloë teen buurlande, waaronder Persië, Griekeland en Egipte. Die sultan het ook indrukwekkende huishoudelike vordering gemaak, waaronder die bou en versiering van moskees, akwadukte, brûe en ander infrastruktuur.

Die straat wat na die sultan vernoem is, is die grootste, besigste pad in die omgewing en spog met die lieflike Palms Plaza langs baie historiese monumente.

Huldah was een van sewe vroulike profete van Israel, veral bekend vir die profesieë wat sy gelewer het nadat die Torah herontdek is in die tempel van Salomo tydens die bewind van koning Josia (ongeveer 640-610 vC).

Sy het vir die mans wat haar genader het, gesê dat God 'onheil oor hierdie plek en die inwoners daarvan sal bring' (#Konings 22: 14-16).

'N Rabbynse legende beweer dat Huldah 'n skool vir meisies in Jerusalem geopen het waar sy geleer het hoe die woord van God op 'n vrou se lewe toegepas moet word.

Huldah se invloed op die Joodse geskiedenis en Israel is vandag nog steeds teenwoordig, 'n ingang wat na die Tempelberg lei, word in die Mishnah na die Huldah -poorte verwys, wat lui dat "Die twee Huldah -poorte in die suide gebruik word om in en uit te gaan" (Middot 1 : 3).

Salah a-Din, die figuur na wie hierdie straat in Oos-Jerusalem vernoem is, bly een van die belangrikste Moslem-figure en helde. Hy was 'n Soennitiese Koerd wat van 1137-1193 geleef het toe hy in Damaskus gesterf het. Hy was die stigter van die Ayyūbid -dinastie en sultan oor Egipte, Sirië, Jemen en Palestina.

In 1187 verower hy Jerusalem van die Christelike kruisvaarders in die Slag van Hattin. Hierdie verowering was 'n keerpunt in beheer oor die Midde -Ooste. Nadat hy homself as 'n militêre en politieke leier bewys het, word Salah a-Din algemeen beskou as een van die belangrikste persone in die geskiedenis wat Dante so ver gegaan het om hom as 'n "deugsame heiden" te beskryf.

Abraham Ibn Ezra van Spanje was een van die belangrikste Bybelse kommentators van die Middeleeue. Hy was ook 'n digter, astroloog, wetenskaplike en Hebreeuse grammatikus. Sy bekendste bydrae tot Bybelse analise was die noukeurige lees van die teks se grammatikale en letterlike betekenis.

Die straat wat na hierdie beroemde figuur vernoem is, is 'n rustige hawe van huise en gesinne in die woonbuurt Rehavia. Deur eenvoudig in hierdie woonstraat te stap, sou u nooit weet hoe hoog sy naamgenoot is nie.

Benjamin van Tudela (Spanje) het in die 12de eeu oor die hele wêreld gereis na verskillende Joodse gemeenskappe om waar te neem en te skryf oor hul demografie en lewenswyse. Sy ondernemings strek van Frankryk tot Konstantinopel tot Sirië na Noord -Afrika en hy het meer as 300 stede besoek en inligting verskaf waarop historici en geleerdes tot vandag toe staatmaak. Sy waarnemings is in sy boek gepubliseer Reise van Tudela, wat sedertdien uit Hebreeus in tientalle tale vertaal is.

Hierdie straat in die Rehavia -woonbuurt in Jerusalem is nie net na hom vernoem nie, maar ook 'n straat in Spanje in die stad waarin hy gebore is. Binyamin mi-Tudelastraat is 'n romantiese, geboë pad. Dit bied 'n paar eetopsies (insluitend Pizza Tudela), maar word meestal omring deur woongeboue en bied nie die intrige van iets wat weerspieël die avonture van sy naamgenoot nie.


Prognose Besonderhede

Hierdie wetsontwerp het 'n 38% kans om uitgevaardig te word.

Die wetsontwerp word aan die regterlike komitee van die huis toegewys. Daar is 3 verwante wetsontwerpe in die kongres.

(Faktore is gebaseer op korrelasies wat moontlik nie oorsaak dui nie.)

GovTrack, wat in 2004 gestig is, help almal om meer te wete te kom oor die aktiwiteite van die Amerikaanse kongres en dit op te spoor. Dit is 'n projek van Civic Impulse, LLC. GovTrack.us is nie 'n regeringswebwerf nie.

U word aangemoedig om materiaal op hierdie webwerf te hergebruik. Hackers/joernaliste/navorsers: Sien hierdie oop databronne.


Optrede van Tudela, 8 Junie 1808 - Geskiedenis


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Albert Einstein: Ek het gewonder hoe dit gebeur dat die elektron negatief is. Negatief-positief-dit is heeltemal simmetries in die fisika. Daar is geen rede om die een bo die ander te verkies nie. Waarom is die elektron dan negatief? Ek het lank hieroor gedink en uiteindelik kon ek net dink dat dit die stryd gewen het! (meer deur Einstein)

Richard Feynman: Dit is die feite wat saak maak, nie die bewyse nie. Fisika kan vorder sonder die bewyse, maar ons kan nie sonder die feite aangaan nie. As die feite reg is, is die bewys 'n kwessie van korrekte speel met die algebra. . (meer deur Feynman)


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Die Napoleontiese Wargamer

Geskiedenis:
Drie voorlopige regimente van swaar kavallerie is aan die einde van 1807 gevorm vir die veldtog in Spanje. Hulle was veronderstel om saamgestel te word uit 'n groep van 3 offisiere en 120 man van die 4e escadron de dépôt van elke swaar kavalerieregiment. Die regimente in Sentraal -Europa vorm die eerste twee voorlopige regimente (gevorm in Tours in November 1807) vir diens in Noord/Sentraal -Spanje. Die regimente in Italië vorm die derde voorlopige regiment (wat in 1808 in Poitiers gevorm is) vir diens in die suide/ooste van Spanje. Oorspronklik onder bevel van majors, is hierdie offisiere bevorder tot die taamlik ongewone rang van kolonel en 2e.

2e Corps d'Observation de la Gironde
1er Régiment Provisoire de Grosse Cavalerie
Majoor Guillaume-François d'Aigremont (1770-1827, du 1er Cuirassiers)
1er Régiment de Carabiniers à cheval (4/119)
2e Régiment de Carabiniers à cheval (4/118)
1er Régiment de Cuirassiers (4/142)
2e Régiment de Cuirassiers (2/138)
3e Régiment de Cuirassiers (2/100)
Hierdie eenheid het vroeg in 1808 na Madrid verhuis.
In opdrag van die keiser van 21 Oktober 1808 is die 13e régiment de cuirassiers uit hierdie eenheid gevorm en die oorblyfsels van die 2e Régiment Provisoire de Cuirassiers onder bevel van kolonel van Aigremont met sy depot gevestig te Niort, aanvanklik 5 eskaders, maar verminder tot 4. Dit is na Suchet gestuur en die eenheid het met lof gedien totdat dit tydens die eerste herstel ontbind is.


2e Régiment Provisoire de Cuirassiers
Majoor Philippe-Albert Christophe (1769-1848, du 12e Cuirassiers)
5e Régiment de Cuirassiers (2/109)
9e Régiment de Cuirassiers (2/64)
10e Régiment de Cuirassiers (2/96)
11e Régiment de Cuirassiers (3/120)
12e Régiment de Cuirassiers (2/100)
Hierdie eenheid het vroeg in 1808 na Madrid verhuis.
Die 2e régiment provisoire de cuirassiers is almal saam met Dupont in Bailèn doodgemaak of gevange geneem. Die paar wat in Madrid oorgebly het of siek was, is op 24 Desember 1808 na die 1er régiment provisoire de grosse cavalerie gestuur.

Corps d'Observation des Pyrénées orientales
3e Régiment Provisoire de Cuirassiers
Majoor Antoine-Didier Guéry (1765-1825, du 8e Cuirassiers)
4e Régiment de Cuirassiers (

100)
6e Régiment de Cuirassiers (

100)
7e Régiment de Cuirassiers (

80)
8e Régiment de Cuirassiers (

Hierdie eenheid het by Duhesme gedien en was oor die algemeen besig met besettings in die omgewing van Barcelona. Hulle het gedurende die volgende twee jaar geleidelik vermors, alhoewel dit versterk is deur 'n tweede konsep van nominaal 400 man uit dieselfde regimente vroeg in 1810, is hulle feitlik vernietig tydens die Slag van Mollet in Januarie 1810 (die Spaanse het 250 perde, kuirasse en kaskas geneem) vir die Coraceros Espanoles), diegene wat gevange geneem is, is in die vesting by Lerida aangehou en bevry toe dit deur Suchet geneem is, die mans is opgeneem in die 13e regiment, hoewel hulle amptelik deur die Ministrère de la guerre vergeet is, en was uiteindelik ontbind op 'n tweede (!) bevel van Napoléon aan die begin van 1811.


Veldtoggeskiedenis:
1808: Tudela en die beleg van Zaragossa (Desember 1808 - Februarie 1809)

1809: Zaragossa
Belegging van Moria in Junie 1809.
November 1809 word Suchet 3de korps beveel om na Valencia te marsjeer.
By Castellon de la Plana, in Maart 1810, dwing trooper Vinatier 'n deur van die versterkte brug.

1810: In April 1810 tydens die beleg van Lerida, in die vlakte van Margalef, het 450 man van die regiment teruggekeer deur gedwonge optog, 'n verligte Spaanse kolom aangeval met 'n generaal, drie kolonels, drie gewere en drie vlae.
Lerida val op 14 Mei.
Mequinenza val op 8 Junie.
Hulle beleër Tortosa.
In November 1810 verslaan die 13e Curiassiers en die 4e Hussars die Spanjaarde van Uldecona.
Kaptein De Gonneville het kort daarna by die regiment aangesluit en die leiding geneem oor 'n geselskap.

1811: Tortosa kapituleer 2 Januarie 1811
Die regiment was twee maande in Santa Olalla en Daroca.
Intussen val Robichon, met 'n ander aksie teen Uldecona, met 57 kuiers van die 3e -eskadron, 500 Spaanse kavallerie aan en stuur dit.
Napoleon gee bevel om 400 troepe terug te trek om die cuirassiers -depot vir die Duitse leër te versterk.
Tydens die beleg van Tarragona (Katalonië), wat in Junie 1811 val en gepaard gaan met die bloedbad van die bevolking wat drie maande lank teëgestaan ​​het, word 'n deel van die regiment gebruik om die agterkant in Laer Aragon te bedek.
Suchet, nou 'n maarskalk, marsjeer op Valencia. Die Spanjaarde het die fort by Murviedo (Sagunto) beset in 'n poging om Suchet se optog te stop. Verskeie Franse aanrandings oor 'n tydperk van 'n maand word teruggeslaan, maar op 25 Oktober beweeg Blake om die fort te verlig en die Franse draai om hom te betrek. Tydens die daaropvolgende aksie word die Franse kavalerie teruggedwing toe kaptein Gonneville 'n aanklag van sy 2e eskadron teen 1500 kavallerie lei, hulle lei die Spaanse en vang generaal Caro vas. Sagunto val.

1812: Valencia kapituleer op 9 Januarie 1812 en die vyand se kavaleriedossier verby die 13e Cuirassiers voordat hulle hul wapens en perde prysgee. Suchet het die titel van hertog van Albufera gekry. Gonneville merk op dat sy regiment behalwe die perde ook 'n maître de musique herstel het!
Die regiment is in buiteposte rondom die stad gestasioneer en patrolleer die streek.
In 1812 het die eenheid 34 offisiere, 591 onderoffisiere en soldate gehad, waaronder 26 wat as persoonlike begeleier na Suchet opgetree het.
Op Castalla (21 Julie 1812) staan ​​Suchet voor 'n Spaanse leër onder O'Donnell. Die gevorderde wag met die 24e Dragoons en 'n eskader van die 13e Cuirassiers onder bevel van generaal Delort wen. Troep Becheret vang 'n vlag.

1813: In September bedreig deur die Engelse leër neem Suchet die Col d'Ordal in beslag.

1814: 13e Cuirassiers onder leiding van de Bigarré keer terug na Frankryk. Dit is besig met die gevegte vir Lyon en is in aksie tydens die Slag van Limonest op 20 Maart, met 'n battery van 8 gewere en sy trein.


Battle Honours
Lerida 1810, Sagonte 1811 en kol d'Ordal 1813

Uniform:
Toe hulle die eerste keer gevorm het, het hulle 'n mengsel van uniforms gedra op grond van hul oorspronklike regimente, waaronder verskillende gekleurde lapels, hoewel hoofsaaklik met rooi omhulsel, die Carabiniers behou hul beervelle en vorm 'n elite kompanie van die regiment.

In die middel van 1809 het hulle 400 pantalons gekoop van 'n plaaslike lap in bruin kleur (gedra in die stewels, soos die normale cuirassier pantalons en nie Mameluke -styl oor die stewels nie), aangesien hulle nog steeds nie 'n leerbroek of 'n langbroek ontvang het nie. maak 'n paar oortjies in dieselfde lap. In 1811 het kaptein Gonneville in Valencia opgemerk: "Ek het geen cuirass nie en my saal is Engels".

Dit was eers in 1812 dat hulle leerbroeke en 'n regulasie van 1810 ontvang het. In Julie 1812 het 'n groot konvooi uit Pau aangekom, begelei deur manne van die regiment, met nuwe baadjies, broeke, pantalons, stewels en handskoene waarmee die hele regiment na 1812 se regulasies oorgebring kon word. Die buitekant, sonder lapelle, het 10 knoppies aan die voorkant met 'n bordeaux -kraag in blou, bordeaux -manchetten sonder bande en bordeaux -draaie. Die karabinier of elite -onderneming was ook toegerus, maar het die beervel behou. Die trompettiste se uitsondering was bordeaux met blou lapels en wit galone aan die voorkant. In 1813 het die karbineerders uiteindelik hul beervelle verloor toe die hele regiment nuwe kiste ontvang het.

Bibliografie:
Yvert, L. Historique du 13e Regiment de Cuirassiers 1807-1814-1891 Chartres 1895.


Belegging [wysig | wysig bron]

Die veldmag van Gouvion Saint-Cyr was 23 000 man. Hy het Reille aangestel om die beleg te bestuur terwyl hy en die res van die korps bygestaan ​​het om hulpverlening te probeer afweer. ⎘ ] Reille het 12 000 keiserlike troepe in 24 bataljons ondersteun deur vier voetartilleriebatterye. Vir die beleg het die Franse generaal sy eie en Pino se afdelings gebruik. Reille se 3de afdeling het een bataljon elk van die 16de lyn, 32ste ligte, 56ste lyn en 113de infanterieregimente ingesluit, vier bataljons van die regiment van Perpignan, en die Wallis, Chasseurs des Montagnes, en 5de Reserwe -legioenbataljonne. Pino se 5de afdeling het bestaan ​​uit drie bataljons elk van die Italiaanse 1ste lig, 2de lig en 6de lyn infanterie regimente, twee bataljons van die Italiaanse 4de lyn infanterie regiment, en een bataljon elk van die Italiaanse 5de en 7de lyn infanterie regimente. ⎜ ] Die garnisoen van Roses het bestaan ​​uit 3 500 soldate en 58 kanonne onder bevel van kolonel Peter O'Daly. Die klein kern van gereelde mense word verteenwoordig deur 150 man van die Ultonia Infanterieregiment, een geselskap van die Wimpffen Swiss Regiment, 'n halfbataljon van die 2de Ligte Infanterie van Barcelona, ​​en 120 artilleriste. Later in die beleg, een swak bataljon van die Borbon Infanterieregiment is geland. Die res van die garnisoen bestaan ​​uit die Berga, Figueras, Igualada, en Lerida Tercios, wat formasies van miquelets was. Die Britse derde klas het die Britse vloot ondersteun HMS Uitstekend (74). Namate die beleg vorder, het die Uitstekend is vervang deur HMS Fame (74). Twee bomvaartuie, die HMS Meteor en HMS Lucifer. Cochrane's Imperieuse later in die beleg aangekom. ⎜ ]

Portal del Mar (Seepoort), Vesting van Roses

Die hawe van Roses was voorsien van 'n Vauban-tipe vesting (ciutadella) en die satelliet Castillo de la Trinidad (Castell de la Trinitat). In 1543 het Karel V, die Heilige Romeinse keiser, beveel dat hierdie vestings gebou moet word. Die werke is teen 1570 voltooi en is in 1645, 1693 en 1794–1795 beleër. Die sitadel was 'n aangepaste vyfhoek met vyf bastions. Vier demi-lunes bedek alle kante behalwe die see. Die Castillo de la Trinidad was 'n afgeleë vierpuntige ster fort op 'n hoë hoogte van 60 meter. ⎝ ] Die sitadel is net wes van Roses geleë terwyl die castillo bo-op 'n heuwel ongeveer twee kilometer suid-suidoos van die vesting. 'N 300 meter hoë hoogte kyk uit oor die Castillo in die noordooste. ⎞ ] Op 8 November lê 'n dik mis op die land en 'n magdom miquelets maak van die geleentheid gebruik om die korps van Gouvion Saint-Cyr aan te val terwyl O'Daly se garnisoen teen die kamp van Reille beweeg. Nie een van die aksies het die beleidsoperasie gestop nie. Daardie dag is alle burgers per see uit die stad ontruim. Na 'n week van swaar reën val Reille die Castillo de la Trinidad maar is afgeweer. Die swaar gewere het Roses op 16 November bereik en die manne van Reille het gou plase vir hulle gegrawe, terwyl die reën opgehou het. Alhoewel hy baie soldate beskikbaar gehad het, wou de Vives nie 'n noodlenigingsekspedisie onderneem nie. Álvarez het probeer om op te tree na die hulp van Roses uit Girona, maar hy is by die Fluvià -rivier gestop. ⎘ ] Die Italianers het op 26 November die stad suksesvol ingestorm. ⎟ ] Dit het Reille in staat gestel om 'n waterfrontbattery te bou wat die Britse oorlogskepe bedreig het. Rondom hierdie tyd is O'Daly versterk deur een bataljon gereelde mense. Op die 28ste het Reille die vesting opgeroep om oor te gee, maar O'Daly het geweier. Cochrane arriveer en neem die bevel oor die Castillo wat gehou is deur Spanjaarde en matrose van die Britse eskader. Op 30 November het Pino se mans probeer om die Castillo sonder sukses. Na hierdie afstoot het Reille die posisie geïgnoreer en hom daarop toegespits om die vesting te verminder. ⎘ ] Die Franse bombardement het spoedig 'n breuk in die vestingmure geslaan. Op 3 Desember het die Spaanse bevelvoerder 500 man gestuur om beslag te lê op die mees dodelike batterye wat breek. ⎘ ] Hierdie aanval misluk met groot verliese en die aanvallers het in wanorde teruggekeer na hul posisies. ⎟ ] Op die 4de was Reille se loopgrawe 200 meter van die mure af en sy troepe het voorbereidings begin tref om 'n aanval met 'n rok aan te pak. O'Daly gee toe onvoorwaardelik oor en op 5 Desember lê 2,366 Spaanse soldate hul wapens neer. Tydens die beleg het die Spanjaarde ongeveer 700 bykomende ongevalle gely. Die oggend van die kapitulasie het Cochrane die Castillo en het sy 180 verdedigers begin. ⎘ ] Swaar artillerievuur het die Britse eskader verhinder om die res van die garnisoen te red. Die Frans-Italianers het ongeveer 1 000 dood, gewond en aan siekte gesterf. ⎜ ]


SAP Security Patch Day - Junie 2020

Hierdie plasing deur die SAP Product Security Response Team deel inligting oor Patch Day Security Notes* wat op die tweede Dinsdag van elke maand vrygestel word en die kwesbaarhede wat in SAP -produkte ontdek word, regstel. SAP beveel sterk aan dat die kliënt die Ondersteuningsportaal en pas kolle op 'n prioriteit toe om hul SAP -landskap te beskerm.

Op 9 Junie 2020 word 16 sekuriteitsnotas op SAP Security Patch Day vrygestel. Daar is 1 opdatering van die voorheen vrygestelde Patch Day -sekuriteitsnota.

Lys van sekuriteitsnotas wat op Junie -pleisterdag vrygestel is:

[CVE-2020-6260] Onvolledige XML -validering in SAP Solution Manager (spooranalise)
Bykomende CVE: CVE-2020-6261
Produk - Weergawe van SAP Solution Manager (Trace Analysis) - 7.20

Kwesbaarheidstipe verspreiding - Junie 2020

# Verskeie kwesbaarhede op dieselfde produk kan met een sekuriteitsnota reggestel word.

Veiligheidsnotas vs prioriteitsverdeling (Januarie 2020 - Junie 2020) **

* Patch Day Security Notes is almal notas wat verskyn onder die kategorie "Patch Day Notes" in SAP -ondersteuningsportaal

** Enige Patch Day -sekuriteitsnota wat na die tweede Dinsdag vrygestel word, sal in die daaropvolgende SAP Security Patch Day verantwoord word.

Kliënte wat na alle sekuriteitsnotas wat na 12 Mei 2020 gepubliseer of bygewerk is, wil kyk, gaan na Launchpad Expert Search → Filter 'SAP Security Notes' vrygestel tussen '13 Mei 2020 - 09 Junie 2020' → Gaan.

Besoek SAP Product Security Response Acknowledgment Page vir meer inligting oor die veiligheidsnavorsers en navorsingsondernemings wat bygedra het vir die veiligheidspatches van hierdie maand.


Algemeen

BELANGRIK Vrystellingsnotas verander! Raadpleeg Wat is volgende vir die vrystellingnotas van Windows vir meer inligting oor die nuwe URL, metadata -opdaterings en meer?

BELANGRIK Vanaf Julie 2020 hervat ons vrystellings vir nie-sekuriteit vir Windows 10 en Windows Server, weergawe 1809 en later. Daar is geen verandering aan die kumulatiewe maandelikse sekuriteitsopdaterings (ook bekend as die "B" -uitgawe of Update Tuesday Release). Vir meer inligting, sien die blogpos Hervat opsionele maandelikse opdaterings van Windows 10 en Windows Server sonder sekuriteit.

BELANGRIK Vanaf Julie 2020 sal alle Windows Updates die RemoteFX vGPU -funksie deaktiveer weens 'n beveiligingslek. Sien CVE-2020-1036 en KB4570006 vir meer inligting oor die kwesbaarheid. Nadat u hierdie opdatering geïnstalleer het, sal pogings om virtuele masjiene (VM) te begin wat RemoteFX vGPU geaktiveer het, misluk en boodskappe soos die volgende sal verskyn:

As u RemoteFX vGPU weer aktiveer, sal 'n boodskap soortgelyk aan die volgende verskyn:

'Die virtuele masjien kan nie begin word nie, want al die GPU's wat met RemoteFX in staat is, is uitgeskakel in Hyper-V Manager.'

'Die virtuele masjien kan nie begin word nie, omdat die bediener onvoldoende GPU -hulpbronne het.'

"Ons ondersteun nie meer die RemoteFX 3D -video -adapter nie. As u hierdie adapter steeds gebruik, kan u kwesbaar wees vir veiligheidsrisiko's. Kom meer te wete (https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=2131976)"

Wat is nuut vir Windows 10, weergawe 1909 en Windows 10, weergawe 1903, vrystellingsaantekeninge

Windows 10, weergawes 1903 en 1909 deel 'n algemene bedryfstelsel en 'n identiese stel stelsellêers. As gevolg hiervan is die nuwe funksies in Windows 10, weergawe 1909 ingesluit in die onlangse maandelikse kwaliteitopdatering vir Windows 10, weergawe 1903 (vrygestel op 8 Oktober 2019), maar is tans in 'n sluimerende toestand. Hierdie nuwe funksies bly rustend totdat dit aangeskakel word met 'n inskakelingspakket, wat 'n klein 'hoofskakelaar' is wat vinnig geïnstalleer kan word wat die funksies van Windows 10, weergawe 1909, eenvoudig aktiveer.

Om hierdie verandering te weerspieël, bevat die vrystellingsnotas vir Windows 10, weergawe 1903 en Windows 10, weergawe 1909 'n opdateringsgeskiedenisbladsy. Elke vrystellingsbladsy bevat 'n lys met aangespreek kwessies vir beide 1903 en 1909 weergawes. Let daarop dat die 1909 -weergawe altyd die oplossings vir 1903 sal bevat, maar 1903 sal nie die herstelwerk vir 1909 bevat nie. jy ondervind probleme.

Vir meer inligting oor die inskakelingspakket en hoe om die funksie -opdatering te kry, sien die Windows 10, weergawe 1909 afleweringsopsies blog.

Einde van diens

BELANGRIK Windows 10, weergawe 1903, sal op 8 Desember 2020 aan die einde van die diens wees. Microsoft beveel aan dat u opdateer na die nuutste weergawe van Windows 10. As u wil opdateer na Windows 10, weergawe 1909, moet u moet die aanpakpakket KB4517245 (EKB) gebruik. Die gebruik van die EKB maak opdatering vinniger en makliker en vereis 'n enkele herlaai. Sien afleweringsopsies vir Windows 10, weergawe 1909 vir meer inligting.


In Charleston, met die verlede in die gedrang kom

Die dwang om die ingewikkelde geskiedenis van die Charleston-gebied as 'n slawe-handelsentrum te betrek, was vir die skrywer 'n visuele ding, soortgelyk aan die drang om 'n misdaadtoneel weer te besoek.

Magnolia Plantation and Gardens. Krediet. Tony Cenicola/The New York Times

In die lente van 1862, in die vroeë donkerte van Charleston Harbour, was die 23-jarige Robert Smalls aan boord van die C.S.S. Planter, 'n Konfederale vervoer en geweerboot, en het sy ontsnapping beplan.

In sy tyd was Smalls 'n rariteit, 'n swart slaaf van 'n hawe -vlieënier. Hy was ook slim: Daardie oggend, met sy drie bevelvoerende wit offisiere wat aan wal was, het Smalls sy plan begin uitvoer. Met agt mede -slawe -bemanningslede op sleeptou, het Smalls, wat 'n kaptein se uniform gedra het, die enjins van die vaartuig ingedruk en in die maanverligte waters op pad na die belofte van vryheid.

Guiding the ship past Confederate forts and issuing checkpoint signals, Smalls steamed up the Cooper River, stopping at a wharf to pick up his wife, child and his crew’s families. In dawn’s light, the Planter, flying a white sheet as a surrender flag, made it to his cherished destination: a Union Navy fleet whose officers eyed him, dumbfounded, as Smalls saluted them. “I am delivering this war material including these cannons and I think Uncle Abraham Lincoln can put them to good use,” he said. Freedom, for Smalls and his crew, had arrived.

On a recent sunny afternoon, more than a century and a half later, Michael B. Moore was standing on Gadsden’s Wharf reflecting on his great-great-grandfather’s remarkable journey — and other triumphs and tragedies born on that spot.

Beeld

It took some imagining: The wharf, now a city park populated by soccer-playing children, dog-walking young professionals and commercial cruise ships, has morphed numerous times since its heyday as the busiest port for the nation’s slave trade capital. Between 1783 and 1808, some 100,000 slaves, arriving from across West Africa, were transported through Gadsden’s Wharf and other South Carolina ports, and sold to the 13 colonies. “This place personalizes for me what my ancestors lived through,” said Mr. Moore, chief executive of Charleston’s International African American Museum, scheduled to open in 2019. “I just can’t imagine what they felt here on this space. This is where they took their first steps on this land.”

Mr. Moore walked inland a couple hundred yards, where incoming slaves, after being quarantined off the coast at Sullivan’s Island, were warehoused — sometimes for months at a time. In what’s been called facetiously “the Ellis Island for African Americans,” thousands of slaves waiting to be auctioned off as domestics and laborers throughout the South died in those warehouses.

In a few months, construction crews will break ground to build the museum on the wharf. “Right there,” Mr. Moore said, pointing directly ahead, “in what’s now a parking lot, is where 700 black people froze to death. I can only wonder what we’ll find when we start digging up this place.”

Charleston, almost paradoxically, is an easy place for tourists to love. Visitors delight in the city’s cobblestone streets, its Gothic-style churches, Greek Revival storefronts, its array of trendy restaurants and hotels. As Travel & Leisure magazine, which earlier this year ranked Charleston first of its 15 world’s best cities, gushed: “Charleston is much more than the sum of its picture-ready cobblestone streets, clopping horse carriages and classical architecture. Much of the port city’s allure lies in constant reinvention and little surprises (like free-range guinea hens clucking up and down Legare Street, sous-chefs flying by on skateboards heading into work, or Citadel cadets honking their bagpipes on sidewalks in summertime).”

Yet for all its appeal, Charleston also evokes a brutal chapter of American life, a city built on and sustained by slave labor for nearly two centuries. Beneath the stately facade of this prosperous city is a savage narrative of Jim Crow and Ku Klux Klan violence, right through the civil rights movement.

One doesn’t have to reach that far back to understand what makes Charleston a haunting place to explore (an estimated 40 to 60 percent of African-Americans can trace their roots here). Only in 2015 did the Confederate flag come down from the state capitol in Columbia, prompted by a young neo-Nazi, Dylann S. Roof, who brandished a handgun and massacred nine people during a Bible study at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, one of the nation’s oldest black churches and hallowed ground of the civil rights movement. That one of the casualties, Cynthia Hurd, was the sister of a close colleague only hardened my sense that the so-called Holy City, nicknamed as such after its abundance of churches, was holding fast to its legacy of racial hatred.

Even as this article went to press, Charleston was bracing itself for two racially loaded trials on Broad Street, at the United States District Court, 22-year-old Mr. Roof faces 33 federal charges — including hate crimes and religious rights violations — in the massacre at Emanuel A.M.E. A block away, at the Charleston County Judicial Center, the former North Charleston police officer Michael T. Slager faces charges in the murder of 50-year-old Walter L. Scott, an unarmed black man gunned down as he fled a traffic stop.

And yet, amid a national climate of rising racial tension, the compulsion to engage this history was for me visceral, akin to the urge to revisit a crime scene. I can only suspect that a similar urge to peel back the layers of pain and survival of blacks in America, at least partly, is driving some of the rise in attendance at the nation’s black history sites, including the Smithsonian’s new National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, where advance timed tickets are reportedly no longer available through March 2017. I hoped that, on some level, engaging the painful history of human atrocity and heroism in Charleston might illuminate the racial chasms dividing Americans.

“There are stories of resilience and courage here that will lift everyone,” said Joseph P. Riley Jr., who retired from office this year after 40 years as Charleston’s mayor. For a white Southern politician, his politics were decidedly progressive: His decision back in 1975, upon being elected, to appoint a black police chief, for example, earned him the moniker of “L’il Black Joe” among white racists.

Still, it wasn’t until he read Edward Ball’s “Slaves in the Family” in 1998 that he came to fully appreciate — and lament — the gravity of the city’s past. “Slaves in the Family,” which won the National Book Award, chronicles the Ball family’s life as prosperous slave owners and traders in Charleston, an enterprise that started in 1698 and swelled to more than 20 rice plantations along the Cooper River.

Through interviews, as well as through plantation records and photographs, the author traced the offspring of slave women and Ball men, personally contacting some of an estimated 75,000 to 100,000 of these living children, and documenting heart-wrenching stories of his family’s cruelty and abuse as owners and traders off the coast of Sierra Leone.

“I really started to understand that we had an important role in the international slave trade, Emancipation and Jim Crow,” Mr. Riley said.

Around then, Mr. Riley began brainstorming ways to illuminate Charleston’s tale of two cities, which he says most historians and tour guides have shortchanged. Before the early 20th century, historical accounts of slavery generally downplayed the “peculiar institution” as paternalistic and something less than the organized, profitable industry it was. The oversight is egregious: By the mid-1800s, there were some four million slaves in the United States, with nearly 10 percent of them, or 400,000, living in South Carolina.

Fortunately, this changed during the first part of the century as publications appeared, like “Slave Trading in the Old South” by the historian Frederic Bancroft, whose research shed light on the lucrative business of domestic slave trading. Bancroft listed names of slave brokers, commission merchants and auctioneers, and detailed how slave auctions were advertised and carried out. As Bancroft wrote: “Negroes were displayed individually and in groups at the front of the building as auctioneers, planters, traders and curious onlookers watched.”

The United States banned international slave trading in 1808, but the practice continued domestically, and Charleston became a major port for interstate trade. Even in the mid-1800s, when the city prohibited public slave trading, traders moved into the brick enclosed yards downtown around the Old Exchange & Provost Dungeon, at East Bay and Broad Streets. The building is a popular tourist attraction these days, highlighting its various uses throughout history, including holding prisoners of war during the American Revolution.

The primary catalyst behind South Carolina’s booming slave trade was rice production. The appeal of West Africans to plantation owners was simple: The moist climate of their homeland bore striking similarities to South Carolina’s swampy Lowcountry. English planters proved to be poor rice producers as the process of planting, cultivating, harvesting and preparing the crop for market was intricate and physically arduous. Plantation owners divided the tedious process between their expert men and women, West African slaves, with men doing the dangerous work of clearing swamp lands, and women sowing the rice.

The process was messy, physically draining and relentless it included scattering rice seedlings onto mud-soaked soil, working them into the earth with bare feet, and then threshing after harvest, which required tediously removing rice from hulls, pounding the rice repeatedly and then separating the hulls from the rice in handmade winnowing baskets.

South Carolina’s dependence on slave labor was staggering. In the late 1600s some four-fifths of the state’s population was white by the mid 1700s, slaves accounted for more than 70 percent of its population.

Vestiges of prosperity built on slave labor abound. For example, there’s Drayton Hall, an architectural masterpiece completed in 1742 for John Drayton slave labor was used on the plantation that grew indigo and rice.

Among Charleston’s biggest slaveholders was the Middleton family, which from 1738 to 1865 owned some 3,000 slaves on its numerous plantations. These days, led by a family descendant, Charles Duell, the 65-acre Middleton Place Plantation, a designated National Historic Landmark, creates exhibits around the genealogy and contributions of its enslaved workers. “Whether it was knitting or weaving or corn grinding, or tending the rice fields — all these activities were performed by African-Americans,” said Mr. Duell, who has hosted three reunions that bring together the property’s European American and African-American descendants. “They created the wealth that made all this possible.”

Magnolia Plantation, founded by the Drayton family in 1676, has similarly launched a preservation project. It celebrates the importance of Gullah culture, which enslaved West Africans brought to the Lowcountry, but also demonstrates how life was led in slave dwellings that date to 1850, several of which are being preserved.

Walking along the streets of downtown Charleston, the painter Jonathan Green describes a city that has been so enthralled with its plantation aristocracy that it has mostly neglected to celebrate its black heritage, or Gullah culture. That culture includes its Creole language, traditions in food and dance, and critical expertise in agriculture. Mr. Green himself was born and raised in a nearby Gullah community in Beaufort, and his bright, bold paintings of his ancestors — in church pews, on grassy landscapes and against ocean sunsets — offer a romantic antidote to the erasure of much of that Gullah past.

But walking the bustling city streets, Mr. Green proves equally adept at recalling black figures whose rich tales are integral to this city’s story. Along these well-preserved streets, Mr. Green’s reminiscing easily comes alive as we move past the Old Slave Mart, among the few remaining relics of the city’s interstate slave trade.

Not to be confused with the nearby outdoor Charleston City Market, the Old Slave Mart is a museum these days, housing African-American arts and crafts. I had walked through it on an earlier occasion but standing now in its shadow, beside Mr. Green, I recalled its eerie cavernous brick rooms — the “barracoon” or slave jail in Portuguese, the morgue. “It would have been almost impossible to run away,” Mr. Green said. “From Jacksonville, Florida, all the way up to Cape Fear, North Carolina, was nothing but a human prison camp.”

Such oppression sparked many revolts, but few such insurrections proved more ambitious — or so scrupulously studied — as Denmark Vesey’s. Vesey’s birthplace has never been confirmed, but historians say he was likely born on a St. Thomas sugar plantation before being sold, around age 14, to the Bermuda-born slave trader Joseph Vesey, whose name he took, as was customary.

In the late 1700s, Denmark Vesey’s owner relocated to Charleston, and some years later, Vesey purchased his freedom from his master for $600 from a lucky $1,500 lottery ticket windfall. A few years later, in 1822, he attempted what historians agree would have been the nation’s most elaborate and largest slave revolt — planned, in part, to gain Vesey’s own wife and children’s freedom. It’s estimated that some 3,000 slaves got word of Vesey’s planned June 16 insurgency, and were prepared to follow his directive to kill every white person in sight, steal their weapons and cash from banks, and ultimately escape by boat to Haiti.

But some slaves, fearing retribution, leaked the plan to authorities. Vesey was hanged, with, according to various sources, as many as 35 others. Today, towering amid the oak groves and ponds of Hampton Park, is a life-size bronze statue of Demark Vesey, which the city unveiled in February 2014.

But Vesey’s most enduring contribution to Charleston is arguably his cofounding of Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, which, at 200 years old, is the oldest A.M.E. church in the South. Vesey’s botched slave revolt resulted in angry white mobs burning down the original structure, but the congregation continued worship services underground and rebuilt Mother Emanuel, as it is known, following the Civil War (this structure, designed by Vesey’s son, the architect Robert Vesey, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1886).

The Mother Emanuel I visited has been sitting grandly on Calhoun Street since 1892, its current white-brick-and-stucco facade prominent from blocks away. Inside the church, the pews, altar, Communion rail and light fixtures from the original edifice have been preserved, but it’s the church’s role in the fight for racial freedom, and the pantheon of leaders who have spoken from its pulpit — from Booker T. Washington to the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. — that make this site hallowed ground.

Charleston has recently begun trying to heal racial wounds by celebrating its black history. Last April, for example, in the heated aftermath of the Walter Scott shooting, a racially mixed group of nearly 100 local movers and shakers dined together in a re-creation of Nat Fuller’s long-forgotten racial reconciliation feast 150 years before.

Fuller was a former slave and classically trained chef who, in the 1800s, rose to become an elite caterer his restaurant, the Bachelor’s Retreat (Fuller’s master permitted his ownership, and took a portion of the profit), was a favorite within Charleston high society, according to the University of South Carolina professor David Shields.

In the spring of 1865, in the aftermath of Charleston’s surrendering to Union forces, Fuller invited a racially integrated group of local whites and blacks — some who had purchased their freedom and others newly freed — to celebrate the end of the Civil War.

Despite a scarcity of food supplies caused by the war, the well-connected Fuller called for an abundant meal. As one white socialite had scoffed in a letter: “Nat Fuller, a Negro caterer, provided munificently for a miscegenation dinner, at which blacks and whites sat on equality and gave toasts and sang songs for Lincoln and freedom.”

Charleston’s recent commemorative feast — which, according to Charleston City Paper, included “poached bass, a ramekin of shrimp pie bursting with fragrant herbs. Capon chasseur, venison with currant demi-glace, squab with truffle sauce” — proved successful as well.

Among the guests at the feast was the Rev. Clementa C. Pinckney, a state senator, who two months later would be among the dead at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church.

Mr. Riley, the former mayor, said the church massacre inspired him to accelerate his efforts to make real a vision he’s nurtured for years: building the International African American Museum of Charleston, which today he calls “the most important work of my life.” He envisions the museum as an elevated space on Gadsden’s Wharf that features permanent and rotating exhibitions and a genealogy center. And similar to Civil War sites in Vicksburg and Gettysburg, he plans for the museum to develop a school curriculum that teaches students about the American slave trade. “The tragedy at Emanuel made me even more determined to bring this to fruition,” Mr. Riley said. “That hateful bigot clearly didn’t know his history,” he added, referring to Mr. Roof.

Earlier this year, Mr. Riley tapped Michael Boulware Moore to lead the museum, projected to cost $75 million. Mr. Riley said he liked Mr. Moore’s background as a successful senior marketing executive with such major brands as Coca-Cola and Kraft. Of course, Mr. Moore’s background as a direct descendant of Robert Smalls, whose escape on the C.S.S. Planter led to his rise as a South Carolina congressman during the Reconstruction era, was a plus, too. “His lineage couldn’t be better, but he’s also a very talented person,” Mr. Riley said.

Mr. Moore himself said the opportunity to build a museum on the same site in which his ancestors arrived as slaves is humbling — and carries with it an almost overwhelming sense of obligation to deliver. “I’ve heard from some people who are concerned there’s going to be Disneyfication of our African-American history,” Mr. Moore said, standing on the wharf. “That’s not going to happen. I feel a tangible obligation to our ancestors to do this right.”

At that moment, as if on cue, a white schooner with two masts appeared off the harbor. Mr. Moore gazed out into the distance “Wow,” he said, “That looks almost like a slave ship. Had we been standing here back then, a couple hundred years ago, that’s exactly what we would have seen. Yeah, it’s kind of freaky, isn’t it?”


Case Studies - Waterboards - Spain

Case study: Albalá de Tudela

Type of institution for collective action

Albalá de Tudela (River Queiles)

Name of city or specified area

Further specification location (e.g. borough, street etc.)

South of Navarra (Spain), right bank of the river Ebro.

Surface area and boundaries

The river Queiles originates in the province of Soria, on the north side of Sierra del Moncayo. The river takes a northeasterly direction to the village of Los Fayos, where it receives water from another stream (Barranco del Val). After passing Tarazona and Torrellas, the river enters the province of Navarra to the east of the town of Monteagudo. It follows the vicinity of Barillas, Tulebras, Cascante, and Murchante, leading to the right bank of the Ebro River after crossing the town of Tudela.

It has a length of 40 km, 16 of which run in Navarra. Its basin covers an area of 523 square kilometers (of which 171 square kilometers in Navarra). The river bridges a height differece of 630 meters from its source to its mouth at 245 meters above sea level.

Flow measurements recorded ​​in Los Fayos provide an annual figure of 17 cubic hectometers, and feature a Mediterranean rainfall regime slightly influenced by melting snow. The maximum flow period is from November to May, peaking around March. The droughts usually last about 90 days.

Nine towns and villages participated in the Albalá de Tudela : Tudela, Ablitas, Barillas, Cascante, Monteagudo, Murchante, Tulebras, Urzante (all in the Kingdom of Navarra), and Malón (the latter being in the Kingdom of Aragón). Besides the participating communities of the Albalá , also the town of Tarazona as well as the village of Novallas (both lying within the Kingdom of Aragón) were affected by the irrigation shifts.

Foundation/start of institution, date or year

Foundation year: is this year the confirmed year of founding or is this the year this institution is first mentioned?

The origin of the shift pattern of distribution of irrigation water from the river Queiles is unknown. It was described in detail for the first time in the ordinances of Tudela of 1220, but probably was already in force before the Christian conquest of the city in 1119 (and probably even before the Muslim conquest of the eight century).

Description of Act of foundation

The city of Tudela, at the mouth of the river Queiles in the river Ebro had guaranteed access to water resources through a set of rules, rights, and prohibitions, to which the camps, villages and cities located in the lower Rio Queiles had to comply. These rules of distribution of river water were described in detail for the first time in the Tudela Bylaws of 1220. Some clarifications were made ​​in the Bylaws of 1538 and these were updated in the Bylaws of 1819, 1821, and 1835.

Year of termination of institution

The institution as such was not explicitly abolished in 1850, however, the Irrigation Union of the River Queiles was founded, incorporating a.o. the functions and tasks of the Albalá .

Year of termination: estimated or confirmed?

Act regarding termination present?

Description Act of termination

Recognized by local government?

Concise history of institution

The ownership of the water of the river Queiles was divided into monthly shifts between the communities that were entitled to irrigation. The first description of this system is to be found in the ordinances of Tudela of 1220. Each month was divided into three periods of different lengths: the almoceda , the alhema . and the entremés . The almoceda began at sunrise on the 22nd of each month and ended on the 26th, lasting four days and nights. The alhema began at sunrise on the 26th and was of variable duration, depending on the location and the time of year: on the right bank, it lasted five days in ten of the twelve months of the year and four days in April and May. From 1376 onwards, on the left bank the alhema lasted for eight days and nights, except in April and May, when its duration was reduced to seven days. The remainder, between the end of the alhema and the start of the almoceda was called entremés .

During the almoceda the river was divided into two parts, flowing through the ditches Naón (on the left bank of the river) and Mendienique (on the right bank), to irrigate the fields of the villages situated on both banks of the river. On the left, Monteagudo received half of this flow and the other half of this flow was destined for Cascante and Urzante, downstream. On the right bank, the ditch Mendienique distributed half of the flow to Malón, provided a fila (approx. 12 liters per second) of water to the Tulebras Monastery, while the remainder of this flow continued to Barillas and Ablitas. During this period, entitled irrigators were forbidden to either impound water, waste it, or donate it to others, because the overflow caused by rain (which became known as " aguas sobradas ") belonged to the city of Tudela.

The city of Tudela, at the mouth of the river, was the sole owner of river water during the alhema . In that period, water diversion ditches were closed ( abatimiento ), only leaving a minimum flow, regulated according to the cases in a teja (a flow of about 3 liters per second) and half a fila (a fila equalling a flow of 12 liters per second), so that all the water ahould reache the fields of Tudela. However, before reaching the end of Tudela territory, three so-called sesmos , flows of two filas ( about 24 liters per second) of water, were deviated from the main flow to irrigate the fields Murchante, Campoadentro, and Cardete.

During the entremés , being the monthly time period between the end of the alhema and the start of the almoceda, water use was open to all villages in the basin, according to shifts likewise established. The water in the ditch Calchetés on the left bank of the river, was seized by Novallas and Monteagudo, in shifts of three and two days respectively. The water running through the ditch Naón was distributed in shifts of four days between Monteagudo, Tulebras, and Cascante. On the left bank, the village of Malón had the use of the water from the ditch Mendienique for five days, Barillas for four days, Ablitas having the use of the water for the remaining eleven days. The use of excess flow caused by rain (“ aguas sobradas ”) was the privilege of the city of Tudela.

The problem of the low flow of the river Queiles was partially solved from the first third of the seventeenth century on by the creation of a hydraulic transfer system allowing the use of excess water from the basin of the river Alhama. The expensive work (100,000 pesos ) was funded by the city of Tudela, and included a ditch that ran partly underground (Las Minas Canal), and a buffer tank to store excess water (Estanca de Pulguer).

The diagram below summarizes the distribution among different villages and communities of irrigators according to the irrigation shifts ( adores ) in the three periods indicated. In short, Tudela exclusively enjoyed the use of river water for 94 days a year on the left and for 58 days a year on the right bank, as well as the use of excess water ( aguas sobradas ) throughout the whole year. The city government was also entitled to punish the theft of water.

Oorsig of the historical distribution of irrigation turns in the river Queiles


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Kommentaar:

  1. Cleobis

    almal is bang hy is gevaarlik ... ek gaan !!!!!!!

  2. Meztijind

    Jy is besoek met 'n uitstekende idee

  3. Naalyehe Ya Sidahi

    Dink jy as onbeduidend?

  4. Gardar

    Yes this is fiction



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