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Kemal Atatürk

Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938) was 'n weermagoffisier wat 'n onafhanklike Republiek van Turkye uit die ruïnes van die Ottomaanse Ryk gestig het. Hy dien toe as die eerste president van Turkye van 1923 tot sy dood in 1938 en implementeer hervormings wat die land vinnig gesekulariseer en verwester het. Onder sy leiding het die rol van Islam in die openbare lewe drasties gekrimp, wetskodes in Europese styl het ontstaan, die kantoor van die sultan is afgeskaf en nuwe taal- en kleredragvereistes is opgedra. Maar hoewel die land nominaal demokraties was, het Atatürk soms teenstand met 'n outoritêre hand gesmoor.

Atatürk: die vroeë jare

Mustafa, wat as tiener Mustafa Kemal geword het en toe laat in die lewe Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, is omstreeks 1881 gebore in die stad Salonica (nou Thessaloniki, Griekeland), wat op daardie stadium deel was van die Ottomaanse Ryk. Sy gesin was middelklas, Turkssprekend en Moslem. Mustafa Kemal, 'n goeie student, het 'n reeks militêre skole bygewoon, waaronder die War College in Istanbul. Hy was daarna 'n paar jaar in Sirië en Palestina gestasioneer voordat hy 'n pos in Salonica gekry het. In 1911 en 1912 het die harddrinkende Mustafa Kemal in Libië teen die Italianers geveg.

Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog (1914-18) het die Ottomaanse Ryk hom met Duitsland en Oostenryk-Hongarye verbind. Teen hierdie tyd het die verouderde ryk amper sy hele gebied in Europa en Afrika verloor. Boonop het die sogenaamde Young Turk Revolution van 1908 outokratiese magte van die sultan gestroop en 'n era van parlementêre regering ingelui. In 1915 het Mustafa Kemal hom onderskei gedurende die veldtog van byna 'n jaar lank op die Gallipoli -skiereiland, waarin hy gehelp het om 'n groot mag Britse en Franse troepe te keer om Istanbul te neem. Hy is gou bevorder van kolonel tot brigadier-generaal en gestuur om te veg in die ooste van Turkye, Sirië en Palestina. Na raming het 1,5 miljoen Armeniërs gesterf en ander is tydens die oorlog en die gevolge daarvan verdryf, maar Mustafa Kemal is nie verbind met die pleeg van die volksmoord nie.

Atatürk neem krag

Ingevolge 'n straf náoorlogse vredesverdrag wat in Augustus 1920 onderteken is, het die Geallieerde moondhede alle Arabiese provinsies van die Ottomaanse Ryk gestroop, voorsiening gemaak vir 'n onafhanklike Armenië en 'n outonome Koerdistan, die Grieke in beheer van 'n gebied rondom Smirna (nou Izmir) en beweer beheer oor die klein landjie wat oorgebly het. Mustafa Kemal het egter reeds 'n onafhanklikheidsbeweging in Ankara georganiseer, met die doel om die buitelandse besetting van die Turkssprekende gebiede te beëindig en te keer dat hulle verdeel word. Die sultan se regering in Istanbul het Mustafa Kemal in afwesigheid die dood veroordeel, maar dit het hom nie verhinder om militêre en volksondersteuning op te bou nie. Met die hulp van geld en wapens uit Sowjet -Rusland het sy troepe die Armeniërs in die ooste verpletter en die Franse en Italianers gedwing om uit die suide terug te trek. Daarna het hy sy aandag gevestig op die Grieke, wat die Turkse bevolking tydens hul opmars verwoes het tot binne 50 myl van Ankara.

In Augustus en September 1921, met Mustafa Kemal aan die hoof van die leër, het die Turke die Griekse opmars in die Slag van Sakarya gestop. Die daaropvolgende Augustus begin hulle 'n offensief wat die Griekse lyne breek en stuur hulle terug na Smyrna aan die Middellandse See. 'N Brand het spoedig uitgebreek in Smyrna, wat saam met plundery en rampokkery van Turkse soldate die lewens van duisende Griekse en Armeense inwoners geëis het. Ongeveer 200 000 bykomende Grieke en Armeniërs moes noodgedwonge op die nabygeleë Geallieerde oorlogskepe ontruim, om nooit weer terug te keer nie.

Mustafa Kemal dreig daarna om Istanbul aan te val, wat deur die Britse en ander geallieerde moondhede beset is. In plaas van om te veg, het die Britte ingestem om 'n nuwe vredesverdrag te beding en het uitnodigings gestuur aan beide die sultan se regering in Istanbul en Mustafa Kemal se regering in Ankara. Maar voordat die vredeskonferensie kon begin, het die Groot Nasionale Vergadering in Ankara 'n resolusie aangeneem waarin verklaar word dat die heerskappy van die sultan reeds geëindig het. Uit vrees vir sy lewe het die laaste Ottomaanse sultan in 'n Britse ambulans uit die paleis gevlug. 'N Nuwe vredesverdrag is toe in Julie 1923 onderteken wat 'n onafhanklike Turkse staat erken het. In Oktober het die Groot Nasionale Vergadering die Republiek van Turkye uitgeroep en Mustafa Kemal as sy eerste president verkies.

Atatürk as president

Nog voordat hy president geword het, het Griekeland ingestem om ongeveer 380 000 Moslems na Turkye te stuur in ruil vir meer as 1 miljoen Grieks -Ortodokse praktisyns. Intussen het die gedwonge emigrasie van Armeniërs onder Mustafa Kemal voortgeduur. Alhoewel Turkye nou byna homogeen Moslem was, het Mustafa Kemal die kalief, die teoretiese opvolger van die profeet Mohammed en geestelike leier van die wêreldwye Moslem -gemeenskap, afgesit. Hy het ook alle godsdienstige howe en skole gesluit, die dra van kopdoeke onder werknemers in die openbare sektor verbied, die ministerie van kerkreg en vroom stigtings afgeskaf, 'n verbod op alkohol opgehef, die Gregoriaanse kalender aangeneem in plaas van die Islamitiese kalender, Sondag 'n dag gemaak van rus in plaas van Vrydag, het die Turkse alfabet verander van Arabiese letters na Romeinse letters, opdrag gegee dat die oproep tot gebed eerder in Turks as in Arabies moes wees en selfs die dra van fez -hoede verbied het.

Die regering van Mustafa Kemal het industrialisasie voorgestaan ​​en nuwe wetskodes aangeneem op grond van Europese modelle. 'Die beskaafde wêreld lê ons ver vooruit', het hy in Oktober 1926 aan 'n gehoor gesê. 'Ons het geen ander keuse as om in te haal nie.' Agt jaar later het hy van alle Turke vereis om 'n van te kies en Atatürk (letterlik Vader Turk) as sy eie te kies. Teen daardie tyd het die regering van Atatürk by die Volkebond aangesluit, geletterdheidsyfer verbeter en vroue stemreg gegee, hoewel hy in die praktyk in wese eenparty-bewind opgelê het. Hy het ook opposisiekoerante gesluit, linkse werkersorganisasies onderdruk en enige pogings tot Koerdiese outonomie gebottel.

Turkye Na Atatürk

Op 10 November 1938 sterf Atatürk, wat nooit kinders gehad het nie, in sy slaapkamer in die Dolmabahce -paleis in Istanbul. Hy is vervang deur İsmet İnönü, premier tydens die grootste deel van Atatürk se bewind, wat sy beleid van sekularisering en verwestering voortgesit het. Alhoewel Atatürk vandag die ikoniese status in Turkye behou - in werklikheid is dit 'n misdaad om sy geheue te beledig - het Islam die afgelope paar jaar weer 'n sosiale en politieke mag geword.


Die Turkse republiek Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal het toe begin met die hervorming van sy land, met die doel om dit in die 20ste eeu te bring. Sy instrument was die Republikeinse Volksparty wat op 9 Augustus 1923 gestig is om die verdediging van regte te vervang. Sy program is beliggaam in die party se "Ses pyle": republikanisme, nasionalisme, populisme, statisme (industrialisering in staatsbesit en deur die staat, wat daarop gemik is om Turkye selfonderhoudend te maak as 'n geïndustrialiseerde staat van die 20ste eeu), sekularisme en revolusie. Die leidende beginsel was die bestaan ​​van 'n permanente staat van revolusie, wat beteken dat die staat en die samelewing voortdurend moet verander.

Die kalifaat is op 3 Maart 1924 afgeskaf (sedert die vroeë 16de eeu het die Ottomaanse sultans aanspraak gemaak op die kalief van die Moslems) is die godsdienstige skole terselfdertyd afgebreek. Die afskaffing van die godsdienstige howe het gevolg op 8 April. In 1925 is die dra van die fez verbied-daarna het Turke hoofdeksels in Westerse styl gedra. Mustafa Kemal het 'n spreekbeurt deur Anatolië gemaak waartydens hy 'n hoed in Europese styl gedra het, wat 'n voorbeeld vir die Turkse mense was. In Istanboel en elders was daar materiaal vir die maak van hoede. In dieselfde jaar is die godsdienstige broederskap, vestings van konserwatisme, verbied.

Die bevryding van vroue is aangemoedig deur Mustafa Kemal se huwelik in 1923 met 'n Westers-opgeleide vrou, Latife Hanım (hulle is in 1925 geskei), en is deur 'n aantal wette aan die gang gesit. In Desember 1934 het vroue die stem vir parlementslede gekry en was hulle geregtig om parlementêre setels te beklee.

Byna oornag is die hele stelsel van Islamitiese wet weggegooi. Van Februarie tot Junie 1926 is die Switserse burgerlike kode, die Italiaanse strafwet en die Duitse handelswet in die groothandel aanvaar. Gevolglik is die emansipasie van vroue versterk deur die afskaffing van poligamie, die huwelik is 'n burgerlike kontrak en egskeiding word erken as 'n burgerlike aksie.

'N Hervorming van werklik revolusionêre afmetings was die vervanging van die Arabiese skrif - waarin die Ottomaanse Turkse taal al eeue lank geskryf is - deur die Latynse alfabet. Dit het amptelik in November 1928 plaasgevind, wat Turkye op die pad gebring het om een ​​van die hoogste geletterdheidskoerse in die Midde -Ooste te behaal. Weereens het Mustafa Kemal die platteland binnegegaan, en met kryt en 'n bord het hy die nuwe alfabet aan die Turkse volk gedemonstreer en verduidelik hoe die letters uitgespreek moet word. Onderwys het baat by hierdie hervorming, aangesien die jeug van Turkye, afgesny van die verlede met die klem op godsdiens, aangemoedig is om voordeel te trek uit nuwe opvoedingsgeleenthede wat toegang tot die Westerse wetenskaplike en humanistiese tradisies gebied het.

'N Ander belangrike stap was die aanneming van vanne of familiename, wat deur die GNA in 1934 bepaal is. Die vergadering het Mustafa Kemal die naam Atatürk ("Vader van die Turke") gegee.

Nadat hy Turkye stewig binne sy landsgrense gevestig en op die pad van modernisering gevestig het, wou Atatürk sy land se buitelandse beleid op soortgelyke wyse ontwikkel. In die eerste plek besluit hy dat Turkye geen irredentistiese aansprake sal nastreef nie, behalwe vir die uiteindelike inlywing van die Alexandretta -streek, wat volgens hom ingesluit is binne die grense wat die nasionale verdrag bepaal. Hy het sake met Groot -Brittanje besleg in 'n verdrag wat op 5 Junie 1926 onderteken is. Dit het 'n beroep op Turkye gedoen om afstand te doen van sy aansprake op Mosul in ruil vir 'n belang van 10 % in die olie wat daar geproduseer word. Atatürk soek ook versoening met Griekeland. Dit is bereik deur 'n vriendskapsverdrag wat op 30 Desember 1930 onderteken is. Minderheidsbevolkings is aan beide kante uitgeruil, grense is gestel en militêre probleme soos vlootgelykheid in die oostelike Middellandse See is uitgestryk.

Hierdie ambisieuse program van gedwonge modernisering is nie sonder spanning en bloedvergieting bewerkstellig nie. In Februarie 1925 het die Koerde in die suidweste van Anatolië die vaandel van opstand in die naam van Islam gehys. Dit het twee maande geneem om die opstand te onderdruk, sy leier Şeyh Said is toe opgehang. In Junie 1926 is 'n komplot van verskeie ontevrede politici om Atatürk te vermoor, ontdek, en die 13 ringkoppe is verhoor en gehang.

Daar was ander verhore en teregstellings, maar onder Atatürk is die land standvastig gestuur om 'n moderne staat te word met 'n minimum van onderdrukking. Daar was 'n hoë mate van konsensus onder die regerende elite oor die doelwitte van die samelewing. Aangesien baie van die doelwitte bereik is, wou baie Turke egter 'n meer demokratiese regime hê. Atatürk het selfs in 1930 geëksperimenteer met die stigting van 'n opposisieparty onder leiding van sy jarelange medewerker Ali Fethi, maar die onmiddellike en oorweldigende sukses daarvan het Atatürk in die wiele gery.

In sy latere jare het Atatürk meer afgelei van die Turkse volk. Hy het die Dolmabahçe -paleis in Istanbul, voorheen 'n hoofwoning van die sultans, laat opknap en meer tyd daar deurgebring. Hy was altyd 'n sterk drinker wat min geëet het, en hy het agteruitgegaan in sy gesondheid. Sy siekte, sirrose van die lewer, is eers te laat gediagnoseer. Hy het die pyn van die laaste paar maande van sy lewe met groot karakter en waardigheid gedra, en op 10 November 1938 sterf hy om 09:05 in Dolmabahçe. Sy staatsbegrafnis was 'n geleentheid vir enorme uitstortings van hartseer deur die Turkse volk. Sy lyk is deur Istanbul vervoer en vandaar na Ankara, waar dit op 'n geskikte laaste rusplek gewag het. Dit is jare later gebou: 'n mausoleum in Ankara bevat Atatürk se sarkofaag en 'n museum vir sy geheue.

Atatürk is alomteenwoordig in Turkye. Sy portret is in elke huis en plek van besigheid, op die posgeld en banknote. Sy woorde word op belangrike geboue gebeitel. Standbeelde van hom is volop. Turkse politici, ongeag die partyverband, beweer dat hulle die erfgename van Atatürk se mantel is, maar niemand pas by sy breedte van visie, toewyding en onbaatsugtigheid nie.


Kemal Atatürk - GESKIEDENIS

Die evolusie van Turkye in die vroeë 1900's is een van die mees verstommende kulturele en sosiale veranderinge in die Islamitiese geskiedenis. In 'n paar kort jaar is die Ottomaanse Ryk van binne af neergeslaan, van sy Islamitiese geskiedenis gestroop en oorgegaan in 'n nuwe sekulêre nasie, bekend as Turkye. Die gevolge van hierdie verandering word vandag nog in die hele Moslemwêreld gevoel, en veral in 'n baie gepolariseerde en ideologies gesegmenteerde Turkye.

Wat het hierdie monumentale verandering in die Turkse regering en samelewing veroorsaak? In die middel hiervan is Mustafa Kemal, beter bekend as Atatürk. Deur sy leierskap in die 1920's en 1930's is die moderne sekulêre Turkye gebore, en Islam het 'n agterkant in die Turkse samelewing.

Die opkoms van Atatürk

Die besluit van die Ottomaanse Ryk om die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in 1914 te betree, was 'n aaklige fout. Die ryk is gelei deur 'n diktatuur onder leiding van die "Three Pashas" wat eensydig die oorlog aan die Duitse kant betree het, teen die Britte, Franse en Russe. Die Ottomaanse Ryk is vanuit die suide binnegeval deur die Britte, uit die Ooste deur die Russe en deur die Grieke in die Weste. Teen 1918, toe die oorlog geëindig het, was die ryk verdeel en beset deur die seëvierende bondgenote, wat slegs die sentrale Anatoliese hooglande onder inheemse Turkse beheer gelaat het.


Mustafa Kemal in 1918

Dit was in Sentraal -Anatolië waar Mustafa Kemal sou opstaan ​​om 'n nasionale held vir die Turke te word. As 'n Ottomaanse weermagoffisier het hy groot leierskap in die geveg getoon, veral in Gallipoli, waar die Ottomane daarin geslaag het om 'n Britse inval wat op die hoofstad Istanbul gerig was, terug te keer. Na die oorlog het Kemal egter duidelik gemaak wat sy prioriteite was. Sy hoofdoel was die vestiging van Turkse nasionalisme as die verenigende krag van die Turkse volk. Anders as die multi-etniese en uiteenlopende Ottomaanse Ryk, het Kemal ten doel gehad om 'n monolitiese staat te stig wat gebaseer is op Turkse identiteit.

In Mustafa Kemal se eie woorde beskryf hy die belangrikheid van Turkse identiteit en die onbeduidendheid van Islam soos hy dit sien:

'Selfs voordat hulle die godsdiens van die Arabiere [Islam] aanvaar het, was die Turke 'n groot nasie. Nadat die godsdiens van die Arabiere aanvaar is, het hierdie godsdiens nie die Arabiere, die Perse en die Egiptenare met die Turke gekombineer om 'n volk te vorm nie. (Hierdie godsdiens) het eerder die nasionale verband van die Turkse nasie losgemaak, die nasionale opwinding verdoof. Dit was baie natuurlik. Omdat die doel van die godsdiens wat deur Mohammed gestig is, oor alle nasies, was om na 'n insluitende Arabiese nasionale politiek te gaan. "

- Mustafa Kemal, Medenî Bilgiler

Mustafa Kemal se skewe [en eerlik, feitelik verkeerde] opvattings oor die Islamitiese geskiedenis het sy nasionalistiese agenda gehelp. Deur die Turkse identiteit as byeenkoms te gebruik, het hy daarin geslaag om voormalige Ottomaanse offisiere onder sy bevel te verenig in die Turkse onafhanklikheidsoorlog in die vroeë 1920's en die besettingsmagte van die Grieke, Britte en Franse te verdryf, wat na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog op Turkse grond ingeval het. . Teen 1922 het Kemal daarin geslaag om die Turke heeltemal te bevry van buitelandse besetting en gebruik hy die geleentheid om die moderne Republiek van Turkye, onder leiding van die Groot Nasionale Vergadering, die GNA, in Ankara te stig. Aan die hoof van die nuwe Turkse regering was 'n president, verkies deur die GNA. Die natuurlike keuse was Mustafa Kemal, die held van die Onafhanklikheidsoorlog, wat nou die titel "Atatürk" aangeneem het, wat "Vader van die Turke" beteken.

Afskaffing van die Ottomaanse Sultanaat en die Kalifaat

Aanvanklik lyk dit asof die nuwe Turkse regering die rol van die Ottomaanse regering as die handhawer van Islam beërf. 'N Nuwe grondwet wat deur die GNA opgestel is, verklaar dat Islam die amptelike staatsgodsdiens van Turkye is en dat alle wette deur 'n paneel van Islamitiese regskenners ondersoek moet word om seker te maak dat dit nie die Shari'ah weerspreek nie.

Hierdie nuwe regeringstelsel kon egter nie werk nie, solank daar steeds 'n mededingende regering in Istanbul was, onder leiding van die Ottomaanse sultan. Die regerings van Ankara en Istanbul het beide soewereiniteit oor Turkye geëis en het eerlik botsende doelwitte. Atatürk het hierdie probleem op 1 November 1922 uit die weg geruim toe hy die Ottomaanse sultanaat, wat sedert 1299 bestaan ​​het, afgeskaf het en sy mag amptelik aan die GNA oorgedra het. Hy het egter nie onmiddellik die kalifaat afgeskaf nie. Alhoewel die sultanaat nie meer was nie, het hy toegelaat dat die Ottomaanse kalifaat voortbestaan, alhoewel sonder amptelike magte, slegs as 'n simboliese figuurkop.


Abdülmecid II, die laaste kalief wat die amp van 1922 tot 1924 beklee het.

Omdat hy geweet het dat hierdie stap baie ongewild onder die Turkse mense sou wees, het Atatürk dit regverdig deur te beweer dat hy eenvoudig teruggaan na 'n tradisionele Islamitiese regeringsvorm. Van die 900's tot die 1500's was die Abbasidiese kaliefs meestal kopkoppe, met die ware mag in die hande van viziers of krygshere. Atatürk het hierdie voorbeeld gebruik om sy skepping van 'n magtelose kalifaat te regverdig.

Die kalifaat het bestaan ​​sedert die dae na die dood van profeet Mohammed ﷺ, toe Abu Bakr verkies is as die eerste leier van die Moslemwêreld. Vir Moslems buite Turkye stel Atatürk se optrede die kantoor van die kalifaat duidelik in gevaar. Veral in Indië het Moslems verontwaardiging uitgespreek oor Atatürk se optrede en die Khilafat -beweging georganiseer, wat probeer het om die kalifaat te beskerm teen gevaar, hetsy deur buitelandse indringers of deur die Turkse regering self.

Vir Atatürk word die uitdrukkings van steun vir die kalifaat van Moslems buite Turkye beskou as inmenging in interne Turkse aangeleenthede. Met verwysing na hierdie vermeende internasionale inmenging, het Atatürk en die Groot Nasionale Vergadering op 3 Maart 1924 die kalifaat self afgeskaf en alle oorblywende lede van die Ottomaanse familie in ballingskap gestuur.

Aanvalle op Islam

Met die kalifaat uit die pad, het die Turkse regering meer vryheid gehad om beleid te volg wat Islamitiese instellings aanval. Onder die dekmantel van 'die reiniging van Islam van politieke inmenging' is die onderwysstelsel heeltemal opgeknap. Islamitiese opvoeding is verbied ten gunste van sekulêre, nie-dogmatiese skole. Ander aspekte van godsdienstige infrastruktuur is ook afgebreek. Die Shari'ah -raad om wette goed te keur wat die GNA net twee jaar tevore ingestel het, is afgeskaf. Daar is beslag gelê op godsdienstige skenkings en onder regeringskontrole geplaas. Sufi -lodges is met geweld gesluit. Alle regters van die Islamitiese wet in die land is onmiddellik afgedank, aangesien alle Shari'ah howe gesluit is.

Atatürk se aanvalle op Islam was egter nie net tot die regering beperk nie. Die daaglikse lewe vir Turke is ook bepaal deur Atatürk se sekulêre idees:

  • Tradisionele Islamitiese vorm van hooftooisels, soos tulbande en die fez, is verbied ten gunste van hoede in Westerse styl.
  • Die hijaab vir vroue is as 'n "belaglike voorwerp" bespot en in openbare geboue verbied.
  • Die kalender is amptelik verander, van die tradisionele Islamitiese kalender, gebaseer op die hijrah - profeet Mohammed flight se vlug na Madinah - na die Gregoriaanse kalender, gebaseer op die geboorte van Jesus Christus.
  • In 1932 is die adhan - die Moslem -oproep tot gebed - in Arabies verbied. In plaas daarvan is dit herskryf met behulp van Turkse woorde en op die land se duisende moskees afgedwing.
  • Vrydag is nie meer as deel van die naweek beskou nie. Turkye moes eerder die Europese norme van Saterdag en Sondag, vakansiedae, volg.

Na al hierdie veranderinge het die GNA in 1928 die optog laat vaar en die klousule in die grondwet wat Islam as die amptelike staatsgodsdiens verklaar het, geskrap. Islam is vervang met Atatürk se sekulêre ideologieë.

Taalhervorming

Atatürk het geweet dat hierdie sekulêre hervormings tevergeefs sou wees as die Turkse volk dit kon regkry om hulle teë te staan. Die grootste gevaar vir hierdie nuwe orde was die geskiedenis van die Turke, wat sedert die 900's met Islam vervleg was. Om die nuwe geslagte Turke van hul verlede te distansieer, moes Atatürk die verlede vir hulle onleesbaar maak.


Atatürk stel die nuwe Latynse skrif in 1928 bekend.

Met die verskoning van toenemende geletterdheid onder Turke (wat in die twintigerjare inderdaad baie laag was), bepleit Atatürk die vervanging van Arabiese letters deur Latynse letters. Net soos Persies, is Turks honderde jare lank in Arabiese letters geskryf na die bekering van die Turke in die 900's tot Islam. Omdat Turks in die Arabiese skrif geskryf is, kon Turke die Koran en ander Islamitiese tekste relatief maklik lees en dit verbind met 'n Islamitiese identiteit - wat Atatürk as 'n bedreiging beskou het.

Benewens die bekendstelling van die Latynse letters, het Atatürk 'n kommissie op die been gebring wat die vervanging van Arabiese en Persiese leenwoorde in Turks gestig het. In ooreenstemming met sy nasionalistiese agenda, wou Atatürk 'n taal wat suiwer Turks was, wat ou Turkse woorde beteken het, wat tydens die Ottomaanse era verouderd was, weer in gebruik neem in plaas van Arabiese woorde. Byvoorbeeld, die Turkse onafhanklikheidsoorlog, voorheen bekend as die Istiklal Harbi, staan ​​nou bekend as Kurtuluş Savaşı, want "istiklal" en "harb" is Arabiese leenwoorde in Turks.

Vanuit Atatürk se perspektief was die taalhervorming baie suksesvol. Binne 'n paar dekades het die ou Ottomaanse Turks effektief uitgesterf. Die nuwer geslagte Turke was heeltemal afgesny van die ouer geslagte, met wie eenvoudige gesprekke moeilik was. Omdat die Turkse mense ongeletterd was met hul verlede, kon die Turkse regering hulle 'n weergawe van die geskiedenis gee wat hulle as aanvaarbaar beskou het, een wat die Turkse nasionalistiese idees van Atatürk self bevorder het.

Sekulêre Turkye

Al hierdie hervormings het saamgewerk om Islam effektief uit die lewens van die alledaagse Turke te verwyder. Ondanks die beste pogings van godsdienstige Turke (soos Said Nursi) om hul erfenis, taal en godsdiens te bewaar, was die regering se druk om sekulêre idees aan te neem te veel. Vir meer as 80 jaar het die Turkse regering sterk sekulêr gebly. Pogings om Islamitiese waardes in die regering terug te bring, het die weermag ondervind, wat homself as die beskermer van Atatürk se sekularisme beskou.

In 1950 is Adnan Menderes demokraties tot premier van Turkye verkies op 'n platform om die Arabiese adhan terug te bring. Alhoewel hy suksesvol was, is hy in 1960 omvergewerp deur 'n militêre staatsgreep en tereggestel na 'n oorhaastige verhoor. Meer onlangs, in 1996, is Necmettin Erbakan tot premier gekies, terwyl hy homself opvallend openlik 'Islamis' verklaar het. Weer het die weermag ingetree en hom ná net een jaar in die amp aan die bewind laat val.

Die moderne Turkye se betrekkinge met Islam en sy eie geskiedenis is ingewikkeld. Gedeeltes van die samelewing ondersteun Atatürk se ideologie ten sterkste en meen Islam behoort geen rol in die openbare lewe te speel nie. Ander dele van die samelewing beoog 'n terugkeer na 'n meer Islam-georiënteerde samelewing en regering, en nouer betrekkinge met die res van die Moslemwêreld. Die kommerwekkendste is egter dat die ideologiese konflik tussen hierdie twee opponerende partye geen tekens toon dat dit binnekort sal bedaar nie.


Veg vir 'n nuwe Turkye

Atatürk het 'n vooraanstaande militêre loopbaan gehad, wat oral in die uitgestrekte Ottomaanse Ryk gedien het en tot die rang van pasha of generaal gevorder het. Hy het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die verdediging van die Ottomaanse Ryk tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en 'n geliefde oorlogsheld geword. In April 1915 lei hy 'n briljante verdediging van die Turkse hawe Gallipoli teen 'n geallieerde inval. Alhoewel hy in September 1918 deur die Britte in Megiddo verslaan is, hergroepeer hy sy magte en kom weer in Oktober teenoor Geallieerde troepe, terwyl hy 'n verdedigingslinie by Aleppo hou totdat 'n wapenstilstand (vredesverdrag) op 30 Oktober met die Britte onderteken is. vroeë afkeer van die korrupte Ottomaanse regering. (Die sultan was die heerser van die Ottomaanse Ryk.)

Sy vaardigheid op die slagveld het gepaard gegaan met sy opstand. Vroeg in sy loopbaan het hy gehelp met die stigting van 'n geheime organisasie van offisiere genaamd 'Homeland and Freedom' om 'n komplot teen die sultan te maak. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Atatürk sy meerderes kwaad gemaak deur voor te stel dat die weermag sy steun aan die nie-Turkse dele van die ryk moet onttrek.

Alhoewel die wapenstilstand die Ottomaanse leër ontbind het, het Atatürk die Turkse leërs bymekaar gehou om die Grieke te verslaan, wat deur die ander bondgenote aangemoedig word, die weskus van Turkye binnedring. In 1919 beland Atatürk in die Swartsee -hawe van Samsun om Turkye se onafhanklikheidsoorlog van die Ottomaanse Ryk te begin. Op 20 April 1920 onderteken Mohammed VI, die laaste sultan van die Ottomaanse Ryk, die Verdrag van Sèvres met die Geallieerdes. Hierdie verdrag het groot dele van Turkye aan verskillende geallieerde nasies gegee, en slegs 'n klein, magtelose nasie gelaat wat onder geallieerde beheer sou wees. Atatürk was vasbeslote om die voorwaardes van die verdrag te weerstaan ​​en internasionale erkenning vir 'n nuwe Turkye te verkry. Op 23 April 1920 het die eerste Groot Nasionale Vergadering sy amp aangeneem met Atatürk as president. Teen 1923, onder leiding van Atatürk, het die vergadering die Republiek van Turkye gestig, wat die absolute monargie van die sultan vervang het deur 'n demokratiese parlementêre regeringsvorm. Die Verdrag van Sèvres is vervang deur die meer aanvaarbare Verdrag van Lausanne, wat die nuwe nasionalistiese regering op 24 Julie 1923 onderteken het.


Ataturk se lewe

Mustafa Kemal Atat & uumlrk (1881 - 1938) was die stigter en die eerste president van die Republiek van Turkye. Mustafa Kemal is gebore in 1881 in Salonika (Thessaloniki, vandag in Griekeland, toe onder die Ottomaanse bewind). Sy pa se naam was Ali Riza Efendi. Sy pa was doeane -amptenaar.

Sy ma se naam was Z & uumlbeyde Hanim. Vir sy primêre opleiding het hy na die skool van Semsi Efendi in Salonika gegaan. Maar Mustafa het sy pa op 'n vroeë ouderdom verloor, hy moes die skool verlaat. Mustafa en sy ma het by sy oom op die platteland gaan woon. Sy ma het hom grootgemaak. Die lewe het 'n tyd lank so aangegaan. Mustafa het op die plaas gewerk, maar sy ma het begin bekommerd wees oor sy gebrek aan skoolopleiding. Daar is uiteindelik besluit dat hy by sy ma se suster in Salonika sou woon.

Hy het die Militêre Middelskool in Salonika betree. In 1895, nadat hy die Militêre middelbare skool voltooi het, betree Mustafa Kemal die Militêre Hoërskool (Askeri Idadisi) in Manastir.

Nadat hy sy studies aan die Manastir Military School suksesvol voltooi het, is Mustafa Kemal na Istanbul en op 13 Maart 1899 het hy die infanterieklas van die Militêre Akademie (Harbiye Harp Okulu) betree. Nadat hy die Militêre Akademie voltooi het, het Mustafa Kemal in 1902 na die General Staff College gegaan. Hy is op 11 Januarie 1905 afgestudeer aan die Akademie met die rang van kaptein.

In 1906 is hy na Damaskus (Sam) gestuur. Mustafa Kemal en sy vriende stig in Damaskus 'n genootskap wat hulle 'Vatan ve H & uumlrriyet' (Vaderland en Vryheid) noem. Op eie inisiatief het hy tydens die oorlog met Italië in 1911 na Tripoli gegaan en aan die verdediging van Derne en Tobruk deelgeneem. Terwyl hy nog in Libië was, het die Balkanoorlog uitgebreek. Hy dien in die Balkanoorlog as 'n suksesvolle bevelvoerder (1912-1914). Aan die einde van die Balkanoorlog is Mustafa Kemal aangestel as militêre aanhangsel in Sofia.

Toe Mustafa Kemal in Sofia was, het die Eerste Wêreldoorlog uitgebreek. Hy is op 8 Augustus 1915 bevelvoerder van die Anafartalar -groep gemaak. In die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was hy op 'n kritieke oomblik in bevel van die Turkse magte by Anafartalar. Dit was toe die geallieerde landings in die Dardanelles (vandag se Canakkale -straat) plaasgevind het en hy persoonlik die situasie in Gallipoli gered het. Tydens die geveg is Mustafa Kemal deur skrapnel bo die hart getref, maar 'n horlosie in sy borssak het sy lewe gered. Mustafa Kemal verduidelik sy gemoedstoestand toe hy hierdie groot verantwoordelikheid aanvaar: "Dit was inderdaad nie maklik om hierdie verantwoordelikheid te aanvaar nie, maar omdat ek besluit het om nie te lewe om die vernietiging van my land te sien nie, het ek dit met trots aanvaar". Hy dien toe in die Kaukasus en in Sirië en net voor die wapenstilstand in 1918 word hy onder bevel van die Lightning Army -groep in Sirië geplaas. Na die wapenstilstand (vredesooreenkoms) keer hy terug na Istanbul.

Na die wapenstilstand van Montreux het die lande wat die ooreenkoms onderteken het dit nie nodig geag om by die bepalings daarvan te hou nie. Onder verskillende voorwendsels was die vloote en die leërs van die Entente (Frankryk, Brittanje en Italië) in Istanbul, terwyl die provinsie Adana deur die Franse beset was, en Urfa en Maras deur die Britte. Daar was Italiaanse soldate in Antalya en Konya, en Britse soldate in Merzifon en Samsun. Daar was byna oral in die land buitelandse offisiere, amptenare en agente.

Op 15 Mei 1919 land die Griekse leër in Izmir met toestemming van die Entente. Onder moeilike omstandighede het Mustafa Kemal besluit om na Anatolië te gaan. Op 16 Mei 1919 verlaat hy Istanbul met 'n bootjie genaamd die "Bandirma". Mustafa Kemal is gewaarsku dat sy vyande van plan was om sy skip op pad uit te sink, maar hy was nie bang nie en op Maandag, 19 Mei 1919, het hy in Samsun aangekom en sy voet op Anatoliese grond gesit. Hierdie datum is die begin van die Turkse onafhanklikheidsoorlog. Dit is ook die datum wat Mustafa Kemal later as sy eie verjaardag gekies het. 'N Golf van nasionale weerstand het in Anatolië ontstaan. 'N Beweging het reeds in Erzurum in die ooste begin en Mustafa Kemal het hom vinnig aan die hoof van die hele organisasie geplaas. Die kongresse in Erzurum en Sivas in die somer van 1919 verklaar die nasionale doelwitte deur 'n nasionale verdrag.

Toe die buitelandse leërs Istanboel beset, op 23 April 1920, open Mustafa Kemal die Turkse Groot Nasionale Vergadering en stig dus 'n voorlopige nuwe regering, waarvan die middelpunt Ankara sou wees. Op dieselfde dag is Mustafa Kemal verkies tot president van die Groot Nasionale Vergadering. Die Grieke, wat voordeel trek uit die opstand van Cerkez Ethem en saam met hom opgetree het, het begin vorder na Bursa en Eskisehir. Op 10 Januarie 1921 is die vyandelike magte swaar verslaan deur die bevelvoerder van die Wesfront, kolonel Ismet en sy troepe. Op die 10de Julie 1921 het die Grieke 'n frontaanval met vyf afdelings op Sakarya geloods. Na die groot slag van Sakarya, wat van 23 Augustus tot 13 September sonder onderbreking voortgegaan het, is die Griekse leër verslaan en moes terugtrek. Na die geveg het die Groot Nasionale Vergadering Mustafa Kemal die titels Ghazi en Marshal gegee. Mustafa Kemal decided to drive the enemies out of his country and he gave the order that the attack should be launched on the morning of the 26th of August 1922. The bulk of the enemy forces were surrounded and killed or captured on the 30th of August at Dumlupinar.

The enemy Commander-in-Chief, General Trikupis, was captured. Or the 9th of September 1922 the fleeing enemy forces were driven into the sea near Izmir. The Turkish forces, under the extraordinary military skills of Kemal Atatürk, fought a War of Independence against the occupying Allied powers and won victories on every front all over the country.

On the 24th of July 1923, with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, the independence of the new Turkish State was recognized by all countries. Mustafa Kemal built up a new, sturdy, vigorous state. On the 29th of October 1923, he declared the new Turkish Republic. Following the declaration of the Republic he started to his radical reforms to modernize the country. Mustafa Kemal was elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey.

Atatürk made frequent tours of the country. While visiting Gemlik and Bursa, Atatürk caught a chill. He returned to Istanbul to be treated and to rest, but, unfortunately Atatürk was seriously ill. He spent his last days of life on the presidential yacht named Savarona. At 9.05 AM on the 10th of November 1938, Atatürk died, but he attained immortality in the eyes of his people. Since the moment of his death, his beloved name and memory have been engraved on the hearts of his people. As a commander he had been the victorious of many battles, as a leader he had influenced the masses, as a statesman he had led a successful administration, and as a revolutionary he had striven to alter the social, cultural, economic, political and legal structure of society at its roots. He was one of the most eminent personalities in the history of the world, history will count him among the most glorious sons of the Turkish nation and one of the greatest leaders of mankind.

Events in Ataturk's Life in Chronological Order

1881
Mustafa born in Salonika (Thessaloniki).

1893
Mustafa enters the Military Preparatory School in Salonika and is given the second name "Kemal" by his teacher.

1895
Mustafa Kemal enters the Military High School at Manastir.

1899
Mustafa Kemal enters the infantry class of the Military Academy in Istanbul.

1902
Mustafa Kemal graduates from the Military Academy and goes on to the General Staff College.

January 11, 1905
Mustafa Kemal graduates from the General Staff College with the rank of Staff Captain and is posted to the Fifth Army, based in Damascus.

October 1906
Mustafa Kemal and his friends from the secret society "Fatherland and Freedom" in Damascus.

September 1907
Mustafa Kemal transferred to Third Army and goes to Salonika.

September 13, 1911
Mustafa Kemal transferred to General Staff in Istanbul.

January 9, 1912
Mustafa Kemal successfully leads the Tobruk offensive in Libya.

November 25, 1912
Mustafa Kemal appointed Director of Operations, Mediterranean Straits Special Forces.

October 27, 1913
Mustafa Kemal appointed Military Attaché in Sofia.

25 April 1915
Allies land at Ariburnu (Gallipoli) and Mustafa Kemal stops their progress with his division.

August 9, 1915
Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander of Anafartalar Group.

April 1, 1916
Mustafa Kemal promoted to Brigadier-General.

August 6-7, 1916
Mustafa Kemal takes Bitlis and Mus back from the enemy.

October 31, 1918
Mustafa Kemal becomes Commander of Lightning Group of Armies.

April 30, 1919
Mustafa Kemal appointed Inspector of 9th Army based in Erzurum with wide powers.

May 16, 1919
Mustafa Kemal leaves Istanbul.

May 19, 1919
Mustafa Kemal lands in Samsun. This date was recorded as the start of War of Independence.

July 8, 1919
Mustafa Kemal resigns from the post of Inspector of 3rd Army and from the army.

July 23, 1919
Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Erzurum Congress.

September 4, 1919
Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Sivas Congress.

December 27, 1919
Mustafa Kemal arrives in Ankara with the Executive Committee.

April 23, 1920
Mustafa Kemal opens the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara.

May 11, 1920
Mustafa Kemal is condemned to death by the government in Istanbul.

August 5, 1921
Mustafa Kemal appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army by the Grand National Assembly.

August 23, 1921
The battle of Sakarya begins with Turkish troops led by Mustafa Kemal.

September 19, 1921
The Grand National Assembly gives Mustafa Kemal the rank of Marshal and the title Gazi.

August 26, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal begins to lead the Great Offensive from the hill of Kocatepe.

August 30, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha wins the battle of Dumlupinar.

September 10, 1922
Gazi Mustafa Kemal enters Izmir.

November 1, 1922
The Grand National Assembly accepts Gazi Mustafa Kemal's proposal to abolish the Sultanate.

January 14, 1923
Mustafa Kemal's mother Zübeyde Hanim dies in Izmir.

October 29, 1923
Proclamation of the Turkish Republic and Gazi Mustafa Kemal is elected as the first President.

August 24, 1924
Gazi Mustafa Kemal wears a hat for the first time at Sarayburnu in Istanbul.

August 9, 1928
Gazi Mustafa Kemal speaks at Sarayburnu on the new Turkish Alphabet.

April 12, 1931
Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Historical Society.

July 12, 1932
Gazi Mustafa Kemal founds the Turkish Linguistic Society.

June 16, 1934
The Grand National Assembly passes a law granting Gazi Mustafa Kemal the surname "Atatürk" Father of the Turks.

November 10, 1938
Atatürk dies at 09:05 AM in Dolmabahce Palace, Istanbul, at the age of 57.


THE TREATY OF LAUSANNE ANDTHE BIRTH OF MODERN TURKEY

In order to counter the maneuverings of the Allies, Kemal directed his offensive against the remainder of the Ottoman Empire and its institutions. He denounced the sultanate before the Grand National Assembly, which led to a vote for its abolition on 2 November 1922. Sultan Mehmed VI (r. 1918–1922) fled Constantinople and the Kemalists proclaimed his downfall. The ghazi then picked up the pace of his transformation of the old empire by creating a sizable political party known as the Republican People's Party, whose lines of support began with his Anatolian clients. The Republican People's Party handily won the general elections organized for the following June, and Kemal himself was elected head of state by the Grand National Assembly.

The extent to which his victory was complete was then measured by the concluding of the Treaty of Lausanne, which ended the War of Independence. Opened at the beginning of 1923, the treaty's negotiations were quickly cut short by Kemalist intransigence.Theyresumedon23AprilandtheTreaty wassignedon23July, constituting a bitter reversal of the Treaty of Sèvres, but also the concretization of the ghazi's political and military crusade. At that point the National Pact was entirely completed. The young Kemal regime, sole interlocutor with the Allies, was legally recognized and given full sovereignty over the Turkish territories of the former empire up to and including Thrace in the east, excluding the islands bordering Asia Minor. The sole concession granted was for the Armenians, Greeks, and Jews, who obtained official status as "minorities." The Lausanne Treaty emerged out of a series of other treaties delineating the demographic and territorial map of modern day Turkey, most notably involving a large-scale population exchange of 900,000 Orthodox Christians who moved to Greece, and 400,000 Muslims transferred to Turkey.

On 6 October 1923, Kemalist troops entered Constantinople, which would assume the name Istanbul and lose its status as capital in favor of Ankara. The Republic of Turkey was officially declared on 29 October 1923. The makeup of the government highlighted a profound shift away from the form of an empire, and by designating the entire country "Turkiye" (ratified by the Constitution of 1924), the Kemalist regime was rejecting Ottoman and pan-nationalist solutions in order to affirm a nationalist Turkish identity that was incorporated into the state institutions and the territory itself.


Allied Defeat At Gallipoli

The CUP-led Ottoman Empire fared badly in both the Balkan Wars and World War I. The only major victory was at Gallipoli, where Mustafa Kemal soundly defeated the British invasion. In 1915 the British army and navy valiantly fought to open the Dardanelles in a plan created by Winston Churchill. It was essential for the Allies to take Istanbul in order to reopen the Bosphorus Strait. The Allied defeat in Gallipoli compromised that situation and possibly lengthened the war.

Mustafa Kemal was heralded as a hero among the Turks during a war that saw few victories and many defeats for the Ottomans. At the conclusion of the war, the remaining Ottoman territories were divided amongst the Allied powers. France was given control of southern Turkey (near the Syrian border), Italy was given the Mediterranean region, and Greece was given Thrace and the Aegean coast of Turkey. Istanbul was to be an internationally controlled city (mainly French and British). The Kurds and Armenians were also granted territory under the Treaty of Sèvres. The Turks would have only a small, mountainous territory in central Turkey.

Mustafa Kemal was outraged, as were most Turks. Of all the occupying armies, he viewed the Greek army as the most dangerous threat. Greek nationalism was at an all-time high, and many wanted to reclaim all of ancestral Greece (which extended well into Asia Minor). This fear was confirmed by the Greek invasion of Smyrna (present day Izmir) in 1919.

In May 1919 Mustafa Kemal secretly traveled to Samsun (on the Black Sea coast) and journeyed to Amasya, where he issued the first resistance proclamation. He then formed a national assembly, where he was elected chairman. Next he organized a resistance army to overthrow foreign occupation and conquest. Under his leadership the Turkish resistance easily drove out the British, French, and Italian troops, who were weary of fighting and did not want another war. The real conflict was with the Greek troops and culminated in horrible atrocities committed by both sides. In September 1922 the Turkish army drove the Greek army into the sea at Izmir as the international community silently observed.

In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne was signed and replaced the Treaty of Sèvres. This treaty set the borders of modern-day Turkey. On October 29, 1923, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed, with Mustafa Kemal as president and Ismet Inönü as prime minister. Even though the government appeared democratic, Mustafa Kemal had almost absolute power. However, he differed from several rising dictators of the time in several respects. He had no plans or ideology pertaining to expansionism. His primary focus was the modernization and domestic reform of his country. He wanted to make Turkey self-sufficient and independent.

He believed that the only way to save his country was to modernize it, and by force if necessary. He moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara, a centrally located city. He then abolished both the sultanate and the caliphate, and his fight against religion became one of his most contested reforms. He believed that Islam’s role in government would prevent the country from modernizing. He was not antireligion but against religious interference in governmental affairs. He closed the religious schools and courts and put religion under state control. He wanted to lessen the religious and ethnic divisions that had been encouraged under the Ottoman system. He wanted the people of Turkey to identify themselves as Turks first. He established political parties and a national assembly based on the parliamentary system. He also implemented the Swiss legal code that allowed freedom of religion and civil divorce and banned polygamy.

Atatürk banned the fez for men and the veil for women and encouraged Western-style dress. He replaced the Muslim calendar with the European calendar and changed the working week to Monday through Friday, leaving Saturday and Sunday as the weekend. He hired expert linguists to transform the Turkish alphabet from Arabic to Latin script based on phonetic sounds and introduced the metric system. As surnames did not exist until this time, Mustafa Kemal insisted that each person and family select a surname. He chose Atatürk, which means “father of the Turks.”

Some of his most profound reforms, however, were in regard to women. Atatürk argued that no society could be successful while half of the population was hidden away. He encouraged women to wear European clothing and to leave the harems. Turkey was one of the first countries to give women the right to vote and hold office in 1930. He also adopted several daughters. One of them, Sabiha Gokcen, became the first woman combat pilot in Turkey.

These reforms did not come easily and in many cases garnered little support. Many religious and ethnic groups such as the Sufi dervishes and Kurds staged rebellions and were ruthlessly put down. Other minority groups suffered or were exiled as a result of the new government.

A heavy drinker, Atatürk died of cirrhosis of the liver in November 1938. As he had no children he left no heirs and instead bequeathed to his country the democracy that he created, which would survive him to the present day. Although Atatürk forbade many basic concepts of democracy such as free press, trade unions, and freedom of speech, he paved the way for the future addition and implementation of these ideals.


My history hero: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–1938)

Mustafa Kemal was born in Salonika, then part of the Ottoman empire. He received a military training and rose to prominence for his role in combatting the Allied attack on Gallipoli in 1915.

After the First World War Kemal led a nationalist resistance campaign against the peace terms imposed on the Ottomans. His military nous enabled him to rebuff Greek expansionist plans and helped to secure a more favourable settlement in the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. When the Ottoman empire disintegrated, Kemal was installed as president of the new republic of Turkey. In this role he spearheaded the modernisation and secularisation of the country. He was given the name Atatürk (meaning ‘father of the Turks’) in 1935, three years before his death.

When did you first become aware of Atatürk?

In my generation there was still a backwash from the interwar period, so everybody knew about Atatürk in a vague way as someone who had westernised Turkey. I had also heard the legends about his actions in Gallipoli and about the law in 1925 that made people in Turkey wear hats. That was all I knew before I first went to Turkey, nearly 16 years ago.

What kind of a man was he?

It is very difficult to pin him down. He obviously had absolutely enormous charisma, which grew the older he got. Women noticed his translucent blue eyes and he could terrify people without actually saying very much. He was an excellent man manager, able to get the best out of his subordinates and then, when they became too big for their boots, he knew how to get rid of them. His rhetoric was also very powerful. People could listen to him for quite a long time and not be bored.

What makes him a hero?

In the run-up to the First World War the Ottoman empire was falling apart. By the time they entered the war, more or less everybody had written them off. So the Allies sailed in and this is where Atatürk made his reputation, commanding the brigade that faced the British at Suvla Bay in August 1915. The Turks had been taken by surprise, but he was able to put up a defence.

Then after the war Lloyd George encouraged the Greeks and to a lesser extent the Armenians to divide up their parts of Anatolia. The Turkish sultan would probably have gone along with it, but Atatürk took charge of a national resistance. He established himself with no real base – just a telegraph, a German car (which constantly broke down) and about 12 disciples. Yet he managed to make an alliance with the Bolsheviks who supplied him with weapons and gold and on that basis he was able to defeat the French, then the Greeks and then the British. It was a remarkable performance.

Is there anything you don’t particularly admire about him?

Anybody in a statesmanlike position is bound to make mistakes, get tired and oversimplify things. The sheer strain of running the place was such a lot I think. He was a lonely man who drank too much and that eventually killed him, far too young. He had a tendency to promote people who weren’t very good, meaning that after he died his successors did not have the same qualities that he did.

Do you see any parallels between your life and his?

Not really. I’ve got away from my past as a heavy drinker now, although I suppose one does have a certain amount of fellow feeling with the man. But no, I don’t see much parallel at all. I’m essentially a writer, not a man of action.

If you had the chance to meet Atatürk, what would you ask him?

I would like to know why there are so many statues of him up and down Turkey, because he never strikes me as a man who had that kind of vanity. He might have thought that he had his achievements but I can’t imagine he would have wanted to be remembered in that kind of adulatory way.

I would also like to ask him if the various quotes attributed to him were genuinely his. I discovered one at the Federation of Turkish Truck Drivers building on the way to Cappadocia. There was a statue of Atatürk and underneath it read: “The Turkish driver is a man of the most exquisite sensitivity of temperament.” I’d love to have asked him if this was really his words or if it was just a joke.

Norman Stone is one of Britain’s most distinguished historians. He is the author of a number of books, the latest being Turkey: A Short History (Thames & Hudson, 2011).


Ataturk’s Speech about Gallipoli

He made many speeches throughout his life however one is more famous than the others are.

The heartfelt tribute stems from the battle of Gallipoli that started on 25 April 1915. This battle lasted for eight long months.

Foreign forces were attempting to capture an area now known as Anzac cove in an effort to pave the way to capturing Constantinople. They failed and thousands of men from both sides lost their lives.

It was an ugly battle resulting in the death of husbands, fathers, sons, and brothers.

In 1934, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk wrote the famous words that reached out to the mothers of his former enemies.

“Those heroes that shed their blood

You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country.

There is no difference between the Johnnies

And the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side

Here in this country of ours,

Who sent their sons from far away countries

Your sons are now lying in our bosom

After having lost their lives on this land they have


Gay Influence

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938) was a great military leader, a social reformer, a persuasive and brilliant diplomat, a shrewd economist and the first president of the modern Turkish Republic. He was reelected fifteen years in a row, and the only reason he was not reelected for a sixteenth time was that he had drunk himself to death by the age of fifty-seven.

"A man born out of due season, an anachronism, a throwback to the Tartars of the steppes, a fierce elemental force of a man. With his military genius and ruthless determination, in a different age he might well have been a Genghis Khan, conquering empires."

Never in doubt of his abilities, the man excelled at every task he took on. Time and again he developed battle plans that succeeded against impossible odds. His triumph at Gallipoli against the British and Australians was nothing short of a miracle. As well, his powers of persuasion were legendary. I quote a speech he made to those whose family members or loved ones had lost their lives and lay buried on Turkish soil:

"Those heroes (who) shed their blood and lost their lives. you are now lying in the soil of a friendly country. Therefore rest in peace. There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us – where they lie side by side here in this country of ours. You, the mothers who sent (your) sons from far away countries, wipe away your tears. Your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace. After having lost their lives on this land they have become our sons as well."

Amazing, no? The Turkish War of Independence, which ended in 1922, was the last time Atatürk used his military might in dealing with other countries. Ensuing foreign issues were resolved by peaceful methods during his presidency.

During his days as a Military Attaché in Sofia, Bulgaria (1914-1915), he adopted western European dress for the first time, usually wearing a business suit with a vest, since he had been ridiculed for his fez and Turkish military attire. He was astonished that neighboring Sofia, so near to Turkey’s doorstep, boasted an opera house, theatre, national library and a ballet company. He determined then and there that Turkey’s future must be forged upon Western European models, and that it must shed its backward, Islamic traditions. A staunch agnostic, Macedonian-born Atatürk turned the Islamic Turkish nation upside down. After seizing control of the country he abolished centuries of Shari’ah (Islamic) law, eliminated the Caliphate, implemented the Western European calendar, sent the Sultan into permanent exile and ordered Islamic religious schools closed. He cracked down harshly on once-powerful religious orders, such as the dervishes.

But he was just getting warmed up. He opposed the Turkish government's decision to surrender to the Allies after WW I, so he organized an army of resistance, which successfully defeated the Allied occupation forces. Atatürk changed the name of Constantinople to Istanbul and established a Republic with a new capital in Ankara, a more centrally located city. Atatürk became the Republic's first president. He once more set his sights on reform by banning the veil and fez, leading by example he strutted around in Panama hats and western business suits before a shocked public. He gave women the right to vote, thus making Turkey the first Muslim country to do so. He ordered men to appear in public with their wives – even to dance with them prior to this decree most Turkish men had never before met each other's wives. In his spare time Kemal banned polygamy. Oh, I nearly forgot – he forced everyone to take a surname. His own surname, Atatürk (meaning "Father of the Turks"), was granted to him, and forbidden to any other person, in 1934 by the Turkish parliament. He abolished the use of Arabic script and replaced it with a Latin (West European) alphabet, at the same time making secular public education compulsory, even for women, thus thumbing his nose at centuries of Islamic segregation of the sexes.

"Fellow countrymen," he declared, "you must realize that the Turkish Republic cannot be a country of sheikhs or dervishes. If we want to be men, we must carry out the dictates of civilization. We draw our strength from civilization, scholarship and science and are guided by them. We do not accept anything else."

In a span of less than ten years he had resurrected a people with “Loser” stamped upon their foreheads into a force to be reckoned with, deserving of respect. He had the populace in his pocket and was nearly universally beloved by his people and respected by his enemies. To this day it is against the law to insult his memory or destroy anything that represents him. There is even a government website that polices and denounces those who violate this law, which has been in force since 1951.

Women, for Mustafa, were a means of satisfying masculine appetites, little more nor, in his zest for experience, would he be inhibited from passing adventures with young boys, if the opportunity offered and the mood, in this bisexual fin-de-siècle Ottoman age, came upon him.” (Patrick Balfour, Lord Kinross)

In short, this man engaged in occasional sexual dalliances with young men, yet he was briefly married to a woman.* In the two biographies I have read, Atatürk comes across as an omnisexual, using sexual prowess as just another tool of intimidation, a man obsessed by conquest. If he had been a guest in my home, I’d have feared for my larger houseplants. His libidinous influence is felt today – Turkey is the only Muslim country where homosexuality is not against the law.

* He had seven adopted children: six daughters and one son. Ulku Adatepe, just nine months old when adopted by Atatürk, died last summer in an automobile accident at age 79. As a young girl she had traveled with her adoptive father as he traversed the entirety of Turkey to teach the new alphabet to his people. She was just six years old when Atatürk died.

All that off towards one side, Atatürk’s veneration has been constant since his death in 1938, nearly 75 years ago. His photograph appears on the walls of restaurants, shops, schools and government offices. His image is on banknotes, and nearly every Turkish town sports a statue or bust of the man. Your blogger knows this first-hand, since I have just returned from my second trip to Turkey this calendar year. At the exact time of his death, on every November 10, at 9:05 a.m., most vehicles and people in the country's streets stop for a minute of remembrance.

Opdateer:
In response to several readers' requests for specific resources attesting to Atatürk’s bisexuality:

Atatürk (1962) Irfan and Margaret Orga:
He had never really loved a woman. He was used to the camaraderie of the mess, the craze for handsome young men, [and] fleeting contacts with prostitutes, … His body burned for a woman or a boy.

Mustafa Kemal, An Intimate Study (1933) by H.C. Armstrong
Pages 253-254:
After divorcing Latife, . he went back to the long nights in smoke-filled rooms with his drinking friends. after that he became shameless. He drank deeper than ever. He started a number of open affairs with women, and with men. Male youth attracted him...”

Queers in History: The Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Historical Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals – by Keith Stern (pub. 2009)

Achilles to Zeus (pub. 1987) by Paul Hennefeld

Atatürk: The Rebirth of a Nation (2001) by Patrick Kinross, a former British Diplomat