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Mali basiese feite - geskiedenis

Mali basiese feite - geskiedenis


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Bevolking 2007 ......................................... 369.031
BBP per capita 2002 (koopkragpariteit, VS $) ........... $ 3,900
BBP 2006 (koopkragpariteit, miljarde dollars) .............. 906
Werkloosheid (2003) .............................................. ............................ nvt


Gemiddelde jaarlikse groei 1991-97
Bevolking (%) ....... 2.8
Arbeidsmag (%) ....... 2.5

Totale oppervlakte................................................ .................. 115,83 vierkante myl.
Stedelike bevolking (% van die totale bevolking) ............................... 28

Lewensverwagting by geboorte (jare) ........................................... .......... 64,76
Kindersterftes (per 1 000 lewende geboortes) ...................................... 53.25
geletterdheid (% van die bevolking ouderdom 15+) ......................................... ..96,3%


Aardrykskunde van Mali

Mali is 'n land sonder grense in Wes-Afrika, suidwes van Algerië, wat suid-wes strek vanaf die suidelike Sahara-woestyn deur die Sahel tot by die Soedanniese savannesone. Die grootte van Mali is 1,240,192 vierkante kilometer.

Woestyn of halfwoestyn beslaan ongeveer 65 persent van die totale oppervlakte van Mali (1,240,192 vierkante kilometer). Die Nigerrivier skep 'n groot en vrugbare binnelandse delta, aangesien dit noordoos deur Mali vanuit Guinee buig voordat dit suid draai en uiteindelik in die Golf van Guinee uitloop. [1]

Die gebied omvat drie natuurlike gebiede: die suidelike bewerkte Soedanese gebied, die sentrale semi-woestyn Saheliese gebied en die noordelike woestyn Sahara. Die terrein is hoofsaaklik savanne in die suide en plat tot golwende vlaktes of hoë plato (200–500 meter hoog) in die noorde. Daar is ruwe heuwels in die noordooste, met 'n hoogte van tot 1 000 meter.

Die Niger (met 1,693 kilometer in Mali) en Senegal is die twee grootste riviere van Mali. Die Niger word algemeen beskryf as Mali se lewensaar, 'n bron van voedsel, drinkwater, besproeiing en vervoer. [1]

Die land se laagste punt is aan die Senegalrivier (23 m) en die hoogste punt is Hombori Tondo (1155 m).


Inhoud

Paleolitiese redigering

Die Sahara was dikwels droër, maar ook lankal meer reëner as vandag. Dit was dus 'n plek onbewoonbaar vir mense 325,000 tot 290,000 jaar gelede en 280,000 tot 225,000 jaar gelede, afgesien van gunstige plekke soos die Tihodaïne-meer aan die wateropbergende Tassili n'Ajjer. [1] In hierdie en ander droë periodes het die woestyn herhaaldelik tot in die noorde en suide gestrek, en die sandduine kan ver buite die huidige grense van die Sahara gevind word. Menslike spore kan slegs in die reëneriger groen fases verwag word. Dit is moontlik dat anatomies moderne mense, wat moontlik in die genoemde geïsoleerde fase 300 000 tot 200 000 jaar gelede suid van die Sahara ontwikkel het, reeds in die lang groen fase meer as 200 000 jaar gelede die waterryke gebied op daardie tydstip was. Selfs ongeveer 125 000 tot 110 000 jaar gelede was daar 'n voldoende netwerk van waterweë waarmee talle diersoorte noordwaarts kon versprei, gevolg deur menslike jagters. Groot mere het daartoe bygedra, soos die Mega Lake Tsjaad, wat soms meer as 360 000 km2 afgelê het. [2] Aan die ander kant het die woestyn 70 000 tot 58 000 jaar gelede weer ver noord en suid gestrek en is dit dus waarskynlik 'n hindernis wat moeilik was om te oorkom. 'N Ander groen fase het 50 000 tot 45 000 jaar gelede gevolg. [3]

In Mali is die vind -situasie minder gunstig as in die noordelike bure. Opgrawings by die Ounjougou -kompleks [4] op die Dogon -plato naby Bandiagara het getoon dat jagters en versamelaars meer as 150 000 jaar gelede in die streek gewoon het. Dit is seker dat dit tussen 70 000 en 25 000 jaar gelede dateer. Die Paleolithicum het baie vroeg in Mali geëindig, want na hierdie afdeling 25.000 tot 20.000 jaar gelede was daar nog 'n uiterste droë fase, die Ogolia. Teen die einde van die savanne -landskap. [5]

Neolitiese redigering

Na die einde van die laaste maksimum uitbreiding van die noordelike ysmassas teen die einde van die laaste ystydperk, is die klimaat gekenmerk deur 'n baie hoër humiditeit as vandag. Die Niger het 'n groot binnelandse meer in die gebied rondom Timboektoe en Araouane geskep, sowel as 'n soortgelyke groot meer in Tsjad. Terselfdertyd is savannelandskappe en 'n landskap in die noorde van Mali vergelykbaar met die wat vandag die suide kenmerk. Dit omstreeks 9500 vC Die vogtige fase wat begin het na die jonger Dryas -periode, 'n koue tydperk na die laaste ystydperk, was ongeveer 5000 vC. Chr. Word toenemend vervang deur 'n toenemend droë fase.

Die Neolitiese tyd, die tyd waarin mense toenemend hul eie voedsel produseer in plaas van om te jag, te hengel of te versamel, het gedurende hierdie vogtige fase ontwikkel. Dit word gewoonlik in drie afdelings verdeel, wat deur verskillende droë fases van mekaar geskei word. Sorghum en gierst is geplant en ongeveer 8000 vC. Groot troppe beeste wat naby die zebus was, het in die huidige Sahara -skape en bokke gewei, maar eers baie later uit Wes -Asië, terwyl beeste eers in Afrika mak gemaak is.

Hier verskyn keramiek, wat lank gedink word dat dit 'n newe -effek van neolitisering in die vroegste neolitiese tyd was, wat op die sentrale Maliaanse terrein van Ounjougou dateer uit ongeveer 9 400 v.C., en vermoedelik 'n voorbeeld is van die onafhanklike uitvinding van aardewerk. [6] dws 9500 tot 7000 v.C., in die Aïr volgens Marianne Cornevin so vroeg as 10 000 v.C. Chr. [8] Die vroegste Neolitiese word toegeskryf aan die fase van die produktiewe lewenswyse, hoewel geen plante verbou en geen beeste aangehou word nie. In Mali is die Ravin de la Mouche -webwerf, wat hier hoort, gedateer tot 'n ouderdom van 11 400–10 200 jaar. [9] Hierdie perseel behoort tot die Ounjougou -kompleks op die Yamé, waar alle tydperke sedert die Bo -Paleolitiese spore [10] en die oudste keramiek in Mali tot 9400 vC nagelaat het. Is gedateer. In Ravin de la Mouche kan artefakte tussen 9500 en 8500 vC dateer. Die webwerf Ravin du Hibou 2 kan van 8000 tot 7000 vC gedateer word. Waar die genoemde oudste keramiekreste gevind is in die loop van 'n navorsingsprogram wat sedert 1997 in die twee klowe uitgevoer is, het 'n onderbreking tussen 7000 en 3500 vC plaasgevind. VC omdat die klimaat te ongunstig was - selfs vir jagters en versamelaars.

Die middelste neolitiese van die Dogon -plato kan herken word aan grys, bifasiale klipgereedskap wat van kwartsiet gemaak is. Die eerste spore van nomadiese beestelers kan (weer) ongeveer 4000 vC gevind word. VC, waardeur dit ongeveer 3500 vC was. Die relatief vogtige klimaat het tot 'n einde gekom. [11] Opgrawings in Karkarichinkat (2500–1600 v.C.) en moontlik in Village de la Frontière (3590 cal v.C.) bewys dit, net soos studies oor die Fati -meer. Laasgenoemde bestaan ​​voortdurend tussen 10 430 en 4660 BPas, wat blyk uit modderlae aan die oostelike rand. 'N 16 cm dik sandlaag is ongeveer 4500 BP gedateer, wat bewys lewer dat die streek ongeveer 1000 jaar later uitgedroog het as aan die Mauritaanse kus. [12] 'n Duisend jaar later het die droë fase, wat bees nomades blykbaar uit die ooste na Mali gedryf het, sy hoogtepunt bereik. Die noordelike mere het opgedroog en die bevolking het meestal suidwaarts getrek. Die oorgang van die Neolitiese na die Pre-Dogon is nog onduidelik. In Karkarichinkat het dit duidelik geword dat skape, beeste en bokke aangehou word, maar jag, versameling en visvang speel steeds 'n belangrike rol. Dit kan selfs so wees dat suksesvolle herderlikheid die landbou lank nie meer kon vestig nie. [13]

Die laat neolitiese is gekenmerk deur hernieude immigrasie uit die Sahara omstreeks 2500 vC. Chr., Wat gegroei het tot 'n uiters ruim woestyn. Hierdie aridisering het voortgeduur en verdere migrasies na die suide gedwing, waarvan die benaderde verloop argeologies verstaanbaar is. Op grond van etno-argeologiese studies oor keramiek, is drie groepe gevind wat rondom Méma, die Canal de Sonni Ali en Windé Koroji op die grens met Mauritanië in die tydperk rondom 2000 vC gewoon het. Het gelewe. Dit is moontlik gemaak deur keramieknavorsing op die Kobadi -terrein (1700 tot 1400 vC), die MN25 -terrein naby Hassi el Abiod en Kirkissoy naby Niameyin Niger (1500 tot 1000 vC). Blykbaar het die twee groepe laas na Kirkissoy gestap. [14] Nie later nie as die 2de helfte van die 2de millennium vC. Die verbouing van gierst bereik die gebied op die Varves Ouest -terrein, meer presies die verbouing van pêrelgierst (Pennisetum glaucum), maar ook koring en emmer, wat baie vroeër in die ooste van die Sahara gevestig is, nou (weer?) Mali bereik. Ekologiese veranderinge dui aan dat bewerking reeds in die 3de millennium moes begin het. [15] Maar hierdie fase van landbou het ongeveer 400 vC geëindig. Op sy beurt deur 'n uiterste droogte.

Die gebruik van oker in begrafnisse was tot in die 1ste millennium algemeen, selfs by diere, soos die skouspelagtige vonds van 'n perd in die weste van die binnelandse delta in Tell Natamatao (6 km van Thial in die Cercle Tenenkou) toon, waarvan die bene is ingesluit Oker is besprinkel. [16] Daar is ook rotssnitte wat tipies is vir die hele Sahara, waarin nie net simbole en uitbeeldings van diere nie, maar ook uitbeeldings van mense verskyn. Vanaf die 1ste millennium vC skilderye in die Boucle-du-Baoulé Nasionale Park (Fanfannyégèné), op die Dogon-plato en in die Nigerrivier-delta (Aire Soroba). [17]

In Karkarichikat Nord (KN05) en Karkarichinkat Sud (KS05) in die onderste Tilemsi -vallei, 'n fossielriviervallei 70 km noord van Gao, was dit vir elf vroue in Wes -Afrika suid van die Sahara vir die eerste keer moontlik om te bewys dat die verandering van die tande om rituele redes was daar ook ongeveer 4500-4200 BP in gebruik, soortgelyk aan die Magreb. [18] In teenstelling met mans, het vroue veranderings wat wissel van ekstraksies tot vylsels, sodat die tande 'n puntige vorm kry. 'N Gebruik wat tot in die 19de eeu geduur het. [19]

Daar is ook gevind dat die inwoners van die vallei reeds 85% van hul koolstofinname uit grassade verkry het, hoofsaaklik van C4-plante. . [20] Dit het die vroegste bewys gelewer van landbouaktiwiteite en veeteelt in Wes -Afrika (ongeveer 2200 cal BP). [21]

Die terreine van die Dhar-Tichitt-tradisie in die Méma-streek, 'n voormalige rivierdelta wes van die huidige binnelandse delta, ook bekend as die "dooie delta", [22] behoort tot die tydperk tussen 1800 en 800/400 vC. Chr. Hulle nedersettings was tussen een en agt hektaar groot, maar die nedersetting was nie deurlopend nie, wat moontlik verband hou met die feit dat hierdie streek gedurende die reënseisoen nie geskik was vir beesboerdery nie. Die rede hiervoor was die tsetsevlieg, wat verhoed het dat hierdie lewenswyse lank suidwaarts kon uitbrei.

In teenstelling met hierdie beestelers, wat dan weer hul kuddes noordwaarts gedryf het, het die lede van die gelyktydige Kobadi -tradisie, wat sedert die middel van die 2de millennium uitsluitlik geleef het van visvang, wilde grasse versamel en gejag, relatief stil gebly. Beide kulture het koper gehad wat hulle uit Mauritanië gebring het. Terselfdertyd het die verskillende kulture 'n lewendige uitruil gekweek. [23]

Vroeër Ystertydperk Wysig

'N Reeks vroeë stede en dorpe is geskep deur mense van Mande wat verband hou met die Soninke -mense, langs die middelste Nigerrivier (in Mali), insluitend by Dia, wat begin het omstreeks 900 v.C., en sy hoogtepunt bereik het omstreeks 600 v.C., [7] en by Djenné-Djenno, wat beset was van ongeveer 250 vC tot ongeveer 800 nC. [8] Djenné-Djenno bestaan ​​uit 'n stedelike kompleks wat bestaan ​​uit 40 heuwels binne 'n radius van 4 kilometer. [9] Die terrein is vermoedelik groter as 33 hektaar (82 hektaar), en die stad het plaaslike sowel as langafstandhandel bedryf [10] Gedurende die tweede fase van Djenné-Djenno (gedurende die eerste millennium nC) het die grense van die terrein uitgebrei gedurende (moontlik 100 000 vierkante meter of meer), wat ook saamval met die ontwikkeling op die terrein van 'n soort permanente moddersteen -argitektuur, insluitend 'n stadsmuur, waarskynlik gebou gedurende die laaste helfte van die eerste millennium nC met behulp van die silindriese baksteentegnologie, "wat 3,7 meter breed was aan die basis en amper twee kilometer om die stad gehardloop het". [10] [11]

Die Mali -ryk was die grootste ryk in Wes -Afrika en het 'n groot invloed op die kultuur van Wes -Afrika gehad deur die verspreiding van sy taal, wette en gebruike. [12]

Tot in die 19de eeu het Timboektoe belangrik gebly as 'n voorpos aan die suidwestelike rand van die Moslemwêreld en 'n spilpunt van die trans-Sahara-slawehandel.

Mandinka van c. 1230 tot c. 1600. Die ryk is gestig deur Sundiata Keita en het bekend geword vir die rykdom van sy heersers, veral Mansa Musa I. Die Mali -ryk het baie diepgaande kulturele invloede op Wes -Afrika gehad, wat die verspreiding van sy taal, wette en gebruike langs die Nigerrivier moontlik gemaak het . Dit het oor 'n groot gebied gestrek en bestaan ​​uit talle vasale koninkryke en provinsies.

Die Mali -ryk het in die 15de eeu begin verswak, maar dit het die grootste deel van die 15de steeds oorheersend gebly. Dit het tot in die 16de eeu oorleef, maar het toe sy sterkte en belangrikheid verloor.

Die Mali -ryk het teen die middel van die 14de eeu begin verswak. Die Songhai het hiervan voordeel getrek en hul onafhanklikheid beweer. Die Songhai het Gao hul hoofstad gemaak en 'n keiserlike uitbreiding van hul eie begin in die westelike Sahel. En teen 1420 was Songhai sterk genoeg om hulde aan Masina te eis. Die opkomende Songhai-ryk en die dalende Mali-ryk bestaan ​​saam gedurende die grootste deel van die latere 14de en dwarsdeur die 15de eeu. In die latere 15de eeu het beheer oor Timboektoe na die Songhai -ryk verskuif.

Die Songhai -ryk het uiteindelik ineengestort onder die druk van die Marokkaanse Saadi -dinastie. Die keerpunt was die Slag van Tondibi van 13 Maart 1591. Marokko het daarna Gao, Timboektoe, Djenné (ook gesien as Jenne) en verwante handelsroetes met baie moeite beheer tot teen die einde van die 17de eeu.

Na die ineenstorting van die Songhai-ryk het geen enkele staat die streek beheer nie. Die Marokkane het net daarin geslaag om 'n paar dele van die land te beset, en selfs op die plekke waar hulle probeer regeer het, was hul greep swak en uitgedaag deur mededingers. Verskeie klein opvolger koninkryke het ontstaan. die opvallendste in die huidige Mali was:

Bambara -ryk of die koninkryk van Segou Edit

Die Bambara -ryk het van 1712 tot 1861 as 'n gesentraliseerde staat bestaan, was gebaseer op Ségou en ook Timboektoe (ook gesien as Segu) en het dele van Sentraal- en Suid -Mali beheer. Dit het bestaan ​​totdat El Hadj Umar Tall, 'n Toucouleur -oorwinnaar van Futa Tooro oor Wes -Afrika gevee het. Umar Tall se mujahideen het die Bambara geredelik verslaan en Ségou self op 10 Maart 1861 in beslag geneem en 'n einde aan die ryk verklaar.

Koninkryk van Kaarta Edit

'N Splitsing in die Coulibaly -dinastie in Ségou het gelei tot die stigting van 'n tweede Bambara -staat, die koninkryk van Kaarta, in die huidige westelike Mali, in 1753. Dit is in 1854 verslaan deur Umar Tall, leier van die Toucouleur -ryk, voor sy oorlog met Ségou.

Kenedougou Kingdom Edit

Die Senufo Kenedugu -koninkryk het sy oorsprong in die 17de eeu in die gebied rondom die huidige grens van Mali en Burkina Faso. In 1876 is die hoofstad na Sikasso verskuif. Dit weerstaan ​​die poging van Samori Ture, leier van die Wassoulou -ryk, in 1887, om dit te verower, en was een van die laaste koninkryke in die gebied wat die Franse in 1898 te beurt geval het.

Maasina Edit

'N Islamities-geïnspireerde opstand in die grootliks Fula Inner Niger Delta-gebied teen heerskappy deur Ségou in 1818 het gelei tot die stigting van 'n aparte staat. Dit het later 'n bondgenootskap met die Bambara -ryk gehad teen die Toucouleur -ryk van Umar Tall en is ook daardeur verslaan in 1862.

Toucouleur Empire Wysig

Hierdie ryk, gestig deur El Hadj Umar Tall van die Toucouleur -volke, begin in 1864, het uiteindelik die meeste van die huidige Mali regeer tot die Franse verowering van die streek in 1890. Dit was op 'n manier 'n onstuimige tydperk, met voortdurende verset in Messina en toenemende druk van die Franse.

Wassoulou Empire Edit

Die Wassoulou- of Wassulu-ryk was 'n kortstondige (1878–1898) ryk, gelei deur Samori Ture in die oorwegend Malinké-gebied van wat nou bo-Guinee en suidwestelike Mali (Wassoulou) is. Dit het later na die Ivoorkus verhuis voordat dit deur die Franse verower is. ÷

Mali het in 1892 onder die Franse koloniale bewind geval. [13] In 1893 het die Franse 'n burgerlike goewerneur aangestel van die gebied wat hulle genoem het Soudan Français (Frans -Soedan), maar die aktiewe weerstand teen die Franse bewind het voortgegaan. Teen 1905 was die grootste deel van die gebied onder vaste Franse beheer.

Frans Soedan is as deel van die Federasie van Frans Wes -Afrika geadministreer en het arbeid aan die kolonies van Frankryk aan die kus van Wes -Afrika verskaf. In 1958 verkry die hernoemde Soedanese Republiek volkome interne outonomie en sluit hy aan by die Franse gemeenskap. Vroeg in 1959 het die Soedanese Republiek en Senegal die Federasie van Mali gevorm. Op 31 Maart 1960 het Frankryk ingestem dat die Federasie van Mali ten volle onafhanklik word. [14] Op 20 Junie 1960 word die Federasie van Mali 'n onafhanklike land en Modibo Keïta word sy eerste president.

Na die onttrekking van Senegal uit die federasie in Augustus 1960, het die voormalige Soedannese Republiek op 22 September 1960 die Republiek van Mali geword, met Modibo Keïta as president.

President Modibo Keïta, wie se Sudanese Union-African Democratic Rally (US/RDA) -party die pre-onafhanklikheidspolitiek oorheers het (as lid van die African Democratic Rally), het vinnig oorgegaan tot die verklaring van 'n enkele party en 'n sosialistiese beleid oor uitgebreide nasionalisering. Keïta onttrek hom uit die Franse gemeenskap en het ook noue bande met die Oosblok gehad. 'N Voortdurende agteruitgang van die ekonomie het gelei tot 'n besluit om in 1967 weer by die Franc -gebied aan te sluit en sommige van die ekonomiese buitensporighede aan te pas.

In 1962-64 was daar 'n opstand in Tuareg in die noorde van Mali.

Eenparty-reël Wysig

Op 09 November 1968 het 'n groep jong offisiere 'n bloedlose staatsgreep uitgevoer en 'n 14-lid Militêre Komitee vir Nasionale Bevryding (CMLN) saamgestel, met luitenant Moussa Traoré as president. Die militêre leiers het gepoog om ekonomiese hervormings na te streef, maar het 'n paar jaar lank verswakkende interne politieke stryd en die rampspoedige droogte in die Sahel ondervind.

'N Nuwe grondwet, wat in 1974 goedgekeur is, het 'n eenpartystaat geskep en is ontwerp om Mali na burgerlike bewind te beweeg. Die militêre leiers het egter aan bewind gebly. In September 1976 word 'n nuwe politieke party gestig, die Democratic Union of the Malian People (UDPM), gebaseer op die konsep van demokratiese sentralisme. Presidents- en wetgewende verkiesings van eenparty is in Junie 1979 gehou, en genl. Moussa Traoré het 99% van die stemme gekry. Sy pogings om die eenparty-regering te konsolideer, is in 1980 uitgedaag deur demonstrasies wat deur die regering gelei word, wat gelei het tot drie staatsgreeppogings wat wreed vernietig is.

Die politieke situasie het gedurende 1981 en 1982 gestabiliseer en in die loop van die tagtigerjare oor die algemeen kalm gebly. Einde Desember 1985 het 'n grensgeskil tussen Mali en Burkina Faso oor die mineraalryke Agacher -strook egter in 'n kort oorlog uitgebreek. Die UDPM het sy struktuur versprei na Cercles en Arrondissements oor die hele land.

Die regering het sy aandag gevestig op die ekonomiese probleme van Mali, en het planne goedgekeur vir 'n paar hervormings van die staatsondernemingstelsel, en gepoog om openbare korrupsie te beheer. Dit het liberalisering van graanbemarking geïmplementeer, nuwe aansporings vir private ondernemings geskep en 'n nuwe strukturele aanpassingsooreenkoms met die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds (IMF) uitgewerk. Maar die bevolking word toenemend ontevrede oor die besparingsmaatreëls wat deur die IMF -plan ingestel is, sowel as hul opvatting dat die heersende elite nie onderworpe is aan dieselfde beperkings nie. In reaksie op die toenemende eise vir veelpartydemokrasie wat toe oor die vasteland deurdring, het die Traoré -regime wel beperkte politieke liberalisering moontlik gemaak. Tydens die verkiesings van die Nasionale Vergadering in Junie 1988 is verskeie UDPM-kandidate toegelaat om elke setel te betwis, en die regime het landwye konferensies gereël om te oorweeg hoe om demokrasie binne die eenparty-raamwerk te implementeer. Tog het die regime geweier om 'n volwaardige demokratiese stelsel in te lei.

Teen 1990 begin daar egter samehangende opposisiebewegings, waaronder die National Democratic Initiative Committee en die Alliance for Democracy in Mali (Alliance pour la Démocratie au Mali, ADEMA). Die toenemend onstuimige politieke situasie is bemoeilik deur die opkoms van etniese geweld in die noorde in die middel van 1990. Die terugkeer na Mali van 'n groot aantal Tuareg wat tydens die langdurige droogte na Algerië en Libië gemigreer het, het die spanning tussen die nomadiese Tuareg en die sedentêre bevolking in die streek verhoog. Die Traoré -regime was oënskynlik bang vir 'n afskeiding van die Tuareg in die noorde en het 'n noodtoestand ingestel en die onrus van Tuareg sterk onderdruk. Ondanks die ondertekening van 'n vredesooreenkoms in Januarie 1991, het onrus en periodieke gewapende botsings voortgeduur.

Oorgang na meerparty -demokrasie Wysig

Soos in ander Afrika-lande, het die eise vir veelparty-demokrasie toegeneem. Die Traoré -regering het die stelsel moontlik geopen, insluitend die oprigting van 'n onafhanklike pers en onafhanklike politieke verenigings, maar het volgehou dat Mali nie gereed is vir demokrasie nie. Vroeg in 1991 het studente-geleide oproer teen die regering weer uitgebreek, maar hierdie keer is dit ook ondersteun deur staatswerkers en ander. Op 26 Maart 1991, na 4 dae van intense oproer teen die regering, het 'n groep van 17 militêre offisiere, onder leiding van Amadou Toumani Touré, president Traoré gearresteer en die grondwet opgeskort.

Binne enkele dae het hierdie beamptes saam met die koördinerende komitee van demokratiese verenigings aangesluit om 'n oorwegend burgerlike regeringsliggaam van 25 lede te vorm, die oorgangskomitee vir die redding van die mense (CTSP). Die CTSP stel toe 'n burgerlike regering aan. 'N Nasionale konferensie wat in Augustus 1991 gehou is, het 'n konsepgrondwet opgelewer (goedgekeur tydens 'n referendum op 12 Januarie 1992), 'n handves vir politieke partye en 'n kieskode. Politieke partye is toegelaat om vrylik te stig. Tussen Januarie en April 1992 is 'n president, nasionale vergadering en munisipale rade verkies. Op 8 Junie 1992 is Alpha Oumar Konaré, die kandidaat van ADEMA, ingehuldig as die president van Mali se Derde Republiek.

In 1997 het pogings om nasionale instellings deur middel van demokratiese verkiesings te hernu administratiewe probleme ondervind, wat tot gevolg gehad het dat die wetgewende verkiesings wat in April 1997 gehou is, nietig verklaar is. Die oefening toon nietemin die oorweldigende sterkte van president Konaré se ADEMA-party, wat ander historiese partye om daaropvolgende verkiesings te boikot. President Konaré het op 11 Mei die presidensiële verkiesing teen skraal opposisie gewen. In die twee ronde wetgewende verkiesings wat op 21 Julie en 3 Augustus gehou is, het ADEMA meer as 80% van die setels van die Nasionale Vergadering verseker. [15] [16]

2000's wysig

Konaré tree uit na sy grondwetlike mandaat van twee termyne en het nie in die verkiesing van 2002 deelgeneem nie. Touré het toe weer opgekom, hierdie keer as 'n burger. Touré, wat onafhanklik was op 'n platform van nasionale eenheid, het die presidentskap gewen in 'n afloop teen die kandidaat van Adema, wat deur binnegevegte verdeel is en gely het deur die oprigting van 'n afslagparty, die Rally for Mali. Touré het groot gewildheid behou vanweë sy rol in die oorgangsregering in 1991-1992. Die verkiesing in 2002 was 'n mylpaal, en dit was die eerste suksesvolle oorgang van Mali van een demokraties verkose president na 'n ander, ondanks die volgehoue ​​verkiesingsonreëlmatighede en die lae stempersentasie. In die wetgewende verkiesing in 2002 het geen party 'n meerderheid verkry nie, maar Touré het 'n polities inklusiewe regering aangestel en belowe om Mali se dringende maatskaplike en ekonomiese ontwikkelingsprobleme aan te pak. [17]

2010's wysig

Op 22 Maart 2012 is berig dat rebelle -troepe uit die weermag op staats -TV verskyn het waarin hulle aankondig dat hulle die beheer oor die land oorgeneem het. [19] Onrus oor die president se hantering van die konflik met die rebelle was 'n motiverende krag. Die voormalige president is gedwing om weg te kruip.

As gevolg van die opstand in 2012 in die noorde van Mali, beheer die militêre regering egter slegs die suidelike derde van die land, en laat die noorde van die land (bekend as Azawad) aan MNLA -rebelle oor. Die rebelle beheer Timboektoe, 700 km van die hoofstad af. [20] In reaksie daarop het die Ekonomiese Gemeenskap van Wes -Afrikaanse State (ECOWAS) bates gevries en 'n embargo ingestel, en sommige het slegs dae se brandstof gelaat. Mali is afhanklik van die invoer van brandstof wat vanaf Senegal en Ivoorkus oor land vervoer word. [21]

Vanaf 17 Julie 2012 is die Toeareg -rebelle sedertdien uitgestoot deur hul bondgenote, die Islamiste, Ansar Dine en Al Qaeda in die Islamitiese Magreb (A.Q.I.M.). [22] 'n Ekstremistiese ministerie in die noorde van Mali is die onverwagte gevolg van die ineenstorting van die vroeëre staatsgreep deur die woedende weermagoffisiere. [22]

Vlugtelinge in die vlugtelingkamp van 92 000 mense in Mbera, Mauritanië, beskryf die Islamiste as 'die bedoeling om 'n Islam van wimpers en wapens op Maliese Moslems af te dwing'. [22] Die Islamiste in Timboektoe het ongeveer 'n halfdosyn eerbiedige bogrondse grafte van eerbiedige heilige mans vernietig en die grafte in stryd met Shariah verkondig. [22] Een vlugteling in die kamp het gepraat oor die ontmoeting met Afghanen, Pakistani en Nigeriërs. [22]

Ramtane Lamamra, die vredes- en veiligheidskommissaris van die Afrika -unie, het gesê die Afrika -unie het bespreek om 'n militêre mag te stuur om Mali te herenig en dat onderhandelinge met terroriste uitgesluit is, maar dat onderhandelinge met ander gewapende faksies nog oop is. [22]

Op 10 Desember 2012 is premier Cheick Modibo Diarra deur soldate gearresteer en na 'n militêre basis in Kati geneem. [23] Ure later kondig die premier sy bedanking en die bedanking van sy regering aan op nasionale televisie. [24]

Op 10 Januarie 2013 het Islamitiese magte die strategiese stad Konna, 600 km van die hoofstad, van die Maliese leër verower. [25] Die volgende dag het die Franse weermag Opération Serval geloods en ingegryp in die konflik. [26]

Teen 8 Februarie is die grondgebied wat deur Islam gehou is, deur die Maliaanse weermag herower, met hulp van die internasionale koalisie. Tuareg -separatiste het ook voortgegaan om die Islamiete te beveg, hoewel die MNLA ook daarvan beskuldig word dat hy aanvalle op die Maliaanse weermag uitgevoer het. [27]

'N Vredesooreenkoms tussen die regering en Tuareg -rebelle is op 18 Junie 2013 onderteken.

Presidensiële verkiesings het op 28 Julie 2013 in Mali plaasgevind, met 'n tweede ronde op 11 Augustus. [28] Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta verslaan Soumaïla Cissé in die aanloop om die nuwe president van Mali te word.

Die vredesooreenkoms tussen die Tuareg -rebelle en die Maliese regering is einde November 2013 verbreek weens botsings in die noordelike stad Kidal. [29] Op 20 Februarie 2015 is 'n nuwe skietstilstand ooreengekom tussen die Maliese regering en die noordelike rebelle. [30]

2020's wysig

Sedert 5 Junie 2020 begin straatbetogings waarin die president Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta bedank, in Bamako. Op 18 Augustus 2020 het mymerende soldate president Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta en premier Boubou Cissé gearresteer. President Keïta het bedank en die land verlaat. Die Nasionale Komitee vir die Redding van die Mense onder leiding van kolonel Assimi Goïta het die bewind oorgeneem, wat beteken dat die vierde staatsgreep plaasgevind het sedert onafhanklikheid van Frankryk in 1960. [31] Op 12 September 2020 het die Nasionale Komitee vir die Redding van die Mense ingestem tot 'n 18 -maande politieke oorgang na burgerlike bewind. [32] Kort daarna is Bah N'Daw aangewys as tussentydse president.


Die Mali -ryk

Gestig deur koning Sundiata Keita, bekend as die & ldquoLion King, en die Mali -ryk het rykdom, kultuur en Islamitiese geloof na Wes -Afrika gebring.

Antropologie, sosiale studies, antieke beskawings, wêreldgeskiedenis

Kirina, Mali

Moderne stad Kirina was vroeër een van die belangrikste vestings van die Mali -ryk. Die belangrikste slag van Kirina is hier in 1235 G.J.

Foto deur Werner Forman

Van die 13de tot die 17de eeu was Wes -Afrika die tuiste van die groot Mali -ryk. Die koninkryk, wat deur koning Sundiata Keita gestig is, verenig verskeie kleiner koninkryke in Malink naby die Bo -Nigerrivier. Mali, wat beskerm is deur 'n goed opgeleide, keiserlike leër en baat by die middel van handelsroetes, het sy gebied, invloed en kultuur in die loop van vier eeue uitgebrei. 'N Oorvloed goudstof en soutafsettings het gehelp om die ryk en kommersiële bates van die ryk uit te brei. Mali het die stad Timboektoe ingesluit, wat bekend geword het as 'n belangrike kennisentrum. Mali het ook ontwikkel tot 'n spilpunt vir die Islamitiese geloof voordat swak leierskap gelei het tot die uiteindelike afname in mag en invloed van die ryk.

Die opkoms van die Mali -ryk kan teruggevoer word na Sundiata, of die & ldquoLion King, & rdquo, soos sommige hom genoem het. Nadat die voormalige hoofstad van die Ghana -ryk in 1240 beslag gelê het, het Sundiata en sy manne beheer gekonsolideer terwyl hulle voortgegaan het om die Mali -ryk uit te brei. Dikwels het die beamptes van sy hof groot mag gehad, wat van kardinale belang was om die ryk sterk te hou tydens periodes van swak leierskap.

Mali het konings gehad, Mansa genoem. Die Mali -ryk sou 'n hoogtepunt bereik tydens die bewind van Mansa Musa I. Territoriale uitbreiding val saam met kulturele vooruitgang, veral in argitektuur, en die ryk floreer. Deur sy groot leër te gebruik, het Musa die ryk en rsquos -gebied verdubbel. Dit het die koninkryk toegelaat om die voordele daarvan te geniet om in die middelpunt van handel in Afrika te wees. In 1324 onderneem Musa 'n pelgrimstog na Mekka waartydens hy al sy goud deurgebring en weggegee het. Gevolglik het verhale oor die rykdom van die Mali -koning wyd versprei.

Die Spaanse kartograaf Abraham Cresques het Musa selfs in die Catalaanse Atlas vertoon, 'n gewilde bron vir Europese ontdekkingsreisigers. Cresques bevat 'n beeld van Musa wat 'n goue kroon dra, met meer goud in sy hand. Hierdie beeld sou die ontdekkingsreisigers die katalisator wees om na die stad Timboektoe te soek in die hoop om Musa en rsquos -rykdom te vind. Vandag glo sommige dat hy die rykste man in die geskiedenis kon gewees het. Islamitiese leersentrums, skole en universiteite en die grootste biblioteek in die hele Afrika was 'n direkte gevolg van die Mansa Musa & rsquos -heerskappy en het Mali tot 'n veeltalige en multietniese koninkryk gemaak.

Na die dood van Mansa Musa & rsquos omstreeks 1337, het die ryk die slagoffer geword van dalende invloed rondom Afrika. Ander handelsentrums het ontwikkel en die kommersiële rykdom wat Mali eens so vrylik omring het, seergemaak. Swak leierskap het die koninkryk op 'n pad van burgeroorloë gebring. Die omliggende Songhay -ryk sou die grootste deel van die Mali -koninkryk teen die laat 15de eeu verower, en daar was min oor van die eens trotse Mali -ryk. Teen die 17de eeu het die Marokkaanse Ryk die gebied beset.


Mali -ryk

Die Mali-ryk (1240-1645) van Wes-Afrika is gestig deur Sundiata Keita (r. 1230-1255) na sy oorwinning oor die koninkryk Sosso (ongeveer 1180-1235). Sundiata se gesentraliseerde regering, diplomasie en goed opgeleide weermag het 'n massiewe militêre uitbreiding moontlik gemaak wat die weg sou baan vir 'n opbloei van die Mali-ryk, wat dit die grootste nog in Afrika kon maak.

The reign of Mansa Musa I (1312-1337) saw the empire reach new heights in terms of territory controlled, cultural florescence, and the staggering wealth brought through Mali's control of regional trade routes. Acting as a middle-trader between North Africa via the Sahara desert and the Niger River to the south, Mali exploited the traffic in gold, salt, copper, ivory, and slaves that crisscrossed West Africa. Muslim merchants were attracted to all this commercial activity, and they converted Mali rulers who in turn spread Islam via such noted centres of learning as Timbuktu. In contrast to cities like Niani (the capital), Djenne, and Gao, most of the rural Mali population remained farmers who clung to their traditional animist beliefs. The Mali Empire collapsed in the 1460s following civil wars, the opening up of trade routes elsewhere, and the rise of the neighbouring Songhai Empire, but it did continue to control a small part of the western empire into the 17th century.

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West Africa & the Sudan Region

The Sudan region of West Africa where the Mali Empire would develop had been inhabited since the Neolithic period as evidenced by Iron Age tumuli, megaliths, and remains of abandoned villages. The Niger River regularly flooded parts of this dry grassland and savannah, which provided fertile land for agriculture beginning at least 3,500 years ago, an endeavour greatly helped by the region's adequate annual rainfall. Cereals such as red-skinned African rice and millet were grown with success, as were pulses, tuber and root crops, oil and fibre plants, and fruits. Fishing and cattle herding were other important sources of food, while local deposits of copper were exploited and used for trade. Similarly, gold was probably locally mined or panned and then traded, but concrete evidence from this period is lacking.

The Ghana Empire (6th to 13th century) was the first major political power in West Africa to create an empire based on military might and the wealth gained from regional trade. Not geographically connected to modern-day Ghana but located to the northwest, the empire was in serious decline by the end of the 12th century. Beset by civil wars, rebellions of subjugated chiefdoms, and poor harvests, the empire began to disintegrate with a large part of its territory taken over by the kingdom of Sosso (aka Susu). When the Sosso king Sumanguru (aka Sumaoro Kante, r. from c. 1200), imposed trade restrictions on the Mali region, the native Malinke (Mandingo) tribe rose in rebellion.

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Sundiata Keita & Government

Sundiata Keita (aka Sunjaata or Sundjata, r. 1230-1255) was a Malinke prince, whose name means 'lion prince', and he waged war against the kingdom of Sosso from the 1230s. Sundiata formed a powerful alliance of other disgruntled chiefs tired of Sumanguru's harsh rule and defeated the Sosso in a decisive battle at Krina (aka Kirina) in 1235. In 1240 Sundiata captured the old Ghana capital. Forming a centralised government of tribal leaders and a number of influential Arab merchants, this assembly (gbara) declared Sundiata the supreme monarch and gave him such honorary titles as Mari Diata (Lord Lion). The name Sundiata gave to his empire, Africa's largest up to that point, was Mali, meaning 'the place where the king lives'. It was also decreed that all future kings would be selected from the Keita clan, although the title was not necessarily given to the eldest son of a ruler, which sometimes led to fierce disputes among candidates.

Die Mansa, or king, would be assisted by an assembly of elders and local chiefs throughout the Mali Empire's history, with audiences held in the royal palace or under a large tree. The king was also the supreme source of justice, but he did make use of legal advisors. In addition, the king was helped by a number of key ministers such as the chief of the army and master of the granaries (later treasury), as well as other officials like the master of ceremonies and leader of the royal orchestra. Tog het die M.ansa acted as a supreme monarch and monopolised key trade goods, for example, only he was permitted to possess gold nuggets, traders had to make do with gold dust. The king had certain mystical qualities attributed to him, and all slaves were exclusively loyal to him. No person had the right to be in the king's presence when he ate, for example, and all visitors before him had to be barefoot and bow down and pour dust over their heads. Such was this cult of leadership and the extreme centralisation of government in a single figure that the fortunes of the empire rose and fell depending on the talents or lack of them possessed by a particular king.

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These problems of governance were yet to come, though, and Sundiata would continue to expand his territory to include the old kingdoms of Ghana, Walata, Tadmekka, and Songhai. Niani, now no longer in existence but probably located on a plain near the all-year-round navigable Sankarani River, was selected as the empire's capital. It was protected by mountains and was close to the two key sources of trade goods: forests and waterways.

Tribute was acquired from conquered chiefdoms, although many local chiefs were permitted to continue to rule their own people but with a Mali-appointed governor to assist them, often backed by a garrison. Additional guarantees of loyalty included taking royal hostages and keeping them at the capital. This federation prospered, developing over the next century into one of Africa's richest ever empires whose wealth would astound both Europe and Arabia. Further, and perhaps more important for the ordinary people of Mali, foreign visitors noted the high degree of justice they saw, the safety with which one could travel from place to place, and the abundance of food in all villages.

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Trade & Timbuktu

Like its political predecessors, the Mali Empire prospered thanks to trade and its prime location, situated between the rain forests of southern West Africa and the powerful Muslim caliphates of North Africa. The Niger River provided ready access to Africa's interior and Atlantic coast, while the Berber-controlled camel caravans that crossed the Sahara desert ensured valuable commodities came from the north. The Mali rulers had a triple income: they taxed the passage of trade goods, bought goods and sold them on at much higher prices, and had access to their own valuable natural resources. Significantly, the Mali Empire controlled the rich gold-bearing regions of Galam, Bambuk, and Bure. One of the main trade exchanges was gold dust for salt from the Sahara. Gold was in particular demand from European powers like Castille in Spain and Venice and Genoa in Italy, where coinage was now being minted in the precious metal.

Timbuktu, founded c. 1100 by the nomadic Tuaregs, was a semi-independent trade port which had the double advantage of being on the Niger River bend and the starting point for the trans-Saharan caravans. The city would be monopolised and then taken over by the Mali kings who made it into one of the most important and most cosmopolitan trade centres in Africa. Through Timbuktu there passed such lucrative goods as ivory, textiles, horses (important for military use), glassware, weapons, sugar, kola nuts (a mild stimulant), cereals (e.g. sorghum and millet), spices, stone beads, craft products, and slaves. Goods were bartered for or paid using an agreed upon commodity such as copper or gold ingots, set quantities of salt or ivory, or even cowry shells (which came from Persia).

Mansa Musa I

After a string of seemingly lacklustre rulers, the Mali Empire enjoyed its second golden era during the reign of Mansa Musa I in the first half of the 13th century. With an army numbering around 100,000 men, including an armoured cavalry corps of 10,000 horses, and with the talented general Saran Mandian, Mansa Musa was able to maintain and extend Mali's empire, doubling its territory. He controlled lands up to the Gambia and lower Senegal in the west in the north, tribes were subdued along the whole length of the Western Sahara border region in the east, control spread up to Gao on the Niger River and, to the south, the Bure region and the forests of what became known as the Gold Coast came under Mali oversight. The Mali Empire thus came to include many different religious, ethnic, and linguistic groups.

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To govern these diverse peoples, Mansa Musa divided his empire into provinces with each one ruled by a governor (farba) appointed personally by him and responsible for local taxes, justice, and settling tribal disputes. The administration was further improved with greater records kept and sent to the centralised government offices at Niani. With more tribute from more conquered chiefs, more trade routes under Mali control, and even more natural resources to exploit, Mansa Musa and the Mali elite became immensely rich. When the Mali king visited Cairo in 1324, he spent or simply gave away so much gold that the price of bullion crashed by 20%. Such riches set off a never-ending round of rumours that Mali was a kingdom paved with gold. In Spain c. 1375, a mapmaker was inspired to create Europe's first detailed map of West Africa, part of the Katalaanse Atlas. The map has Mansa Musa wearing an impressive gold crown and triumphantly brandishing a huge lump of gold in his hand. European explorers would spend the next five centuries trying to locate the source of this gold and the fabled trading city of Timbuktu.

Spread of Islam

Islam spread through parts of West Africa via the Arab merchants who traded there. Noted Muslim travellers and chroniclers like Ibn Battuta (1304 - c. 1369) and Ibn Khaldin (1332-1406) recorded that even Mali's first ruler Sundiata converted to Islam. However, the Malinke oral tradition, which was kept up over the generations by specialised bards (griots), presents a different story. Although recognising Islam was present in Mali long before Sundiata's reign, the oral tradition maintains that the first ruler of the Mali Empire did not reject the indigenous animist religion. We do know that Sundiata's son, Mansa Uli (aka Mansa Wali or Yerelenku), went on a pilgrimage to Mecca in the 1260s or 1270s, and this would be a continuing trend amongst many of Mali's rulers.

Islam in West Africa really took off, though, from the reign of Mansa Musa I. He famously went to Mecca and, impressed with what he saw on his travels, Mansa Musa brought back home Muslim architects, scholars, and books. Mosques were built such as Timbuktu's 'Great mosque' (aka Djinguereber or Jingereber), and Koranic schools and universities were established which quickly gained an international reputation. Studies were actually much wider than religion and included history, geography, astronomy, and medicine. Great libraries were built up with tens of thousands of books and manuscripts, many of which survive today.

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As more people were converted, so more Muslim clerics were attracted from abroad and the religion was spread further across West Africa. Many native converts studied in such places as Fez, Morocco, and became great scholars, missionaries, and even saints, and so Islam came to be seen no longer as a foreign religion but a black African one. Despite the spread of Islam, it is also true that ancient indigenous animist beliefs continued to be practised, especially in rural communities, as noted by travellers like Ibn Battuta who visited Mali c. 1352. In addition, Islamic studies were conducted in Arabic not native languages, and this further impeded its popularity outside the educated clerical class of towns and cities. Even the Islam that did take hold in Mali was a particular variation of that practised in the Arab world, perhaps because Mali rulers could not afford to completely dismiss the indigenous religious practices and beliefs that the majority of their people clung on to.

Mali Architecture

The buildings of the Mali Empire, some of which like the Sankore mosque in Timbuktu still stand, are one of the most recognisable features of the region and have become international symbols of Africa's rich pre-colonial history. Mali architects had a distinct disadvantage because of the rarity of stone in the region, and for this reason, buildings were typically constructed using beaten earth (banco) reinforced with wood which often sticks out in beams from the exterior surfaces. Despite the limited materials, the mosques, in particular, are still imposing multi-storied structures with towers, huge wooden doors, and tiered minarets. Other large buildings included warehouses (fondacs) which were used to store goods before they were transported elsewhere and which had up to 40 apartments for merchants to live in. Other examples of the Mali baked-mud buildings which impress today, although many are early 20th-century reconstructions, include the huge mosques at Mopti and Djenne.

On a smaller scale, excavations at Niani have revealed the remains of houses and their stone foundations, confirming later sources that the richer members of society built stone houses. Arab chroniclers describe another type of domestic building, which was constructed using beaten earth bricks and with ceilings made of wooden beams and reeds, the whole formed into a conical roof. Flooring was made using earth mixed with sand.

Mali Art & Culture

We have already noted that the Malinke had a rich tradition of recounting legends and community histories orally by specialised story-tellers know as griots. These stories, passed down from generation to generation (and continuing today), were often accompanied by music. During the Mali Empire, there were even songs reserved for certain people who alone had the right to have them sung in their honour, this was especially so for renowned warriors and hunters. Music was also an important part of religious festivals when masked dancers performed.

Pottery and sculpture were produced, as they had been at noted centres like Djenne since the 9th century. Sculptures are generally up to 50 cm tall and made of solid pottery but sometimes with a reinforcing iron rod interior. Wood and brass were other popular materials for sculpture and, to a lesser degree, stone. Decoration is typically incised, painted, or achieved by adding three-dimensional pieces. Subjects include human figures, especially bearded warriors riding a horse but also many kneeling or crouching figures with upturned faces. Figures are often realistic portrayals of ordinary people, sometimes showing symptoms of tropical diseases. Although it is rare for artworks of this period to come with a certain provenance obtained from professionally excavated sites, the sculptures are so numerous that it seems likely many were used as everyday decorative objects as well as for ritual or burial purposes.

Weier

The Mali Empire was in decline by the 15th century. The ill-defined rules for royal succession often led to civil wars as brothers and uncles fought each other for the throne. Then, as trade routes opened up elsewhere, several rival kingdoms developed to the west, notably the Songhai. European ships, especially those belonging to the Portuguese, were now regularly sailing down the west coast of Africa and so the Saharan caravans faced stiff competition as the most efficient means to transport goods from West Africa to the Mediterranean. There were attacks on Mali by the Tuareg in 1433 and by the Mossi people, who at that time controlled the lands south of the Niger River. Around 1468, King Sunni Ali of the Songhai Empire (r. 1464-1492) conquered the rump of the Mali Empire which was now reduced to controlling a small western pocket of its once great territory. What remained of the Mali Empire would be absorbed into the Moroccan Empire in the mid-17th century.


Kos en ekonomie

Kos in die daaglikse lewe. Malian families invest more than half of their household income in food expenditures. In the cities, rice is the preferred dish (40 percent of the daily food intake), followed by cereals (sorghum and millet, 35 percent), peanuts, sugar, and oil (20 percent). In the rural areas where rice is produced, farmers tend to consider rice a luxury item and they sell it. Their basic staples are millet, sorghum, and fonio (a West African cereal) that are consumed in a variety of ways: served with sauces with fish or meat and various vegetables, or in the form of porridge (mixed with water, sugar, and fresh or powdered milk).

Voedseldouers by seremoniële geleenthede. Malian cuisine varies from region to region, but some dishes and drinks have acquired a national dimension, such as nsaamè of riz au gras (a rice dish with meat and vegetables), jinjinbere (a drink made of water, sugar, lemon, and ginger), and dabileni (a drink made of water, sugar, and sorrel).These dishes are often prepared for the celebration of life-cycle rituals (e.g., naming ceremonies, weddings) and other ceremonial events.

Basiese ekonomie. The Malian economy is principally based on the cultivation of cotton (Mali is the second largest producer of cotton in Africa), food crops (rice, millet, sorghum, fonio, peanuts, and corn), and livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats). The primary sector accounts for approximately 46 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and is mostly run by small-scale family-run enterprises. Industry, including manufacturing, contributes 20 percent to the GDP, and services approximately 33 percent. According to official statistics, Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world. Solidarity links among family members, neighbors, and coworkers entrepreneurial skills and redistributive practices, however, go a long way to ease difficult economic conditions.

Grondbesit en eiendom. Prior to colonization, land was not a commodity. Among the Bamana agriculturists, access to the land (that is, the right to cultivate a piece of land, not individual ownership) was often mediated by the so-called "land chief" who was often a respected elder from the first family to settle in the area. The land chief was in charge of distributing the land among the various lineages of the village. He was also responsible for the celebration of various sacrifices, in particular to the shrine of the spirits in charge of protecting the village, the so-called dasiri (a cluster of trees and shrubs). Lineage members would collectively cultivate the land and the lineage chief would be in charge of the redistribution of resources among individual households according to their perceived needs. However, conflicts among households of the same lineage would periodically erupt and often lead to further fissions within the lineage. Besides collective farming, individuals of both genders could cultivate smaller fields on the side and independently manage their revenues. The colonial conquest has greatly complicated the issue of property. At the present, local systems for the allocation of property, Islamic law, and colonially derived property rules (mostly affecting parcels in urban areas) coexist, but not without conflict, side by side.

Major Industries. The Malian economy is scarcely industrialized despite massive efforts in this direction by the Keita government after independence. Locally operated industries mostly concentrate on processing farm commodities (such as food and fish), construction (e.g. the production of cement), and the production of minor consumer goods such as cigarettes, matches, and batteries. The strict programs of structural adjustment imposed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the late 1980s have forced the Malian government to reduce dramatically the number of state employees, progressively privatize state-owned enterprises, and devalue the local currency (the franc de la Communauté Financière d'Afrique , the CFA) by 50 percent. The consequences of these programs have been mixed. Even though official economic indexes show some economic growth, there has also been a neocolonial return of foreign capital. This has been the case for COMATEX, the largest textile factory in Mali, built with Chinese cooperation in the late 1960s. In October 1993 an accord between China and Mali paved the way for the privatization of COMATEX by a Chinese group (the COVEX), despite efforts by a group of Malian entrepreneurs to purchase the enterprise (the Malian state retains 20 percent of the capital).

Similarly, new gold mines have opened, but they remain mostly foreign operated. Given the advanced technology and large amount of capital resources gold mines require, the business is for the most part in the hands of companies such as the South African Randgold Resources and the Canadian IAMGOLD. As a result the revenues of the Malian state have been estimated, at best, to equal 10 percent of the total value of the gold extracted.

Trade. Mali's major exports are cotton (50 percent of foreign exchange earnings), gold (17 percent), and livestock products. In 1998, main destinations for exports were Thailand, Italy, Brazil, and Portugal. In the same year, Mail purchased most of its imports (in particular, machinery and petroleum products) from Cte d'Ivoire, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Senegal. In general, the Malian economy is extremely vulnerable to fluctuations in prices on international markets. It is also heavily dependent on foreign aid, and in this context benefits from its positive international image as a model African democracy progressing steadily toward the privatization and diversification of its national economy.

Division of Labor. Although the available statistical data are often not reliable, they do give a general picture of labor distribution in Mali. Employment in the formal economy, at best, approximates 6 percent of the total economically active population (the latter estimated at 44.7 percent of the total population). The large majority of the population is involved in the so-called informal sectors of the economy or are unemployed. Unemployment is much higher among the educated elites because of the lack of employment opportunities in the modern sector, and amounts to 13.2 percent of those employed in this sector. Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishing employ the large majority (83 percent) of the total active population. Other occupational sectors include the craft industry (5.4 percent) and trade (4.7 percent). In order for Malians to provide for their families, they are often forced to take on several jobs at the same time, a situation rarely expressed by official statistics.


Mali Basic Facts - History

Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. The government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a 5% average in 1996-2007. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire.


Five Things to Know About Education in Mali

Despite relative improvements in past decades, such as the recognition of education as a constitutional right in Mali in 1993, the implementation of the Malian government’s Ten-Year Education Development Program (PRODEC), and increasing donations from the United States, France and the World Bank, socioeconomic barriers still limit access to education in Mali. Here are five facts about the Malian education system which highlight some of these barriers and some potential solutions.

  1. In Mali, the first six years of schooling are primary education, and the last six years are separated into two three-year cycles of secondary education. Education in Mali is free and compulsory between ages 7 and 16, or until the end of grade nine. Even so, many children still do not attend class due to high ancillary education costs, including transportation, writing supplies and uniforms.
  2. In order to pursue the second level of secondary education, students sit for an exam called the Diplôme d’études fondamentales at the end of grade nine. Secondary schools are mostly located in urban areas and many are private institutions, so accessibility is limited for poor children in rural areas.One organization working to improve school attendance in Mali is the Ouelessebougou Alliance, a developmental partnership with villagers in the Ouelessebougou region of Mali. The Alliance has constructed 18 new concrete classrooms and provides pencils, paper, chalkboards, chalk, erasers, maps, some textbooks, and bench desks for 11 village elementary schools. The Alliance has a five-year plan for school construction with the goal that villages can become eligible to have their education programs sustained by the government of Mali. Over the past year alone, its efforts have allowed over 1,900 children attend village schools.
  3. According to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 69 percent of Mali children of primary school age are enrolled in primary school and 36 percent of secondary school-aged students are enrolled in secondary school. These statistics correlate with the economic and accessibility barriers keeping many students from obtaining a higher secondary education.
  4. At the end of grade 12, students sit for an exam called the Baccalauréat, which is required to pass in order to graduate. From there, students may attend an institute of tertiary education, like the University of Bamako, to study science and technology, medicine, humanities, arts and science, law and public service or economy and management. Over the past few decades, however, the Malian government and the World Bank have promoted vocational training and apprenticeships as more accessible career avenues.
  5. Malian girls have a greater risk of early school dropout, seeing as they are expected to marry young. According to UNICEF, while 62 percent of all Malian children who enter primary schooling eventually finish their last year of primary school, 64 percent of boys and only 59 percent of girls complete their basic education.

In a study of the scientific, technical, and vocational education of African girls, UNESCO found that on average women made up 23 percent of college graduates in the medical field, three percent of engineering graduates, and 10 percent of graduates in agricultural sciences. Tertiary education in Mali may be inaccessible to many students, but it is especially unobtainable to Malian girls. In response to these findings, UNESCO office in Bamako and the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) have taken measures to fund a UNESCO-UNFPA-UNWOMEN joint project. The initiative aims to increase access to quality education for adolescent girls and young women, provide protective gender-sensitive learning environments adapted to strengthened links between education and health, and social services for adolescent girls and young women.

Although education in Mali has seen some improvement in recent years, reassessment of the barriers which impede young students as well as expanding efforts to help them is crucial for continued development.


The Decline of the Mali Empire

The Mali Empire had reached its zenith during the reign of Mansa Musa , and after his death the empire begin its slow decline. This does not mean, however, that all subsequent rulers of the Mali Empire were incompetent. As an example, Mansa Musa’s brother, Mansa Souleyman, who came to the throne in 1341, was a capable ruler. His predecessor was Mansa Maghan I, the son of Mansa Musa. Unlike his father, Mansa Maghan I was a weak ruler and spent wastefully. Fortunately, the Mali Empire was strong enough to withstand his misrule and thanks to Mansa Souleyman’s efforts, the empire’s financial problems were mitigated. In addition to economic problems, Mansa Souleyman faced military incursions and a palace plot to dethrone him, both of which he dealt with successfully.

Terracotta archer figure from the Mali Empire - 13th-15th century, with a quiver on his back. The bow and quiver of arrows were the symbols of power in Imperial Mali. (Saithilace / Publieke domein )

By the beginning of the 16th century, the power of the Mali Empire had been much reduced and neighboring states took advantage of the situation to expand into the empire. Around 1610, the last ruler of the Mali Empire, Mansa Mahmud IV, died and the realm was divided by his sons into three parts. The three rulers fought not only against outsiders but also among themselves. The situation persisted until the rise of the Bamana of Djenné, who declared a jihad on all other Muslim powers in the area. By 1650, two of the three Mandinka rulers were defeated and only the mansa of Kangaba was left. Niani was sacked and burned in 1670, which marked the end of the Mali Empire.

Top image: African Empires, The Mali Empire. Source: K. Flewelling / YouTube.


U.S. Relations With Mali

The United States established diplomatic relations with Mali in 1960, following its independence from France. In 1992, Mali moved from a one-party state to multiparty democracy. In March 2012, while an armed rebellion overtook the north of the country, Mali’s elected civilian government was removed in a military seizure of power, and an interim administration was subsequently put in place, followed by a return to elected government. Despite a peace agreement signed in June 2015 and the presence of UN peacekeeping and French forces, implementation of the peace accord has faced a number of challenges, and non-signatory extremist groups are still active in northern and central Mali. In August 2020, a group of military officers again staged an overthrow of the elected government. In October 2020, that group ceded power to a transitional government, with an 18-month mandate to hold elections and return Mali to constitutional rule.

U.S.-Mali relations have been strong for decades and have been based on shared goals of improving stability and reducing poverty through economic growth. Mali remains near the bottom of the Human Development Index, notably in health and education. Mali continues to face serious security challenges.

The United States is committed to international efforts to help Mali restore peace and stability throughout its territory following the recent coup d’etat, and the loss of the northern two-thirds of the country to violent extremist groups. French counterterrorism forces and the MINUSMA (United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali) peacekeeping mission have been working since 2013 to help restore and maintain Mali’s territorial integrity. The Peace and Reconciliation Accord was signed by all parties on June 20, 2015. The accord , which the transitional government of Mali has committed to implementing, provides an opportunity for Mali to regain the path towards stability and prosperity. The peace accord’s comprehensive plan includes mechanisms to: demobilize armed militias reform the Malian military institute crucial political and institutional reforms jumpstart development in northern Mali and lay the foundations for durable reconciliation between Mali’s diverse communities. The United States will continue to support Mali in achieving its goals of peace and economic development, recognizing that progress will require sustained leadership on the part of the Malian transitional government and commitment from the other accord signatories to implement their obligations under the peace accord.

U.S. Assistance to Mali

Prior to the August 2020 coup, U.S. bilateral foreign assistance to Mali totaled more than $130 million in FY 20 19 and over $1 3 5 million in FY 20 20 . More than $ 85 million in bilateral foreign assistance was officially requested for FY 20 21 . U.S. assistance to Mali seeks to support the country’s fragile peace and implementation of the June 20, 2015, peace accord. Key U.S. interests in Mali include promoting a stable democracy and improved governance promoting regional security by combatting terrorists and traffickers who seek to exploit ungoverned spaces in the Sahel reducing chronic vulnerability by improving social development and increasing sustainable livelihoods and encouraging economic growth, opportunity, and development by supporting sustainable development and increased U.S. economic investment. From these interests our mission goals include: (1) promoting democratic institutions, responsive governance, and respect for human rights (2) enhancing regional security by building institutions to counter transnational threats (3) advancing social development (particularly health and education) (4) increasing economic growth and sustainable livelihoods and (5) promoting the U.S. as a key partner to Malian stakeholders, enhancing mutual understanding, and protecting the wellbeing of U.S. citizens. Following the August 2020 coup, restrictions under section 7008 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Pr ograms Appropriations Act, 2020 (the Act) and similar prov isions in prior-year acts, now apply to a ssistance that benefits the Government of Mali.

U.S. foreign assistance is administered through a whole of government approach that includes but is not limited to the long-standing in-country presence of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the National Institutes for Health (NIH), and the Department of Defense (DOD). Furthermore, Mali is a focus country for U.S. assistance priorities and initiatives, including but not limited to: Women, Peace and Security (WPS), the Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership (TSTCP), the Security Governance Initiative (SGI), Global Climate Change (GCC), Feed the Future (FTF), Resilience, the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI), the President’s Emergency Plan For Aids Relief (PEPFAR), the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), and Ending Preventable Child and Maternal Death (EPCMD). On October 9, 2015, the U.S. government, through USAID, signed a formal agreement with the Government of Mali to implement USAID/Mali’s new 5-year Country Development Cooperation Strategy (available hier ).

USAID/Mali’s projected $690 million investment for FY 2016-2020 seeks the following goal: “Malians secure a democratic, resilient, and prosperous future” through four objectives: 1) Stabilization of conflict-affected areas reinforced (i.e: support for humanitarian assistance and transition to development in Mali’s northern regions of Gao, Timbuktu and Kidal) 2) Fostering improved public trust in government (i.e: through improved public service delivery (especially health, education, and justice), administration of justice and respect for human rights, and citizen participation in Malian electoral processes) 3) Increased resilience and adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities and households (through mitigation of climate change, countering violent extremism, economic diversification and strengthening human capital) and, 4) increased prosperity through advancing socio-economic well-being (particularly through improving health services and adopting healthy behaviors, reducing poverty and malnutrition through investment in agriculture, and promoting early grade reading for boys and girls). Underlying this goal is the understanding that a democratic, resilient, and prosperous future is unattainable if the country, as a whole, does not benefit from development assistance. U.S. programming focuses on achieving tangible peace dividends and continuing our commitment to working with all Malians.

Bilaterale ekonomiese betrekkinge

Prior to the 2020 coup and the COVID-19 crisis, Mali’s economy was growing at 5.5 percent on average over the past 5 years and some foreign investment return ed in key sectors such as energy, but investment remains limited by continuing insecurity in the country. Due to the economic impact of COVID-19 in particular , real GDP is projected to fall 2.0 percent in 2020. Mail is participating in the IMF/World Bank Debt Service Suspension Initiative (DSSI) which is providing space to focus resources on fighting the pandemic. Longer term, t he government’s national strategy to fight poverty as presented to the IMF, World Bank, and other donors is focused on the role of the private sector in developing the economy. Mali is a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

Mali’s Membership in International Organizations

Mali and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization. Mali is also one of 15 member countries of ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), which aim to reduce trade barriers, harmonize monetary policy, and create a common market one of 12 member countries of CILSS (Permanent Interstates Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel) and a member of the Group of Five (G5) Sahel. Mali receives preferential trade access to the U.S. market under the U.S. African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA).

Bilaterale verteenwoordiging

P rincipal embassy officials are listed in the Department’s Key Officers List.

Mali maintains an embassy in the United States at 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-332-2249).

More information about Mali is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:


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