Geskiedenis Podcasts

Kampioen-AM-314-Geskiedenis

Kampioen-AM-314-Geskiedenis

Kampioen III
(AM-314: dp. 890; 1. 221'2 "; b. 32'2": dr. 10'9 "; s. 18 k.,
kpl. 106; a. 1 3 "; cl. Auk)

Die derde kampioen (AM-134) is op 12 Desember 1942 deur General Engineering en Dry Dock Co. Alameda, Kalifornië, gelanseer en het op 8 September 1943 kommandant luitenant J. H. Howard, Jr., USNR, in opdrag geneem.

Nadat San Diego op 7 Desember 1943 skoongemaak is, het Champion op 13 Desember by Pearl Harbor aangekom. Tussen 8 Januarie en 4 Maart 1944 het sy die taak gekry om belangrike skeepvaart tussen Pearl Harbor en San Francisco te bewaak. Meer direkte steun aan frontlinie -bedrywighede het gekom van 18 Maart tot 10 April, toe sy twee byvoerkonvooie na Tarawa begelei het, waarna sy van 19 April tot 7 Mei 'n konvooi na Kwajalein vertoon het ter ondersteuning van die Marshalls -operasie. Na 'n kort opknapping, vaar sy einde Junie na Saipan vir mynevee en plaaslike begeleiding, en keer dan terug na Pearl Harbor vir 'n meer uitgebreide opknapping. Van 13 September tot 17 November het sy konvooie bewaak van Pearl Harbor na Eniwetok en Saipan, voordat sy vir die Iwo Jima -operasie oefen.

Kampioen het op 16 Februarie 1946 by Iwo Jima aangekom toe die voorlopige bombardement van die eiland van 3 dae begin het. Behalwe vir die tydperk 21 Februarie tot 4 Maart, toe sy die gelaaide aanrandingsvaart na Saipan begelei het, waarvandaan sy teruggekeer het, het Champion tot 7 Maart by Iwo Jima gebly. Nadat sy by Ulithi voorsien en aangevuur het, het sy na Kerama Retto en Okinawa gevaar. In hierdie gevaarlike waters het sy mynevee -operasies uitgevoer en van 24 Maart tot 19 Junie op skerms diens gedoen, afgesien van 'n konvooi -begeleiding na Saipan van 26 April tot 19 Mei. Op 16 April het 'n selfmoordvliegtuig naby aan boord van Champion neergestort en afval gespuit wat haar effens beskadig het en vier van haar mans gewond. Sy keer 20 Julie terug na Seattle vir 'n opknapping wat tot aan die einde van die oorlog geduur het.

Ter ondersteuning van die besettingsaktiwiteite in die Verre Ooste, vaar Champion vanaf San Pedro op 4 Desember 1946, aangeval in Pearl Harbor en Eniwetok, en arriveer op 1 Februarie 1948 in Sasebo, Japan. het sy na die weskus gery. Kampioen is ontmantel en in reserwe geplaas in San Diego 30 Januarie 1947. Sy is op 7 Februarie 1966 herklassifiseer deur MSF-314.

Champion het drie gevegsterre ontvang vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


Kampioen-AM-314-Geskiedenis

7 Desember 1941 - 6 Januarie 1942

Die eerste sonsopkoms het die oostelike hemelruim getref en sy rooskleurige vingers laat kruip op die vliegdek van die groot driestert-vlieënde boot terwyl sy hoog bo die Suid-Stille Oseaan vaar. Ses dae uit haar tuishawe in San Francisco was die Boeing 314 deel van Pan American Airways se groeiende nuwe diens wat die verste uithoeke van die Stille Oseaan verbind het. Met die veteraan kaptein Robert Ford in bevel, was die Pacific Clipper, met 12 passasiers en 'n bemanning van tien, net 'n paar uur van die landing in die hawe in Auckland, Nieu -Seeland.

Die rustige kalmte van die vliegdek vroeg hierdie lenteoggend is skielik verpletter deur die gekraak van die radio. Radiooperateur John Poindexter het die headset aan sy ore vasgedruk toe hy die gekodeerde boodskap ontsyfer. Sy oë rek toe hy vinnig die karakters op die kussing voor hom skryf. Pearl Harbor is deur Japannese oorlogsvliegtuie aangeval en het groot verliese gely as wat die Verenigde State in oorlog was. Die verstomde bemanning kyk na mekaar toe die implikasies van die boodskap begin aanbreek. Hulle het besef dat hul pad terug na Kalifornië onherroeplik afgesny is, en dat daar geen terugkeer was nie. Ford beveel radiostilte en plaas uitkykpunte in die blister van die navigator. Twee uur later het die Pacific Clipper die waters van die hawe van Auckland glad geraak. Die odyssie het pas begin.

Die bemanning spook elke dag vir 'n week lank in die oorweldigde kommunikasiekamer by die Amerikaanse ambassade in Auckland en wag op 'n boodskap van die Pan Am -hoofkwartier in New York. Uiteindelik het hulle 'n boodskap gekry - hulle sou probeer om die lang pad terug te keer na die Verenigde State: regoor die wêreld weswaarts. Vir Ford en sy bemanning was dit 'n uitdagende taak. Op 'n reis van meer as 30 000 myl, oor oseane en lande wat niemand van hulle ooit gesien het nie, sou hulle hul eie beplanning en onderhoud moes doen, en alles wat hulle nodig gehad het in die gesig staar van 'n uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog watter politieke alliansies en lojaliteit in baie dele van die wêreld op sy beste onseker was.

Hulle eerste opdrag was om terug te keer na Noumea, soos hulle 'n week tevore gekom het. Hulle sou die personeel van die Pan American -stasie daar gaan haal en dit dan na Australië in veiligheid bring. Laat op die aand van 16 Desember het die swart vliegtuig uit die hawe van Auckland afgeklim en deur die nag noordwes na Noumea gegaan. Hulle handhaaf radiostilte en beland in die hawe net toe die son opkom. Ford het aan wal gegaan en die Pan Am -stasiebestuurder gaan soek. 'Maak al u mense bymekaar,' het hy gesê. "Ek wil hulle almal binne 'n uur by die beskuldigdebank hê. Hulle kan elk 'n klein sakkie hê."

Die bemanning het begin werk met die brandstof van die vliegtuig, en presies twee uur later, met die volle brandstof en 'n vat motorolie, het die Clipper opgestyg en haar neus suidwaarts na Australië gerig.

Dit was laatmiddag toe die donkergroen vlek aan die kus van Queensland in die voorruit verskyn, en Ford begin saggies afdraai om in die hawe by Gladstone te land. Nadat hulle hul verward passasiers afgelaai het, het die bemanning hul primêre verantwoordelikheid, die Pacific Clipper, gaan toesien. Kaptein Ford vertel: "Ek het gewonder hoe ons gaan betaal vir alles wat ons op hierdie reis nodig het. Ons het genoeg geld gehad vir 'n reis na Auckland en terug na San Francisco, maar dit was 'n ander storie. In Gladstone was 'n 'n jong man wat 'n bankier was, het na my toe gekom en uit die bloute gesê: 'Hoe word u vir geld reggemaak?' "Wel, ons is stukkend!" Hy het gesê: 'Ek sal waarskynlik hiervoor geskiet word', maar hy het op 'n Saterdagoggend na sy bank gegaan, die kluis oopgemaak en my vyfhonderd Amerikaanse dollars gegee. Aangesien Rod Brown, ons navigator, die enigste was een met 'n sluitkas en 'n sleutel. Ons het hom verantwoordelik gehou vir die geld. Die $ 500 het die res van die reis tot in New York gefinansier. "

Ford beplan om op te styg en reguit noordwes te ry, oor die Queensland -woestyn na Darwin, en dan oor die Timorsee na Nederlands -Indië (nou Indonesië) te vlieg, in die hoop dat Java en Sumatra in vriendelike hande bly. Die volgende dag, toe hulle die tropiese oggend binnedring, het die kus oerwoud geleidelik plek gemaak vir groot dorre stukke grasveld en sandduine. Spinnifex- en tandvleisbome bedek die landskap tot by die horison. Gedurende die hele vlug na Darwin het die bemanning nie 'n rivier gesien wat groot genoeg was om die groot vlieënde boot neer te sit as iets verkeerd sou gaan nie. Elke noodgeval sou hulle dwing om die vliegtuig op die woestyn te beland, en hul vlug sou verby wees.

Hulle het laatmiddag die hawe by Darwin genader. Massiewe donderkoppe strek oor die horison, en aanhoudende weerligstrale verlig die kajuit. Darwin, die noordelikste stad van Australië, was die naaste aan die konflik wat soos 'n kwasvuur na die suide versprei het. Dit was 'n rowwe grensdorp in die mees afgeleë en primitiewe van die Australiese gebiede, en dit was soos iets uit 'n wilde -weste -film. Nadat hulle geland het, het die Pacific Clipper -bemanning 'n plek gekry om te stort, en dit was 'n kleedkamer wat 'n Australiese weermag was.

Ford en sy bemanning het die vliegtuig aangevuur. Dit was 'n lang, vermoeiende werk. Die brandstof is in vyf liter -blikkiesblikke geberg. Elkeen moes oor die vleuel gesleep word en dit was laas middernag in die tenks leeggemaak. Hulle het 'n paar uur se slaap gesorg voor die vertrek, maar Ford was angstig om aan die gang te kom. Die nuus oor die vordering van die Japannese magte was hoogstens sketsmatig. Hulle was redelik seker dat die meeste van Oos -Indië nog steeds in vriendelike hande was, maar hulle kon dit nie regkry nie.

Die volgende oggend vroeg vertrek hulle na Surabaya, veertienhonderd kilometer wes oor die Timorsee. Die son het opgekom toe hulle oor die plat turkoois see verdrink, en gou het hulle die oostelike eilande van die groot argipel van Oos -Java verhoog. Onbeskofte hutte met grasdakke het op die strande gestrek waar die eilande met die welige groen oerwoud van die trope bedek was.

Surabaya lê aan die geslote punt van 'n groot baai in die Bali -see. Dit is die tweede grootste stad op die eiland Java en word bewaak deur 'n Britse garnisoen en 'n eskader van Bristol Beaufort -vegters. Toe die Pacific Clipper die stad nader, het 'n enkele vegter opgestaan ​​om 'n paar oomblikke later te ontmoet. Die herkenningseine wat Ford in Australië ontvang het, was onjuis, en die groot Boeing was 'n gesig wat die Britse vlieëniers onbekend was. Die bemanning het gespanne toe die vegters nader kom. As gevolg van 'n eienaardigheid in die radiostelsels, kon hulle die Britse vlieëniers hoor, maar die vlieëniers kon nie die Clipper hoor nie. Daar was baie besprekings onder mekaar oor die vraag of die vlieënde boot neergeskiet of toegelaat moet word. Uiteindelik het die bemanning gehoor hoe die Britse bestuurder toestemming gee om te land, en voeg dan by: "As hulle iets verdag doen, skiet hulle uit die lug!" Met groot verligting begin Ford met 'n baie versigtige benadering.

Toe hulle die hawe nader, kon Ford sien dat dit vol oorlogskepe was, en hy het die Clipper in die gladde water neergesit net buite die ingang van die hawe. 'Ons het omgedraai om terug te keer,' het Ford gesê. "Daar was 'n lansering om ons te ontmoet, maar in plaas daarvan om ons 'n sleep of 'n tou te gee, het hulle ongeveer 'n kilometer weggebly en ons aanhou waai. Toe ons verder in die hawe kom, kom hulle nader. Dit draai uit dat ons in die middel van 'n mynveld geland het, en dat hulle nie naby ons sou kom voordat hulle sien dat ons daardeur is nie! "

Toe hulle aan boord gaan, kry die bemanning van die Pacific Clipper 'n onaangename verrassing dat hulle meegedeel is dat hulle nie met 'n 100 -oktaan -luggas kan brandstof maak nie. Wat min daar was, was ernstig gerantsoeneer en was vir die weermag gereserveer. Daar was egter baie gas in die motor, en Ford was welkom vir alles wat hy nodig gehad het. Hy het geen keuse gehad nie. Die volgende deel van hul reis sou baie ure oor die Indiese Oseaan wees, en daar was geen hoop om elders te hervul nie. Die vlugingenieurs, Swede Roth en Jocko Parish, het 'n plan geformuleer wat hulle hoop sou werk. Hulle het al hul oorblywende lugvaartbrandstof na die twee romptenks oorgeplaas en die oorblywende tenks tot die uiterste gevul met die gas van die laer oktaan.

'Ons het van Surabaya af op die 100 oktaan gestyg, 'n paar duisend voet geklim en die krag teruggetrek om die enjins af te koel,' het Ford gesê. "Toe skakel ons oor na die motorgas en hou ons asem op. Die enjins spring amper uit hul rakke, maar hulle hardloop. Ons het gedink dit is óf dit, óf die vliegtuig verlaat."

Hulle vlieg noordwes oor die Sundastraat, parallel met die kus van Sumatra. Hulle jaag na die ondergaande son en begin oor die groot oseaan. Hulle het geen lugvaartkaarte of kaarte vir hierdie deel van die wêreld gehad nie. Die enigste navigasie -inligting wat die bemanning beskikbaar het, was die breedtegraad en lengte van hul bestemming in Trincomalee, op die eiland Ceylon (nou Sri Lanka). Deur hierdie data te gebruik en uit die geheue te put, het Rod Brown sy eie Mercator -kaarte van Suid -Asië gemaak. Ford was nie net bekommerd oor die vind van die hawe nie, hy was baie bekommerd oor die vermiste Ceylon. Hy het hom voorgestel dat die Clipper oor Indië sou dreun, verlore en sonder brandstof, sonder om 'n watermassa te vind waarop hy kon beland.

Toe hulle die eiland nader, sien hulle 'n wolkbank voor. Ford het gesê: 'Daar was 'n bietjie swakheid, so ons daal af. Ons wou die maksimum beskikbare sigbaarheid moontlik maak om op die vroegste moment op te vang - ons wou die eiland nie mis nie. Ewe skielik was dit reg, reg voor ons, 'n duikboot! Ons kon sien hoe die bemanning na die dekgeweer hardloop. Laat ek jou vertel dat ons redelik besig was om weer in die skande te kom! "

Ford druk die gasklep van die Clipper vorentoe om krag te kry, en die enjins kla bitter. Hulle spoed van 150 km / h het hulle gou buite bereik van die sub -gewere gehad, en die bemanning sug van verligting. Dit sou moeilik wees om vas te stel wie die Japannese duikbootbevelvoerder of die bemanning van die Clipper meer verbaas was ná die lang vlug.

Dit was nog 'n uur totdat hulle die eiland bereik het, en die Boeing het uiteindelik water in die hawe by Trincomalee aangeraak. Die Britse magte wat daar gestasioneer was, was angstig om te hoor wat Ford en sy bemanning uit die oorlogsgebied na die ooste moes rapporteer, en die bemanning is na 'n militêre vergadering ontbied. Die voorsitter was 'n pompagtige Royal Navy Commodore wat Ford sonder twyfel ingelig het dat hy twyfel of Ford 'n duikboot sou ken as hy hom sou oorval. Ford voel hoe die stukkies agterop sy nek styg. Hy besef dat hy dit nie kan bekostig om 'n vyand van die Britse weermag te maak nie, die lot van die Pacific Clipper lê te swaar in hul hande. Hy sluk swaar en sê niks.

Dit was Oukersaand toe hulle die vertrek vanaf Ceylon begin en die skip weer na die noordweste draai. Die swaar gelaaide Boeing sukkel om hoogte en werk deur die loodvrye lug. Skielik was daar 'n skrikwekkende knal toe die enjin nommer drie los. Dit sidder in sy berg, en toe hulle deur die voorruit loer, kan die bemanning strome swart olie oor die vleuel sien stroom. Ford het die enjin vinnig afgeskakel en die Clipper in 'n draai van 180 grade gery, terug na Trincomalee. Minder as 'n uur na die vertrek was die Pacific Clipper terug in die waters van die Trincomalee -hawe. Die herstel van die enjin het die res van Oukersaand en die hele Kersdag geneem. Een van die agtien silinders van die enjin het misluk en homself van die houer losgemaak, en hoewel die herstelwerk nie besonder ingewikkeld was nie, was dit vervelig en tydrowend. Uiteindelik vroeg in die oggend van 26 Desember vertrek hulle vir die tweede keer uit Ceylon. Die hele dag dreun hulle oor die welige tapyt van die Indiese subkontinent, en sny dan oor die noordoostelike hoek van die Arabiese See tot by hul landing in Karachi, teen die middag.

Die volgende dag, gebad en verkwik, vertrek hulle en vlieg weswaarts oor die Golf van Oman na Arabië. Na net meer as agt roetine vliegure, beland hulle in Bahrein, waar daar 'n Britse garnisoen was.

'N Ander frustrasie verskyn die volgende oggend toe hulle die volgende deel van hul reis beplan. Hulle het beplan om reguit wes oor die Arabiese skiereiland en die Rooi See na Afrika te vlieg, 'n vlug wat nie veel langer sou gewees het as die been wat hulle pas van Karachi af voltooi het nie.

"Toe ons ons voorberei om Bahrein te verlaat, is die Britse owerhede ons gewaarsku om nie oor Arabië te vlieg nie," het Ford gesê. "Die Saoedi's het blykbaar reeds 'n paar Britse vlieërs gevang wat daarheen gedwing is. Die inboorlinge het 'n gat gegrawe, dit tot in hul nek begrawe en dit net gelos."

Hulle het die grys oggend ingevaar en deur 'n stewige bewolkte geklim. Hulle breek uit die wolke in die skitterende sonskyn, en die tapyt wolke daaronder strek weswaarts tot by die horison. 'Ons het ongeveer twintig minute noord gevlieg', het Ford gesê, 'daarna het ons wes gedraai en reguit oor Saoedi -Arabië gegaan. Ons het 'n paar uur gevlieg voordat daar 'n onderbreking in die wolke onder ons was. die moskee in Mekka!

Die Pacific Clipper het vroegmiddag die Rooi See en die kus van Afrika oorgesteek met die Sahara -son wat in die kajuitvensters stroom. Die grond daaronder was 'n groenerige geelbruin kleur, met niks anders as golwende sandduine en skerp rotsagtige uitsparings nie. Die enigste teken van menslike bewoning was dat hulle af en toe oor klein trosse mans vlieg wat vee oppas en hul oë teen die son beskerm en staar na die vreemde voël wat so 'n geluid maak. Die gebede van die bemanning vir die voortgesette goeie gesondheid van die vier Wright Cyclones het al hoe vuriger geword. Sou hulle 'n noodlanding hier moes maak, sou hulle inderdaad in 'n benarde toestand verkeer.

Laat die middag het hulle die Nylrivier opgerig, en Ford het die skip omgedraai om dit te volg tot die samevloeiing van die Wit en Blou Nyl, net onder Khartoem. Hulle het in die rivier beland, en nadat hulle vasgemeer was, het die bemanning aan wal gegaan om die begroete gasvryheid van die Royal Air Force te verwelkom. Ford se plan was om suidwes na Leopoldville in die Belgiese Kongo voort te gaan en hul Suid -Atlantiese kruising daar te begin. Hy het geen begeerte gehad om dwarsoor die Sahara 'n geforseerde landing in die uitgestrekte, spoorlose woesteny aan te gaan nie, die vliegtuig nie net vir altyd onbeweeglik sou maak nie, maar die bemanning sou beslis omkom in die hardheid van die woestyn.

Die volgende oggend vroeg vertrek hulle van die Nyl na Leopoldville. Dit sou 'n besonder lang landvlug wees, en hulle wou baie daglig laat vir die aankoms. Hulle sou op die Kongorivier by Leopoldville beland en van daar af oor die Suid -Atlantiese Oseaan na Suid -Amerika toeslaan.

Bob Ford en die Pacific Clipper, uit 'n verhaal van 8 bladsye in Augustus 1942 Ware strokiesprente

Die eindelose bruin van die Soedan het plek gemaak vir golwende groen heuwels, en dan rotsagtige kruine wat oor hul pad gestrek het. Hulle vlieg oor inheemse dorpe en groot byeenkomste van wild. Kuddes wilde diere, honderde duisende sterk, stamp paniekbevange toe die Clipper bo -oor brul. Die grasveld het gou in die oerwoud verander, en hulle het verskeie klein riviere oorgesteek wat hulle by hul kaarte probeer pas het. Skielik vorentoe sien hulle 'n groot rivier, veel groter en wyer as ander wat hulle oorgesteek het, en regs van hulle was 'n groot stad. Die rivier moes die magtige Kongo wees, en die stad was Bumba, op daardie stadium die grootste nedersetting aan die rivier. Uit hul kaarte het hulle gesien dat hulle die rivier stroomaf na Leopoldville kan draai en volg. Hulle het vyfhonderd myl om te vlieg

Laatmiddag het hulle die Kongolese hoofstad Leopoldville grootgemaak. Ford sit die Boeing saggies op die rivier neer en besef dadelik die sterkte van die stroom. Hy dryf die skip in die vasmeer, en die bemanning stap uiteindelik aan wal. Dit was soos om in 'n sauna te stap. Die hitte was die mees onderdrukkende wat hulle nog teëgekom het, dit het soos 'n mantel op hulle neergedaal en die energie wat hulle oorgehad het, geslaan.

'N Aangename verrassing wag egter op hulle toe twee bekende gesigte hulle by die beskuldigdebank begroet. 'N Pan -Amerikaanse lughawebestuurder en 'n radiobeampte is gestuur om hulle te ontmoet, en Ford kry 'n koue bier. 'Dit was een van die hoogtepunte van die hele reis,' het hy gesê.

Na 'n nag aan wal is hulle die volgende oggend na die vliegtuig, voorbereid op die lang been wat hulle na die westelike halfrond sou terugneem. Die vreeslike hitte en humiditeit het nie 'n bietjie bedaar toe die luike uiteindelik beveilig is nie en hulle die Clipper in die rivierkanaal geslinger het vir die opstyg. Die vliegtuig is met brandstof op die kanonne gelaai, plus die trommel olie wat by Noumea aan boord gekom het. Dit was, om dit saggies te stel, net 'n bietjie oorlaai. Hulle loop stroomaf die wind in, met die stroom van ses knope. Net buite die grense van die stad het die rivier verander van 'n rustige stroom af in 'n katarak van stormloopstrome. Klippe -pilare het die water in 'n tuimelende maalstroom gebreek. Ford hou die enjins by opstygkrag, en die bemanning hou hul asem op terwyl die vliegtuig spoed op die glasagtige rivier versnel. Die hitte en humiditeit en hul geweldige bruto gewig was almal faktore wat hulle teëwerk terwyl hulle gesukkel het om die masjien voor die katarak uit die water te kry. Ford het die romp met die hysbakke geruk en probeer om die Boeing op die trap te kry. Net voordat hulle die stroomversnellings sou binnegaan en sekere verwoesting ondervind, het die romp losgesteek. Die Pacific Clipper vlieg, maar skaars. Hulle probleme was egter nog lank nie verby nie. Net anderkant die katarak kom hulle die steil klowe binne, asof dit in 'n canyon vlieg. Met haar geboë vlerke steier die Clipper en klou vir elke sentimeter hoogte. Die enjins was byna vyf minute lank aan die krag en die temperatuur het vinnig bo die rooi lyn gestyg, hoeveel meer mishandeling kon hulle neem? Met pynlike traagheid begin die groot Boeing klim, voet vir gevaarlike voet. Uiteindelik was hulle weg van die mure van die kloof, en Ford het gevoel dat hy die gaskragte kon terugtrek om krag te kry. Hy draai die vliegtuig na die weste en die Atlantiese Oseaan. Die bemanning luister stil na die maat van die enjins. Hulle brul sonder om te mis, en toe die vliegtuig uiteindelik op hul kruishoogte gaan sit, besluit Ford dat hulle veilig na Brasilië kan reis, meer as drie duisend myl na die weste.

Die bemanning voel opgewek met nuwe energie, en ondanks hul moegheid was hulle opgewonde optimisties. Teen alle kanse het hulle die suide van Asië oorgesteek en die Afrikaan ontwrig
kontinent. Hulle vliegtuig presteer beter as wat hulle die reg gehad het om te verwag, en na hul volgende lang oseaanbeen sou hulle terug wees in die halfrond waarvandaan hulle hul reis amper 'n maand tevore begin het. Die binnekant van die vliegtuig wat al soveel dae tuis was, het taamlik dun geword. Hulle was moeg vir die eindelose ure wat hulle na die westelike rigting gedronge het, moeg vir die vrees vir die onbekende en gefrustreerd oor die gebrek aan werklike betekenisvolle nuus oor wat gebeur in 'n wêreld wat deur oorlog voorgehou word. Hulle wou net huis toe kom.

Nadat hulle meer as twintig uur in die lug was, het hulle net voor die middag in die hawe by Natal geland. Terwyl hulle wag vir die voltooiing van die nodige immigrasieformaliteite, het die Brasiliaanse owerhede daarop aangedring dat die bemanning moet vertrek terwyl die binnekant van die vliegtuig gespuit word vir geelkoors. Twee mans in rubberpakke en maskers het aan boord gegaan en die vliegtuig berook.

Laat dieselfde middag vertrek hulle na Trinidad, agter die Brasiliaanse kus aan terwyl dit na die noordweste buig. Eers nadat hulle vertrek het, het die bemanning 'n onaangename ontdekking gemaak. Die meeste van hul persoonlike papiere en geld ontbreek, asook 'n militêre kaart wat deur die Amerikaanse militêre attaché in Leopoldville aan Navigator Rod Brown toevertrou is, wat duidelik deur die Brasiliaanse "fumigators" gesteel is.

Die son sak toe hulle die mond van die Amasone oorsteek, amper honderd myl breed waar dit by die see aansluit. Oor die Guineas in die donker het hulle gedreun, en uiteindelik om 03:00 die volgende oggend het hulle by Trinidad geland. Daar was 'n Pan Am -stasie in Port of Spain, en hulle het hulself en hul vermoeide lading gelukkig in vriendelike hande oorgegee.

Die laaste skof na New York was amper anti-klimaks. Net voor ses op die bittere oggend van 6 Januarie, het die beheerbeampte in die Marine Terminal by LaGuardia geskrik toe hy hoor hoe sy radio in die lewe knetter met die boodskap, "Pacific Clipper, inkomend uit Auckland, Nieu -Seeland, berig kaptein Ford. vyf minute."

In 'n laaste bietjie ironie, na meer as dertigduisend myl en tweehonderd uur se vlieg op hul epiese reis, moes die Pacific Clipper byna 'n uur lank omdraai, omdat geen landing in die hawe toegelaat is tot die amptelike sonsopkoms nie. Uiteindelik raak hulle net voor sewe aan, die spuit van hul landing vries toe dit die romp tref. Maak nie saak nie - die Pacific Clipper het huis toe gekom.

Die betekenis van die vlug word die beste geïllustreer deur die rekords wat Ford en sy bemanning opgestel het. Dit was die eerste wêreldwye vlug deur 'n kommersiële vliegtuig, sowel as die langste deurlopende vlug met 'n kommersiële vliegtuig, en was die eerste omseiling wat gevolg het op 'n roete naby die ewenaar (hulle het die ewenaar vier keer oorgesteek.) Hulle het alles aangeraak maar twee van die sewe vastelande ter wêreld het in 209 uur 31,500 myl gevlieg en 18 keer onder die vlae van 12 verskillende lande gestop. Hulle het ook die langste non-stopvlug in die geskiedenis van Pan American gemaak, 'n 3,583 myl lange oorsteek van die Suid-Atlantiese Oseaan van Afrika na Brasilië.

Die Pacific Clipper arriveer uiteindelik op 6 Januarie 1942 in LaGuardia
Namate die oorlog vorder, het dit duidelik geword dat nóg die weermag nóg die vloot genoeg toegerus of ervare was om die groot hoeveelheid lugvervoer wat oor die lang afstand benodig is, te onderneem. Pan American Airways was een van die min lugrederye in die land met die personeel en kundigheid om die militêre lugmagte aan te vul. Kaptein Bob Ford en die meeste van sy bemanning het die oorlog deurgebring om kontrakte vir die Amerikaanse weermag te kontroleer. Na die oorlog vlieg Ford verder na Pan American, wat sy roetes oor die Stille Oseaan en oor die hele wêreld aktief uitbrei. Hy verlaat die lugdiens in 1952 om ander lugvaartbelange na te streef.
Die bemanning van Pacific Clipper
Kaptein Robert FordEerste offisier John H. MackTweede beampte/navigator Roderick N. BrownDerde beampte James G. HenriksenVierde offisier John D. SteersEerste ingenieur Homans K. "Swede" RothTweede ingenieur John B. "Jocko" ParishEerste radiobeampte John Poindexter*Tweede radiobeampte Oscar HendricksonPurser Barney SawickiAsst Purser Verne C. Edwards* Poindexter sou oorspronklik die Pacific Clipper tot in Los Angeles vergesel het, en dan na San Francisco teruggekeer het, het hy selfs sy vrou gevra om die aand te eet. In Los Angeles het die gereeld geskeduleerde radiobeampte egter skielik siek geword, en Poindexter moes self die reis onderneem. Sy een hemp is gewas in elke hawe wat die Pacific Clipper besoek het.
Hierdie artikel verskyn oorspronklik in die Augustus 1999 Issue of Air and Space Magazine en word herdruk met toestemming van die skrywer. Die illustrasies is bygevoeg.

Verwante skakels

Die lang pad huis toe, 'n boek deur Ed Dover, hersiene uitgawe 2010

Die Pacific Clipper Saga aankomsknip

'N Kort video gemaak met 'n paar nuwe en' retro' -komponente (insluitend 'True Aviation Comics # 1' en 'n bietjie uit 'n ou radioprogram van Orson Welles), wat die epiese reis van kapt Robert Ford en sy bemanning op die Stille Oseaan vereer Knipper. Hulle het daarin geslaag om hul Pan Am Boeing B-314 vlieënde boot terug te kry na die VSA uit die Stille Oseaan deur die 'lang pad huis toe' te vlieg. Dit was 'n merkwaardige prestasie!

(U kan alles daaroor lees in Ed Dover se wonderlike boek "The Long Way Home"-hier is 'n skakel na 'n hoofstuk: https://www.panam.org/new-books/722-the-long-way-home- hoofstuk


Oor die Boeing 314 Clipper Flying Boat

Die Boeing 314 Clipper is die tipiese vlieënde boot. Dit is wat die meeste mense dink om die era te onthou toe Foynes floreer as die spilpunt van lugvaartaktiwiteite tussen Noord -Amerika en Europa.

Een van die grootste vliegtuie van die tyd, 12 is vir Pan American World Airways gebou, waarvan drie in 1941 aan BOAC verkoop is voor aflewering. Sedert die begin van die opname -vlugte in 1937, het Pan Am's Clippers altesaam 2,097 Atlantiese kruisings voltooi.

Die Yankee Clipper

Pan Am se Boeing B314 NC18603, die Yankee Clipper, was die eerste B314 wat aan die Atlantiese afdeling toegeken is. Dit is op 3 Maart 1939 deur Eleanor Roosevelt gedoop. Sy eerste besoek aan Foynes was op 11 April 1939 onder bevel van kaptein Harold Gray.

B314 Diens en gemak

Die diensvlak op die Boeing 314 was van 'n baie hoë standaard. Daar was 'n eetkamer met 14 sitplekke met linnedoeke, kristalglase en volledige kelnersdiens. Ongeveer 300 pond kos sou vir 'n transatlantiese vlug gelaai word, met al die kos wat deur twee rentmeesters voorberei is.

Die hoë gemak was belangrik, aangesien sommige van die vlugte van Foynes na Botwood na die weste so lank as 17 uur geduur het. Passasiers vind hul skoene oornag skoongemaak en gepoleer, en elke passasier het 'n bed om in te slaap tydens die vlug.

Die vliegdek

Die ontwerp van die Boeing 314 Clipper ’s -vliegdek was baanbrekend en het nuwe stappe gedoen om die ernstige probleem van bemanning op non -stop seevlugte die hoof te bied. Elke B314 -vlug het ten minste 11 bemanningslede gehad, maar meer gereeld het hulle ook bemanningsopleiding aan boord gehad.

'N Deursnit van die binnekant van die B314 toon die anker en ratkamer aan die boog van die vliegtuig, wat ook 'n vasmeerpaal gehad het. Vanuit hierdie kamer lei 'n gang na die brug, wat heeltemal in swart omring is om glans uit te skakel. Hier het twee vlieëniers die kontroles hanteer wat die vliegtuig bestuur het. Aan die agterkant van die brug was die navigasie- en radiokamer, die riglyn van die skip. Daaragter was die laairuim, wat gewoonlik pos bevat.

Die passasiersgebiede

Onder die vliegdek was die kombuis en eetkamer, en sewe passasiersruimtes was oor die lengte van die vlieënde boot gespan. Die een in die stert van die skip was 'n luukse kompartement wat ongeveer ooreenstem met die bruidsuite van 'n skip.

Die bokant en onderkant van die B314

Aan die onderkant van die vliegtuig pomp pompe gedwonge petrol wat in borge gestoor is, tot by die vlerks en enjins. Die bokant van die vliegtuig het die hemelse waarnemingstoring, waaruit die posisie van die vlieënde boot teen die son, maan en sterre nagegaan is.

'N Besige dag vir Foynes

Saterdag, 18 Augustus 1945 was 'n rekorddag vir Pan American World Airways se bedrywighede in Foynes. Twee knippers - die Atlanties en die Dixie—Soggend uit New York aangekom en die aand teruggekeer. Daardie dag is 101 transatlantiese passasiers op die lughawe hanteer. Dit was die rekord vir 'n dag se operasie deur een lugredery. Op reis was onderdane uit Groot -Brittanje, Argentinië, Swede, Switserland, Frankryk, Tsjeggo -Slowakye, Nederland en die VSA.

Die lot van die Boeing 314's

Ongelukkig bestaan ​​daar vandag geen B314 Clippers nie. Hieronder is die katalogus wat die lot van die Yankee Clipper en alle ander B314 vlieënde bote wat deur Pan Am en BOAC (British Overseas Airways Corporation) bestuur word.


Iwo Jima bedrywighede

Kampioen het op 16 Februarie 1945 by Iwo Jima aangekom, toe die voorlopige drie dae lange bombardement van die eiland begin het. Behalwe vir die tydperk 21 Februarie tot 4 Maart, toe sy die gelaaide aanrandingsvaart na Saipan begelei het, waarvandaan sy teruggekeer het met hernuwings, Kampioen het tot 7 Maart by Iwo Jima gebly. Nadat sy by Ulithi voorsien en aangevuur het, het sy na Kerama Retto en Okinawa gevaar. In hierdie gevaarlike waters het sy mynevee -operasies uitgevoer en van 24 Maart tot 19 Junie op skerms diens gedoen, afgesien van 'n konvooi -begeleiding na Saipan van 25 April tot 19 Mei.


April 1945

  • 0100, spoed verander na 12 knope. Alle hande beman algemene kwartiere, vyandelike vliegtuie in die omgewing. Geen vliegtuig is afgeskiet op vyandelike vliegtuie nie.
  • 0616 begin met vuur op vyandelike vliegtuie.
  • 0617 het die vliegtuig neergestort en in USS ADAMS (DM-27) geduik en in die water gestort. Stuur ongeval na ADAMS.
  • 0619, USS ARDENT (AM-340) beveel om by ADAMS te staan ​​om hulp te verleen.
  • 0620, changed course to 320 degrees T by emergency turn to stay clear of ADAMS which has lost steering control.
  • 0632, commenced firing at enemy aircraft.
  • 0635, ceased firing plane disappeared into cloud.
  • 0640, sighted plane attempting suicide dive on USS SWEARER (DE-186), about 6,000 yards on starboard bow. Plane did not hit SWEARER but crashed into water.
  • 1200, position: Lat 26D-20’ N Long. 127D-22’ E.
  • 1340, stationed special sea details and proceeded on various courses and speeds into harbor in KERAMA RETTO, Okinawa Islands group.
  • 1415, Moored alongside USS KISHWAUKEE (AOG-9) port side to and commenced taking on fuel oil.
  • 0021, all hands manned general quarters stations enemy aircraft in immediate vicinity.
  • 0045, USS ACHERNA (AKA-53) 3500 yards on port beam, hit by enemy suicide plane (a two-engine bomber that passed low overhead the USS DEFENSE according to War Diary) and fire broke out on weather deck. DEFENSE left station to stand-by ACHERNA to render assistance. Closed to about 400 yards but unable to communicate by voice radio.
  • [Roy’s Note: the official US Navy History shows the ACHERNA being hit on April 1 – but the DEFENSE deck logs show the ship being hit on the second]
  • 0110, ACHERNA brought fire under control, increased speed to about 15 knots and rejoined own formation. [War Diary differs slightly – says name of ship was “ACHEINA”]
  • 0126, returned to patrol station.
  • 0622, began firing on enemy aircraft. Ceased fire as friendly planes were in line of fire.
  • 0911, proceeded to harbor in KERAMA RETTO, Okinawa Island Group.
  • 1745, provisions and stores boat alongside.
  • 1810, Underway pursuant to orders CTG 52.2, proceeding to screening station A-56 at various courses and speeds on all engines standing out protected anchorage, KERAMA RETTO.
  • 1845, commenced firing at unidentified aircraft.
  • 1847, ceased firing.
  • 2000, entered smoke screen with visibility of about 500 yards, proceeding on various courses and speeds to maneuver safely through groups of ships.
  • 0109, all hands manned general quarters stations, enemy aircraft in vicinity of Okinawa.
  • 0555, all hands manned general quarters stations, enemy aircraft in vicinity.
  • 0715, commenced patrolling station 2,000 yards southeast of station A-56 upon visual orders of CTG 51.5 represtentative.

[Note from Official US Navy History: United States Naval Advanced Air Base, Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, is established. Koiso -kabinet in Japan bedank Admiraal Suzuki word premier.

  • 0310, all hands manned general quarters stations, enemy aircraft present.
  • 0800, joined column formation with USS REQUISITE (AM-109), USS TRIUMPH (AM-323), and USS VIGILANCE (AM-324), on course 160 degrees T, speed 15 knots. OTC is CominDiv 13 in REQUISITE.
  • 0802, changed speed to 5 knots and commenced streamin “o” type and acoustic minesweeping gear.
  • 0834, all minesweep gear streamed, 300 fathoms port and starboard sweep wire, 40 ft. float pendants, 18 fathoms depressor wire, hammer box at 30 feet.
  • 0906, USS SPEAR (AM-322) joined formation.
  • 0907, entered area D-2 and commenced scheduled sweeping operations on various courses conforming to contour of area.
  • 1428, completed scheduled sweep of assigned area D-2. Made preparations to recover minesweeping gear. Sweep results negative.
  • 1509, set course to 210 degrees T, speed 15 knots, proceeding independently awaiting orders from CTG 51.5.
  • 1536, all hands manned general quarters stations, enemy aircraft attacking various units at beachhead.
  • 1800, all hands manned general quarters stations. AA gunfire seen coming from TF 54 which bore 270 degrees T, distance 6 miles.
  • 1802, increased speed to flank with radical changes of course, enemy aircraft in large numbers seen to be coming in from northwest. One plane made suicide run on this vessel and was shot down by 20mm fire. (the War Diary states that this was a Val)
  • 1804, speed reduced to standard and ship steadied on northerly heading.
  • 1805, two suicide planes (Vals) commenced runs from the east on this vessel and were taken under heavy fire by starboard battery. Speed increased to flank with radical changes of course. One plane pulled out, other plane crashed into flying bridge and superstructure.
  • 1806, all engines stopped until report that only minor damage had been received on the bridge.
  • 1807, speed increased to flank with radical changes of course as another plane was observed making a run on this vessel from west. Plane was taken under fire by starboard battery but crashed 40mm platform. Course was changed to westward to close with TF 54 as still more enemy planes were observed in the air and this vessel had received some damage from shrapnel.
  • 1815, reduced speed to standard and commenced to close with USS NEWCOMB (DD-586) and USS LEUTZE (DD-481) which had received major damage and were burning.
  • 1820, commenced to pull along starboard side of LEUTZE, but received orders from Commanding Officer of LEUTZE to pick up survivors. Commenced maneuvering as instructed.
  • 1825, vessel violently shaken by explosion of depth charges from one of damaged vessels nearby.
  • 1853, BOWELL, James Padelford, SM3c, USNR, went over the side and rescued WALKER, H., StM1c, a non-swimmer, whom he brought back to the ship. BOWELL went over the side a second time, taking two life preservers to five men, two of whom were seriously burned. Bowell is to be commended for his actions done in the face of possible combined air attacks and darkness coming on rapidly. He materially speeded the recovery of survivors without thought of himself.
  • The following ammunition was expended during the attack: 45 rounds 3”/50 cal 550 rounds 40mm 3600 rounds 20mm.
  • Material damage suffered was as follows: Hull: Seven holes in starboard side near and above waterline varying in size from 2” in diameter to 2” x 6” ten holes in superstructure varying in size up to 6” in diameter one shroud starboard side almost severed life lines and stanchions on forecastle deck carried away two holes in ship’s boat. Ordnance: One 40mm gun and one 20mm gun damaged two 40mm ready boxes bent out of shape and covers ripped off one Mk 14 sight damaged beyond repair six 20mm magazines damaged 3”/50 cal. Operating handle not functioning properly. Radio: all high frequency antenna carried away.
  • 1900, received orders from ComDesRon 55 in USS PORTERFIELD (DD-682) to take LEUTZE in tow.
  • 2005, LEUTZE secured astern with 1,000 fathoms of towing cable. Commenced slow acceleration on all engines on course 280 degrees T.

Location of ship: Lat. 25° 49’N Long. 126° 13’E
Time Zone: 1600 Date: Friday, April 6, 1945, ELD
1. Surprise attack? Yes Day or Night: Day
2. Method picking plane up: Naked eye
3. Range plane was picked up: 5 miles
4. Total number of planes observed: Many – 20 to 30. Type: Fighters, bombers and torpedo
5. Number of planes attacking own ship: 4 Type: Believe all were Vals
6. Number of planes taken under fire by own ship: 4 Type: Vals
7. Speed and altitude of approach in knots and feet: 100-120 K 100 feet
8. Number of guns firing – by caliber: 1 – 3”/50, 8 – 20MM, 2 – 40MM
9. Ammunition expended – by caliber and type: 45 rounds 3” 550 rounds 40MM 3600 rounds 20MM
10. Percent service allowance expended: 18% 11.5% 7%
11. Method of control: Optical Method of spotting: Tracer
Method of ranging: Estimated Method of firing: Rapid fire
12. Approximate time-tracking to first shot: None
13. Approximate time of first hits: 1603
14, Approximate time first shot to last shot: 7 minutes
15. Approximate position angle open fire: #1 – 10° bearing 270° relative #2 – 20° bearing 090° relative #3 – 20° bearing 050° relative #4 – 20° bearing 050° relative.
16. Approximate position angle cease fire: #1 – 0° bearing 030° relative #2 – crashed into ship forward #3 – crashed into ship aft #4 – not known.
17. Approximate bearing first shot: 270° relative
18. Approximate bearing last shot: 090° relative
19. Approximate range of first shot: 5,000 – 6,000 yards Altitude of plane: Not over 100 feet.
20. Approximate minimum range aircraft approached: #1 – 150 feet #4 – 500-700 yards.
21. Approximate range of last shot: ---- Altitude of plane: ---
22. Approximate altitude of bomb release: --- Size of bomb: ---
23. Approximate range of torpedo release: --- Size of torpedo: ---
24. Number of hits on ship by bombs: none By torpedo: --- Was ship strafed: Yes, by plane #2 Size gun: 25 cal.
25. Number near bomb misses damaging ship: none
26. Planes shot down: SURE SURE PROBABLE DAMAGED
(by own ship) (assist)
those attacking own ship: 3
Other aircraft
27. Best estimate of size gun or guns responsible for each “sure”: Plane #1 by 20MM planes #2 and #3 crashed.
28. Performance of ammunition: Excellent
29. What failures in material occurred in this action?: None
30. Sketch:
(a) Indicate direction of attack relative to ship’s head
(b) Show relative postion of sun
(c) Indicate own maneuvers.

The USS DEFENSE was patrolling Station A-35 on a northwesterly course and a Task Force of capital ships was retiring for the night about six miles to the westward. As this vessel’s Air Search radar was inoperative the first indication of attack was the observation of AA fire from that Force. Many planes were observed flying in all directions. DEFENSE changed to a northerly course parallel that of the Task Force. Plane number 1 came in from the north to about half way between the Task Force and DEFENSE and then turned sharply toward DEFENSE and stared its run. When the run started range was about 5,000 yards and an altitude about 100 feet. Fire was opened with all guns that could bear, 1 – 3”/50, 4 – 20MM and 1 – 40MM (single mount). At about 1,000 yards and 50 feet altitude the plane pulled up sharply and passed directly over DEFENSE at right angles to its base course. DEFENSE was maneuvering at about 17 knots. Fire was taken up by the starboard battery and the plane was seen hit by 20MM fire just under the cockpit. The plane turned left into a dive and splashed about 700-800 yards on the starboard bow. The pilot did not bail out and no explosion seemed to take place when hitting the water.
Plane number 2 had started its run probably before plane number 1 had splashed. It came in from the northeastward and was not observed until probably less than 2,500 yards, altitude 50-75 feet. The starboard battery opened fire but the plane crashed the bridge structure forward, on the starboard side. Oil, gasoline, and parts of the plane were all over the ship. Most of the pilot was in the flying bridge and his parachute hung from the yard arm. There might have been a second pilot in the plane as another parachute that went across the ship hit the water on the port side and opened. Where the engine went, or the explosive if one was carried, is not known. The only fire started inside the flying bridge and was stamped out before fire extinguishers arrived. A splash on the starboard side, large enough to put water on the bridge, indicated that there might be hull damage so the vessel was slowed for investigation. Before a report could reach the bridge planes number 3 and 4 were seen forward on the starboard bow, already having started their run. DEFENSE went back to flank speed. These planes came in together wing-tip to wing-tip. The starboard battery opened fire. Plane number 3 must have crowded plane number 4 because the latter turned off. Plane number 3 continued in and crashed the 40MM platform just aft of #2 stack. Again much of the plane was left on deck but most of it, including the heavy parts, went over the port side. There was no explosion and no fire.

G. Abbott,
Lt. Comdr., USNR,
Commanding Officer.

[ROY’S NOTE: According to eyewitness reports, plane number 2 actually exploded at a range of 25-30 yards, spattering shrapnel, fuel, seawater and pieces of the unfortunate pilot all over the front of the DEFENSE. The “second pilot” landed in the ocean on the port side of the ship and was promptly machine-gunned, even though he was probably dead when he hit the water.]

  • 0634, passed through nets into KERAMA RETTO ANCHORAGE.
  • 0719, Lying to in vicinity of USS CRESENT CITY (APA-21) awaiting boats to transfer injured men. Lieutenant Commander WORDEN, (MC), USNR, CominPac staff Medical Officer, came aboard to assist in transfer of patiets.
  • 0741, Boats from USS CRESENT CITY came alongside and men were transferred for medical treatment.
  • 1400, transferred the survivors from USS NEWCOMB (DD-586) to USS WAYNE (APA-34) for disposition.
  • 1354, completed streaming “O” type gear, port and starboard with 300 fathoms sweep wire, 60 foot float pendants, 30 fathoms depressor wire.
  • 1828, completed recovery of gear. Sweep results negative.
  • 1912, changed course to 025 degrees T and commenced patrolling in channel east of TOKASHIKI SHIMA and south of MAE SHIMA on course 025 degrees T and 205 degrees T.
  • 1038, entered KEREMA RETTO ANCHORAGE, maneuvering on various courses and speeds to anchorage in vicinity of USS TERROR (CM-5).
  • 1415, DANGELO, E. J., MoMM2c, went over the side in shallow water diving outfit to investigate possible seam ruptures at various parts of the ship.
  • 1445, completed diving operation.
  • 0800, reported to Commander L.S.T Flotilla 6 pursuant to ComTaskFor 51 dispatch 100710 for duty in Task Unit 51.29.13. ComTaskUnit, L.S.T. Flotilla 6 in LCI 1080. ComDesRon 45 in USS BENNETT (DD-473) as screen commander with following escorts: USS WESSON (DE-184), USS SC-1049, USS SC-1314, USS YMS 398, and USS YMS 311. This vessel in station 51809 screen, escorting LST Flotilla 6, on base course 205 degrees T, base speed 7.5 knots.
  • 1200, with Point Chiyama bearing 085 degrees T, distance 13 miles, took departure for Siapan Island, Mariannas Islands, on course 148 degrees T, speed 7.5 knots.

[Note from Official US Navy History: President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies Vice President Harry S. Truman succeeds to the Presidency.


HistoryLink.org

During the 1930s, transoceanic travel was beyond the capability of all but a handful of aircraft. The solution was offered by giant dirigibles such as the Graf Zeppelin en Hindenburg and by ever larger "flying boats" -- multi-engine airplanes with boat-like hulls. The most elegant and successful of these was Boeing's Model 314, which first flew in 1938 and operated through World War II. The last of a dozen aircraft built was destroyed in 1951.

A Most Luxurious Airliner

The noble 314 Clipper with its flying boat hull, protruding sponsons and triple vertical tails was very different from today’s sleek jet airliners with their tubular fuselages and swept back wings. While contemporary airliners provide high speed and efficiency, the Clipper conjures up thoughts of adventure and the elegance of a bygone era. It was the first to open the Atlantic Ocean to scheduled airline service in 1939, filling a void left by the tragic end of the pioneer Zeppelin airship service, which began in 1928, and was stopped in 1937 by the loss of the Hindenburg.

Youthful Pan American Airways (PAA), formed in 1927, had by 1939 become the world standard airline, and was unique in providing both trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic scheduled service with the 314. It also offered the only non-stop services exceeding 2,000 miles (also with its Martin China Clipper flying boats). PAA purchased a landplane for its first airplane, the Fokker Trimotor, and became the motive force for the development of the large passenger carrying flying boat and very luxurious long-range airline service.

Boeing’s Clipper for PAA is perhaps the best remembered of its early aircraft, and it evokes a quick smile from the aviation fan and average person alike. Sadly, none of the 12 magnificent Clippers built survive today.

The first trans-Atlantic air service was initiated by Deutsche Zeppelin Reederei of Germany on October 11, 1928. Its non-scheduled, seasonal mail and cargo service between Germany and the United States first used the giant hydrogen gas-buoyed dirigible Graf Zeppelin. Up to 20 passengers could ride along, paying $461 for a one-way ticket for a trip requiring 80 to 100 hours of flying time. This luxury service (including staterooms, dining room, lounge, piano, observation deck, smoking room) continued until May 6, 1937, when the dirigible Hindenburg crashed at Lakehurst, New Jersey.

The Voyage of the Clipper Begins

Shortly after placing the Martin China Clipper into service during 1935, PAA president Juan T. Trippe asked the aircraft industry for a higher capacity, longer range flying boat airliner with less payload limitations than the Martin. Boeing discussions with PAA began that year, with the result that PAA ordered six aircraft from Boeing for $4.8 M on July 21, 1936, and optioned six more.

The order for luxury airliners demonstrated that the aviation industry, airlines and manufacturing, was prospering and advancing in the 1930s Great Depression. Later PAA ordered six improved 314A’s on October 1, 1939. Wellwood Beall, engineer and salesman, originated the 314 design which was similar in basic configuration to the earlier Martin M-130 China Clipper, but was a state-of-the-art, high performance, luxurious ocean-spanning airliner that was reliable in service and very popular with passengers and crew.

Test pilot Eddie Allen flew the Boeing 314 NX18601 Clipper on its first flight on June 7, 1938, from the waters of Puget Sound, in Seattle and remained aloft for 38 minutes. Ironically, on the same day in southern California, the Douglas DC-4E landplane airliner prototype also made its first flight.

Despite its commitment to flying boats, PAA was among five sponsoring airlines of the DC-4E in 1936, but before it flew opted out due to high costs and projected performance shortfalls. In 1937, PAA ordered the smaller Boeing 307 landplane long range airliner. PAA briefly considered flying the 307 across the north Atlantic, but never did. The Douglas was similar in configuration to the later Lockheed Constellation including triple vertical tails. Complex systems and high maintenance costs cancelled DC-4E production, but the simplified, unpressurized single vertical tail C-54 Skymaster/DC-4 was built in quantity during and after World War II.

Boeing was busy with several other projects in addition to flight-testing the 314 from Lake Washington, east of Seattle, Washington. On June 22, 1938, 15 days after the 314 flew, Boeing and PAA publicly announced the follow-on model 326 giant flying boat airliner. It was so large that tugboats were to be used during harbor maneuvers. None of the model 326, nor any of four competing designs in the 1937 PAA contest for a flying ocean liner capable of crossing the Atlantic non-stop with 100 passengers flying in pressurized comfort above the weather, was built.

Six months after the 314, the 307 Stratoliner flew on December 31, 1938. It operationally introduced cabin pressurization and power boosted control surfaces to airline service in 1940, beginning with PAA, which ordered four. Flight-testing of the B-17A Flying Fortress with turbo-supercharged engines led to the first production high altitude bomber, the B-17B, during 1939.

Transatlantic Air Travel

Within a year of its first flight, PAA began 314 scheduled transpacific passenger and mail service on March 29, 1939, with flights from San Francisco to Hong Kong. The Atlantic Ocean was next with the first scheduled airplane passenger service from New York City to Europe beginning on June 28, 1939. The 314 ushered in a new era of transatlantic travel -- scheduled airline service providing an Atlantic ocean crossing in less than a day (weather permitting). Fuel stops were made in Eire or the Azores, depending upon final destination.

It provided the ultimate in luxury airplane travel in its day, un-matched even today in sheer elegance. The air conditioned and heated cabin had: five passenger compartments, a sit-down dining room with china and linen service, a bar, men’s and women’s dressing rooms, a galley, a honeymoon suite and sleeping berths. First class fare (the only choice) from New York to Marseilles, France, was $375 each way.

PAA nautical theme bestowed the crew with maritime ratings and uniforms. A master crew position, equivalent to a ship’s captain, was in overall command. His desk (without flying controls) was on the port side of the control cabin, third behind the (first) pilot and the navigator. With operating experience, this position was later eliminated. Trippe borrowed and copyrighted the term Clipper from the New England-built sleek and fast sailing ships of the 1850s. The 314 was the fourth PAA airplane to bear the Clipper appellation.

The British Short S.26 G-Class flying boat airliner was the only direct competitor to the 314. It was a larger, more powerful development of the S.23 C-Class Empire flying boat, designed expressly for transatlantic service. World War II prevented the start of airline service, and the three aircraft built were taken into the Royal Air Force for patrol duties.

In 1941 British Overseas Airways Corporation purchased three 314A's from PAA (prior to delivery and probably under pressure from the U.S. government) for $1 million each, to establish rapid transatlantic communications. These exported aircraft, plus the Martin M-156 sold to the USSR, were the only overseas sales of new, U.S. built, large passenger-carrying flying boats.

During World War II. the 314’s flew high-priority passengers and cargo for the U.S. and U.K. military services. President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill (he had a short stint at the co-pilot’s controls during a flight home) were among those carried. Roosevelt was flown to the Casablanca Conference, to meet with Churchill and Stalin, on January 14, 1943, thus becoming the first in-office president to fly, and the 314 Dixie Clipper the first presidential airplane. Additionally, clandestine missions were flown in support of the war effort.

End of an Era

PAA flew its last Clipper service in 1946, bringing an end to the golden era of the passenger-carrying flying boat, which had begun less than 20 years earlier. The majestic flying boats were replaced by the more utilitarian and faster Douglas DC-4 and Lockheed Constellation landplanes. In 1951, the last existing Clipper, 314A NC16808/G-AGCA Berwick was raised, then scrapped, after sinking in the Baltimore, Maryland, harbor.

314 Clipper Flying Boat Facts

  • Introduced regularly scheduled transatlantic airplane passenger service -- Pan American Airways 314 Dixie Clipper on June 28, 1939, from New York City to Marseilles, France.
  • Greatest passenger capacity (74) airliner in-service in 1939.
  • Most powerful in-service engines (Wright R-2600 1,500 hp) in 1939 -- typical was 1,100 hp.
  • Longest range (5,200 miles ferry) operational airliner and airplane (314A) in-service in 1941.
  • First in-service widebody fuselage (12.5 feet/150 inches overall) airliner -- not exceeded until the Boeing 747 (21.33 feet/256 inches) of 1969.
  • Upper deck control cabin/cockpit -- a concept again used by Boeing in the 747.
  • First spiral staircase used by Boeing similar staircases were later used on the Stratocruiser and 747.
  • First airplane sold for a million dollars each.
  • One tough airplane -- the Honolulu Clipper required 1,300 rounds of friendly 20mm cannon fire from the USS San Pablo before sinking. The abandoned aircraft was damaged after a forced landing due to engine failure, and was considered a menace to navigation.
  • First U.S. presidential airplane -- the Dixie Clipper ferried Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Casablanca Conference during World War II, on January 14, 1943.

Boeing Clipper over Seattle, 1930s

Boeing 314 Clipper lifts off from Elliott Bay, Seattle, ca. 1938

Cutaway diagram of Boeing 314 showing flight deck and navigator's perch

Boeing 314 Clipper navigator taking a celestial sighting from seaplane's dome

Boeing 314 Clipper on the waves, 1930s

Pan American Airways poster of the late 1930s featuring the Boeing 314 Clipper.

Dixie Clipper (Boeing B314) completes first transatlantic passenger flight, New York to Lisbon, Portugal, June 29, 1939.


Evaluation and treatment of infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male factors, ovulatory dysfunction, uterine abnormalities, tubal obstruction, peritoneal factors, or cervical factors. A history and physical examination can help direct the evaluation. Men should undergo evaluation with a semen analysis. Abnormalities of sperm may be treated with gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Ovulation should be documented by serum progesterone level measurement at cycle day 21. Evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes can be performed by hysterosalpingography in women with no risk of obstruction. For patients with a history of endometriosis, pelvic infections, or ectopic pregnancy, evaluation with hysteroscopy or laparoscopy is recommended. Women with anovulation may be treated in the primary care setting with clomiphene to induce ovulation. Treatment of tubal obstruction generally requires referral for subspecialty care. Unexplained infertility in women or men may be managed with another year of unprotected intercourse, or may proceed to assisted reproductive technologies, such as intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization.


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Friday, February 21, 2020

Bismarck See (CVE-95) Sunk

WED 21 FEB 1945
Stille Oseaan
Navy and USAAF planes bomb and strafe Japanese installations at Truk.

Off Iwo Jima, kamikazes sink escort carrier Bismarck See (CVE-95), 24䓤'N, 141䓰'E, and damage carrier Saratoga (CV-3), 24䓸'N, 142䓁'E (Saratoga is also hit by a bomb) escort carrier Lungapunt (CVE-94), 24䓨'N, 141䓬'E tank landing ships LST-477, 24䓨'N, 141䓬'E, and LST-809, 24䓈'N, 142䓆'E and net cargo ship Keokuk (AKN-4), 24䓤'N, 141䓰'E. Small carrier Langley (CVL-27) is damaged by bomb. Japanese mortar fire damages tank landing ship LST-390, 24䓮'N,141䓓'E. Collisions account for damage to destroyer Williamson (DD-244) and oiler Suamico (AO-49), 24䓧'N, 142䓁'E destroyer Bradford (DD-545) and tank landing ship LST-812 attack cargo ship Yancey (AKA-93) and heavy cruiser Pensacola (CA-24), 24䓮'N, 141䓓'E. Heavy weather damages medium landing ship LSM-43.

Tank landing craft LCT-175 founders and sinks in heavy weather, 04䓛'N, 133䓨'E.

Destroyer Renshaw (DD-499) is torpedoed by Japanese submarine RO 43 south of Siquijor Island P.I., 24䓤'N, 141䓰'E. RO 43 escapes a ten-hour search by destroyers Waller (DD-466) and Shaw (DD-373) around Siquijor Island.

Japannees Coast Defense Vessel No.72 en Coast Defense Vessel No.150 are damaged in collision off Wenchow, China.

Submarine Gato (SS-212) sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Tairiku Maru in Yellow Sea off west coast of Korea, 35䓘'N, 125䓗'E.

Japanese merchant tanker Eiyo Maru, damaged by submarine Guavina (SS-362) the previous day, sinks off Cape Padaran, French Indochina, 11䓖'N, 109䓖'E.

Japanese cargo ship Fukusei Maru sinks after running aground off Cape Shirazaki, Honshu, 41䓀'N, 142䓀'E.


WEB OF EVIL (& ENNUI)

SAT 17 FEB 1945
Stille Oseaan
Fire support ships, minesweeping units, and underwater demolition teams (UDT) arrive off Iwo Jima and encounter fire from shore batteries. UDT reconnaissance discloses that no underwater obstacles exist, and that the surf and beach conditions are suitable for landings. Infantry landing craft (gunboat) LCI(G)-474 is sunk by shore battery, while supporting UDT operations. Japanese guns also account for damage to battleship Tennessee (BB-43), 24䓬'N, 141䓓'E heavy cruiser Pensacola (CA-24) and destroyer Leutze (DD-481), 24䓮'N, 141䓓'E as well as to infantry landing craft (gunboats) LCI(G)-346, LCI(G)-348, LCI(G)-438, LCI(G)-441, LCI(G)-449, LCI(G)-450, LCI(G)-457, LCI(G)-466, LCI(G)-469, LCI(G)-471, en LCI(G)-473. On board the damaged LCI(G)-449, her commanding officer, Lieutenant Rufus G. Herring, although badly wounded, cons his crippled ship himself, maintaining her position in support of the unfolding UDT operations until she is able to move to safety. For his heroism, Herring is awarded the Medal of Honor.

Light cruisers Phoenix (CL-46) and Boise (CL-47), along with three destroyers, provide call-fire support for continuing operations on Corregidor. Light cruiser Cleveland (CL-55) and destroyers O'Bannon (DD-450) and Taylor (DD-468) bombard the Ternate area, south shore of Manila Bay. Fleet tug Hidatsa (ATF-102) is damaged by mine in Mariveles harbor, Luzon, 14䓙'N, 120䓞'E.

Destroyer Haynesworth (DD-700) sinks Japanese guardboat No.36 Nanshin Maru southwest of Mikimoto light and auxiliary submarine chaser Wafu Maru off Omaezaki Light.

Submarine Bowfin (SS-287) sinks Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No.56 five miles east of Mikura Jima, central Honshu, 33䓵'N, 139䓫'E. Bowfin and aircraft sink guardboat No.26 Nanshin Maru southwest of Mikimoto light, 30䓅'N, 135䓏'E.

British submarine HMS Statesman attacks Japanese convoy off Ujong Tamiang, 04䓚'N, 98䓐E, sinking motor sailships No.3 Matsujima Maru en 19 Nippon Maru en 17 Nanyo Maru en No. 14 Nippon Maru.

Mynveër Kampioen (AM-314) is damaged by horizontal bomber, 26䓀'N, 128䓀'E.

Coast Guard cutter Atalanta (WPC-102), en route to assist lighthouse tender Bramble (WAGL-389) (damaged by grounding the previous day) collides with and damages mail boat Neptunus near Steamer Point Light, Aleutians. District patrol craft YP-251 escorts the damaged Neptunus to Naval Section Base, Ketchikan, while Atalanta, undamaged, continues on her mission.

District patrol craft YP-94, returning from landing supplies on Chirikof Island runs aground at the southern end of Tugidak and Sitkinak Islands rescue tug ATR-68 is dispatched from Kodiak, Alaska, to render assistance, while air-sea rescue coordination succeeds in rescuing all hands (see 23 February).

USAAF B-24s (5th Air Force), on an antishipping sweep over the South China Sea, sink Japanese landing ship T.114 off southern coast of Formosa, 23䓄'N, 120䓞'E.

Japanese army cargo vessel Yamashio Maru is sunk by aircraft, Yokohama harbor.

Japanese merchant tanker No.28 Nanshin Maru is sunk by aircraft, 30䓀'N, 138䓞'E.

Japanese merchant cargo ship Daibi Maru is sunk, by aircraft, off Chichi Jima.

Japanese submarine chaser Ch 47 is damaged by aircraft, 32䓭'N, 111䓸'E.

During diving operations in West Loch, Pearl Harbor, on the wreckage of tank landing ships sunk in the ammunition explosions in that area in 1944, Boatswain's Mate Second Class Owen F. P. Hammerberg risks his own life to save two fellow divers trapped while tunnelling under a wrecked LST. Although Hammerberg's efforts are successful, he suffers mortal injuries in a cave-in, to which he succumbs 18 hours later. For his heroism, Hammerberg is awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously.

Europa
Motor torpedo boat PT-605 is sunk by striking submerged object off Ostend, Belgium.


Kyk die video: FC De Kampioenen s12e03 Vuil Spel 1080p HD (Januarie 2022).