Geskiedenis Podcasts

Pinon AN -66 - Geskiedenis

Pinon AN -66 - Geskiedenis

Pinon

(AN-66: dp. 1,190 (v.), 1. 194'7 "; b. 34'7" dr. 11'9 ", s. 14 k .;
kpl. 48; a. 1 3 ", 4 20 mm., 2 mg; vgl. Ailanthus)

Ptnon (AN-66), 'n netto tender, W&S neergelê op 9 Maart 1943 bv American Car and Foundry Co. Wilmington, Del. As YN-87; van stapel gestuur 16 Januarie 1944; aangewys Pinon (AN66) 20 Januarie 1944, en in opdrag van 31 Maart 1944.

Nadat die Atlantiese kus geskud en opgelei is, staan ​​Pinon uit die hawe van New York op 24 Junie 1944 en stoom na Belfast, Noord -Ierland, en arriveer op 10 Julie. Pinon het gedurende die herfs net-diens in beide Belfast en Plymouth, Engeland, gelewer. Vertrek uit Plymouth 6 November en woon in by Norfolk, Va. 21 November tot 10 Desember. Sy ondergaan daarna beskikbaarheid in Curtisbaai, Baltimore, Md. 11 Desember tot 26 Januarie 1945.

Pinon het op 31 Januarie by Hamptan Roads, Va, gebel en dan deur Guantanamobaai en die Panama -kanaal gereis: vir diens by kommandeur, Pacific 13 Februarie. Nadat sy op 19 Maart beskikbaar was in San Diego, het sy Pearl Harbor besoek en vandaar die nette opgepas by Eniwetok vanaf 22 April, in Guam (27 April tot 20 Junie), by Tinian/Saipan gedurende die eerste week van Julie en in Okinawa tot 15 Oktober .

Toe sy op 12 Desember na Pearl Harbor bel, het sy na San Diego gegaan en twee dae voor Kersfees aangekom. Pinon word op 5 Maart 1946 by San Diego ontmantel en is op 20 Maart 1946 van die Vlootlys geslaan. Sy is verkoop en in handelsdiens geplaas as Alaska Reefer, sy is op 28 Augustus 1961 op see verlore.


Die wrak van die Alaska Reefer

Die F/V Alaska Reefer is 'n maklike wrakduik, net suid van Walan Point (Indiese eiland) aan die oostekant van Port Townsendbaai. Die skip het in 1961 as 'n vries- of verkoelingskip vir die Alaska Salmon -vissery gewerk toe dit aan die brand geslaan het. Die USCG Minnetonka het die vuurbeskadigde vaartuig op 28 Augustus 1961 na Port Townsend gesleep. Die brand is vermoedelik geblus, maar het weer opgevlam en op 29 Augustus is die Alaska Reefer gegrond en op sy huidige plek gesink.

Die 175 lange skip met houtromp het haar lewe begin as 'n netto tender met die naam USS Pinon (AN 66). Sy is in 1944 deur die American Car and Foundry, Co., gebou en het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog diens gedoen van onderzeese nette in Engeland. Sy is in 1946 verkoop aan die 'Alaska Refer Fisheries' -onderneming en weer as 'n verkoelingskip toegerus.

Vandag rus sy aan haar hawekant in vlak water naby die ammunisie -dok op die Indiese eiland. Die agterstewe rus in 50 water en die boog in ongeveer 15 water. Daarbenewens lê 'n groot bergingsak onder die hoek van die kiel van die Reefer en raak amper die romp net onder die agterste buis en roerpaal. Daar is ook 'n ou sleepboot onder die koeler wat in 1911 gesink het.

Die houtromp van die verwys word besig om te verrot en laat die ribbes van die skip blootgestel word. Verskeie van die ruimtes is oop en bied duikers wat deur sonlig gedompel kan word om te geniet en te verken. Baie van die ou verkoelingsmasjinerie en leidings is nog steeds sigbaar en stukke van die diesel-elektriese kragstasie kan nog in die motorkamer gesien word.

Die groot bergingswa langs die koeler is verminder tot groot ribbes en anemone. As u langs die kiel van die Reefer na die agterstewe swem, sal u geleidelik die skeletoorblyfsels van die vaartuig op u sien toemaak terwyl die sonlig vreemd deur die donker bos van die ribbes se rande dans.

As u die Alaska Reefer per boot besoek, moet u nie toelaat dat u boot oor die voorste deel van die wrak swaai nie, aangesien die romp net onder die oppervlak van die water is en die stut op u duikboot maklik kan beskadig. Die ligging van hierdie wrak is goed gemerk op NOAA-kaart # 18464. Soek die wrakikoon net 300 meter suid-oos van Walan-punt op Indian Island (oostekant van Port Townsendbaai). Let daarop dat die werkende ammunisie -beskuldigdebank 'n beperkte navigasiegebied is, dus gee Walan -punt 'n breë kooi en kom die wrak uit die suidweste nader om nie die woede van die Naval Patrol -boot op die stasie te trek nie.

Pinon (AN 66), 'n netto tender, is op 9 Maart 1943 deur die American Car and Foundry Co., Wilmington, Del., Neergelê as YN87. Sy is op 16 Januarie 1944 op 20 Januarie 1944 bekendgestel as Pinon en in gebruik geneem op 31 Maart 1944. Enkel propeller, 2500 HP diesel-elektries.

Nadat die Atlantiese kus afgeskud en opgelei is, het Pinon op 10 Julie 1944 in Belfast, Noord-Ierland, aangekom. Die Pinon seil na Hampton Roads, Va. 31 Januarie en vaar dan via Guantanamobaai en die Panamakanaal na San Diego. Sy het by Pearl Harbor ingeroep en daarna nette opgepas by Eniwetok vanaf 22 April 1945, in Guam (27 April tot 20 Junie), by Tinian/Saipan gedurende die eerste week van Julie en in Okinawa tot 15 Oktober.

Die USS Pinon is op 5 Maart 1946 in San Diego ontmantel en is op 20 Maart 1946 uit die Vlootlys geslaan. Sy is op 29 Augustus 1961 in die handelsdiens verkoop en as 'n Alaska Reefer geplaas.


Wat Pinion familie rekords sal jy vind?

Daar is 8 000 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van Pinion. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan Pinion-sensusrekords u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.

Daar is 324 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van Pinion. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die aankoms- en vertrekhawe.

Daar is 3 000 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van Pinion. Vir die veterane onder u Pinion -voorouers, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle bedien het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.

Daar is 8 000 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van Pinion. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan Pinion-sensusrekords u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.

Daar is 324 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van Pinion. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die aankoms- en vertrekhawe.

Daar is 3 000 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van Pinion. Vir die veterane onder u Pinion -voorouers, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle bedien het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.


Pinon AN -66 - Geskiedenis

Kransroos (Bitterbush) Purshia glandulosa. (S/W). Red Rock Canyon NCA, Nevada.

Mis en chantier comme Net Tender op 9 Maart 1943 deur American Car and Foundry Co., Wilmington, Delaware. Lancé le 16 janvier 1944 en tant que YN-87 klas Ailanthus. Puis devient le 20 janvier 1944 l'USS Pinon (AN-66) class Bitterbush, accepté par l'USN le 31 mars 1944.

Verlaat die port van New York op 24 Julie 1944 en arriveer in Belfast op 10 Julie. Die sertifikaat van die filets métalliques de barrages flottants (& quot defense boom vessel & quot) dans les ports de Belfast, Plymouth et Cherbourg.

A Cherbourg l'USS Pinon a relevanté les filets allemands reconnaissables à leurs bouées coniques alors que les alliés utilisaient des bouées rondes.

Verslag van 10 foto's van p012743 tot p012752:

USS Pinon (AN-66) à Cherbourg.

Mis en chantier comme Net Tender op 9 Maart 1943 deur American Car and Foundry Co., Wilmington, Delaware. Lancé le 16 janvier 1944 en tant que YN-87 klas Ailanthus. Puis devient le 20 janvier 1944 l'USS Pinon (AN-66) class Bitterbush, accepté par l'USN le 31 mars 1944.

Verlaat die port van New York op 24 Julie 1944 en arriveer in Belfast op 10 Julie. Die sertifikaat van die filets metalliques de barrages flottants (& quot defense boom vessel & quot) in les ports de Belfast, Plymouth en Cherbourg.

A Cherbourg l'USS Pinon a relevanté les filets allemands reconnaissables à leurs bouées coniques alors que les alliés utilisaient des bouées rondes.

Verslag van 10 foto's van p012743 tot p012752:

Mis en chantier comme Net Tender op 9 Maart 1943 deur American Car and Foundry Co., Wilmington, Delaware. Lancé le 16 janvier 1944 en tant que YN-87 klas Ailanthus. Puis devient le 20 janvier 1944 l'USS Pinon (AN-66) class Bitterbush, accepté par l'USN le 31 mars 1944.

Verlaat die port van New York op 24 Julie 1944 en arriveer in Belfast op 10 Julie. Die sertifikaat van die filets metalliques de barrages flottants (& quot defense boom vessel & quot) in les ports de Belfast, Plymouth en Cherbourg.

A Cherbourg l'USS Pinon a relevanté les filets allemands reconnaissables à leurs bouées coniques alors que les alliés utilisaient des bouées rondes.

Verslag van 10 foto's van p012743 tot p012752:

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Tekelan (Chromolaena odorata)

My pa se agterplaas, Mojokerto, Oos -Java

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

'N Purshia -blom. Antelope Bitterbush

Hierdie tweeslagtige, immergroen struik staan ​​ook bekend as

Dit kan gevind word in kus hangmatte van die suide van Florida, die Bahamas, die Wes -Indiese Eilande en ook in Colombia en Venezuela.

Ryp vrugte van die Florida Bitterbush

Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, Florida, VSA.

Stappers langs die Cerro Dragon Trail (Sendero Cerro Dragón) van Isla Santa Cruz, 'n roete wat Dragon Hill (Cerro Dragón) omring en bestyg, word selde versoek om hierdie Galápagos -turksvy (Opuntia echios var. Echios) te omhels, wat aan die rand van die roete staan met uitgestrekte arms. Die Galápagos -turksvy (plaaslik "tuna gigante" genoem) is 'n kaktussoort wat endemies is vir die Galápagos -eilande. Ek is onseker oor die spesies van die bosagtige struik met groen blare links van die roete. My beste raaiskoot is dat dit bitterbos (Castela galapageia) is. Isla Santa Cruz, Galápagos, Ecuador, 4 Februarie 2015.

2015-02-04a Santa Cruz GGP06711 Give Me A Hug.jpg

U hoef nie op 'n seestrand te wees om 'n pragtige drijfhout te kry nie. Dit kom uit ons spruit en kom uit 'n Purshia -struik. Of in die algemene taal 'n Antilope Bitterbush. 'N Lekker stukkie sneeu gisteraand.

Nie 'n spieëlbeeld van die hout nie, net 'n ander deel daarvan waar die lig nie skyn nie.

Algemeen: bitter bos, kersbos, chromolaena, duiwelonkruid, hagonoy, Jack in the bush, Siam -onkruid, triffid -onkruid

Malabaars: Kommunistiese Pacha

Chromolaena odorata is 'n spesie blomblom in die sonneblomfamilie, Asteraceae. Dit kom oorspronklik uit Noord -Amerika en is bekendgestel aan tropiese Asië, Wes -Afrika en dele van Australië.

Dit word soms as 'n medisinale en sierplant gekweek.

Die jong blare word fyngedruk en die vloeistof wat daaruit voortspruit, kan gebruik word om velwonde te behandel.

Die blomme lok baie skoenlappers.

Opgeneem in Kadavoor, Kerala, Indië

Kranskop Loop, Mountain Zebra NP, Eastern Cape, SUID -AFRIKA

Ek het al jare lank nie blomme op hierdie bosse gesien nie. Rekordreën skep 'n nuwe landskap hier.

Probeer stewels uit die dood steel.

Bukit Tagar, Hulu Selangor, Maleisië.

Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & amp H. Rob. Asteraceae. CN: [Maleis-Pokok kapal terbang, Pokok malialam], Randa lenguk, Rumput merdeka, Serunai (South Kalimantan), Glepangan, Thekelan, Bitterbush, Butterfly-weed, Devilweed, Hagonoy, Jack-in-the-bush, Paraffin-weed , Triffidweed, Siam -onkruid, Kersbos, Gewone flossblom. Inheems in Noord-Amerika, van Florida en Texas tot Mexiko en die Karibiese Eilande, wat pan-tropies genaturaliseer is. Skadelike onkruid. Alle dele van die plant is giftig, maar uitstekend om bloedstolling te vergemaklik vir geringe wond en baie ander medisinale gebruike.

Eupatorium odoratum L. (basioniem)

Eupatorium brachiatum Sw. ex Wikstr.

Eupatorium clematitis DC.

Eupatorium divergens Minder.

Osmia conyzoides Sch.Bip.

Verw. en stel voor om te lees:

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Baie laat in die aand, met die enigste lig wat oor was, het die groot seun besluit om 'n optrede vir my te maak, 'n paar dinge en nog 'n bok. Ek dink hy is besig om bitterbos te hark, maar nie seker nie. Beste besigtig Groot. Alle regte voorbehou.

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, तीव्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Asteraceae (aster-, madelief- of sonneblomfamilie) » Chromolaena odorata

kroh-mo-LAY-na - uit die Grieks chroma (kleur) en laina (mantel)

oh-dor-AY-tuh of o-dor-AH-tuh - betekenis, geurig

algemeen bekend as: gewone vlosblom, Siam -onkruid, stamagtige onkruid • Hindi: बाग़ धोका bagh dhoka, t्र गंधा tivra gandha • Malabaars: കമ്മ്യുണിസ്റ്റ് പച്ച kommunistiese pacha

Inheems aan: tropiese Amerika

Ryp neute gereed om te vlieg teen die geringste windstoot. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & amp H. Rob. Asteraceae. CN: [Maleis-Pokok kapal terbang, Pokok malialam], Randa lenguk, Rumput merdeka, Serunai (South Kalimantan), Glepangan, Thekelan, Bitterbush, Butterfly-weed, Devilweed, Hagonoy, Jack-in-the-bush, Paraffin-weed , Triffidweed, Siam -onkruid, Kersbos, Gewone flossblom. Inheems in Noord-Amerika, van Florida en Texas tot Mexiko en die Karibiese Eilande, wat pan-tropies genaturaliseer is. Skadelike onkruid. Alle dele van die plant is giftig, maar uitstekend om bloedstolling te vergemaklik vir geringe wond en baie ander medisinale gebruike.


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Dit is 'n bymekaarkomplek vir diegene wat op Glade Park (Colorado) en Pinon Mesa woon, of gewoon het, of afstammelinge het - wat geskiedenis, nuus, foto's, goeie tye wil deel. Voeg gerus by ... Ещё jouself en mense wat jy ken wat hier pas. Vir eers kan enige lid lede byvoeg of goedkeur. Op die oomblik benodig plasings nie goedkeuring deur die admin nie, tensy probleme ontstaan. Die kode van die weste is hier van toepassing! As ons almal vir die handelsmerk ry, behoort dit alles te wees wat ons nodig het.

Dit sal gaaf wees as lede hulself voorstel - inwoner uit die verlede of huidige, van wie hulle afstam, ens.

Ek versamel geskiedenis vir 'n boek oor Glade Park/Pinon Mesa, daarom wil ek veral hê dat gesinne aankom en ander historiese besonderhede, en ek is seker dat ander dit ook sal geniet om die familieverhale te hoor. Help my om dit op u voorvaders reg te stel. Dankie.

Om na plasings in 'n groep te soek:

Klik in u nuusvoer op Groepe in die linkerkieslys en kies u groep.
Klik Soek hierdie groep aan die linkerkant.
Voer name of sleutelwoorde in wat in die berig verskyn, of die opmerkings van die pos wat u soek. (familiename, ens.)
Filter soekresultate deur opsies aan die linkerkant te kies.


Geskiedenis van Pinon Hills

"Ek het geweet dit is 'n goeie perseel. Dit was 'n groot stuk eiendom ... die ding wat dit opwindend gemaak het om aan te werk, was dat daar geen beperkings was op die plek om dit binne die omtrek van die 1 000 hektaar te bou nie. Die helfte van die 1 000 hektaar kon nie gebruik word nie, want dit was te steil. Ons het gefokus op die 300 hektaar in die noordelike gedeelte naby die San Juan Community College. "

Ken Dye, Pi ñon Hills Gholfbaan -argitek

So was dit aan die einde van die tagtigerjare in die klein plattelandse dorpie Farmington in die noorde van New Mexico. Veral as dit kom by burgerlike en gemeenskapsprojekte om die landskap en leefbaarheid van hierdie woestynklimaat waar drie riviere mekaar ontmoet, te verbeter. Daar was 'n aantal burgergroepe wat meer ontspanningsgeriewe wou hê. Daar was gholfspelers, swemmers, wildernisgeesdriftiges en jeugvoetbal wat almal 'n plek nodig gehad het om uit te kom en te speel. Jeff Bowman, die direkteur van die parke- en ontspanningsafdeling van Farmington, onthou hoe almal gesamentlik hul doelwitte bereik het en Pi ñon Hills is gebore. Hieronder is sy verslag van hoe dinge gebeur het.

"In die vroeë 80's is verskeie taakgroepe gestig weens versoeke van burgers (met 'n voorsitter van die Parks, Recreation, and Cultural Affairs Commission) wat ekstra ontspanningsgeriewe wil laat bou. Daar was 'n voetbalveld, gholfbaan, swembad, belangegroepe van rivier- en wildernispark wat byeengekom het om hul individuele projekte te bespreek. Is daar 'n wettige behoefte, en as dit is, waar dit gebou kan word en hoe dit gefinansier kan word? plekke en die benaderde konstruksiekoste vir elk van hul projekte bepaal. Elke taakspan het 'n verslag geskryf waarin hulle bevindings uiteengesit is en aan die kommissie en die stadsraad voorgelê is. 'n groter kans om deur middel van 'n soort belastinginisiatief gefinansier te word, eerder as om elke projek op hul eie aan die goedkeuring van die kiesers te voldoen. "

"Net so belangrik vir my as 'n kwaliteit gholfbaanargitektuur, is die ontwerp van 'n goeie gholfbaan met 'n redelike begroting 'n moeilike uitdaging. Ons moes voordeel trek uit elke moontlike besparing ... van grondverskuiwing, besproeiingstelsel, geselekteerde grasse, groenvorm, algehele kontoer, karretjies, parkeerterrein en klubhuis. Die stad het 20 jaar gelede die hele gholfbaan en ondersteuningsfasiliteit met $ 2,7 miljoen gebou. $ 1,7 miljoen vir die gholfbaan en die ander $ 1 miljoen het alles oorgegaan. "

Ken Dye, Pi ñon Hills Gholfbaan -argitek

Dus is 'n komitee saamgestel om die verslae van elke taakspan te kombineer en 'n manier te bepaal om hierdie projekte aan die publiek te bemark. Daar is vasgestel dat, aangesien ongeveer 60% van alle bruto ontvangste van belastingopbrengste van nie-inwoners ontvang word en dat baie van ons fasiliteite deur nie-inwoners en toeriste gebruik word, dat 'n omsetbelasting eerder as 'n eiendomsbelasting geïmplementeer word. die verstandige optrede. Hierdie nuwe komitee het toe begin met die bemarking van die konsep aan die publiek, en 'n verkiesing is gehou in Maart 1987 wat met ongeveer drie tot een marge geslaag het. Die direkteur en die kommissie was van mening dat 'n sterk verkoopspunt vir die publiek sou wees dat hierdie belasting ingesamel sou word met die spesifieke doel om die vyf geselekteerde projekte te finansier, eerder as om dit vir onbepaalde tyd voort te sit. Daar is besluit dat die invordering van die belasting oor vyf jaar genoeg geld sal inhou om die projekte te bou en dat vyf jaar baie lekker sal wees vir die publiek. Dus is 'n sonsondergangsklousule in die inisiatief ingebou. Die belasting was 1/4 van een persent en is ingevorder van 1 Julie 1987 tot 30 Junie 1992. Die sokkervelde was die eerste van die projekte wat voltooi is omdat die boukoste die kleinste was en omdat dit 'n "betaal as u gaan belasting - met ander woorde, daar was geen obligasies betrokke nie - na 'n paar maande het ons genoeg gehad om die projek te begin en af ​​te handel. Die gholfbaan was die volgende projek en die Aquatic Center was die laaste. Die gholfbaan het in November 1989 geopen terwyl die swembad in April 1994 oopgemaak het.

"As ons vir die stad werk, het ons geweet dat ons nie 'n groot begroting het nie. Daarom moes ons die kwaliteitskenmerke wat die natuur ons bied, gebruik. Die helling van die grond was so dat ons nie baie grond hoef te trek nie ... miskien 100,000 kubieke meter beskeie in vergelyking met baanontwerp volgens die huidige standaarde die golwende en golwende vorm van die land en natuurlike woestynkenmerke en -formasies. "

Ken Dye, Pi ñon Hills Gholfbaan -argitek

Die mooi van hierdie metode was dat die gholfspelers besef het dat as hulle 'n gholfbaan wil hê, hulle met die swemmers en sokkerspelers, ens., Moet saamwerk om al die projekte te ondersteun. Net so het die swemmers, hoewel hulle moontlik nie in 'n gholfbaan belangstel nie, geweet dat hulle dit moet ondersteun as hulle hul swembad wil laat bou. Deur alle potensiële gebruikers te kombineer, kon ons genoeg kiesers bymekaarmaak om diegene wat teen die belasting gekant was, te oorkom.


یواس‌اس پینان (ای‌ان -۶۶)

یواس‌اس پینان (ای‌ان -۶۶) (به انگلیسی: USS Pinon (AN-66)) 194 کشتی بود که طول آن 194 '6 "بود.

یواس‌اس پینان (ای‌ان -۶۶)
هنه
مالک
از کار: ۱۶ ژانویه ۱۹۴۴
بندر اصلی: تیبورون ، کالیفرنیا
مشخصات اصلی
Naam: 1 100 ton
Gebed: 194' 6"
Tema: 37'
Bespreking: 13' 6"
سرعت: 12 knope

ی یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


Your Nuts, New Mexico

Bo:  Plukkers skud takke om die neute los te maak.

WANNEER ALBUQUERQUE CANDYMAKER George Buffett het sy eerste smaak van 'n pi ñon -moer in New Mexico geniet, 'n wen -sakekonsep is gebore. Die neut, amper groter as 'n greintjie gaar rys, het 'n delikate soet en botterige geur verleen, waarvan Buffett geweet het sy sjokolade, toffies en brosheid sou aanvul, terwyl dit 'n unieke kulturele essensie sou oproep. Die sade van die amptelike staatsboom van New Mexico, Pinus edulis, het lank inheemse volke en Spaanse setlaars onderhou. Hulle gesinne het voedselpartytjies gereël om die wispelturige neute, wat af en toe verskyn, te versamel. Toe 'n goeie jaar aanbreek, verkoop verkopers dit met 'n sak.

Om hulle met sy lekkergoed te versmelt, het Buffett twee probleme ondervind: om genoeg hande in die hande te kry om te voldoen aan wat hy weet 'n groot aanvraag sou wees, en om hul klein, harde skulpe te kraak sonder om die goed te breek of om sy personeel te dryf.

Dit was die 1960's. Buffett's Candies word deesdae bestuur deur die ontslape kinders van die stigter, wat 'n nasionale gehoor se aptyt vir pi ñon -neute, pi ñon -karamels, pi ñon -truffels en pi ñon -logs bevredig van 'n andersins onbeskryflike winkel op Lomas Boulevard. (Hulle het ook 'n satellietwinkel in Ruidoso.) As u deur die moederskip gery het, het u waarskynlik die reuse snoepriet voorop opgemerk. Stop. Gaan binne. Dit is die enigste kommersiële onderneming in New Mexico wat ons gevind het, wat uitgedopte, gebraaide, egte Mexikaanse pi ñon -neute aan die publiek verkoop. (Het ons u besigheid misgekyk? Laat ons weet dat ons honger is.)

My pa was lief vir hulle, het hulle absoluut liefgehad, ” sê Patty Buffett. Ons het gedink dit is 'n manier om ons besigheid te onderskei van ander lekkergoedondernemings. En dit behels die genialiteit van 'n ingenieur wat 'n supergeheime beskietmasjien gebou het wat nie op die terrein beskryf kan word nie, en nee, het Patty gesê, sal nie vir hierdie tydskrif afgeneem word nie.

Goed. Die pi ñon -verhaal is groter as die masjien. Groter as Buffett ook. Dit strek oor New Mexico, dring deur die eeue en vorm 'n paar van die gunsteling herinneringe en heerlike geregte van diegene wat New Mexico tuis noem.

ȁ MENSE HET VERSKILLENDE MANIERE om hulle te kies, sê Freddie Bitsoie, wat grootgeword het in die Navajo -land en onlangs die leisels van die Mitsitam Caf é by die National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC “ geneem het. boom om die takke te skud of met 'n stok te slaan. As kind het ons altyd oor naweke in die bos gaan pik ñ. My ouers sou piekniek eet. Ons het versprei. Dit was so 'n vervelige ding vir kinders om te doen, so ons het net rondgehardloop en gespeel. ”

Toe hy uitvoerende sjef by die Red Rock Navajo Casino in Gallup was, het Bitsoie pi ñons in 'n sop ingewerk, dit op salm gebraai en dit by 'n pampoen-sjokoladebrood gevoeg. Histories het inheemse mense egter nie saam met hulle gekook nie. Dit was 'n peuselkos, 'n mengelmoes. ”

Ons-vir-ons so proteïenryk soos beesvleis, pi ñons lewer ook gesonde vette. Die een-twee voedingspons kan hongersnood voorkom as dit moeilik is om takbokke en visse te vind. Een tradisionele voorbereiding: maal dit met suiker tot 'n pasta pi ñonate— die oorspronklike Nutella! Volgens die legende bemaak die bome slegs elke sewe jaar 'n oorvloed, afhangende van wintersneeu en lentereën. Maar die bome kom selde ooreen oor watter jaar, so mense soos David Cuneo, eienaar van die New Mexico Pi ñon Company, ondersoek die staat om die waarskynlikste bosse te bepaal.

Dit lyk soos 'n ordentlike jaar, en hy sê, alhoewel 'n effense pouse sy onsekerheid openbaar. Die kegels onthul hul sade nie ten volle tot na die eerste ryp nie, en die bome wat belowend lyk, is baie naby aan die pluk van gemeenskappe. ”

Boonop het mededinging om die neute toegeneem, en daarmee saam die prys. Straatverkopers vra 'n gulpwaarde van $ 40 per pond, gebraai en steeds in die dop. Aangesien die algemeen aanvaarde manier om die neutvleis vry te laat sonder hulp van die magiese masjien van Mr. Gaan net na Buffett en koop dit, sê Cuneo. (Goeie nuus: hulle stuur 45 dollar per pond af)

Of u kan 'n plaasvervanger vind. Nuwe Mexikane kan hul neuse opslaan vir neute van ander soorte dennebome inheems aan China en Europa. Soms word dit pignoli genoem of net pynappels, maar die smaak daarvan is meer pittig, 'n bietjie pittig, sê Cuneo, maar dit kan ook meer hartige geregte verbeter as die mooier neut van New Mexico. En u kan die buitelandse modelle in grootmaat koop. Dit is hoe David Perry, uitvoerende bakkerybestuurder vir die Range Caf é's in Bernalillo en Albuquerque, daarin slaag om soveel pi ñon-chile appeltertjies en pi ñon sjokolade tortes uit te werk.

Ek kry 'n groot, massiewe, krimp toegedraaide stuk van 50 pond, en hy sê. Sllin Cruz, uitvoerende sjef van die Geronimo Restaurant in Santa Fe, sal nuwe Mexikaanse neute gebruik, maar het 'n verskaffer wat soms klein hoeveelhede van die plaaslike weergawe opdoen, netjies uitgedop. “Ons gebruik dan nie so baie nie, ” sê hy, 𠇊nd it ’s net vir spesiale aanbiedinge, nie gewone spyskaarte nie. ”

Travis Tegreeney, 'n Laguna Pueblo -lid en sjef van Y �k 𠆚 Caf é by Acoma Pueblo ’s Sky City Cultural Center, sê die beste ding om met pi ñons te werk, is tradisie. Dit is deel van ons kultuur, en u kan dit op baie maniere gebruik. Toe ek jonk was, sou die jagters dit in 'n takbokkie gebruik met pampoen, hominy en suikermielies. Hulle deel dit met die gemeenskap. Dit is wonderlik. ”

Sulke geleenthede kom deesdae minder gereeld voor, deels omdat daar minder py ñon -dennebome is. In onlangse jare het droogte en baskewers uitgedroogde woude verlaat. Dit het gevolg op die 19de-eeuse houtbedrywighede en weidingspraktyke van die 20ste eeu wat akker op akker skoongemaak het. Hou jy van die geur van brandende pi ñ op hout in die winter? Onthou waar die logs vandaan kom. Vir Nuwe Mexikane wat die smaak, die wonder en die mite van alles waardeer, is die mandaat duidelik: Plant 'n boom. Plant vyf. Miskien moet u 25 jaar wag totdat die babas neute dra, maar toekomstige geslagte sal u naam beslis prys.

LAASTE VAL, jy sou nie deur die berge kon ry sonder om pi -plukkers langs die pad te sien nie. Die oes was so groot. Dit klink miskien na pret, maar die werk is warm, hard en taai. Dink daaraan! As u dit reeds geoes wil koop, besoek die Cuneo -webwerf (pinonnuts.com $ 30 per pond in die dop) of besoek 'n straatverkoper. Cuneo beveel aan dat as u laasgenoemde kies, slim is en 'n neut uit die sak proe, en nie die monsterbeker nie. Hy waarsku dat 'n out-of-state pi ñon-moer soos 'n New Mexico lyk, maar 'n dop kan dra wat dik genoeg is om 'n molêre te kraak. Kontroleer hoe eweredig die gebraai is. As elke 10de moer verbrand word, verloor u baie produkte vir u $ 40 per pond. Nog goeie nuus: Die 1987 New Mexico Pine Nut Act verbied etikette en verkoop van buitemoer as een van ons.

As for getting past those stubborn shells to the pearly treasure inside, Cuneo says it’s best if you learn as a child from your grandpa while on a camping trip—the way he did. Otherwise, “Put it on the back of your molars and roll it till it cracks on the seam. If you’re a novice, take it out and pick the meat out. If you’re an expert? No hands.”

It may sound dauntingly slow, but consider the tale of one child’s prodigious shelling ability, as told by longtime New Mexico journalist John Robertson. 𠇊 radiator reportedly once fell away from the wall in Mrs. Evans’s fifth-grade class at Acequia Madre Elementary School in Santa Fe when a massive accumulation of piñon shells lodged behind it cascaded to the floor.” The story may carry more legend than fact, he acknowledges. Nevertheless, “the nearest student was the school hero for the rest of the year.”

A PIÑON PALATE
New Mexico chefs have devised various ways to bring the piñon nut’s mellow flavor into main dishes, sides, and desserts. We asked a few for recipes that could elevate a Thanksgiving feast. If New Mexico piñons aren’t available, you can substitute other varieties, which are generally available at grocery stores already shelled.

Bestanddele

7 ounces pork tenderloin
2 cups toasted piñon nuts
1/4 cup Japanese panko bread crumbs
1 tablespoon butter
1 teaspoon Dijon mustard
Salt and pepper to taste
2 ounces fresh basil leaves
1 ounce spinach
2 parsley leaves
2 garlic cloves
1/3 cup Parmesan cheese
1/3 cup extra virgin olive oil

Instruksies

  1. To make the pesto: Blend 1 cup of toasted piñon nuts, basil, spinach, parsley, garlic cloves, Parmesan cheese, and extra virgin olive oil in a food processor. Add salt and pepper to taste.
  2. Sprinkle salt and pepper on the tenderloin and rub the mustard onto its surface.
  3. Blend 1 cup of the piñon nuts and the panko crumbs in a food processor. Cover tenderloin with the crust mixture.
  4. Heat a sauté pan and sear tenderloin with 1 tablespoon of butter until browned. Put in oven at 350° for 12 minutes.
  5. Remove from oven and allow meat to rest for 5 minutes. Cut into equal portions and serve with pesto.

Pine Nut Soup
Recipe courtesy of Freddie Bitsoie of Mitsitam Café at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C.
Serves 4

Bestanddele

2 cups piñon nuts (plus a few for garnish)
1/2 teaspoon canola oil 1 small yellow onion, diced
1/2 teaspoon dried thyme
1 bay leaf
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon pepper
3 cups vegetable or chicken stock
1/2 cup milk
A few mint leaves, chopped

Instruksies

  1. In a sauté pan, sweat the onion in the oil over medium heat, then add the thyme, bay leaf, salt, and pepper.
  2. Add the piñon nuts and allow them to toast for a few minutes. (Do not let them burn.)
  3. Pour in stock, bring to a boil, and reduce the heat to a simmer for about 15 minutes.
  4. Pour the soup into a blender and purພ until smooth.
  5. Strain it through a sieve back into the pan, bring to a boil, then reduce heat to a simmer for about 5 minutes.
  6. Add the milk and adjust the seasoning. Serve hot, garnished with mint and piñon nuts.

Stuffed Acorn Squash
Recipe courtesy of Chef Travis Tegreeney of Y�k𠆚 Café at Acoma Pueblo.
Serves 4

Bestanddele

2 acorn squashes
Salt, pepper, and ground coriander to taste
3 cups chicken stock
1 1/2cups wild rice
1/2 cup piñon nuts

Instruksies

  1. Halve the acorn squash lengthwise and scoop out seeds. Brush the flesh with olive oil and sprinkle lightly with salt, pepper, and coriander.
  2. Place in 350° oven for 35� minutes until fork-tender.
  3. Meanwhile, bring the chicken stock to a rolling boil, add the wild rice, and season with salt and pepper. When the mixture returns to a boil, reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 40 minutes until tender.
  4. Heat a sauté pan on medium, add piñon nuts, and cook for 3𠄴 minutes, stirring occasionally to avoid burning. Remove from heat when the nuts are lightly toasted. Add to wild rice.
  5. Stuff rice mixture into cooked squash and serve. Optional: Top with your favorite chile sauce.

Chocolate Piñon Torte
Recipe courtesy of David Perry and Matt DiGregory of the Range Café, Albuquerque and Bernalillo.
Serves 12

Bestanddele

2 1/2 cups toasted piñon nuts
3 tablespoons flour
12 ounces bittersweet chocolate, chopped
2 cups heavy cream
6 eggs
1/2 cup sugar
1 teelepel vanielje
1/4 teaspoon cinnamon


8 Things You May Not Know About Route 66

US novelist John Steinbeck (1902 – 1968). (Credit: Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

In his Pulitzer Prize-winning 1939 novel “The Grapes of Wrath,” about Dust Bowl migrants of the 1930s, Steinbeck devoted a chapter to Route 66, which he dubbed “the mother road,” a nickname that stuck. Like the bestselling book’s displaced farm family, the Joads, thousands of real-life Americans fled drought and poverty in Oklahoma, Texas and neighboring states during the Great Depression and traveled west along Route 66 in search of employment. Contrary to myth, Steinbeck never ventured from Oklahoma to California with migrants as part of his research for “The Grapes of Wrath,” although the author did drive west on Route 66 with his wife in 1937.


Locally foraged piñon nuts are cherished in New Mexico. They’re also disappearing.

A seasonal staple of Southwestern cuisine, piñons are both cultural tradition and economic lifeline. Thanks to climate change, they face an uncertain future.

Every few years, long after heavy summer rains have swept through the woodlands of the American Southwest, Elizabeth Sanchez books a flight home to her native New Mexico for the fall harvest of piñon—the tiny nut of the Pinus edulis boom. “My parents will call me in July or August, just as the pods emerge, and tell me if the crop looks good that year,” she said.

Sanchez, 28, lives in California now, but grew up in Taos, a high-desert town notable for its adobe architecture tucked between the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the Rio Grande. Her family arrived here some 400 years ago with the Spanish conquistadors in feverish pursuit of the Seven Golden Cities, mythic settlements rumored to exist there. Though such riches proved elusive, settlers did discover a landscape filled with unique plants and animals they’d never seen before. To survive the dry, cold winters, the Spanish learned from the Pueblos, and the animals, to gather the plentiful fatty pine nuts and crack the shells with their teeth, like sunflower seeds. The practice ultimately endured, passed down from generation to generation.

The pinon-juniper woodlands of Rio Grande del Norte National Monument in northern New Mexico

As a child, Sanchez would pile into the car with her family, heading out to Carson National Forest to pick piñon for the coming winter. In September and October, it was common to see dozens of vehicles parked on the road near healthy piñon groves. Though some people arrived with bed sheets in tow, spreading out the thin fabric below the trees and shaking the pines vigorously until the nuts rained down, Sanchez’s family did things in the way of their ancestors they crawled on their hands and knees, scrubbing the forest floor for the bronzed piñon. “It’s tedious—it takes almost an hour to get one pound, and you need to leave some for the animals,” she said, in reference to the local practice of leaving seeds behind for wildlife so that they’re able to be hunted.

In the wake of such scarcity and rising prices, more customers are turning to imported pine nuts

There were no cell phones. No distractions. “We told stories and picked for hours. My favorite was to pick the piñon that was sitting in the sun because it was already roasted.” Her grandmother was the fastest, finding a spot and sweeping away the sharp needles so she could sit and pick every last nut. Later, she’d add them to empanaditas with sweet pork and raisins. For Sanchez, piñon was a source of cultural pride. When a boy tried to insult her by calling her and her sister “piñon pickers,” she was flattered, not hurt.

But by the time Sanchez was a teenager, the piñon was disappearing. “In Taos, we had a seven-year drought. We didn’t get any piñon,” she said. Though the Pinus edulis normally masts—the event wherein a tree produces a huge amount of seeds—every three to five years, between 2009 and 2016 hardly any piñon was to be found in north-central New Mexico. In the early 2000s between 40 and 80 percent of pinus edulis trees died due to ongoing drought and bark beetle infestations in sites across Arizona, Colorado, Utah and New Mexico. “It’s a concern because it’s the type of thing we can expect more of with global warming,” said David Breshears, a researcher at the University of Arizona.

“Nothing tastes like these native piñon. They are out of this world.”

Though piñon made a small comeback in the latter half of the 2010s, the cones are emptier than they used to be, Sanchez said. Indeed, scientists have found that seed cone production in stands across New Mexico has fallen by 40 percent due to climate change.

A display of the piñon pine die-off in New Mexico

Craig Allen, USGS. Publieke domein

Exacerbating the disappearance of native piñon is the rise of cheap, foreign imports China exported over 16,000 metric tons of pine nuts in 2017, with much of that destined for the United States.

Sanchez worries this part of her cultural heritage could soon disappear piñon and chile are some of the only things she has left. “It’s sad. Over the last 20 years, a lot of our culture and traditions have dwindled. We’ve become a lot more Americanized,” she said.

“It would be devastating if we lost piñon.”

Annual average temperatures in piñon-juniper woodlands fall between 40 and 61 degrees Fahrenheit, while precipitation brings between seven and 25 inches annually

Piñon-juniper woodlands cover millions of acres across the American Southwest, fringed by scrublands at lower elevations and melded into ponderosa pine forests above 7,500 feet. Named for the presence of the two unique trees, these woodlands have evolved to live at extremes. Annual average temperatures in piñon-juniper woodlands fall between 40 and 61 degrees Fahrenheit, while precipitation brings between seven and 25 inches annually, with much of that delivered in the summer monsoon. However, these unique woodlands are one of the least studied forest types in America. What scientists do know is that roughly 13,000 years ago, warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall in the Southwest pushed piñon-juniper woodlands farther north, and relegated them to areas of high elevation.

“Piñon grows best during cool, wet years,” explained Miranda Redmond, a researcher in the Forest Ecology Lab at Colorado State University who studies piñon pines. The initiation of seed cone production begins roughly two years before an actual masting event, and big seed years are much more likely to occur in cooler microclimates, where gnarled canopies provide shade for establishing seedlings. If the trees don’t receive much rain, or if the summer is too hot, piñon trees won’t produce.

In New Mexico, annual average temperatures have increased by two degrees Fahrenheit over the past 40 years. Things are projected to get worse.

Though lags between big seed years are natural in piñon pines—they can be as long as five years under normal conditions—“climate change can make the gap longer,” Redmond said. “That’s what we think may occur in the future because the hot, dry sites are producing cones much more infrequently.”

In a 2012 study, Redmond and colleagues found that at sites in New Mexico and northwestern Oklahoma, seed cone production declined by 40 percent between the substantially cooler 1970s and the hotter 2000s. Sites that experienced the greatest warming showed the largest decline in seed cone production.

Hotter temperatures don’t just hurt the establishment of new trees—they can also kill the old ones. Between 2002 and 2003, Breshears and researchers from the University of Arizona found that 40 to 80 percent of piñon pines had died across much of the Southwest. The die-off spanned more than 4,600 square miles and was so large it could be seen in satellite images. When they examined the cause of the die-off, the researchers found high heat—hotter than historic droughts—combined with extreme aridity placed the trees under so much stress that invasive bark beetles were able to finish them off the trees couldn’t produce enough sticky sap to defend themselves against an insect invasion.

Deep into drought, a home near Questa, NM features a sign from the New Mexico Acequia Association whose mission is to protect water, honor cultural heritage and grow healthy food for families and communities

Despite this, some see the die-off as more of a die-back. James Youtz is a silviculturist with the U.S. Forest Service in the Southwest Region. He says he doesn’t consider piñon to be in decline. “I don’t see any sort of a reduction in piñon as to how it should be across the Southwest.” Rather, he attributes the mortality event in the 2000s to poor soil quality—those that died were growing in coarse-textured soils. In his view, piñon-juniper woodlands had already expanded beyond their natural range into grasslands. “The drought then moved them back toward their more historic ranges. Much of our piñon and juniper is too dense compared to historic conditions due to a lack of fire.”

But Redmond counters that though increases in piñon and juniper density and expansion were documented in sommige areas during the 1900s, this was due to a suite of factors, not just fire exclusion. While cool and wet conditions in the early part of the century promoted pinon growth, it’s also likely that forests were recovering from past woodcutting by European settlers. In Redmond’s view, the growth of piñon seen in the early 20 th century was a return to a kind of baseline—though that brief period of equilibrium has, more recently, fallen back into disorder. “Given recent and projected tree mortality, we need to manage for tree resilience to drought in these ecosystems, as right now efforts have been focused on removing these trees for other management goals,” he said.

Annual average temperatures have increased by two degrees Fahrenheit over the past 40 years in New Mexico. The last decade was the warmest on record for the state, with a growing number of extremely hot days and warm nights. And things are predicted to get worse.

“Piñon is really water limited. All of its key demographic properties are affected by aridity which is projected to increase under climate change.”

Federal scientists say that spring precipitation will decrease across most of the New Mexico. Droughts are projected to become more intense, increasing the frequency and severity of wildfires and dust storms.

“I’m not a pessimist. I want to think the trees are going to be fine,” said Redmond. “But at the same time, piñon is really water limited. All of its key demographic properties—seed cone production, establishment, and growth—are affected by aridity which is projected to increase under climate change.”

Typically piñon is sold up through a supply chain, when it’s not sold at roadside stands

Come fall, U.S. 285 is transformed by vendors with large hand-painted signs advertising their wild-foraged fare to passing motorists. One pound of piñon typically sells for between $15 and $20 per pound, making the nut not just one of cultural importance, but one of economic importance, too.

Much of New Mexico’s commercially harvested piñon is collected by new immigrants to the state. “When there’s piñon, people at all levels of business make money,” said Luis Torres, 79, who lives near Española. “The guy that makes the least is the guy that picks it. That’s the way the world works, but it is a source of income for people.”

Typically piñon is sold up through a supply chain, when it’s not sold at roadside stands. A middle-man will buy from the local piñon pickers and sell to a bigger fish—often someone who drives down from Pueblo or Denver seeking hundreds of pounds from local communities. Many of the pickers are undocumented, and hesitant to talk, according to Torres, who considers himself an ally to new immigrants. “The whole thing is a cash economy it’s not regulated. Nobody pays taxes.” Though the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service require a permit for any harvest over 25 pounds on public lands, it’s hard to keep tabs. And a lot of piñon is gathered on private lands anyway.

Piñon’s well-timed seasonality makes it a critical holdover for seasonal workers.

Torres serves as a community organizer for local environmental groups. He grew up on a subsistence ranch in northern New Mexico, and has witnessed the many changes in the region, socially and environmentally. He says many of the newly arrived Mexicanos will work gardening jobs through the summer, then transition to foraging. “Just about the time the landscaping season is slowing down, that’s about the time the piñon is ready.”

That well-timed seasonality means piñon can be a critical holdover for seasonal workers. In Taos, Elizabeth Sanchez recalls the struggling locals who needed the supplemental income to make it through the year. “They relied on selling firewood, jerky, and piñon. If you lost that revenue, it might be $15 to $20 per pound during the harvest, but once everyone starts running out it can go up to $35.”

Last June, Andy Pasqual launched his food business, Nashoba Provisions, in Casa Grande, Arizona. Part of the Tohono O’odham Nation, he had hoped to sell the staple foods of Indian Country to a larger market—Native American casinos, hotels, and art galleries. Naturally, piñon was on his radar.

A store near El Santuario de Chimayo, NM sells pinon nuts, chile, and holy items to passing pilgrims

Pasqual sources the raw product from Navajo vendors who travel to his reservation in southern Arizona, then he roasts, salts, and packages the nuts. “To get a good shipment together, we have to buy about 30 to 40 pounds.” Pasqual says he thought it would be easy to buy piñon, but once he began it was difficult to find the suppliers selling bulk. “It was because there has been a decline in nut production. Prices are going up.” As a child on the reservation, he said, “one or two vendors a month would come down, but now you’re lucky if you see one vendor within a four- to five-month period.”

In the wake of such scarcity and rising prices, more and more customers are turning to imported pine nuts. For the many Southwesterners outside of Native and Hispanic communities who like to use piñon both as a snack, and in cooking, an obvious alternative source exists: store-bought nuts from China. In 2017, China exported nearly 70 percent of the world’s pine nuts, a fifth of which made its way to the United States. China itself produces the most, but it often imports pines nuts from Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Russia, shelling and processing the nuts in country before shipping them around the globe. Due to lower labor and processing costs in China, imported pine nuts cost roughly 30 percent less per pound than domestic piñon in the Southwest.

“There’s this perception that they’re famine foods. That’s not really correct.”

Giulia Muir specializes in non-wood forest products at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. She says it’s loosely estimated that the pine nut industry supports about 500,000 people in China, and 200,000 between Afghanistan and Pakistan. But a lot of these industries lack good statistics. “We know that [pine nuts] have a certain value in the hundreds of millions if you look at global figures,” she said, but adds it’s important to recognize the nutritional and subsistence importance, too. As an informal industry, the Southwestern piñon trade may not be reflected accurately in worldwide market data, and may be difficult to quantify—but that doesn’t mean it’s not a food with critical economic and cultural importance.

“There’s this perception that they’re famine foods. That’s not really correct,” Muir said. “A large majority will say, ‘This is our food. This is what we eat.’”

Only wildlife like the piñon jays, elk, and black bears can pass through the forest

Forty miles north of Taos, near the Colorado border, lies one of the last old-growth piñon forests in the American Southwest. More than 120 acres of brushy, twisted piñon pines lie within a private inholding of the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument. At 500 years old, many predate the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors. This is the only USDA certified wild organic crop of piñon in New Mexico.

Thirteen years ago, Penelope Gregory bought the ranch. She’s kept the piñon pine plot fenced off from livestock in hopes of protecting the trees. Only wildlife—the piñon jays, elk, and black bears—can pass through the forest.

At over 8,000 feet of elevation, Gregory’s trees enjoy a moist, cool microclimate that she hopes will spare them from the ravages of climate change. San Antonio Mountain, the highest volcanic peak in the Taos Plateau, lies just west of the forest, catching clouds while strong winds move rain and snow over the ancient piñons.

“It would be devastating if we lost piñon.”

Shortly after she purchased the land, Gregory started to receive public inquiries about her piñons. “Mostly Native American and Hispanic people call me and say, ‘My grandma used to go out and pick and I want to teach my kids.’” In 2014 she applied for certification to begin allowing U-PICK piñon, charging $50 a day for access and all-you-can-gather nuts. Eventually Gregory hopes to hire a broker who can bring in a harvest crew that takes the whole crop, charging by weight.

“I wanted to try to get the word out about [our] own American native nuts,” she said. “I had watched the Chinese take over the pine nut market. I don’t care where you go these days, you walk into a grocery store and you pick up a bag of pine nuts and they’re going to be from China. That doesn’t seem right.”

Plus, she says, the flavor isn’t easily imitated by the cheap Chinese product. “Niks nie tastes like these native piñon. They are out of this world.”

Throughout 2019, Gregory kept a close eye on her piñon. By fall, the younger trees had started dropping nuts, though it wasn’t a huge masting. But she’s optimistic for this year. “I’ll probably have a massive crop,” she said. “It looks like the trees are really going to produce.”