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Konfederale vraag na oorgawe - Geskiedenis

Konfederale vraag na oorgawe - Geskiedenis

"Meneer: die regering van die Konfederale State het tot dusver enige vyandige betoging teen Fort Sumter voorgekom, in die hoop dat die regering van die Verenigde State, met die oog op die vriendelike aanpassing van alle vrae tussen die twee regerings, en om die oorlogsrampe, dit vrywillig sou ontruim.

"Daar was op 'n stadium rede om te glo dat dit die weg sou wees wat die regering van die Verenigde State volg, en onder die indruk het my regering daarvan weerhou om enige eis te stel vir die oorgawe van die fort. Maar die Konfederale State kan nie meer vertraging met die aanvaarding van die werklike besit van 'n vesting wat die ingang van een van hul hawens beveel, en noodsaaklik vir die verdediging en veiligheid daarvan.

"Ek word beveel deur die regering van die Konfederale State om die ontruiming van Fort Sumter te eis. My assistente, kolonel Chesnut en kaptein Lee, is gemagtig om so 'n eis van u te stel. Alle nodige fasiliteite word gebied om u te verwyder en u te beveel , saam met maatskappywapens en eiendom, en alle private eiendom, na enige pos in die Verenigde State wat u mag kies. om dit af te haal. ''

Anderson se antwoord

'Generaal', ek het die eer om die ontvangs van u mededeling te erken wat die ontruiming van hierdie fort eis, en om daarop te antwoord dat dit 'n eis is waaroor ek spyt is dat my gevoel van eer en van my verpligtinge om my regering, verhoed my nakoming. Dankie vir die regverdige, manlike en beleefde terme en die hoë kompliment wat ek betaal het, ek is generaal, baie eerbiedig, u gehoorsame dienaar, Robert Anderson, majoor, eerste artillerie, kommandant. "


Amerikaanse burgeroorlog: generaal Edmund Kirby Smith

Generaal Edmund Kirby Smith is tydens die Burgeroorlog opgemerk as die Konfederale bevelvoerder. Hy was 'n veteraan van die Mexikaanse-Amerikaanse oorlog en het in 1861 verkies om by die Konfederale Weermag aan te sluit en het aanvanklik diens in Virginia en Oos-Tennessee gesien. Vroeg in 1863 neem Smith die bevel oor die Trans-Mississippi-departement. Hy was verantwoordelik vir alle Konfederale magte wes van die Mississippirivier, en het sy departement die grootste deel van sy ampstermyn verdedig teen die invalle van die Unie. Smith se magte was die laaste groot Konfederale bevel wat oorgegee het toe hulle aan generaal -majoor Edward R.S. Canby te Galveston, TX op 26 Mei 1865.


Konfederale oorgawe op Bennett ’s Place (17-26 April 1865)

Vroeg in April 1865 val Virginia aan die Unie met die inname van Richmond en Petersburg. Vakbondgeneraal William T. Sherman, wat baie graag wou deel wees van Lee & acirc € ™ se oorgawe, gaan voort met die laaste deel van sy Carolinas -veldtog en marsjeer na Raleigh, Noord -Carolina. Konfederale generaal Joseph E. Johnston het sy magte beweeg om Raleigh teen die aanval te beskerm. Die Konfederale kavallerie het weerstand gebied op die pad van Goldsboro na Raleigh en die klein skermutselings het die opmars van die Unie -magte vertraag. Sherman het eers by die Appomattox Court House (9 April 1865) van die oorgawe van Lee & acirc € ™ by die Appomattox Court House (9 April 1865) verneem.

Op 12 April het die goewerneur van Noord -Carolina, Zebulon Baird Vance, kommissarisse gestuur om Sherman te ontmoet en die einde van vyandelikhede te bespreek. Na vertragings wat deur beide die konfederate en die Unie -magte veroorsaak is, het Sherman die boodskap bereik en het hy ingestem om met regeringsamptenare in Noord -Carolina te vergader. & As gevolg van die vertragings het die regeringslede in Raleigh egter uit die hoofstad gevlug. Die burgemeester van Raleigh, William H. Harrison, was bereid om die stad oor te gee in die hoop dat die hoofgebou en museum gespaar sou bly. Op 13 April 1865 neem Sherman die beheer oor Raleigh en skryf briewe waarin Vance veilig deurkom en vra dat hy terugkeer na die stad. Die skermutseling tussen die Unie en die Konfederale kavallerie het gedurende 13 April voortgeduur, maar die stad Raleigh is nie aanspreeklik gehou of gestraf nie.

Op 14 April 1865 besoek Sherman saam met Thomas Bragg: die broer van Braxton Bragg & acirc € ™, 'n voormalige goewerneur van Noord -Carolina en 'n goeie vriend van Sherman & acirc € ™s van voor die oorlog. Sherman het navraag gedoen oor die welstand van Braxton en acirc € ™ en Thomas meegedeel dat Raleigh ongehinderd was. In Greensboro het Johnston met die Konfederale president Jefferson Davis vergader en hom oortuig om die opskorting van vyandelikhede toe te staan.

Later op 14 April ontvang Sherman 'n brief onder die vlag van wapenstilstand van generaal Johnston om 'n einde aan die oorlog te kry. & Acirc Sherman het ingestem om vyandelikhede op te skort en met die Konfederale Generaal te vergader. Na vertragings wat veroorsaak is deur die unie -generaal Hugh Judson Kilpatrick & acirc € ™ se kavalerie en die Konfederale president Davis wat Greensboro verlaat, het die generaals ooreengekom om bymekaar te kom by Durham & acirc € ™s Station, Noord -Carolina. Kilpatrick het aangevoer dat Johnston nie vertrou kan word nie en sou probeer ontsnap, maar Sherman glo in die opregtheid van die Konfederale bevelvoerder. Die nuus van die byeenkoms het op 15 en 16 April 'n afwagting onder soldate van beide kante veroorsaak, terwyl Sherman op 17 April gereed was om na Durham & acirc € ™s Station te vertrek, en 'n boodskap het hom ingelig van president Lincoln & acirc € ™s se moord. Sherman het die telegraaf gesweer tot geheimhouding om nie die moreel van die soldate of die vredesgesprekke in die gedrang te bring nie. Later die dag ry Sherman uit om Johnston en sy generaals te ontmoet.

Die vergadering het plaasgevind by die Bennett Farm House buite Durham & acirc € ™s Station. Sherman en Johnston bespreek die oorgawe in die plaashuis sonder getuies. Sherman het die nuus oor Lincoln & acirc € ™s se moord met Johnston gedeel en Johnston het uitgespreek dat Lincoln & acirc € ₪ se dood & acirc € œ die grootste moontlike ramp in die Suide was. & Acirc € Sherman bied Johnston dieselfde oorgawe aan Lee . Johnston het egter geglo dat die doel van die vergadering was om op te hou veg en die burgerlike owerhede die tyd te gee wat nodig was om die oorlog te beëindig. Hy het voorgestel dat die bepalings van 'n permanente vrede gereël moet word en dat die ooreenkoms al die Konfederale magte wat nog in die veld is, moet oorgee. Sherman het gretig ingestem omdat hy die oorlog wou beëindig. Hy was ook bekommerd dat Johnston & acirc € ₪ se soldate sou aanhou veg teen 'n guerrilla -oorlog.

Die twee bespreek vredesvoorwaardes en Lincoln & acirc € ™ se begeerte om die Unie te herstel. Johnston wou 'n algemene klousule van amnestie insluit om die soldate en regerings in die Suide te beskerm, insluitend Davis en sy kabinet. Aangesien daar geen besluit op die eerste dag geneem kon word nie, het die twee generaals die nag na hul kant toe teruggekeer en ooreengekom om die volgende dag op dieselfde plek te vergader. Daardie aand het Sherman sy troepe ingelig oor die sluipmoord op Lincoln en oor die afkeuring van Johnston & acirc € en die dood van Lincoln & acirc € ™. Voor die aankondiging het Sherman voorsorg getref om die stad Raleigh veilig te hou teen vergelding. Tydens sy toespraak het Sherman aan die soldate gesê dat dit die eerste dag van wapenstilstand met die Konfederate was. In die stad Raleigh het gerugte begin doen dat troepe van die Unie die stad gaan afdank. Die voorsorgmaatreëls van Sherman & acirc € ™ het egter verhoed dat enige vernietigende dade die stad sou tref. Slegs een brand het die aand van 17 April ontstaan, en dit was 'n ongeluk in 'n verlate werkswinkel.

Op 18 April 1865 het Sherman en Johnston weer bymekaar gekom by Bennett & acirc € ™s Farm om die oorgawe te finaliseer. Johnston het Sherman ingelig dat hy die gesag het om alle Konfederale magte in die veld oor te gee. Sherman en Johnston bespreek die politieke regte van die soldate wat oorgegee het. Lincoln & acirc € ™ se Amnestie -afkondiging van 1863 het volledige amnestie verskaf aan alle offisiere en mans onder die rang van kolonel. Die terme wat Grant aan Lee gebied het, het alle beamptes vergewe, selfs die hoogste posisie. Onseker oor die regspesifieke aspekte, het Johnston generaal John Breckinridge, wat 'n regs- en politieke agtergrond gehad het, by die besprekings ingesluit. Sherman het aanvanklik gekant omdat Breckinridge 'n burgerlike amptenaar van die Konfederasie was en het eers ingestem nadat hy verseker was dat Breckinridge slegs as generaal -majoor sou optree.

Nadat hy die moontlike vrae bespreek het, het Sherman 'n stel terme begin skryf. Hy het net een keer gestop om vir hom 'n drankie whisky te kry. Die kontrak wat Sherman geskryf het, het die Konfederate burgerskap en eiendomsreg verskaf, solank hulle hul wapens neerlê, vreedsaam huiswaarts keer en binne die perke van die wet leef. Beide partye het tot die voorwaardes ooreengekom en die vredesooreenkoms onderteken. Met die ondertekening van die ooreenkoms, begin Sherman sy belofte nakom dat hy suidelike regte sal verdedig en die Suide sal help herbou.

Daar bestaan ​​'n debat of die vredesvoorwaardes van Sherman & acirc € ™ gevolg het van Lincoln & acirc € ™s se plan. Diegene wat beweer dat Sherman op sy eie opgetree het, voer aan dat die bepalings veel meer omvattend was as wat Lincoln die voorwaardes sou erken het wat erken word as opstandige staatsregerings, die Konfederale oorlogskuld afbetaal en die regte op slawe -eiendom gehandhaaf het. Sherman het volgehou dat hy tot die vredesverrigtinge gegaan het sonder enige riglyne of leiding deur die amptelike regering. Dit is nie verbasend dat die voorwaardes van Sherman & acirc € ™ in Washington afgekeur is nie, en hy is bespot omdat hy oorgenoeg was. Lincoln & acirc € ™ se instruksies aan Grant was om slegs die oorgawe van die weermag te bespreek en nie om politieke vrae te hanteer nie. Sherman was egter nie bewus daarvan dat Lincoln die bevel om die Virginia -wetgewer te laat vergader, herroep het nie en was onder die indruk dat die federale regering enige regering erken wat ophou rebelleer het.

Sherman het onmiddellik 'n skorsing aan die federale vyandelikhede geïmplementeer en met die hulp van Johnston die wapenstilstand aan majoor -generaal James H. Wilson in Georgië en generaal -majoor George Stoneman in die weste van Noord -Carolina meegedeel. Van 19 April tot 24 April 1865 het 'n groot aantal van die Konfederale troepe verlate gelaat dat die oorlog verby was. Op 23 April 1865 het Sherman 'n besluit van Washington & acirc € ™ ontvang toe Grant persoonlik in Raleigh opdaag. Grant het Sherman ingelig dat sy voorwaardes verwerp is, en dat hy slegs gemagtig is om dieselfde voorwaardes aan Lee te gee. Grant sou die bevel oorneem en het 'n bevel gegee om die federale troepe te beveel om Sherman nie te gehoorsaam nie.

Oorlogsminister Edwin M. Stanton het die komitee eenparig die vredesooreenkoms van Sherman & acirc € ™ verwerp en Sherman daarvan beskuldig dat hy die regering wil oorneem. Grant, Sherman & acirc € ™ se vriend, was teenwoordig by Sherman & acirc € ™s se vergaderings met Lincoln en het geweet dat Sherman met opregtheid opgetree het om die oorlog te beëindig. Sherman het kommunikasie aan Johnston gestuur waarin hy die verwerping van die voorwaardes bespreek, en het ook briewe aan Stanton en Grant geskryf waarin hy meegedeel word dat hy van mening is dat die gebruik van plaaslike regerings die beste metode sou wees om die Suide te herintegreer.

Op 24 April 1865 ontvang Sherman Die New York Times en sien hoe die oorlogsdepartement 'n artikel publiseer met die handtekening van Stanton & acirc € ™ waarin beweer word dat Sherman doelbewus ongehoorsaam was aan die Lincoln & acirc € ™s -bevel wat hom opdrag gegee het om slegs militêre aangeleenthede te bespreek en iets waar Sherman destyds nie van bewus was nie en dat Sherman daarvan beskuldig is dat omkoopgeld te aanvaar om Davis toe te laat om te ontsnap. Stanton & acirc € ™s se bewerings het Sherman verder woedend gemaak en sy wantroue teenoor politici en die pers verder aangewakker.

Johnston het Sherman & acirc € ™ se briewe ontvang en 'n boodskap aan Davis gestuur. Davis het geantwoord dat die infanterie tydelik moet ontbind en hervorm en dat die kavallerie Davis moet begelei terwyl hy uit die suide vlug. Sherman en Johnston het mekaar weer ontmoet by Bennett & acirc € ™s se plaashuis op 26 April. Aanvanklik het Sherman en Johnston probleme ondervind. Johnston was bekommerd dat die ontbinding van die Konfederate sonder voldoende voorsorgmaatreëls in plegtiges en rowers sou verander.

Die probleem is opgelos toe generaal John McAllister Schofield daarop gewys het dat hy die departementele bevelvoerder sou word nadat Sherman vertrek het en probleme sou hanteer wat verband hou met die ontbinding van die weermag. Sherman en Johnston het ooreengekom dat die soldate van Johnston & acirc € ™ bymekaarkom by Greensboro, hul militêre voorrade neersit en huiswaarts keer. Schofield het ses aanvullende bepalings bygevoeg, en die ooreenkoms is onderteken deur Johnston en Schofield, maar nie deur Sherman nie. Grant was tevrede met die voorwaardes en keer terug na Washington. Die voorwaardes is deur Washington -amptenare aanvaar en het amptelik 'n einde gemaak aan Sherman's Carolinas -veldtog en die vyandelikhede in die Suide. Nadat hy berispe is vir sy vriendelike houding teenoor die suide, spandeer Sherman sy tyd om te help met die ekonomiese situasie rondom Raleigh. Hy het bevele gegee om alle kos te staak en bevelvoerders beveel om perde, muile, waens en diere wat gevang is, te leen om die boerdery te ondersteun.

Die uitspraak van Sherman & acirc € € se aanvanklike oorgawe van Stanton het kritiek op Sherman in die pers in Amerika veroorsaak. Die soldate van Sherman & acirc € ™ verdedig egter hul bevelvoerder vurig en kom naby opstand. Die mense in die Suide herken ook die edele bedoelings van Sherman & acirc € ™, en tydens heropbou sou Sherman een van die mees gerespekteerde en betroubare noordelike amptenare wees. Sherman het Raleigh verlaat op 29 April 1865. Om die potensieel vernietigende situasie wat deur Stanton geskep is, te ontlont, het Washington -amptenare 'n groot oorwinningsbeoordeling in die strate van Washington DC gehou. Grant & acirc € ™s.

Bronne

Alan Axelrod, Generaals Suid Generaals Noord: Die bevelvoerders van die burgeroorlog is heroorweeg. (Lyons Press: Guilford, Connecticut, 2011) 211-225.

John G. Barrett, Sherman's March Through the Carolinas, (University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1956).

John G. Barrett, Die burgeroorlog in Noord -Carolina, (University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1963).

Sharyn Kane en Richard Keeton, Fiery Dawn: The Civil War Battle at Monroe's Crossroads, Noord -Carolina, voorberei vir die Amerikaanse weermag, XVIII Airborne Corps en Fort Bragg, Fort Bragg, Noord -Carolina, deur die Amerikaanse departement van binnelandse sake, National Park Service, Southeast Archaeological Center, Tallahassee, Florida, 1999.

Mark L. Bradley, Last Stand in the Carolina's: The Battle of Bentonville. (Campbell: Savas Woodbury Publishers, 1996).


Unie -magte gee oor by Fort Sumter

Na 'n bombardement van 33 uur deur die konfederale kanonne, gee die uniemagte Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbour in Suid-Carolina oor. Die eerste verlowing van die oorlog het geëindig in Rebel -oorwinning.

Die oorgawe het 'n opstand afgesluit wat begin het met die afstigting van Suid -Carolina op 20 Desember 1860 uit die Unie. Toe president Abraham Lincoln begin April 'n boodskap aan Charleston stuur dat hy van plan is om kos aan die beleërde garnisoen te stuur, het die Konfederate opgetree. Hulle het in die vroeë oggendure van 12 April op Sumter losgebrand. Die volgende dag is byna 4000 rondtes na die swart silhoeët van Fort Sumter geslinger.

Binne Sumter was sy bevelvoerder, majoor Robert Anderson, 9 offisiere, 68 aangewese mans, 8 musikante en 43 konstruksiewerkers wat nog die afronding van die fort gedoen het. Vakbondskaptein Abner Doubleday, die man wat dikwels onakkuraat erken word dat hy die bofbalwedstryd uitgevind het, het byna twee uur nadat die spervuur ​​begin het, weer vuur gemaak. Teen die oggend van 13 April was die garnisoen in Sumter erg benoud. Die soldate het slegs ligte beserings opgedoen, maar hulle kon nie veel langer uithou nie. Die fort is erg beskadig, en die skote van die Konfederale word noukeuriger. Rondom die middag is die vlagstaaf weggeskiet. Louis Wigfall, 'n voormalige Amerikaanse senator van Texas, roei sonder toestemming uit om te sien of die garnisoen probeer oorgee. Anderson besluit dat verdere weerstand tevergeefs is, en hy het 'n wit vlag teen 'n tydelike vlagpaal gehaal.

Die eerste verlowing van die oorlog was verby, en die enigste slagoffer was 'n Konfederale perd. Die mag van die Unie is toegelaat om na die noorde te vertrek voordat hulle vertrek het; die soldate het 'n saluut van 100 kanonne afgevuur. Tydens die groet is een soldaat dood en 'n ander dodelik gewond deur 'n voortydig ontplofbare patroon. Die burgeroorlog het amptelik begin.


Wie het slawe besit?

'Baie Noordelike burgerlikes het slawe besit. Voor, tydens en selfs na die oorlog van noordelike aggressie. ”

“Mamma, hy het dit ook gedoen!” is selde 'n duidelike of oortuigende vorm van historiese argument, veral as - soos in hierdie geval - verwys word na aksies wat baie verskil in graad en tyd.

Dit is wel so dat slawerny nie uniek was in die Suide nie: Sowel gedurende die koloniale era as na onafhanklikheid het slawerny bestaan ​​in gebiede wat nou bestaan ​​uit wat ons as 'noordelike' state beskou. Maar die idee dat 'baie noordelike burgers' slawe besit het ten tyde van die burgeroorlog, is heeltemal verkeerd. Alle Noordelike state, met 'n enkele uitsondering wat betwisbaar was, het (volgens wet of praktyk) slawerny binne hul grense beëindig lank voor die aanvang van die burgeroorlog.

Waar het wettige slawerny in 1861 nog in die noorde bestaan? Slegs in Delaware, 'n staat wat ongetwyfeld 'n 'noordelike' staat was: afhangende van die kriteria wat gebruik is, kon Delaware ten tyde van die burgeroorlog met reg as 'n noordelike, suidelike, mid-Atlantiese of 'n kombinasie vasgemaak word daarvan. Hoe dit ook al sy, alhoewel wetgewende pogings om slawerny in Delaware af te skaf, onsuksesvol was, was teen die telling van 1860 91,7% van die swart bevolking van Delaware gratis, en minder as 1,800 slawe het in die staat oorgebly - skaars 'n voorwaarde wat die idee ondersteun dat “Baie” Noordelinge besit slawe.

Alhoewel Missouri, Kentucky en Maryland nooit formeel van die Unie afgeskei het nie, was dit nie 'n 'noordelike' staat in geografiese of kulturele sin nie. Almal was die tuiste van aansienlike pro-Konfederale elemente en het tydens die Burgeroorlog 'n aansienlike aantal troepe aan die Konfederale kant bygedra. Kentucky en Missouri is albei deur die Konfederasie as lidlande opgeëis en was verteenwoordig in die Konfederale Kongres, en Maryland het in die Unie gebly, hoofsaaklik omdat Amerikaanse troepe vinnig krygswet ingestel het en die staat in beslag geneem het om afskeidingspogings af te weer. (Maryland moes op enige manier in die Unie gehou word, anders sou die hoofstad van die Verenigde State in die distrik Columbia heeltemal binne die konfederale gebied ingeslote gewees het.) Die staat New Jersey was 'n buitengewone uitsondering. Alhoewel die wetgewer in New Jersey in 1804 'n geleidelike emansipasiemaatreël aanvaar het en slawerny in 1846 permanent afgeskaf het, het die staat toegelaat dat sommige voormalige slawe herklassifiseer word as 'lewenslange vakleerlinge' - 'n toestand wat in alle opsigte as slawerny beskou kan word. Tog het die sensus van 1860 slegs 18 slawe in die hele New Jersey aangeteken.


Morgan se vraag na oorgawe

Situasie: Union Colonel Moore se voorste geweerput was in die kloof aan u linkerkant. Die Konfederale magte was aan u regterkant besig om voor te berei om aan te val.

Brig. Genl John Hunt Morgan het 'n brief neergeskryf en dit aan luitenant -kolonel Robert A. Alston, sy stafhoof, gegee. Onder 'n wapenstilstand vaar Alston, vergesel van luitenant -kolonel Joseph T. Tucker en majoor William P. Elliot, na die middel van hierdie veld. Hulle word ontmoet deur die 25ste Michigan -bevelvoerder, kolonel O. H. Moore, wat langs sy perd, Lion, sit. Die nota lui:

Hd. Vr. Morgan se afdeling
In die veld, voor Green
Stockade, 4 Julie 1863.

Aan die offisiere wat die federale magte beveel
By Stockade naby Green River Bridge,

Meneer,
In die naam van die regering van die Konfederale State eis ek 'n onmiddellike en onvoorwaardelike oorgawe van die hele mag onder u bevel, tesame met die Stockade.

Ek is, met groot respek,
Joh. H. Morgan
Kommer. Afdeling Cav. C.S.A.

Kolonel Moore het stilweg geantwoord: "Gee my komplimente aan generaal Morgan en sê vir hom dat ek, op 4 Julie, nie die voorstel om my oor te gee, kan aanvaar nie."

Nadat hy hande geskud het, antwoord Alston: "Totsiens, kolonel Moore, God weet net wie eerste kan val."

keer terug na hul kant om hul lot af te wag en die geveg begin onmiddellik.

Unie Pvt. Henry G. Phillips, 25ste Michigan, skryf sy weergawe van Moore se antwoord aan sy suster, 14 Julie 1863. Phillips sterf 'n maand later.

'Op 4 Julie het die ou rakker (Morgan) en sy hele afdeling saamgekom en ons beleefd gevra om onvoorwaardelik oor te gee, maar ons het gesê dat Galiant kol. die Boys wou dit selebrate. "
Unie Pvt. Henry G. Phillips
25ste Michigan

"Toe draai hulle hul perde en galop weg."
-Lt. Benjamin Travis, 25ste Michigan

'N Verskeidenheid uitstaande Konfederale leierskap was teenwoordig op hierdie slagveld. Regs buite sig, maar wag dat Alston, Tucker en Elliott terugkeer met Moore se antwoord, was brig. Genl J.H. Morgan, kolonel Basil Duke, kolonel Adam R. Johnson en luitenant -kolonel D. Howard Smith.

Opgerig deur Kentucky Heartland Civil War Trails Commission.

Onderwerpe en reekse. Hierdie historiese merker word in hierdie onderwerplys gelys: Oorlog, Amerikaanse burger. Boonop is dit ingesluit in die John Hunt Morgan Heritage Trail in Kentucky -reeks. 'N Beduidende historiese datum vir hierdie inskrywing is 4 Julie 1863.

Ligging. 37 & deg 14.166 ′ N, 85 & deg 21.039 ′ W. Marker is naby Campbellsville Betaalde advertensie

, Kentucky, in Taylor County. Marker is op Tebbs Bend Road, 0,5 km wes van Harley Road, aan die regterkant wanneer u wes ry. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in hierdie poskantoor: Campbellsville KY 42718, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 8 ander merkers is binne loopafstand van hierdie merker. "No Day to Surrender" (ongeveer 0,2 myl weg) Slag van Green River Bridge (ongeveer ½ kilometer ver) Konfederale artillerieposisie (ongeveer 0,4 myl weg) Onafhanklikheidsdag - 1863 (ongeveer 'n halwe myl weg) Michigan by Tebbs Buig (ongeveer 'n halwe myl weg) "Nobly Did They Die" (ongeveer 'n half kilometer ver) Federal Stockade (ongeveer 0,9 myl weg) Green River Bridge / Green River Bridge skermutseling terrein (ongeveer een kilometer weg). Raak aan vir 'n lys en kaart van alle merkers in Campbellsville.


KONFERDIE IN KEUSE

Staatsbestuurders was voortdurend in konflik met Davis oor die regering se oorheersing wat hul heilige staatsregte uitdaag, veral federale dienspligwette.

Die weermag het die situasie vererger: Terwyl die oorlog voortgesit het, het sommige troepe die platteland binnegedring om burgerlikes te beroof. Ander het burgerlikes afgerond vir willekeurige (dikwels ongegronde) oortredings, wat die plaaslike owerhede woedend maak.

Die federale regering weerspieël hierdie chaos. Davis sien sy gesag herhaaldelik uitgedaag word, en staan ​​amper tereg op beskuldiging. Davis het gereeld met vise-president, Stephens, gekibbel met generaals, het gereeld sy kabinet moes rekonstrueer en herhaaldelike terugslae van voorheen ondersteunende koerante in die gesig gestaar.


2 Junie in die Burgeroorloggeskiedenis: die laaste oorgawe en die eerste gebruik van slootoorlogvoering

Die meeste mense dink aan Appomattox as hulle dink aan die laaste oorgawe van die burgeroorlog, maar dit was nie. Die laaste oorgawe was in die Trans-Mississippi-teater op 2 Junie 1865. Dit was eers die jaar voor dat generaal Lee die eerste loopgraafoorlogvoering bedink het by die bloedige slag by Cold Harbor waar ongeveer 18 000 seuns en mans gesterf het. U kan nog steeds 'n paar loopgrawe sien.

Die burgeroorlog is geveg om die slawe te bevry en vir State ’ Rights. Oorspronklik was dit slegs om die Unie te bewaar, maar dit was duidelik dat president Abraham Lincoln wou hê dat die slawerny -instelling op enige manier afgeskaf moes word.

Daar was na raming 1,5 miljoen slagoffers, met 620,000 dood, 476,000 gewondes en 400,000 gevang en vermis.

Die meeste sterftes en sterftes in die burgeroorlog was die gevolg van nie-gevegsverwante siektes. Vir elke drie soldate wat in die geveg dood is, sterf nog vyf aan siektes. Die primitiewe aard van die burgeroorloggeneeskunde, sowel in die intellektuele onderbou as in die praktyk in die leërs, het beteken dat baie wonde en siektes onnodig dodelik was.

Ons moderne opvatting van ongevalle sluit diegene in wat sielkundig deur oorlogvoering beskadig is. Hierdie onderskeid het nie tydens die Burgeroorlog bestaan ​​nie. Soldate wat ly aan wat ons nou as post-traumatiese stresversteuring sou herken, is nie gekatalogiseer nie en is nie daarvoor versorg nie.

Een uit elke vier soldate wat oorlog toe gegaan het, het nooit weer teruggekeer nie. Na raming het een uit elke drie suidelike huishoudings ten minste een familielid verloor.

2 JUNIE

2 Junie 1865 is die laaste oorgawe van die Konfederale in die Trans-Mississippi-teater.

Daar was federale operasies teen Indiërs in die omgewing van Crystal Palace Bluff, omtrent Fort Rice, die Dakota -gebied, omdat daar na berig word dat een man aan pylwonde sterf.

Op 26 Mei 1865 aanvaar federale bevelvoerders die oorgawe van die laaste groot georganiseerde Konfederale mag wat nog in die veld was.

Konfederale generaal Edmund Kirby Smith was bevelvoerder van die Trans-Mississippi-distrik, waarin die Army of the West opgedra is om westelike Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, die Indiese gebied (nou Oklahoma), Texas en die gebiede New Mexico en Arizona te dek. Die weermag was sedert die mislukte inval van Missouri verlede herfs nie veel van 'n vegmag nie, maar Smith het sy mans aangespoor om steeds te bly verset:

'Toon aan dat u u posisie in die geskiedenis waardig is. Bewys aan die wêreld dat u harte nie in die rampspoed misluk het nie en dat u op die laaste oomblik die heilige saak sal onderhou waarvoor u broers oos van die Mississippi so heerlik geveg het ... Die groot hulpbronne van hierdie departement, sy Die getalle, die dissipline en die doeltreffendheid van die weermag sal in ons land terme verseker wat 'n trotse volk kan aanvaar en onder die voorsienigheid van God die middel kan wees om die oorwinning van ons vyand na te gaan en te verseker die finale sukses van ons saak. ”

Begin Mei verwerp Smith 'n voorstel van generaal -majoor John Pope, onder bevel van die federale departement van Missouri, om oor te gee onder dieselfde voorwaardes as wat Ulysses S. Grant aan Robert E. Lee gegee het, William T. Sherman aan Joseph E. Johnston en ERS Canby het vir Richard Taylor gegee. Twee dae later het Smith berig dat die meeste van sy 50 000 mans “alle militêre organisasie ontbind het en na hul huise teruggekeer het”.

Nietemin het Smith steeds aangehou terwyl ander Konfederale bevelvoerders toegegee het. Brigadier -generaal M. Jeff Thompson, die "Swamp Fox of the Confederacy" wat Federals gedurende Missouri en Arkansas geteister het, het die oorblyfsels van sy brigade by Chalk Bluff oorgegee, Arkansas. Generaal -majoor Samuel Jones het sy klein bevel in Florida by Tallahassee oorgegee. En die berugte aanvaller William C. Quantrill is dodelik gewond in Spencer County, Kentucky, waardeur die meeste guerrilla -oorlogvoering in die grensstate beëindig is.

Uiteindelik het Smith besef dat die federale getalle te oorweldigend kan wees, en beloon die 13de 'n konferensie met die ballinge van die goewerneurs van Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas en Texas in Marshall, Texas. Smith het aan die deelnemers gesê dat dit sy plig was om uit te hou “ten minste totdat president Davis hierdie departement bereik, of ek definitiewe bevele van hom ontvang”. Smith was steeds nie bewus daarvan dat Jefferson Davis gevange geneem is nie.

Die goewerneurs was dit nie eens nie en beskou dit as 'nutteloos'. Brigadier -generaal Joseph O. "Jo" Shelby, een van Smith se luitenante, het egter gedreig om sy meerdere in hegtenis te neem as hy die advies van die goewerneurs volg en hom oorgee. Die mans het uiteindelik besluit om die goewerneur van Louisiana, Henry W. Allen, aan te stel om na Washington te gaan om 'n skikking te probeer beding.

Twee dae later het Smith geweier om 'n tweede ouverture van Pous oor te gee. Pous se boodskapper het Smith 'n keuse gebied tussen onvoorwaardelike oorgawe of "al die gruwels van gewelddadige onderwerping."

Smith het aan die man gesê dat hy nie 'n sekere mate van immuniteit teen verwoesting kon koop ten koste van die eer van sy (die Konfederasie se) leër nie '.

Intussen, in Washington, stuur Grant generaal -majoor Philip Sheridan om die oorblywende van Smith se leër te vernietig. Sheridan het gevra om in Washington te bly om aan die Grand Review deel te neem, maar Grant het daarop aangedring dat hy onmiddellik vertrek. Grant het verduidelik dat Sheridan nie net Smith se oorgawe sou dwing nie, maar dat hy Frankryk ook sou ontmoedig om Mexiko te koloniseer in stryd met die Monroe -leer. Sheridan se vreesaanjaende reputasie vir plundering en vernietiging sou sekerlik sy aankoms voorafgaan.

Smith het spoedig berig gekry dat Sheridan kom en dat Jefferson Davis gevange geneem is. Met sy leër wat vinnig ontbind het, het hy besluit om uiteindelik te onderhandel.

Hy het sy stafhoof, luitenant -generaal Simon B. Buckner, gestuur om vrede te bespreek, nie met pous in St. Louis nie, maar met generaal -majoor E.R.S. Canby in New Orleans. Smith het nie verwag dat Buckner die besluit sou neem sonder om hom te raadpleeg oor watter voorwaardes hy kon verwag nie.

Buckner en Canby het op die 25ste begin beraadslaag, en die volgende dag het Buckner die besluit geneem sonder om Smith te raadpleeg.

Hy het die Konfederale Weermag van die Weste oorgegee aan die stafhoof van Canby, generaal -majoor Peter J. Osterhaus, onder dieselfde voorwaardes wat Grant aan Lee gegee het. Soos die noodlot dit wou hê, het Buckner die eerste Konfederale weermag in 1862 by Fort Donelson oorgegee, en nou het hy die laaste oorgegee.

Smith het die 27ste in Houston aangekom en verneem dat sy leër die vorige dag oorgegee is.

Hy het geweier om die ooreenkoms te onderskryf, en op die 30ste het hy 'n laaste bevel aan sy paar oorblywende mans gegee in die vorm van 'n vermaning: 'Soldate! Ek bly 'n bevelvoerder sonder 'n leër - 'n generaal sonder troepe. Jy het jou keuse gemaak. Dit was onverstandig en onpatrioties, maar dit is finaal. Ek bid dat u nie sal spyt wees daaroor nie. ”

Smith het uiteindelik op 2 Junie berou gegee en die oorgawe -artikels onderteken aan boord van die stoomskip Fort Jackson in Galveston. Diegene wat geweier het om op te gee, is in goud betaal en bymekaargemaak, waaronder Jo Shelby en ander in die hoop om die stryd vanuit Mexiko voort te sit. Smith self sou later by hulle aansluit.

Die oorgawe van E.K. Smith se Trans-Mississippi-distrik het beteken dat die laaste belangrike Konfederale vegmag nie meer was nie. Sommige bevelvoerders wat klein, minder georganiseerde eenhede gelei het, het aangehou, waaronder General Stand Watie. Ander het net huis toe gegaan en uiteindelik aanvaar dat die oorlog uiteindelik verby is.

Die jaar tevore is die Cold Harbor -stryd in Junie gevoer toe Lee die slagveld probeer herower het.

COLD HARBOR BATTLEFIELD, RICHMOND VA

Daar word gesê dat die slagveld een van die grusaamste plekke op aarde is. Dit is waar die loopgraafoorlog die eerste keer gevoer is.

1 JUNIE
Lee wou Old Cold Harbor herhaal en het die generaal -majoor Joseph Kershaw se afdeling gestuur om by Hoke aan te sluit in 'n oggendaanval. Die poging was kort en ongekoördineerd. Hoke failed to press the attack and Sheridan’s troopers, armed with Spencer repeating carbines, easily repulsed the assault.

Grant, encouraged by this success, ordered up reinforcements and planned his own attack for later the same day. If the Union frontal assault broke through the Confederate defenses, it would place the Union army between Lee and Richmond. After a hot and dusty night march, Major General Horatio Wright’s VI Corps arrived and relieved Sheridan’s cavalry, but Grant had to delay the attack Major General William Smith’s XVIII Corps, Army of the James, marching in the wrong direction under out-of-date orders, had to retrace its route and arrived late in the afternoon.

The Union attack finally began at 5 p.m. Finding a fifty yard gap between Hoke’s and Kershaw’s divisions, Wright’s veterans poured through, capturing part of the Confederate lines. A southern counterattack however, sealed off the break and ended the day’s fighting. Confederate infantry strengthened their lines that night and waited for the battle to begin next morning.

JUNE 2
Disappointed by the failed attack Grant planned another advance for 5 a.m. on June 2. He ordered Major General Winfield Hancock’s II Corps to march to the left of the VI Corps.

Exhausted by a brutal night march over narrow, dusty roads, the II Corps did not arrive until 6:30 a.m. Grant postponed the attack until 5 p.m.

Later that day, he approved a postponement until 4:30 a.m. of June 3 because of the spent condition of Hancock’s men.

The Union delays gave Lee precious hours, time he used to strengthen his defenses. The Confederates had built simple trenches by daybreak of June 2. Under Lee’s personal supervision, these works were expanded and strengthened throughout the day. By nightfall the Confederates occupied an interlocking series of trenches with overlapping fields of fire. Reinforcements under Major General John Breckinridge and Lieutenant General Ambrose Hill arrived and fortified the Confederate right. Lee was ready.

JUNE 3
At 4:30 on the morning of June 3 almost 50,000 Federal troops in the II, VI and XVIII Corps launched a massive assault.

The Confederate position, now well entrenched, proved too strong for the Union troops. In less than an hour, thousands of Federal soldiers lay dead and dying between the lines.

Pinned down by a tremendous volume of Confederate infantry and artillery fire, Grant’s men could neither advance nor retreat. With cups, plates, and bayonets, they dug makeshift trenches. Later, when darkness fell, these trenches were joined and improved.

JUNE 4-12
The great attack at Cold Harbor was over. Hundreds of wounded Federal soldiers remained on the battlefield for four days as Grant and Lee negotiated a cease-fire. Few survived the ordeal.

From June 4 to June 12 both armies fortified their positions and settled into siege warfare. The days were filled with minor attacks, artillery duels and sniping. With the Union defeat at Cold Harbor, Grant changed his overall strategy and abandoned further direct moves against Richmond.

On the night of June 12 Union forces withdrew and marched south towards the James River. During the two week period along the Totopotomoy and at Cold Harbor, the Federal army lost 12,000 killed, wounded, missing, and captured while the Confederates suffered almost 4,000 casualties.

Grant’s next target was Petersburg and the railroads that provided needed supplies to the Confederate army. Cold Harbor proved to be Lee’s last major field victory and changed the course of the war from one of maneuver to one of entrenchment.


Inhoud

The fighting of the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War between Lieut. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant’s Army of the Potomac and Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was reported considerably more often in the newspapers than the battles of the Western Theater. Reporting of the Eastern Theater skirmishes largely dominated the newspapers as the Appomattox Campaign developed. [2] Lee’s army fought a series of battles in the Appomattox Campaign against Grant that ultimately stretched thin his lines of defense. Lee's extended lines were mostly on small sections of thirty miles of strongholds around Richmond and Petersburg. His troops ultimately became exhausted defending this line because they were too thinned out. Grant then took advantage of the situation and launched attacks on this thirty mile long poorly defended front. This ultimately led to the surrender of Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox. [2]

The Army of Northern Virginia surrendered on April 9 around noon followed by General St. John Richardson Liddell's troops some six hours later. [2] Mosby's Raiders disbanded on April 21 General Joseph E. Johnston and his various armies surrendered on April 26 the Confederate departments of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana surrendered on May 4 and the Confederate District of the Gulf, commanded by Major General Dabney H. Maury, surrendered on May 5. [3] Confederate President Jefferson Davis held his last cabinet meeting on May 5 and his government dissolved. He was captured on May 10, along with the Confederate Departments of Florida and South Georgia, commanded by Confederate Major General Samuel Jones. [4] Also on May 10, United States President Andrew Johnson declared the rebellion's armed resistance virtually ended . [5] Thompson's Brigade surrendered on May 11, Confederate forces of North Georgia surrendered on May 12, and Kirby Smith surrendered on May 26 (officially signed June 2). [6] The last battle of the American Civil War was the Battle of Palmito Ranch in Texas on May 12 and 13. The last significant Confederate active force to surrender was the Confederate allied Cherokee Brigadier General Stand Watie and his Indian soldiers on June 23. The last Confederate surrender occurred on November 6, 1865, when the Confederate warship CSS Shenandoah surrendered at Liverpool, England. [7] President Johnson formally declared the end of the war on August 20, 1866.

General Robert E. Lee commanded the Army of Northern Virginia, while Major General John Brown Gordon commanded its Second Corps. Early in the morning of April 9, Gordon attacked, aiming to break through Federal lines at the Battle of Appomattox Court House, but failed, and the Confederate Army was then surrounded. At 8:30 A.M. that morning, Lee requested a meeting with Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant to discuss surrendering the Army of Northern Virginia. Shortly after twelve o'clock, Grant's reply reached Lee, and in it Grant said he would accept the surrender of the Confederate Army under certain conditions. Lee then rode into the little hamlet of Appomattox Court House, where the Appomattox county court house stood, and waited for Grant's arrival to surrender his army. [3]

The Confederates lost the city of Spanish Fort in Alabama at the Battle of Spanish Fort, which took place between March 27 and April 8, 1865 in Baldwin County. After losing Spanish Fort, the Confederates went on to lose Fort Blakely to Union forces at the Battle of Fort Blakely, between April 2 and 9, 1865. This was the last battle of the American Civil War involving large numbers of United States Colored Troops. [10] The Battle of Fort Blakely happened six hours after Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox. In the course of the battle, Brig. Gen. St. John Richardson Liddell was captured and surrendered his men. Out of 4,000 soldiers originally, Liddell lost 3,400 that were captured in this battle. About 250 were killed and only some 200 men escaped. The successful Union assault can be attributed in large part to African-American forces. [11]

Unaware of Lee's surrender on April 9 and the assassination of United States President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, General James H. Wilson's Raiders continued their march through Alabama into Georgia. On April 16, the Battle of Columbus, Georgia was fought. This battle – erroneously – has been argued to be the "last battle of the Civil War" and equally erroneously asserted to be "widely regarded" as such. [12] [13] [14] Columbus fell to Wilson's Raiders about midnight on April 16, and most of its manufacturing capacity was destroyed on the 17th. Confederate Colonel John Stith Pemberton, the inventor of Coca-Cola, was wounded in this battle which resulted in his obsession with pain-killing formulas, ultimately ending in the recipe for his celebrated drink.

Mosby's Rangers, also known as the 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry, were a special force of Confederate military troops who opposed the Union control of the Loudoun Valley area. Under the command of General Robert E. Lee, John S. Mosby had formed the battalion on June 10, 1863, at Rector's Cross Roads near Rectortown, Virginia. Mosby practiced psychological and guerrilla warfare techniques to disrupt the Union stronghold. Mosby's men never formally surrendered and were disbanded on April 21, 1865, almost two weeks after Lee had surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant. [15] On the last day of Mosby's striking force, a letter from him was read aloud to his men: [16]

With no formal surrender, however, Union Major General Winfield S. Hancock offered a reward of $2,000 for Mosby's capture, later raised to $5,000. On June 17, Mosby surrendered to Major General John Gregg in Lynchburg, Virginia. [18]

The next major stage in the peace-making process concluding the American Civil War was the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston and his armies to Major General William T. Sherman on April 26, 1865, at Bennett Place, in Durham, North Carolina. [19] Johnston's Army of Tennessee was among nearly one hundred thousand Confederate soldiers who were surrendered from North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. [19] The conditions of surrender were in a document called "Terms of a Military Convention" signed by Sherman, Johnston, and Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant at Raleigh, North Carolina. [20]

The first major stage in the peace-making process was when Lee's surrender occurred at Appomattox on April 9, 1865. [21] This, coupled with Lincoln's assassination, induced Johnston to act, believing: "With such odds against us, without the means of procuring ammunition or repairing arms, without money or credit to provide food, it was impossible to continue the war except as robbers." [22] On April 17 Sherman and Johnston met at Bennett Place, and the following day an armistice was arranged, when terms were discussed and agreed upon. Grant had authorized only the surrender of Johnston's forces, but Sherman exceeded his orders by providing very generous terms. These included: that the warring states be immediately recognized after their leaders signed loyalty oaths that property and personal rights be returned to the Confederates the reestablishment of the federal court system and that a general amnesty would be given. On April 24 the authorities in Washington rejected Sherman's proposed terms, and two days later Johnston agreed to the same terms Lee had received previously on April 9. [23]

General Johnston surrendered the following commands under his direction on April 26, 1865: the Department of Tennessee and Georgia the Army of Tennessee the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida and the Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia. [24] In doing so, Johnston surrendered to Sherman around 30,000 men. [23] On April 27 his adjutant announced the terms to the Army of Tennessee in General Orders #18, and on May 2 he issued his farewell address to the Army of Tennessee as General Orders #22. [25] The remaining parts of the Florida "Brigade of the West" surrendered with the rest of Johnston’s forces on May 4, 1865, at Greensboro, North Carolina. [19]

The documentation of the surrender of Lieutenant General Richard Taylor's small force in Alabama was another stage in the process of concluding the American Civil War. The son of former U.S. President Zachary Taylor, Richard Taylor commanded the Confederate troops in the Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana of about ten thousand troops. [26] On May 4 Taylor's subordinate Col. J.Q. Chenowith surrendered the Department to Union officer Col. John A. Hottenstein. [27]

Mobile, Alabama, had fallen to Union control on April 12, 1865. [28] Reports reached Taylor of the meeting between Johnston and Sherman about the terms of Johnston's surrender of his armies. Taylor agreed to meet with Major General Edward R. S. Canby for a conference north of Mobile, and they settled on a 48 hour's truce on April 30. Taylor agreed to a surrender after this time elapsed, which he did on May 4 at Citronelle, Alabama. [26]

Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest surrendered on May 9 at Gainesville, Alabama. His troops were included with Taylor's. The terms stated that Taylor could retain control of the railway and river steamers to be able to get his men as near as possible to their homes. Taylor stayed in Meridian, Mississippi, until the last man was sent on his way. He was paroled May 13 and then went to Mobile to join Canby. Canby took him to his home in New Orleans by boat. [27]

President Davis met with his Confederate Cabinet for the last time on May 5, 1865, in Washington, Georgia, and officially dissolved the Confederate government. [29] [ mislukte verifikasie ] The meeting took place at the Heard house, the Georgia Branch Bank Building, with 14 officials present.

The Confederate District of the Gulf was commanded by Major General Dabney H. Maury. On April 12, he retreated with his troops after the two major Confederate forts of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely were lost to the Union forces. He declared Mobile, Alabama, an open city after these battles. Maury went to Meridian, Mississippi, with his remaining men.

Maury wanted to join the remains of the Army of Tennessee in North Carolina. However, hearing of Johnston's surrender to Sherman on April 26 he soon ran out of options. Ultimately Maury surrendered Mobile's about four thousand men to the Union army on May 5 at Citronelle, Alabama. [30]

Despite the fact that there were still small pockets of resistance in the South, the president declared that the armed resistance was "virtually" ended and that nations or ships still harboring fugitives would be denied entry into U.S. ports. Persons found aboard such vessels would no longer be given immunity from prosecution of their crimes. [31]

On May 10, Union cavalrymen, under Major General James H. Wilson, captured Confederate President Jefferson Davis after he fled Richmond, Virginia, following its evacuation in the early part of April 1865. On May 5, 1865, in Washington, Georgia, Davis had held the last meeting of his Cabinet. At that time, the Confederate government was declared dissolved. [4]

The sequence of events that led to Davis' capture began early in May 1865, when the 4th Michigan Cavalry was set up in an encampment of tents at Macon, Georgia. The military unit of several battalions was commanded by Lieut. Col. Ben Pritchard. On May 7, he was given orders to join many other units searching for the Confederate president. Pritchard's troops scouted through the country along the Ocmulgee River, and by the next day the Michiganders had come to Hawkinsville, Georgia, about fifty miles south of Macon, from where they continued along the river to Abbeville, Georgia. There, Pritchard learned from Lieutenant Colonel Henry Harnden that his First Wisconsin Cavalry was hot on Davis's trail. After a meeting between the two colonels, Harnden and his men headed off towards Irwinville, some twenty miles south of their position. [32]

Pritchard received word from local residents that on the night before a party, probably including the Confederate President, had crossed the Ocmulgee River just north of Abbeville. Since there were two roads to Irwindale, one of which had been taken by Harnden and his men, Pritchard decided to take the other, to see if he could capture Davis. He took with him about a hundred and forty men and their horses, while the balance of the Michiganders stayed on the Ocmulgee River near Abbeville. Some seven hours later, at 1 A.M. on May 10, Pritchard arrived at Irwindale. There was no evidence of Harnden's men being there yet. [32]

Pritchard learned from local residents that about a mile and a half to the north there was a military camp. Not knowing whether this was Davis and his group or the 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, he approached cautiously. He soon identified the camp as Davis's. At first dawn, Pritchard charged the camp, which was so surprised and overwhelmed that it offered no resistance and yielded immediately. [32]

About ten minutes after the surrender, Pritchard heard rapid gunfire to the north. He left Davis and the captured men in the hands of his 21-year-old adjutant. Once he had approached the gunfire, he realized it was the 4th Michigan and the 1st Wisconsin shooting at each other with Spencer repeating carbines, neither realizing who they were shooting at. Pritchard immediately ordered his men to stop and shouted to the 1st Wisconsin to identify the parties. In the five-minute skirmish, the 1st Wisconsin Cavalry had suffered eight men wounded, while the 4th Michigan Cavalry had lost two men killed and one wounded. [32]

Back at camp, Pritchard's adjutant was almost fooled into letting Davis escape by a ruse. Davis's wife had persuaded the adjutant to let her "old mother" go to fetch some water. The adjutant allowed this, and walked away from their tent. Mrs. Davis and a person dressed as an old woman then left the tent to go for the water. One of the other ranking officers noticed the "old woman" was wearing men's riding boots with spurs. Immediately, they were stopped and the woman's overcoat and black head shawl were removed, to reveal Davis himself. [33] The plan of escape thus failed. [34] The Confederate president was subsequently held prisoner for two years in Fort Monroe, Virginia. [35]

In 1864, Major General Samuel Jones commanded the Departments of Florida, South Carolina, and South Georgia, with his headquarters in Pensacola, Florida. His primary orders were to guard the coastal areas of these states and to destroy Union gunboats. He also destroyed all the machinery and sawmills that would be beneficial to the Union armies. [36]

In the early part of 1865, Jones was transferred to Tallahassee, soon after Savannah had fallen to Sherman and the Union forces in December 1864. There, Jones headquartered the District of Florida. On May 10, at Tallahassee, he surrendered about eight thousand troops to Brigadier General Edward M. McCook. In military action east of the Mississippi River, the city of Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital not captured during the Civil War. [36]

Wittsburg, Arkansas (the county seat of Cross County from 1868 through 1886), would witness one of the final acts in the American Civil War. This happened after the collapse of Confederate forces east of the Mississippi. Major General Grenville M. Dodge sent Lieutenant Colonel Charles W. Davis of the 51st Illinois Infantry on April 30, 1865, to Arkansas to seek the surrender of Confederate Brigadier General "Jeff" Meriwether Thompson, commander of Confederate troops in the northeast portion of Arkansas. Davis, arriving at Chalk Bluff (now non-extant) in Clay County, Arkansas, on the St. Francis River, sent communications to Thompson asking that they have a conference. These two officers met on May 9 to negotiate a surrender. [37]

Thompson requested from Davis two days to work out the details of the surrender with his officers. The Confederates under the command of Thompson agreed to surrender all the troops in the area on May 11, 1865. [a] They picked Wittsburg and Jacksonport, Arkansas, as the sites where Thompson's five thousand military troops would gather to receive their paroles. Ultimately Thompson surrendered about seventy-five hundred men all total that were under his command consisting of 1,964 enlisted men with 193 officers paroled at Wittsburg in May 1865 and 4,854 enlisted men with 443 officers paroled at Jacksonport on June 6, 1865. [6] [38]

The surrender of between 3000 and 4000 soldiers under Brigadier General William T. Wofford's command took place at Kingston, Georgia, and was received by Brig. Gen. Henry M. Judah on May 12, 1865. There were several letters between the various generals involved in the negotiation of this surrender, including Wofford, Judah, William D. Whipple and Robert S. Granger. [39]

Colonel Louis Merrill kept the Headquarters Department of the Cumberland in Nashville, Tennessee informed and according to a letter he wrote on May 4, 1865, there were about 10,000 soldiers under Wofford's command, "on paper." These consisted of all the Confederate troops in northwestern Georgia, however only about a third could actually be collected as the rest were deserters. From this group there were a number of soldiers that resisted General Wofford's efforts to make them follow his commands. [6]

There is a Georgia historical marker in Kingston, Georgia, in Bartow County at the intersection of West Main Street and Church Street to denote where this surrender took place. It further explains that the Confederate soldiers were given rations after their release.

The last land battle of the Civil War took place near Brownsville, Texas, and it was won by the Confederates. The Confederates held the city of Brownsville in the early part of 1865. In January or February Major General Lew Wallace was sent by the Union government to Texas. On March 11 Wallace had a meeting with the two major Confederate commanders of the region, Brigadier General James Slaughter and Colonel John "Rip" Ford, under the premise that the official purpose was the "rendition of criminals." The real reason was to agree that any fighting in the region would be pointless and negotiate an unofficial indefinite cease fire. Slaughter and Ford, at this point in time, occupied Fort Brown near Brownsville. [40]

In May Colonel Theodore H. Barrett was in temporary command of Union troops at Brazos Santiago Island. He had little military field experience and desired, it is surmised, "to establish for himself some notoriety before the war closed." Barrett knew that an attack on Fort Brown was in violation of orders from headquarters, since the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia already surrendered by Lee at Appomattox on April 9 and many other Confederate forces had surrendered or disbanded by then. In spite of these known facts Barrett decided anyway to go ahead with his plans. [41]

On May 12, Barrett instructed Colonel David Branson of the 34th Indiana Veteran Volunteer Infantry to attack the Confederate encampment at Brazos Santiago Depot near Fort Brown. Barrett commanded the 62nd United States Colored Infantry and the 2nd Texas Cavalry, and advanced towards Fort Brown with the intention of reoccupying Brownsville with Union forces thinking they would not encounter any problems, assuming all the Confederates surely had heard of Lee's surrender by this time. To their surprise they encountered Confederates that did not know of Lee's surrender. [41]

A ferocious battle erupted at Palmito Ranch, about 12 miles outside Brownsville. The battle was lost by Barrett's Union regiments mainly because they were outmaneuvered and overrun. Of the original 300 Union troops that fought at Palmito Ranch, they lost over one third, mostly to capture with a few killed or seriously injured.

Confederate leaders asked General Kirby Smith to send reinforcements from his Army of the Trans-Mississippi east of the Mississippi River, in the spring of 1864 following the Battle of Mansfield and the Battle of Pleasant Hill. This was not practicable due to the Union naval control of the Mississippi River and the unwillingness of western troops to be transferred east of the river. Smith instead dispatched Major General Sterling Price and his cavalry on an invasion of Missouri that was ultimately not successful. Thereafter the war west of the Mississippi River was principally one of small raids.

By May 26 1865, a representative of Smith's negotiated and signed surrender documents with a representative of Major General Edward Canby in Shreveport, Louisiana, then took custody of Smith's force of 43,000 soldiers when they surrendered, by then the only significant Confederate forces left west of the Mississippi River. With this ended all organized Southern military resistance to the Union forces. Smith signed the surrender papers on June 2 on board the U.S.S. Fort Jackson just outside Galveston Harbor. [42]

The Native American tribes of the Indian Territory realized that the Confederacy could no longer fulfill its commitments to them. Therefore, the Camp Napoleon Council was called to draft an agreement to present a united front as they negotiated a return of their loyalty to the United States. Native American tribes further west, many of them also at war with the United States troops, were also invited to take part, and several of them did. [43]

At the end of the meeting, on May 26, 1865, the council appointed commissioners (no more than five for each tribe) to attend a conference with the U.S. government at Washington D.C., at which the results of the Camp Napoleon Council would be presented and discussed. However, the U.S. government refused to treat with such a large group representing so many tribes. Furthermore the government regarded the Camp Napoleon meeting as unofficial and unauthorized. President Johnson later called for a meeting at Fort Smith (called the Fort Smith Council), which was held in September, 1865. [44]

Cherokee Brigadier General Stand Watie commanded the Confederate Indians when he surrendered on June 23. [45] This was the last significant Confederate active force. [46] Watie formed the Cherokee Mounted Rifles. He was a guerrilla fighter commanding Cherokee, Seminole, Creek, and Osage Indian soldiers. [47] They earned a notorious reputation for their bold and brave fighting. Yearly, Federal troops all over the western United States hunted for Watie, but they never captured him. He surrendered on June 23 at Fort Towson, in the Choctaw Nations area at the village of Doaksville (now a ghost town) of the Indian Territory, being the last Confederate general to surrender in the American Civil War. [48]

Die CSS Shenandoah was commissioned as a commerce raider by the Confederacy to interfere with Union shipping and hinder their efforts in the American Civil War. A Scottish-built merchant ship originally called the Sea King, it was secretly purchased by Confederate agents in September 1864. Captain James Waddell renamed the ship Shenandoah after she was converted to a warship off the coast of Spain on October 19, shortly after leaving England. William Conway Whittle, Waddell's right-hand man, was the ship's executive officer. [49]

Die Shenandoah, sailing south then east across the Indian Ocean and into the South Pacific, was in Micronesia at the Island of Ponape (called Ascension Island by Whittle) at the time of the surrender of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia to the Union forces on April 9, 1865. [50] Waddell had already captured and disposed of thirteen Union merchantmen.

Die Shenandoah destroyed one more prize in the Sea of Okhotsk, north of Japan, then continued to the Aleutians and into the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean, crossing the Arctic Circle on June 19. [51] Continuing then south along the coast of Alaska the Shenandoah came upon a fleet of Union ships whaling on June 22. [51] She opened continuous fire, destroying a major portion of the Union whaling fleet. [51] Capt. Waddell took aim at a fleeing whaler, Sophia Thornton, and at his signal, the gunner jerked a wrist strap and fired the last two shots of the American Civil War. [52] Shenandoah had so far captured and burned eleven ships of the American whaling fleet while in Arctic waters. [51]

Waddell finally learned of Lee's surrender on June 27 when the captain of the prize Susan & Abigail produced a newspaper from San Francisco. The same paper contained Confederate President Jefferson Davis's proclamation that the "war would be carried on with re-newed vigor". [53] Shenandoah proceeded to capture a further ten whalers in the following seven hours. Waddell then steered Shenandoah south, intending to raid the port of San Francisco which he believed to be poorly defended. En route they encountered an English barque, Barracouta, on August 2 from which Waddell learned of the final collapse of the Confederacy including the surrenders of Johnston's, Kirby Smith's, and Magruder's armies and the capture of President Davis. The long log entry of the Shenandoah for August 2, 1865, begins "The darkest day of my life." Captain Waddell realized then in his grief that they had taken innocent unarmed Union whaling ships as prizes when the rest of the country had ended hostilities. [54]

Following the orders of the captain of the Barracouta, Waddell immediately converted the warship back to a merchant ship, storing her cannon below, discharging all arms, and repainting the hull. [54] [55] At this point, Waddell decided to sail back to England and surrender the Shenandoah in Liverpool. Surrendering in an American port carried the certainty of facing a court with a Union point of view and the very real risk of a trial for piracy, for which he and the crew could be hanged. Sailing south around Cape Horn and staying well off shore to avoid shipping that might report Shenandoah's position, they saw no land for another 9,000 miles until they arrived back in England, having logged a total of over 58,000 miles around the world in a year's travel—the only Confederate ship to circumnavigate the globe. [56]

Thus the final Confederate surrender of the war did not occur until November 6, 1865, when Waddell's ship reached Liverpool and was surrendered to Capt. R. N. Paynter, commander of HMS Donegal of the British Royal Navy. [54] [57] [58] The Shenandoah was officially surrendered by letter to the British Prime Minister, the Earl Russell. [59] [60] [61] [62] Ultimately, after an investigation by the British Admiralty court, Waddell and his crew were exonerated of doing anything that violated the laws of war and were unconditionally released. Shenandoah herself was sold to Sultan Majid bin Said of Zanzibar in 1866 and renamed El Majidi. [63] Several of the crew moved to Argentina to become farmers and eventually returned to the United States.

On August 20, 1866, United States President Andrew Johnson signed a Proclamation—Declaring that Peace, Order, Tranquillity, and Civil Authority Now Exists in and Throughout the Whole of the United States of America. [64] It cited the end of the insurrection in Texas, and declared

. that the insurrection which heretofore existed in the State of Texas is at an end and is to be henceforth so regarded in that State as in the other States before named in which the said insurrection was proclaimed to be at an end by the aforesaid proclamation of the 2nd day of April, 1866. And I do further proclaim that the said insurrection is at an end and that peace, order, tranquillity, and civil authority now exist in and throughout the whole of the United States of America.


Inhoud

The Confederate Navy could never achieve numerical equality with the Union Navy, as its adversary had 70 years of traditions and experience. It instead sought to take advantage of technological innovation, such as ironclads, submarines, torpedo boats, and naval mines (then known as torpedoes). In February 1861, the Confederate States Navy had 30 vessels, only 14 of which were seaworthy. The opposing Union Navy had 90 vessels. The C. S. Navy eventually grew to 101 ships to meet the rise in naval conflicts and threats to the coast and rivers of the Confederacy.

On April 20, 1861, the U.S. was forced to quickly abandon the important Gosport Navy Yard at Portsmouth, Virginia. In their haste, they failed to effectively burn the facility with its large depots of arms, other supplies, and several small vessels. As a result, the Confederacy captured a large supply of much-needed war materials, including heavy cannon, gunpowder, shot, and shell. Of most importance to the Confederacy was the shipyard ' s dry docks, barely damaged by the departing Union forces. The Confederacy ' s only substantial navy yard at that time was in Pensacola, Florida, so the Gosport Yard was sorely needed to build new warships. The most significant warship left at the Yard was the screw frigate USS Merrimack

The U.S. Navy had torched Merrimack ' s superstructure and upper deck, then scuttled the vessel it would have been immediately useful as a warship to their enemy. Little of the ship's structure remained other than the hull, which was holed by the scuttling charge but otherwise intact. Confederate Navy Secretary Stephen Mallory had the idea to raise Merrimack and rebuild it. When the hull was raised, it had not been submerged long enough to have been rendered unusable the steam engines and essential machinery were salvageable. The decks were rebuilt using thick oak and pine planking, and the upper deck was overlaid with two courses of heavy iron plate. The newly rebuilt superstructure was unusual: above the waterline, the sides sloped inward and were covered with two layers of heavy iron-plate armor, the inside course laid horizontally, the outside course laid vertically.

The vessel was a new kind of warship, an all-steam powered "iron-clad". In the centuries-old tradition of reusing captured ships, the new warship was christened CSS Virginia. She later fought the Union ' s new ironclad USS Monitor. On the second day of the Battle of Hampton Roads, the two ships met and each scored numerous hits on the other. On the first day of that battle Virginia, and the James River Squadron, aggressively attacked and nearly broke the Union Navy ' s sea blockade of wooden warships, proving the effectiveness of the ironclad concept. The two ironclads had steamed forward, tried to outflank or ram the other, circled, backed away, and came forward firing again and again, but neither was able to sink or demand surrender of its opponent. After four hours, both ships were taking on water through split seams and breaches from enemy shot. The engines of both ships were becoming dangerously overtaxed, and their crews were near exhaustion. The two ships turned and steamed away, never to meet again. This part in the Battle of Hampton Roads between Monitor en Virginia greatly overshadowed the bloody events each side's ground troops were fighting, largely because it was the first battle in history between two iron-armored steam-powered warships.

The last Confederate surrender took place in Liverpool, United Kingdom on November 6, 1865 aboard the commerce raider CSS Shenandoah when her flag (battle ensign) was lowered for the final time. This surrender brought about the end of the Confederate navy. Die Shenandoah had circumnavigated the globe, the only Confederate ship to do so.

Creation Edit

The act of the Confederate Congress that created the Confederate Navy on February 21, 1861 also appointed Stephen Mallory as Secretary of the Department of the Navy. Mallory was experienced as an admiralty lawyer and had served for a time as the chairman of the Naval Affairs Committee of the United States Senate. The Confederacy had a few scattered naval assets and looked to Liverpool, England, to buy naval cruisers to attack the American merchant fleet. In April 1861, Mallory recruited former U.S. Navy Lieutenant James Dunwoody Bulloch into the Confederate navy and sent him to Liverpool. Using Charleston-based importer and exporter Fraser Trentholm, who had offices in Liverpool, Commander Bulloch immediately ordered six steam vessels. [1]

As Mallory began aggressively building up a formidable naval force, a Confederate Congress committee on August 27, 1862, reported:

Before the war, nineteen steam war vessels had been built in the States forming the Confederacy, and the engines for all of these had been contracted for in those States. All the labor or materials requisite to complete and equip a war vessel could not be commanded at any one point of the Confederacy. [The Navy Department] had erected a powder-mill which supplies all the powder required by our navy two engine, boiler and machine shops, and five ordnance workshops. It has established eighteen yards for building war vessels, and a rope-walk, making all cordage from a rope-yarn to a 9-inch cable, and capable of turning out 8,000 yards per month . Of vessels not ironclad and converted to war vessels, there were 44. The department has built and completed as war vessels, 12 partially constructed and destroyed to save from the enemy, 10 now under construction, 9 ironclad vessels now in commission, 12 completed and destroyed or lost by capture, 4 in progress of construction and in various stages of forwardness, 23.


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