Geskiedenis Podcasts

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson

Op 20 Januarie 1965 roep Lyndon B. In sy inhuldigingstoespraak roep Johnson die land op om te verenig na 'n gemeenskaplike doel.


Geskiedenis

Op 30 Julie 1965 onderteken president Lyndon B. Johnson die wetsontwerp wat tot die Medicare en Medicaid gelei het. Die oorspronklike Medicare -program het deel A (hospitaalversekering) en deel B (mediese versekering) ingesluit. Hierdie twee dele word vandag 'Original Medicare' genoem. Deur die jare het die Kongres veranderinge aangebring in Medicare:

In 1972 is Medicare byvoorbeeld uitgebrei om gestremdes te dek, mense met 'n eindstadium niersiekte (ESRD) wat dialise of nieroorplanting benodig, en mense van 65 jaar of ouer wat Medicare-dekking kies.

Aanvanklik het Medicaid mediese versekering gegee aan mense wat kontantbystand ontvang. Vandag word 'n veel groter groep gedek:

  • Gesinne met 'n lae inkomste
  • Verwagtende vrouens
  • Mense van alle ouderdomme met gestremdhede
  • Mense wat langtermynversorging nodig het

State kan hul Medicaid -programme aanpas om die mense in hul staat die beste te bedien, so daar is 'n groot variasie in die dienste wat aangebied word.

Medicare Deel D Voorskrif Geneesmiddelvoordeel

Die Wet op die verbetering en modernisering van die medisyne op voorskrif van 2003 (MMA) het die grootste veranderinge in die program in 38 jaar aangebring. Onder die MMA het private gesondheidsplanne wat deur Medicare goedgekeur is, bekend gestaan ​​as Medicare Advantage Plans. Hierdie planne word soms 'Deel C' of 'MA -planne' genoem.

Die MMA het Medicare ook uitgebrei tot 'n opsionele voorskrifvoordeel "Deel D", wat in 2006 van krag geword het.

Gesondheidsversekeringsprogram vir kinders

Die Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) is in 1997 gestig om bykans 11 miljoen, oftewel 1 uit 7, onversekerde Amerikaanse kinders gesondheidsversekering en voorkomende sorg te gee. Baie van hierdie kinders kom uit onversekerde werkende gesinne wat te veel verdien het om in aanmerking te kom vir Medicaid. Al 50 state, die District of Columbia en die gebiede het CHIP -planne.

Wet op bekostigbare sorg

Die 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) bring die Health Insurance Marketplace, 'n enkele plek waar verbruikers aansoek kan doen om privaat gesondheidsversekeringsplanne in te skryf. Dit het ons ook nuwe maniere gemaak om gesondheidsorg te ontwerp en te toets. Medicare en Medicaid is ook beter gekoördineer om seker te maak dat mense wat Medicare en Medicaid het, kwaliteit dienste kan kry.

50ste bestaansjaar - Medicare & amp; Medicaid -geleentheid: 50 jaar, miljoene gesonder lewens

Medicare en Medicaid: hou ons gesond vir 50 jaar

Op 30 Julie 1965 onderteken president Lyndon B. Johnson wetgewing wat die Medicare- en Medicaid -programme ingestel het. Hierdie programme beskerm al 50 jaar lank die gesondheid en welsyn van miljoene Amerikaanse gesinne, red lewens en verbeter die ekonomiese veiligheid van ons land.

Alhoewel Medicare en Medicaid begin het as basiese versekeringsprogramme vir Amerikaners wat nie gesondheidsversekering gehad het nie, het hulle deur die jare verander om meer en meer Amerikaners toegang te gee tot die kwaliteit en bekostigbare gesondheidsorg wat hulle nodig het.

Ons het die herdenking van hierdie programme gevier deur die maniere waarop hierdie programme die land se gesondheidsorgstelsel in die afgelope vyf dekades verander het, te erken. Ons kyk voort na die toekoms en ondersoek maniere om Medicare en Medicaid vir die volgende 50 jaar sterk te hou deur 'n slimmer en gesonder stelsel te bou sodat hierdie programme voortgaan as die standaard draers vir dekking, kwaliteit en innovasie in Amerikaanse gesondheidsorg.


Meer kommentaar:

Jeffery Ewener - 27/09/2004

'N Groot leier in binnelandse sake is 'n vreemde manier om die man te beskryf wat die federale staatsdiens rasseskeiding opgelê het. Wie het die Palmer Raids geborg. Wie het Debs opgesluit omdat hy die waarheid gepraat het.

Wilson het ook goeie intellektuele gawes en verbeelding gehad. Wat hy kortgekom het, was karakter. Hy was kranksinnig, onverdraagsaam teenoor ander se opinies, gegrief oor kritiek en bereid om wreedheid te neem teen diegene wie se opposisie sy minagting uitgelok het. Bo alles was hy 'n klassieke huigelaar - altyd oortuig dat sy doelwitte beter was as dié van iemand anders, bloot omdat dit syne was.


Geskiedenis

Die biblioteek is geleë op 'n terrein van 30 hektaar op die Universiteit van Texas se kampus in Austin, Texas. Die gebou is op 'n prominente plein langs Sid Richardson Hall en die LBJ School of Public Affairs.

Biblioteekargitektuur:

  • Die gebou met tien verdiepings, modern en monolities, is opvallend vanweë sy onversierde buitekant van travertyn
  • Die oostelike en westelike mure het 'n voetdikte van agt voet en buig saggies opwaarts na die ondermure van die tiende verdieping, wat die buitemure vyftien voet aan elke kant oorhang
  • Die noordelike en suidelike mure is vyftien voet terug, met balkonne wat uitkyk oor die kampus en die stad
  • Die opvallendste kenmerk van die binnekant is die Great Hall, met sy seremoniële trap en 'n uitsig oor die argiefversameling met vier verdiepings.

Biblioteekargitekte:

Skidmore, Owings en Merrill. Verantwoordelike vennoot: Gordon Bunshaft

Brooks, Barr, Graeber en White. Verantwoordelike vennoot: R. Max Brooks

Blitsskakels

Kontak Ons

Algemene inligting
(512) 721-0200
[e -pos en#160 beskerm]

Toesighoudende argivaris
Jennifer Cuddeback

Kommunikasie Direkteur
Anne Wheeler
[e -pos beskerm]

Onderwysspesialis
Amanda Melancon
[e -pos beskerm]

Vrywilliger en besoekersdienste koördineerder
Laura Eggert
[e -pos beskerm]


Lyndon B. Johnson - GESKIEDENIS

President Lyndon B Johnson se biografie

President Lyndon B Johnson (LBJ) verskaf interessante, prettige feite en inligting oor die lewensbiografie van Lyndon B Johnson, president van die Verenigde State van Amerika. Kry 'n vinnige oorsig van sy lewe! Kort biografie met sleuteldatums met sy biografie, inligting en trivia oor sy loopbaan, familie, siektes, groot prestasies en prestasies. Perfekte studiegids vir studente, kinders en kinders wat meer wil leer oor hierdie beroemde Amerikaanse president. Wanneer is hy gebore? Wat was sy agtergrond? Met wie het hy getrou? Hoeveel kinders het hy gehad? Hoe het hy gelyk – sy fisiese beskrywing? Wanneer is Lyndon B Johnson ingehuldig as president? Wat was die belangrikste gebeurtenisse, prestasies en prestasies van die Lyndon B Johnson -presidentskap? Wanneer is hy dood en wat was die oorsaak van sy dood? Ons biografie en video oor Lyndon B Johnson beantwoord die aanvanklike vraag – Wie is Lyndon B Johnson, of wie was Lyndon B Johnson?

Lyndon B. Johnson

'N Great Society ” vir die Amerikaanse volk en hul medemens elders was die visie van Lyndon B. Johnson. Gedurende sy eerste ampstermyn het hy een van die mees uitgebreide wetgewende programme in die geskiedenis van die Nasie gekry. Hy handhaaf die gesamentlike veiligheid en voer die vinnig groeiende stryd om die kommunistiese inbreuk in Viëtnam in bedwang te hou.

Johnson is gebore op 27 Augustus 1908 in die middel van Texas, nie ver van Johnson City nie, wat sy gesin gehelp het om te vestig. Hy voel die knyp van armoede op die platteland toe hy grootword, terwyl hy deur die Southwest Texas State Teachers College (nou bekend as Texas State University-San Marcos) werk, leer hy deernis vir die armoede van ander toe hy studente van Mexikaanse afkoms leer.

In 1937 het hy 'n suksesvolle veldtog vir die Huis van Verteenwoordigers op 'n New Deal -platform beywer, effektief bygestaan ​​deur sy vrou, die voormalige Claudia “Lady Bird ” Taylor, met wie hy in 1934 getroud is.

Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog dien hy kortliks in die vloot as luitenant -bevelvoerder en wen 'n Silver Star in die Suidelike Stille Oseaan. Na ses termyne in die Huis, word Johnson verkies tot die Senaat in 1948. In 1953 word hy die jongste minderheidsleier in die geskiedenis van die Senaat, en die jaar daarna, toe die Demokrate beheer oorneem, meerderheidsleier. Met seldsame vaardigheid het hy 'n aantal belangrike Eisenhower -maatreëls bereik.

In die veldtog van 1960 is Johnson, as John F. Kennedy se bestuurder, as vise -president verkies. Op 22 November 1963, toe Kennedy vermoor is, is Johnson as president beëdig.

Eers het hy die maatreëls gekry wat president Kennedy tydens sy dood aangemoedig het en 'n nuwe wetsontwerp op burgerregte en 'n belastingverlaging. Daarna het hy die Nasie aangespoor om 'n wonderlike samelewing op te bou, 'n plek waar die betekenis van die mens se lewe ooreenstem met die wonder van menslike arbeid. In 1964 het Johnson die presidensie met 61 persent van die stemme gewen en die grootste gewilde marge in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis en meer as 15 000 000 stemme.

Die Great Society-program het in Januarie 1965 die agenda van Johnson ’ vir die Kongres geword: hulp aan onderwys, aanval op siektes, Medicare, stedelike vernuwing, verfraaiing, bewaring, ontwikkeling van depressiewe streke, 'n grootskaalse bestryding van armoede, beheer en voorkoming van misdaad en misdadigheid, verwydering van hindernisse vir die stemreg. Die kongres het soms die aanbevelings van Johnson vinnig aangeneem of aangepas. Miljoene bejaardes het steun gevind deur die 1965 Medicare -wysiging van die Wet op Maatskaplike Sekerheid.

Onder Johnson het die land skouspelagtige verkennings in die ruimte gedoen in 'n program wat hy sedert die begin daarvan beywer het. Toe drie ruimtevaarders in Desember 1968 suksesvol om die maan wentel, wens Johnson hulle geluk: “Jy het ons almal, oor die hele wêreld, in 'n nuwe era geneem. . . . ”

Tog het twee oorheersende krisisse sedert 1965 momentum gekry. Ondanks die aanvang van nuwe programme teen armoede en teen diskriminasie, het onrus en oproer in swart ghetto's die Nasie ontstel. President Johnson oefen geleidelik sy invloed uit teen segregasie en namens wet en orde, maar daar was geen vroeë oplossing nie.

Die ander krisis het uit Viëtnam ontstaan. Ondanks Johnson se pogings om die kommunistiese aggressie te beëindig en 'n skikking te bewerkstellig, het gevegte voortgegaan. Die omstredenheid oor die oorlog het skerp geword teen einde Maart 1968, toe hy die bombardement van Noord -Viëtnam beperk het om onderhandelinge te begin. Terselfdertyd skrik hy die wêreld op deur terug te trek as kandidaat vir herverkiesing, sodat hy sy volle pogings, onbelemmerd deur die politiek, kan toewy aan die soeke na vrede.

Toe hy sy amp verlaat, was daar vredesgesprekke aan die gang, maar hy het nie geleef dat dit suksesvol was nie, maar skielik aan 'n hartaanval op sy plaas in Texas op 22 Januarie 1973 oorlede is.

Die presidensiële biografieë op WhiteHouse.gov kom uit "The Presidents of the United States of America" ​​deur Frank Freidel en Hugh Sidey. Kopiereg 2006 deur die White House Historical Association.

Vir meer inligting oor president Johnson, besoek: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum


Mondelinge geskiedenis kan afgelaai word

Die lêers word verskaf in Adobe Acrobat -formaat. Om hierdie lêers te lees, moet u 'n gratis kopie van die Adobe Acrobat Reader vir u rekenaar aflaai. Afskrifte van mondelinge geskiedenis is ook per pos beskikbaar by die biblioteek.

ABELL, BESS. Assistent vir mev. Johnson, vise-presidentstydperk, 1961-1963 Mev. Johnson se maatskaplike sekretaris, 1963-1969.

ABRAM, MORRIS. Mede-voorsitter, beplanningsessie, konferensie in die Withuis "Om hierdie regte te vervul" 1965 Amerikaanse verteenwoordiger, VN-kommissie vir menseregte, lid 1965-1968, National Advisory Council on Economic Opportunity, 1967-68 President, Field Foundation, 1965-82 President, Brandeis Universiteit, 1968-1970 Voorsitter, United Negro College Fund, 1970-79.

AIKEN, GEORGE D. Amerikaanse senator, Vermont, 1941-1975.

ALBERT, CARL B. Amerikaanse kongreslid, Oklahoma, 1947-1977 House Majority Whip, 1955-1962 House Majority Leader, 1962-1971 Speaker van die Huis, 1971-1977.

ALBRIGHT, JACK. Kommandant van die Amerikaanse weermag, kommunikasie-agentskap van die Withuis, 1965-1969.

OOK, STEWART. Rubriekskrywer Washington, DC Redakteur, Saturday Evening Post, 1962-1968 Kolumnist, Newsweek, 1968-1974.

BALL, GEORGE W. Staatsekretaris, 1961-1966.

BAYH, BIRCH. Amerikaanse senator van Indiana. 1963-81.

BENTSEN, LLOYD M. Amerikaanse kongreslid, Texas, 1948-1955 Texas-sakeman, 1955-1971 Amerikaanse senaat, Texas, 1971-1993 Demokratiese kandidaat vir vise-president van die Verenigde State, 1988 sekretaris van die tesourie, 1993-1994.

BOGGS, HALE. Amerikaanse kongreslid, Louisiana, 1941-1942, 1947-1972 Majority Whip, Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers, 1962-1971 Ondervoorsitter, Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee, 1956-72 Lid, Presidentskommissie oor die moord op president John F. Kennedy, 1963-1964 .

BRAESTRUP, PETER. Journalist Time magazine 1953-1957 New York Herald-Tribune, 1957-1959 Nieman Fellow aan Harvard University 1959-1960 New York Times, 1960-1968 Saigon-burohoof, Washington Post, 1968-1973 Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1973-1989 stig die Wilson Quarterly, 1976 senior redakteur en direkteur van kommunikasie, Library of Congress, 1989-1997.

BUNDY, McGEORGE. Spesiale assistent vir nasionale veiligheidsake, 1961-1966.

BUNKER, ELLSWORTH. Ambassadeur by die Organisasie van Amerikaanse State, 1964-1966 Ambassadeur-in-Groot, 1964-1967 Ambassadeur in Suid-Viëtnam, 1967-1973.

BUSBY, HORACE. Personeel, Lyndon B. Johnson se Huis en Senaatskantore, 1948-1950 Personeel, Amerikaanse subkomitee vir gewapende dienste van die Amerikaanse senaat, konsultant 1950-1953, konsultant van die Amerikaanse senaat gewapende dienste, 1957-58 adviseur van die vise-president, 1961-1963 spesiale assistent van die president en sekretaris van die kabinet, 1963-1965.

CAIN, JAMES C. President Johnson se persoonlike dokter, hoof van die afdeling 1946-1973, gastro-enterologie en interne medisyne, Mayo Clinic, 1966-1970.

CATER, S. DOUGLASS. Opvoeder, skrywer en redakteur Spesiale assistent van die president, 1964-1968.

CARPENTER, ELIZABETH Journalist, 1945-1960 Lyndon Johnson's Vice Presidential campaign staff, 1961 Administrative Assistant to Vice President Johnson, fungerende as speech writer and media adviseur, 1961-1963 Press Secretary and Staff director of First Lady Lady Bird Johnson, 1963-1969 founder van die National Women's Political Caucus, medevoorsitter van 1970 in ERAmerica, 1975 assistent-sekretaris van onderwys vir openbare aangeleenthede onder Jimmy Carter, 1979-1980.

KANSELIER, JOHN. TV-nuusjoernalis, gasheer, NBC's Today Show, 1961-1962 NBC se hoofkorrespondent van die Withuis, 1964-1965 direkteur, Voice of America, 1965-1967 Anchorman, NBC Nightly News, 1970-1982.

CHIARODO, MARIE FEHMER. Sekretaris van vise-president Johnson, 1962-1963 Sekretaris van die president, 1963-1969.

CHUDARS, JAMES E. Loods van Sikorsky -helikopter tydens Lyndon Johnson se veldtog in 1948.

CLARK, RAMSEY. Amerikaanse assistent-prokureur-generaal, 1961-1965 Amerikaanse adjunk-prokureur-generaal, 1965-1966 Amerikaanse waarnemende prokureur-generaal, 1966-1967 Amerikaanse prokureur-generaal, 1967-1969.

CLARK, TOM. Amerikaanse prokureur-generaal, 1945-1949 Associate Justice, Amerikaanse hooggeregshof, 1949-1967.

CLEMENTS, EARLE C. Amerikaanse senator, Kentucky, 1945-1948, 1950-1957 goewerneur, Kentucky 1948-November 1950 Demokratiese senaatsweep 1953-1957 Direkteur, Amerikaanse senaat Demokratiese veldtogkomitee 1957-1959

CLIFFORD, CLARK M. Spesiale raad vir die president, 1946-1950 Senior vennoot, Clifford & amp, Miller, 1950-1968 President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, lid, 1961-1968, Voorsitter, 1963-1968 Sekretaris van Verdediging, Maart 1968-Januarie 1969 Senior vennoot, Clifford & amp Warnke, 1969-1991.

COLBY, WILLIAM E. Eerste sekretaris, Amerikaanse ambassade, Saigon, Suid-Viëtnam, 1959-1962 Hoof, Verre Ooste afdeling, CIA, 1962-1967 Direkteur, Siviele Operasies en Revolusionêre Ontwikkelingsondersteuning, Suid-Vietnam, 1968-1971 Uitvoerende Direkteur, CIA, 1971-1972 Adjunk Direkteur van Operasies, CIA 1973 Direkteur van Sentrale Intelligensie, 1973-1976.

CONNALLY, JOHN. Sekretaris van LBJ, 1939-1941 President, hoofbestuurder en prokureur vir KVET-radiostasie in Austin, 1946 administratiewe assistent van LBJ 1949 sekretaris van die vloot, 1961 goewerneur van Texas, 1963-1968.

DAVIS, GEORGE R. Minister, Christelike Kerk Pastoor, National City Christian Church, Washington, DC persoonlike vriend van president Johnson.

DeLOACH, CARTHA D. "DEKE." Assistent van die direkteur, FBI, 1965-1970.

DIRKSEN, EVERETT McKINLEY. Senator, Illinois, 1951-1969 Senaat-minderheidsleier, 1959-1969.

EASTLAND, JAMES O. Amerikaanse senator, Mississippi, 1943-1979 voorsitter, Senaatskomitee oor die regbank, 1955-1979.

EVERS, CHARLES. Veldsekretaris, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), burgemeester van 1963-1969, Fayette, Mississippi, 1969-1981, 1985-1989.

BOER, JAMES. 'N Stigter en eerste nasionale voorsitter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), National National 1942, CORE, 1942-1944, 1950, National Director, 1961-1966 Program Director, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1959- 1961 President, Center for Community Action Education, 1965- Assistent-sekretaris van administrasie, Amerikaanse departement van gesondheid, onderwys en welsyn, 1969-1970.

VISSER, ADRIAN. Adjunk-direkteur, Amerikaanse wapenbeheer en ontwapening, 1961-1969.

FORTAS, ABE. Associate Justice, Amerikaanse hooggeregshof, jare lange 1965-1969 vriend en adviseur van LBJ.

FOSTER, JOHN S., JR. Fisikusdirekteur, Verdedigingsnavorsing en Ingenieurswese, Departement van Verdediging, 1965-1969.

FRANCIS, SHARON. Spesiale assistent van die sekretaris van binnelandse sake, 1961-1965 Personeelassistent vir verfraaiing, mevrou Johnson se personeel, 1965-1969.

FRANTZ, JOE B. Geskiedenisprofessor, Universiteit van Texas in Austin, 1949-1986 Direkteur, LBJ Oral History Project, 1967-1974 Geskiedenisprofessor, Corpus Christi State University, 1986-1993.

VRYMAN, ORVILLE. Goewerneur van Minnesota, 1955-1961 Minister van Landbou, 1961-1969.

GILPATRIC, ROSWELL L. Adjunk-sekretaris van verdediging, 1961-1964 voorsitter, Taakspan oor die verspreiding van kernkrag, 1964.

GOLDBERG, ARTHUR J. Sekretaris van Arbeid, 1961-1962 Associate Justice, Amerikaanse hooggeregshof, 1962-1965 Amerikaanse ambassadeur by die Verenigde Nasies, 1965-1968.

GORDON, LINCOLN. Amerikaanse ambassadeur in Brasilië, 1961-1966 assistent-minister van Buitelandse Sake vir Inter-Amerikaanse Sake, 1966-1967 President, Johns Hopkins Universiteit, 1967-1971.

GRAHAM, BILLY. Evangelis aangestel tot bediening, Southern Baptist Convention se persoonlike vriend van president Johnson.

HEBERT, F. EDWARD. Amerikaanse kongreslid, Louisiana, 1941-1977. Lid, Huisvlootkomitee, 1943-1946 Lid, Huisraad vir gewapende dienste, 1947-1977.

HENRY, AARON E. President, Mississippi Conference of Takke van die National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1960-1993 President, Council of Federated Organisations, Mississippi, 1962-1965 Chairman, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) delegation na die Demokratiese Nasionale Konvensie van 1964 wat die sitplek van die gewone afgevaardigde in Mississippi, Huis van Verteenwoordigers, in 1980-1995, uitdaag.

HIGGINBOTHAM, A. LEON, JR. Kommissaris, Federal Trade Commission, regter 1962-1964, Amerikaanse distrikshof, Oos-distrik, Pennsylvania, 1964-1977 ondervoorsitter, nasionale kommissie oor die oorsake en voorkoming van geweld, regter 1968-1969, Amerikaanse distrikshof, Virgin Islands, regter 1969 , US Circuit Court of Appeals, 3rd Circuit, 1977-1993.

HORNIG, DONALD F. Direkteur, Kantoor vir Wetenskap en Tegnologie, Uitvoerende Kantoor van die President, 1964-1969.

HUGHES, SARAH T. Regter, Amerikaanse distrikshof, Noord-distrik, Texas, 1961-1985 het op 22 November 1963 in Dallas, Texas, die ampseed as president afgelê.

HUMPHREY, HUBERT H., JR. Amerikaanse senator, Minnesota, 1949-65, 1971-1978 vise-president van die Verenigde State, 1965-1969.

IKARD, FRANK. Amerikaanse kongreslid, Texas, 1951-1961 American Petroleum Institute, vise-president, 1961-1963, president, 1963-1979.

JOHNSON, CLAUDIA "LADY BIRD". 2/22/1912-7/11/2007 vrou van Lyndon B. Johnson eienaar 1934-1973, KTBC radio- en televisiestasies 1943-1973 lid van die Senaat Ladies Club vrou van vise-president Lyndon Baines Johnson 1961-1963 First Lady van die Verenigde State 1963-1969 ere-voorsitter, Head Start 1965-1969 advokaat vir verfraaiing en omgewingskwessies University of Texas System Board of Regents 1971-1977 Medal of Freedom 1977 Congressional Gold Medal 1988 stigter, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center skrywer.

JORDAN, BARBARA. Eerste vroulike swart senator verkies tot die senator van die Texas State Senaat, Texas Senaat, 1966-1972 Amerikaanse kongresvrou, Texas, 1973-1978.

KATZENBACH, NICHOLAS deB. Assistent-prokureur-generaal, 1961-1962 Adjunk-prokureur-generaal, 1962-1964 Waarnemende en later Amerikaanse prokureur-generaal, 1964-1966 Onder minister van buitelandse sake, 1966-1969.

KRIM, ARTHUR B. Voorsitter, United Artists Corporation, 1951-1978 Stigter en voorsitter, Orion Pictures, 1978-1994 Voorsitter, President's Club, 1962-1968 Finansiële voorsitter, Demokratiese Nasionale Finansiële Komitee, 1966-1968 Raadslid, Lyndon Baines Johnson Foundation , 1969-1994.

KUCHEL, THOMAS H. Amerikaanse senator, Kalifornië, 1953-1969 Republikeinse sweep van die Senaat 1959-1969.

LEVINSON, LAWRENCE E. Prokureursadviseur in die Kantore van Sekretaris van die Lugmag, 1957-1963 Spesiale Opdragte, Kantoor van die Sekretaris van Verdediging, 1963-1965 Adjunk Spesiale Raad vir die President, 1965-1968.

LEINSDORF, ERICH. Orkesdirigent Musiekdirekteur, Boston Simfonieorkes, 1962-1969 Oostenrykse vlugteling, gehelp deur Lyndon Johnson in 1938.

MALECHEK SCOTT, JUWEL. Vriend van die Johnsons Sekretaris van LBJ, 1969-1973.

MANN, THOMAS C. Amerikaanse ambassadeur in Mexiko, 1961-1963 Assistent-minister van Buitelandse Sake vir Inter-Amerikaanse Sake, 1963-1965 Staatssekretaris van Ekonomiese Sake, 1965- 1966.

MARSHALL, BURKE. Amerikaanse assistent-prokureur-generaal, burgerregte-afdeling, departement van justisie, 1961-1965 voorsitter, National Advisory Commission on Selective Service, 1966-1967.

MARSHALL, THURGOOD. Special Counsel, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1938-1950 Director and Counsel, Legal Defense and Educational Fund, NAACP, 1940-1961 US Circuit Judge for 2d Judicial Circuit, 1961-1965 Amerikaanse prokureur-generaal, 1965- 1967 Justisie, Amerikaanse Hooggeregshof, 1967-1991.

MARTIN, LOUIS. Uitvoerende ondervoorsitter van die koerant, Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee, 1961-1969.

MASHMAN, JOE E. Vlieënier van Bell-helikopter in Lyndon Johnson se veldtog van 1948, jare lange vriend van president Johnson.

McNAMARA, ROBERT S. Sekretaris van Verdediging, 1961-1968 President, Wêreldbank, 1968-1981.

McPHERSON, HARRY C., JR. Assistent-generaal-raad, Senaat Demokratiese Beleidskomitee, 1956-1959-mede-advokaat, 1959-1961 Algemene raadgewer, 1961-1963 Adjunk-ondersekretaris van die weermag vir internasionale aangeleenthede, 1963-1964 Assistent-minister van Buitelandse Sake vir Opvoedkundige en Kultuursake, 1964-1965 Spesiale assistent en raad van die president, 1965-1966 Spesiale raad vir die president, 1966-1969.

MILLS, WILBUR D. Amerikaanse kongreslid, Arkansas, 1939-1977 voorsitter, House Ways and Means Committee, 1958-1974.

MITCHELL, CLARENCE M., JR. Direkteur, Washington Bureau, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1950-1978.

O'BRIEN, LAWRENCE F. Direkteur, John F. Kennedy vir presidentveldtog, 1959-1960 Spesiale assistent vir die president vir kongresverhoudinge, 1961-1965 Posmeester-generaal, 1965-1968 Voorsitter, Demokratiese Nasionale Komitee, 1968, 1970-72 Kommissaris , National Basketball Association, 1975-1984.

PEARSON, DREW. Koerantkorrespondent en rubriekskrywer van die nasionaal gesindikeerde koerantrubriek, "The Washington Merry-Go-Round," 1932-1969.

RANDOLPH, A. PHILIP. Organiseerder, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1925 President, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 1929-1968

LEES, BENJAMIN H. Wetgewende assistent van die Amerikaanse senator Joseph Clark van Pennsylvania, 1958-1963 Spesiale assistent van die minister van buitelandse sake en uitvoerende sekretaris van die departement van buitelandse sake, 1963-1969.

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Gesin, vroeë lewe en opvoeding

Lyndon Baines Johnson, gebore in Stonewall, Texas, op 27 Augustus 1908, was die oudste kind van Samuel Ealy Johnson Jr. en Rebekah Baines Johnson en het vyf kinders. Die Johnson -gesin, bekend vir sy boerdery en boerdery, het voor die Burgeroorlog in Texas gevestig en die nabygeleë stad Johnson City gestig in die nasleep daarvan. Johnson & aposs -pa, 'n kongreslid in Texas, het beter geblyk in die politiek as boerdery, en het finansiële probleme ondervind voordat hy die familieplaas verloor het toe Johnson in sy vroeë tienerjare was.

Johnson het op skool gesukkel, maar het in 1924 gegradueer aan die Johnson City High School. Hy het hom ingeskryf by die Southwest Texas State Teachers College (nou Texas State University) en het deelgeneem aan debatte en kampuspolitiek. Nadat hy in 1930 gestudeer het, het hy kortliks onderrig gegee, maar sy politieke ambisies het reeds gestalte gekry. In 1931 wen Johnson 'n aanstelling as wetgewende sekretaris van die Demokratiese Kongreslid van Texas, Richard M. Kleberg, en verhuis na Washington, D.C. Hy bou vinnig 'n netwerk van kongreslede, koerante, lobbyiste en vriende, insluitend assistente van president Franklin D. Roosevelt.

In 1934 ontmoet Johnson Claudia Alta Taylor, bekend onder haar vriende as "Lady Bird." Taylor word gou Johnson & aposs se top assistent. Sy het 'n beskeie erfenis gebruik om sy loopbaan in 1937 vir die kongres te bankrol en het sy kantoor etlike jare bestuur. Sy het later 'n radiostasie en daarna 'n televisiestasie gekoop, wat die Johnsons ryk gemaak het. Die egpaar het twee dogters, Lynda Bird Johnson Robb en Luci Baines Johnson Turpin.


Lyndon B. Johnson: Impact and Legacy

Die presidentskap van Lyndon Johnson begin en eindig met 'n tragedie. Hy tree in die amp na die dood van 'n gewilde jong president en voorsien die nodige kontinuïteit en stabiliteit. Hy het die Kennedy -nalatenskap gevorder en baie meer gekry as wat Kennedy waarskynlik uit die kongres sou gekry het, en het toe 'n groot oorwinning vir homself en sy party behaal.

Johnson se administrasie het 'n ongekende hoeveelheid wetgewing goedgekeur, waarvan baie daarvan bedoel was om die land, lug, water, wildernis en lewensgehalte van die land te beskerm - om Amerikaners veiliger te hou en dat die Verenigde State nie leliker en vuiler word nie. President Johnson se administrasie het ook die New Deal van Franklin Roosevelt uitgebrei, insluitend hulp aan onderwys, Headstart, Medicare en Medicaid - programme wat vandag nog steeds belangrik is en wat tweeledige ondersteuning vir hul doeltreffendheid vereis. Maar baie van sy inisiatiewe vir die kunste, die omgewing, armoede, rasse -geregtigheid en veiligheid op die werkplek het baie ekonomiese en sosiale konserwatiewes kwaad gemaak en die teikens geword van vervreemde wit kiesers en belastingopstanders. Die reaksie op sy Great Society en op breër tendense het gehelp om 'n dramatiese politieke polarisasie in die Verenigde State te veroorsaak, wat sommige historici 'n konserwatiewe teenrevolusie genoem het.

Die verwoestende uitkoms van die Viëtnam -oorlog was 'n verdere vertroebeling van Johnson se nalatenskap. Terwyl sy programme 'n groot aantal Amerikaners uit armoede gehou het, ander basiese gesondheidsorg gegee het en die fundamentele regte van burgerskap vir minderhede verseker het, het miljoene Viëtnamese in Suidoos -Asië hul lewens en huise verloor, maar meer as 58,000 Amerikaanse militêre personeel het hul lewens verloor. , en honderde duisende meer sou hul lewens permanent verander. In 'n tyd toe Amerikaners tuis die magslokaal hervorm het, het gebeure in Viëtnam ernstige vrae laat ontstaan ​​oor hoe Amerika sy krag in die buiteland moet gebruik. Die nalatenskappe van dood, vernuwing en geleentheid wat aan die Johnson -administrasie verbonde is, is ironies, verwarrend en onseker. Hulle sal waarskynlik so bly.


Lyndon Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson word beskou as een van die belangrikste figure in die burgerregtebeweging. Johnson het wel 'n paar afleidings wat meen dat hy bloot 'n beginsellose politikus was wat die burgerregtelike kwessie gebruik het toe hy die waarde van die "Black Vote" besef het. Johnson self beweer egter dat hy 'n idealis was wat daarvan gedroom het om van Amerika 'n 'Great Society' te maak. Dit was Johnson wat die presidensiële handtekening op die Wet op Burgerregte van 1964 en die Wet op Stemreg van 1965 gesit het.

Lydon Baines Johnson met John F Kennedy

Lyndon Johnson se werk vir minderhede het in 1928 begin toe hy sy eerste pos as laerskoolonderwyser gekry het, dit was natuurlik 'n afgesonderde skool wat slegs Mexikaanse Amerikaners bygewoon het. Johnson het 28 leerlinge wat hy onthou dat hulle "in die krotbuurte vasgevang was", "deur vooroordeel geslaan" en "halflewend begrawe in ongeletterdheid" was. Johnson believed that their only way out was by education and he bribed, bullied, cajoled and encouraged his pupils, and they adored him.

During the Great Depression, Johnson worked for one of Roosevelt’s New Deal Agencies, the National Youth Administration. Johnson was ordered by Washington to have a black leader as a close advisor, Johnson feared he would be “run out of Texas”, feeling implementation had to be slow as so to not upset deep- rooted customs. Despite this Johnson made great efforts to alleviate black unemployment 50% by 1932. Despite privately referring to African Americans as “niggers”, he sometimes stayed at black colleges and the African American community found him unusually helpful. Johnson however did little to help other minorities such as Hispanics because, there was little political pressure from Washington and Johnson stood to politically gain little from helping them.

When Johnson became a Congressman, he wanted to gain the minority vote and so he considered employing a Mexican or Spanish-American to show his “appreciation” of his Mexican supporters cynical Texans called his behaviour a publicity stunt. Many felt that any Texan who wanted to represent the segregated state had to appear to be a segregationist and his gesture didn’t. It was however beneficial to Johnson as it won him the minority vote and made him, a politician with national ambitions, look free from sectional prejudices.

Johnson however, due to political expediency, was forced to vote with his fellow Southern Democrats in Congress, against civil rights measures such as banning lynching, eliminating poll taxes and denying federal funding to segregated schools, measures which later would make up ground breaking legislation. As a senator, Johnson’s opposition to Truman’s civil rights programme disgusted Texas blacks. His explanations were clearly within the contemporary Southern political context he claimed the bills would never have passed anyway. Johnson also claimed he would be more helpful in another place and position, showing his political ambition and recognising he could only go so far in Texas. He also trotted out the standard Southern excuse for not helping African Americans, that he was “not against blacks rights but for states rights”.

Johnson, like Eisenhower, thought civil rights legislation would try to force people to change and lead to violence. Despite this politically correct (in Southern eyes) action, Johnson was behind the scenes working to get black farmers and schoolchildren equal treatment in his congressional district, believing small, but real developments would be better than ground- breaking legislation. In 1938 Johnson secured federal funding for housing in Austin, Texas to benefit Mexican, African American and White slum dwellers. Johnson softened this for racist southerners by stating “This country won’t have to worry about isms [communism and fascism] when it gives its people a decent, clean place to live and a job. They’ll believe in the government.” This behaviour may make Lyndon Johnson seem a Jekyll and Hyde character on race relations, his African American servants were treated well by Johnson in private until other racists visited Johnson and he put on a show for them to gain their support for his political ambitions.

By the mid-1950’s, Senator Johnson was clearly altering his stance on civil rights issues, being one of few Southern politicians who supported the 1954 BROWN decision by the Supreme Court. He did so because he felt it important to uphold the American Constitution and the Supreme Court’s place in that. Johnson felt that the debate of BROWN was merely weakening the Democrats and the whole country. Johnson wanted the South to accept it in order for the South to make economic advances, knowing racial tensions made the area unattractive to investors. By this time Johnson’s presidential aspirations meant he couldn’t appear too narrowly Southern and he was one of only three Southern politicians who refused to sign the Southern Manifesto in protest of BROWN. Johnson’s motivation over this stance was subject to debate some thinking it was an act of “political valour” and others thinking he used it for political gain.

Johnson continued to remain careful and appeased the Southern racists, such as in 1956 when he killed a civil rights bill in Congress. Again, in keeping with his Jekyll and Hyde stance he changed his opinion in 1957. Whilst assuring Texans that there was “no foundation” to rumours he was promoting a civil rights bill, and stating he was “strongly and irrevocably opposed to forced integration of the races” he orchestrated, though diluted parts which would be offensive to southerners, the 1957 Civil Rights Act.

This dilution made fellow Southerner President Eisenhower’s bill into a largely unenforceable voting rights law. The part of the bill, which allowed federal government to promote integration in schools, was lost, due to the hostility BROWN and BROWN II had received in the South. Despite Johnson’s dilution of the act to make it merely a token gesture, the bill symbolised greater federal interest in civil rights and their enforcing it also paved the way for more civil rights legislation. Johnson was also important in the passage of Eisenhower’s second Civil Rights Act in 1960.

During his period as John F. Kennedy’s Vice- President, racism became an increasingly important political issue. Vice- President Johnson knew something had to be done “The Negro fought in the war [World War Two], and….he’s not gonna keep taking the shit we’re dishing out. We’re in a race with time. If we don’t act, we’re gonna have blood in the streets.” As Vice- President Johnson’s greatest challenge was chairing Kennedy’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (CEEO).

Johnson didn’t want the job and Kennedy knew it was a ‘hot potato’. Johnson told Kennedy that the CEEO lacked the money and power to be effective, but Kennedy insisted and did his best. He did so because he considered discrimination as ‘un-American’ and damaging to America’s reputation, especially in the Cold War world. James Farmer of CORE, believed Johnson’s motivation to be real and both he and Roy Wilkins of the NAACP rated Johnson higher than President Kennedy on civil rights issues. The CEEO failed to win many plaudits and shortly before Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson urged him to make a ‘moral commitment’ to civil rights.

Johnson became President of the USA, in November 1963 after the assassination of Kennedy. It was then that Lyndon Johnson announced his vision of a “Great Society” for America, with “an end to poverty and racial injustice”. Johnson felt he and Congress owed it to the late president to see his civil rights bill passed. However Johnson was warned by other Southerners that he was staking his political career on passing this bill into law. Johnson was convinced that discrimination was morally wrong and wanted change to lead to economic, political and spiritual reintegration of the South within the nation.

The bill didn’t pass unhindered. There were doubters in Congress and it also had to overcome the longest obstruction in Senate history. Its final passing owed much to Kennedy, who had won over the Republican minority before his death. Johnson was sure the bill would have passed if Kennedy were still alive but that it would have been diluted like Eisenhower’s bills. Johnson must also receive credit as he devoted a staggering amount of his time, energy and political capital to ensure the passage of the bill in it original state. He used Kennedy’s Kennedy’s death, appeals to Southerner’s self- interest and his Southern background to get what has been described as the most important piece of civil rights legislation passed.

The Act has been described by Irving Bernstein as “a rare and glittering moment in the history of American democracy”. However everything wasn’t content in America, there were signs of a northern working-class backlash, shown by the increase in popularity for racist presidential hopefuls, in the presidential primaries. Blacks were also dissatisfied saying it hadn’t gone far enough. The result was riots in black ghettos in East Coast cities. The blacks Johnson thought he was helping, repaid him by embarrassing him and the Democrat Party. Despite this, Johnson bravely planned more civil rights legislation.

Johnson hoped his Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965 would help children to get out of the ghettos. The poorer states like Mississippi benefited greatly from the federal funding and by the end of the 1960’s the percentage of African Americans obtaining a high school diploma rose from 40% to 60%. However, a combination of ghetto peer pressure and traditions and reluctant officials limited the Act’s effectiveness. Johnson’s 1965 Higher Education Act was more successful as it gave significant aid to poor black colleges it led the number of African American college students to quadruple within a decade. Lyndon Johnson’s introduction of Medicare and Medicaid helped to address the issue of poor health in the minorities, African American infant mortality halved within a decade.

It soon became clear to Johnson that there were still gaps that had been left by the 1964 Civil Rights Act, but Johnson feared attempts to close them would be hindered by uncooperative Southern Congressmen. After Martin Luther King’s campaign in Selma, Alabama to get African Americans to register to vote Johnson felt he could act, reminding Americans that one individual’s disenfranchisement “undermines the freedom of every citizen”.

The 1965 Voting Rights Act had a dramatic effect on the South, changing the political complexion of the area, to make it more racially integrated. Lyndon Johnson’s own Democratic Party achieved political gain as a result of the act, the enlarged black vote helped to counteract the loss of Southern whites for the Democratic Party. After this legislation it became increasingly difficult to obtain reforming acts, the 1968 Civil Rights Act doing little more to help the African American community.

Many believe that Johnson was able to pass the 1964 and 1965 Acts because of an exceptional set of circumstances. During his 24 years in Congress Johnson had gained unprecedented experience in getting legislation through Congress. He also had an unusual two- thirds of Congress in his favour and Congressmen felt particularly after Kennedy’s assassination that they should be righting national wrongs. Johnson was himself exceptionally persuasive and determined and had a lifelong commitment to helping the poor.

Lyndon Johnson followed Kennedy’s example in using his executive authority to help the African Americans. 1965-6 Johnson worked to help African Americans through manipulation of federal funding, such as offering federal subsidies to southern states, which co-operated in school desegregation (despite it being 11 years after the BROWN decision!) so he was using the immense power of the federal purse. Johnson was also seen to be pro-African Americans in other ways, by appointing an African American Supreme Court judge, Thurgood Marshall. Johnson also had African American advisors, hoping this would counteract the images of lawless African American rioters.

Johnson’s positive discrimination, which later became known as ‘affirmative action’ was met with the expected attacks from white bigots, who felt Johnson had done more than enough for African Americans. His attempts were also hampered by the riots in Watts, Los Angeles in August 1965. These were caused by de facto segregation and discrimination, which was unspoken and therefore almost impossible to legislate against. The result of the riots was a white backlash as the purchasing of guns by suburban whites in California soared and many whites turned against Johnson’s reform programme. He himself couldn’t understand how the African Americans could be so politically naïve, failing to realise that their action had undermined his efforts.

After the events in Watts, Johnson kept a lower profile on the civil rights legislation. Johnson was also stopped from doing more by an increasingly awkward Congress which rejected an administration civil rights bill, one aim of which was to prohibit housing discrimination, the basis of the 1968 Civil Rights Act. Johnson’s attempts to integrate housing were hampered by the Watts riots and Stokely Carmichael’s call for “Black Power“. Local and State authorities also showed their reluctance to co-operate with Johnson’s programmes, meaning that whilst Acts passed into law, they were still not implemented.

The summer of 1966 saw riots in 38 major American cities. This harmed the image Johnson was trying to mould of the African American community. He tried to excuse them by stating the cause of the riots were poverty and despair, what he had been trying to combat. Another major distraction to Johnson was the Vietnam War, which goes much of the way in explaining why like Kennedy and his distraction of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Johnson was unable to devote more time to America’s domestic affairs. Johnson was also aware that he wasn’t a miracle worker and that the situation was “too critical to our future for any one man or any one administration to ever resolve.”

Johnson didn’t stand for re-election in 1968 and ironically his last public appearance was at a civil rights symposium. When he died a few weeks later, 60% of the people who filed passed his coffin to pay their respects were African Americans.

What had Johnson actually achieved? He played an important role in ending de jure segregation. His 1965 Voting Rights Act transformed Southern politics and gave African Americans the chance to vote without fear it also saw more African Americans enter politics. Johnson’s Education Acts sped up the process of school desegregation, which had lagged after the initial BROWN decision and also helped African American colleges. Johnson had not only passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act but had also been instrumental in the 1957 and 1960 Acts, all three had given African Americans more political and economic opportunities. Black unemployment had decreased by 34% and in that way he had contributed to his dream of a “Great Society”.

However, Lyndon Johnson did not solve all as most African Americans continued to live in poor housing and suffer above average unemployment. His Great Society programmes soon became unpopular with local politicians, who resented federal intervention and ordinary Americans who disliked the redistribution of resources needed to combat poverty. De facto segregation continued especially in the South and the 1968 Civil Rights Act has been attacked as an ‘empty gesture’ and critics say Johnson’s ‘Great Society’ created a welfare dependent culture.

Some African Americans were dissatisfied with Johnson’s achievements, leading to the riots at Watts in 1965 and during the summer of 1966, which displayed their desire for faster progress. However it is argued that without Johnson’s actions, Black Power would have a larger following. Above all, it must be remembered that Johnson was a politician and therefore always looking out for votes and being cautious not to antagonise too many people. The advances made during Johnson’s presidency can naturally be attributed to his passing of legislation but it must also be remembered that events such as the assassinations of President Kennedy and Martin Luther King also acted as a catalyst for change.

Johnson like Eisenhower and Truman before him was a Southerner and whether or not he accepted it his roots were inherently racist. Many would look at him and Kennedy and predict that Irish American Kennedy, whose own family had been discriminated against, would be a champion of the civil rights movement. However that was not the case and like his Southern counterparts, it was Johnson who passed the major civil rights legislation.

Many have asked why did Johnson take civil rights so seriously and what was his motivation? Lyndon Johnson was motivated by memories of his own poverty ridden childhood and also his strong belief that helping minorities would be of spiritual and economic benefit to all Americans. Johnson also believed that racial discrimination was ironically damaging the economy of his beloved South and that the area would have to abandon its racist attitudes to gain economic prosperity. Despite Johnson’s ambitions he was also a caring and compassionate man.

Naturally as a politician Johnson was constantly aware of the need to be popular to secure support, that is why he diluted the 1957 Civil Rights Act in order to win support to run instead of John F Kennedy as the Democrat presidential candidate. Lyndon Johnson however didn’t want to be seen as a conservative Southerner and so to prove his ability to rise above his roots, he felt it would be advantageous to promote civil rights legislation. He hoped to stem the flow of African American voters switching to the Republicans. Johnson also acknowledged that in the late 1950’s against the backdrop of BROWN and the Montgomery Bus Boycott the time was right for change. Many genuinely believe and the legislation proves that Johnson did really want to improve life for minorities and build a “Great Society”.


Alternate Timeline of Lyndon B. Johnson's Presidency

November 22: At 12:30 PM Central Time on November 22, John F. Kennedy is assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald, who he also killed J.D Tippit.

November 23: Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as the 36th President of the United States.

December 12: Lyndon B. Johnson makes the Voting Rights Act which allows citizens of color to vote.

January 9: Gallup polls show L.B.J at an approval rating of around 81%. Higher than what Kennedy had right before his assassination.

February 14: Lyndon B. Johnson orders the withdrawal of 25% of the mobilized forces sent in Vietnam.

March 2: Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act which gives free people of color civil rights.

April 23: Republicans nominate Barry Goldwater for the presidency.

August 14: L.B.J has the election in the bag, with 79% approval rating, L.B.J is leading in the polls by 32%. L.B.J Chooses Hubert H. Humphrey as his running mate.

August 27: Lyndon B. Johnson orders the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam. Thus ending the Vietnam war.

September 1: Lyndon B. Johnson's approval rating rises to a staggering 89% according to gallup polls. Increasing his already huge lead even more up to 36%.

November 3: The election results come in. L.B.J receives 62.6% while Goldwater receives 37.4%. L.B.J receives 503 electoral votes while Goldwater just 35 electoral votes. The alternate electoral map is there to the right --------->

January 22: Lyndon B. Johnson begins his new term with a very high approval rating of 84%. A very high approval rating.

February 2: Lyndon B. Johnson makes Robert F. Kennedy the Secretary of State.

February 14: Lyndon B. Johnson's new gallup poll has him at 77% approval rating.

February 17: L.B.J gives his state of the union address, in which it has an audience 150,000. The crowd is fired up.

March 12: L.B.J decides to decrease taxes on the middle class. His approval rating is at 81%.

May 1: L.B.J strengthens relations with South Korea, Taiwan and Japan in the treaty of Kyoto.

May 22: Lyndon B. Johnson begins protecting black rights even more, as he notices that southern states are trying to remove civil rights laws.

May 29: Lyndon B. Johnson makes the 24th Amendment to the constitution in which prohibits due to the non-payment of a poll tax or any other tax.

April 2: L.B.J orders the removal of poll tax and any other black voting tax that prevented them to have the right to vote.

July 19: George Wallace is found guilty and is sentenced to prison for 1 year because of fraud for black voters that voted for L.B.J, switching them to Goldwater, around 600 votes. Poll workers immediately go and fix the fraud votes.

July 29: Lyndon B. Johnson orders the release of Black Civil Rights Activist Martin Luther King Jr.

November 6: Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 25th Amendment that allows Vice-Presidents to immediately succeed the President that died in office, or left it.

December 23: Lyndon B. Johnson gives the right for blacks to run for President, Congress and for the governorship of states.

January 3: L.B.J starts the year with a staggering 80% approval rating according to gallup polls.

July 19: George Wallace is released from prison 1 year later.

August 2: Lyndon B. Johnson expands U.S relations with it's allies. Especially in NATO and also Saudi Arabia, Israel and the Kingdom of Iran. Increasing its foreign influence within the Middle East which really bothers the Soviet Union.

24 Augustus: Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Affordable Care Act (Johnson Care) Which makes Healthcare free for all Americans. Yes, even for African Americans.

September 3: The Affordable Care Act is successful at making Healthcare free in the United States.

September 15: Lyndon B. Johnson reaches 92% approval rating, the highest out of any president.

February 2: L.B.J, sends American Troops to fight against Communist Insurgencies in Afghanistan and Thailand, funded by the Soviet Union.

6 Maart: The Kabul Incident occurs in which 20 US Tanks and 5 Planes are attacked by Soviet Forces. Congress gives L.B.J the right to send troops to these areas.

March 19: L.B.J approval rating falls to 65% due to Anti-War students, as they increase along with draft dodgers, L.B.J's approval rating falls down to 56%.

May 20: Vietcong forces intervene with the U.S.S.R in Thailand. L.B.J orders a United NATO Coalition of forces to be sent to Thailand and Afghanistan to fight against Soviet Insurgents.

June 5: USA sends aerial support to Israel against the coalition of Muslim Countries in the Middle East, it is a successful blow, as by June 10, the war is already over as Israel gains the Sinai Peninsula, Palestine and the Golan Heights. His approval rating goes up from 49% to 57%. L.B.J isn't so confident about his chances to get a 2nd term.

September 22: Despite this though, he still runs for re-election promising that if they allow him a 2nd term he would victoriously end the wars with the Soviet Union by the end of his 2nd term.

January 14: Lyndon B. Johnson becomes the front runner, it is not a huge lead tho , but by a slight margin he is ahead of both Edmund Muskie and Robert F. Kennedy.

January 19: Late in the race comes George Wallace, 6 days before the primaries end.

January 25: The primaries end with Lyndon B. Johnson receiving 3.194.688 votes. In 2nd being Robert F. Kennedy with 2.614.661 votes and then in 3rd Edmund Musky with 2.289.168 and then in 4th George B. Wallace with 1.049.677 votes.

August 1: Incumbent Lyndon B. Johnson with an approval rating of 55% has to fight against respected former Vice-President Richard Nixon, who lost to Kennedy in 1960.

August 3: George B. Wallace decides to run under the Dixiecrats this election hoping to win the south.

November 5: Election results are here. This was a very close election. With L.B.J receiving 292 electoral votes while Richard Nixon receives 212 electoral votes and George Wallace receives 34 Electoral Votes. In the popular vote, L.B.J received 45.9% while Nixon received 45.2%. George Wallace received just 8.9% of the popular vote.

January 21: Lyndon Johnson is sworn in for his 2nd term, defeating Nixon.

February 19: Lyndon Johnson signs the Recycling Act of 1969.

February 21: A fine of around 100 $ is made if you don't throw your garbage into a trash bin.

March 28: A carbon tax is also imposed to reduce Carbon Emissions and increases Solar and Wind Power.

October 15: Gallup polls put Lyndon B. Johnson at 62% approval rating.

December 2: Lyndon B. Johnson is able to successfully stop Soviet Insurgents in Thailand and Afghanistan, increasing his approval rating to 74%.

February 6: Lyndon B. Johnson signs Detente with the Soviet Union reducing arms race and increasing relations with them.

April 24: Lyndon B. Johnson goes on a tour of Vietnam and China to increase relations with the countries.

November 2: The world becomes more peaceful as USA and the Soviet Union sign a nuclear arms limit range treaty meant to decrease their limits to nuclear arms.

December 4: Lyndon B. Johnson allows African-Americans to do any stuff that a white American would do, making all men technically equal.

January 29: Lyndon B. Johnson makes gerrymandering illegal and any other way of congressional districting meant to favor only one party over the other.

22 Augustus: As both democratic primaries and republican primaries begin, L.B.J endorses Hubert H. Humphrey for president as he runs against Nixon again.

December 3: Democrat Primaries come to an end as Hubert Humphrey easily beats out the other candidates George McGovern and George Wallace easily winning the nomination.

February 13: Lyndon B. Johnson supports Israel in the Yom Kippur War (started earlier this timeline).

November 7: Despite hard fought effort from Humphrey, Nixon defeats Humphrey, Nixon receiving 332 electoral votes while Humphrey just 206 electoral votes. In the popular vote, Nixon has 50.2% while Humphrey just 48.4%.

November 8: Humphrey concedes the election results and congratulates Nixon on his hard fought victory.

January 21: Nixon becomes the 37th President in American History.

February 3: Gallup polls show LBJ have a final approve rating of 67% and an average approval rating of 66%, ranking him as the 8th Best President.