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Wat was die verhouding tussen die Katolieke Kerk en die Karolingiese keisers?

Wat was die verhouding tussen die Katolieke Kerk en die Karolingiese keisers?

Karel die Grote is deur die pous in die jaar 800 gekroon. Maar was dit Karel die Grote se keuse, of was hy verplig om dit te doen? Nadat hy sy lande verower het, kon hy nie net homself as keiser kroon nie? Het die pous en die biskoppe boonop enige tydelike mag oor die Ryk gehad? Hoe het hierdie verhouding verander met die dood van Karel die Grote?


Ek haal uit die gevoelens van Karel die Grote oor die keiser tot kroon aan Die beskawing van die Middeleeue deur Norman F Cantor, hoofstuk ses "The Making of Carolingian Kingship":

Op Kersdag 800, toe Karel die Grote uit die gebed voor die graf van Sint Petrus opgestaan ​​het, het pous Leo skielik die kroon op die koning se kop neergelê, en die goed ingeoefende Romeinse geestelikes en mense skree: "Charles Augustus, gekroon groot en vrede- gee keiser van die Romeine lewe en oorwinning! " Karel die Grote was so verontwaardig en bedroef dat hy volgens Einhard gesê het dat hy nooit op daardie dag die kerk sou binnegekom het nie, al was dit 'n baie belangrike godsdienstige fees, as hy die bedoeling van die pous geweet het. Karel die Grote het alles in sy vermoë gedoen om die woedende Bisantyne te versag, wat beweer het dat hulle keiserlike titel van hulle gesteel is. Hy het amper nooit die titel keiser van die Romeine, wat die pous hom gegee het, gebruik nie, maar het hom tevrede gestel met die frase "Keiser, koning van die Franken en Lombarden" om die werklike en effektiewe basis van sy mag aan te dui.

Die keiserlike kroning van Karel die Grote het groot geskille ontlok onder historici, waarvan baie Einhard se stelling as buitensporige beskeidenheid van Karel die Grote afgemaak het. Die feit is dat Karel die Grote nie as keiser van die Romeine gekroon wou word nie, want eerstens beteken 'Romein' vir hom 'Bisantynse', en hy het geen begeerte gehad om die heerser in Konstantinopel na te volg nie, en tweedens omdat hy die konstitusionele implikasies van 'n pouslike kroning en was nie van plan om hom in die posisie van skuld of swakheid by die biskop van Rome te plaas nie. Wat die situasie egter ingewikkelder maak, is dat 'n keiserlike ideaal onder die kerkmanne van die Karolingiese ryk na vore kom, maar dit was nie dieselfde konsep van die ryk wat in Konstantinopel of in Rome geheers het nie. Veral die briewe van Alcuin is vol verwysings na die 'Christelike Ryk' en 'Europa', die gebied aangrensend aan die Latynse Christendom wie se leier Karel die Grote was. Met die oog op Charles se bydraes tot die welsyn van Europa en met die oog op sy posisie as die grootste koning in Europa, het Alcuin en ander hofkerkmanne begin dink dat Karel die Grote die titel van keiser moet neem. Hierdie siening het egter min te doen gehad met die navolging van die ou Romeinse keiser of die heerser in Konstantinopel; dit was eerder bedoel om die apoteose te wees van Karel die Grote se posisie as die leier van die Christendom. Dit is waarskynlik dat 'n keiserlike kroning van Karel die Grote sou plaasgevind het as die pous nie die Frankiese koning en sy raadgewers op Kersdag 800 sou afskrik nie. Sekerlik sou Karel die Grote nie toegelaat het dat hy deur die pous gekroon word nie; die kroning wat hy verkies het, was die kroning wat hy in 813 gebruik het toe hy sy seun en erfgenaam, Louis, keiser gekroon het.

Nadat hy deur die pous gekroon is, het Karel die Grote gekies om sy keiserlike titel te interpreteer op die manier wat deur Alcuin omskryf is. Hy het geweier om aan homself as 'n Romeinse keiser te dink, het die sanksies geïgnoreer wat die pous in sy kroning impliseer, het voortgegaan om homself koning van die Franken en Lombarde te noem, en beskou die titel van keiser as die uitdrukking van sy posisie as Christelike oorlog held, teokratiese monarg en leier van die Frankiese kerk.

Die keiserlike ideaal speel 'n baie belangriker rol in die beleid van Charles se seun en kleinseun, Lodewyk die Vroom en Karel die Kaal, en dit het 'n konsep geword waarvan die inhoud baie swaarder beïnvloed is deur die oorspronklike pouslike ideologie. Die Karolingiese kerkmanne van die negende eeu het wegbeweeg van die Christelike ryk van Karel die Grote en in die rigting van 'n politieke antiquarisme wat die volle herlewing van die Romeinse keiserlike idees wou volg deur die sierlike hofseremonie van die Bisantynse keisers na te volg en deur die volledige titel, keiser van die Romeine. Reeds in 816 het Louis die Vroom hom deur die pous laat salf met hierdie titel. Vir die Karolingiese heersers uit die negende eeu en hul kerklike ondersteuners was die klem op die keiserlike titel en die assosiasie van die Karolingiese heerser met die Romeinse keisers 'n steunpilaar teen die progressiewe agteruitgang van die koninklike mag na Karel die Grote se dood. Ideologie het 'n plaasvervanger geword van die bekendheid van Karel die Grote as 'n Germaanse oorlogsleier. Maar ideologie kon niks doen om die toenemende vloed van lokalisme en die opkoms van feodale heerskappy te stuit nie. Die biskoppe uit die negende eeu het verhandelinge oor die heerlikheid van ryk en koningskap saamgestel en die Karolingiese keisers het hul hofseremonie uitgebrei, maar hulle kon nie effektiewe leierskap in hul koninkryk handhaaf nie.

Die pousdom het op die lange duur niks meer as die Karolingers verdien uit die herlewing van die keiserlike titel in die Weste en uit die aanvaarding deur die Karolingers van die Romanistiese ideologie nie. Die middel van die negende-eeuse pous Nicholas I het aggressief die radikale leer van die skenking van Konstantyn beweer, en die pouse was bedrewe in die gebruik van hul beheer oor die keiserlike titel om die latere Karolingers te teister, maar dit het die pousdom nie van rampspoed in die laat negende eeu. Die pouse het 'n sterk Karolingiese heerser nodig gehad om hulle te beskerm teen die gangster Romeinse adel. Met die agteruitgang van die Karolingiese mag het die pousdom in die laat negende en eerste helfte van die tiende eeu een van sy donkerste periodes betree, waarin dit die marionet geword het van die heersende Romeinse adel en sy posisie as leier in die Europese samelewing heeltemal verloor het .

As die geskiedenis van die negende eeu van alle kante misluk, moet dit ons nie verblind vir die feit dat 'n nuwe element in die politieke lewe van Wes -Europa ingebring is nie. In die laaste deel van die tiende eeu is die titel weer opgeneem deur die Duitse monargie, wat uit die ruïnes van die oos -Karolingiese koninkryk opgestaan ​​het. Die Duitse konings sou die keiserlike titel tot die middel van die dertiende eeu 'n noodsaaklike deel van hul beleid maak, en hul opvolgers sou die titel tot 1806 behou.


Die Franken en die Kerk

Miskien is die een of die belangrikste Barbaarse groepe wat bekend is vir die ontwikkeling van die Westerse Beskawing, een van die Franke. Hierdie barbaarse groep was gelokaliseer in die gebied van Gallië. Met sy geweldige krag in die stryd en bekwame leiers, kon hy sy koninkryk oorwin en versprei om die magtigste van die barbare te word. Toe hulle begin omskakel na die Christendom na hul bekering van die Merovingiese koning (Clovis), het hulle die uitbreiding van die Christendom moontlik gemaak.

Hulle bekering was maklik, maar stadig, en dit het die Kerk geneem om die Franken met groot oorgawe op te lei en te onderrig. Om hierdie rede staan ​​Frankryk bekend as die “ verste dogter van die Kerk ”. Die Franken het die Christendom 'n voordeel ten opsigte van bekering gegee, aangesien dit nie Ariërs was nie, 'n godsdiens wat basies geleer het dat Christus nie God is nie. Dit wil sê dat hulle nie gestruktureer was met vooropgestelde idees oor Jesus Christus nie, dus was dit makliker om hulle te leer en hulle tot die Christendom te bekeer as met ander barbaarse groepe wat in die kettery van Arianisme geglo het.

Hulle bekerings was egter normaalweg in die massas na hul keuses van die leiers, wat die opregtheid van sommige van diegene wat onmiddellik tot bekering gekom het, sou twyfel, bloot om die leier te volg. Dit het daartoe gelei dat sommige Franke beide hulle gode en Jesus aanbid het, selfs binne die geestelikes. Gedurende die middel van die sewende eeu sou die Frankiese leër vroue en kinders opoffer om die geeste te bevredig. Dan sou Sint Bonifatius amptelik aan die Kerk verslag doen oor die toestande in die Merovingiese Gallië, wat inderdaad swak was. Mense koop kerkkantore om invloed te verkry, deur gebruik te maak van kerkeiendom om hul gesinne te verryk, geestelikes sou trou en ander dra wapens en vergiet bloed. Die kerk van die Franke het hervorming nodig gehad.

Om die hervorming uit te voer, het St. Bonifatius die hulp verkry van die burgemeesters van die paleis, wat die Karolingers was, hoofsaaklik Pepyn die kort en Carloman. Hierdie hervorming het 'n vriendskapsband tussen die Franke en die pous gevorm, aangesien hulle nou in voortdurende kontak was. Intussen het die Karolingiese gesin in roem en mag gegroei. Hulle het die volle beheer van die kantoor van die burgemeester van die paleis oorgeneem en dit 'n erflike kantoor gemaak; hulle het die gesag de facto (nie -amptelik, maar wettig) van die koning uitgeoefen en het 'n uitstekende militêre mag gehad wat beroemd is deur Charles Martel wat die Moslems verslaan het by die Slag van Tours (732).

Die Merowingers was kwaai stryders, maar onbevoegde heersers op elke gebied van die administrasie. Hulle het ook probleme onder mekaar gehad en het gesinne en mense van mekaar geslag. Die Frankiese koninkryk het orde nodig en dit word hoofsaaklik deur die Katolieke Kerk gestig saam met die burgemeesters van die paleis of Karolingers. Daarom het Pepyn die Korte, toe hy dit besef het, daarin belanggestel om die titel van die koning wettig te verkry, en dit het beteken dat hy dit nie met geweld sou neem nie, maar daarvoor sou vra.

Pepyn het na die huidige pous, pous Zachary I, gegaan en hom gevra of dit 'n goeie situasie is dat die koning geen mag het nie en dat diegene wat dit gehad het, nie die titel van die koning kan hou nie. Zachary antwoord en sê dat dit nie goed is nie, dat dit wanorde en onnatuurlik is, en daarom seën hy die verandering van die dinastie van die Merowingiese familie na die Karolingiese familie in 751. Vir my lyk dit alles baie polities (nie eg nie), soos die kerk sou wil iets hê in ruil vir die guns wat dit aan die Karolingers en Franken in die algemeen gegee het om die orde daar te stel. Die kerk sou trou, beskerming en militêre mag soek met die magtige Franken, aangesien dit Romeinse aristokrate, die Bisantynse Ryk en die Langobarde wat met geweld wou inneem en nie die gesag van die pous wou respekteer nie, sou hanteer.

Al hierdie faktore het aanleiding gegee tot die pouslik-Frankiese alliansie. Die pouse het al hoe meer begin twyfel oor die betroubaarheid van die Bisantynse keisers as bondgenote en beskermers. In die eerste plek was die Bisantyne betrokke by dwaalleer soos monotelisme en ikonoklasma, het hulle 'n paar pouse geteister, soms probeer om die besluite van die kerk te beheer, en was hulle nie baie bekommerd oor die toename in mag van die dreigende Lombarde nie. Toe die Angelsaksers (Boniface en Clement) as sendelinge kom om die Duitse volke te bekeer en die Frankiese kerk te hervorm, het hulle die belangrikste skakel geword om die pousdom met die Frankiese leiers te verenig.

Toe die konflik tussen die pouse tussen die Bisantynse ryk en die Langobarde begin, kon die pouse nie net losbreek van die alliansie met Bisantium nie, aangesien dit hulle kwesbaar sou gemaak het vir enige aanval deur die Langobarde wat Rome omring het. Die Lombarde het 'n geruime tyd in die 7de eeu hul druk op die verowering van Rome verminder, totdat hul leier, Aistulf, die mag verkry en hul ambisie hernu het. Die oomblik toe Aistulf die stad Ravenna inneem, reageer die Bisantyne eenvoudig met 'n diplomatieke protesnota. Dit het die pousdom ooit bekommerd gemaak en in die herfs van 753 het pous Stephen II die eerste pous geword om die Alpe oor te steek en met Aistulf te onderhandel om die beleg van Rome te verlaat en die verowerde gebied terug te keer. Toe dit misluk, gaan die pous na die Franke, spesifiek Pepyn die Korte, wat die Langobards verslaan en die gesteelde grond aan die pouse terugbesorg het.


Die verhouding tussen die Christendom en die skolastiek gedurende die Middeleeue

Die era van skolastiek was nie net die bekrompe en beperkende vorm van opvoeding wat baie moderne geleerdes as intellektuele stagnasie beskou het nie. Die algemene konsep van skolastiek kan nie buite sy historiese konteks verstaan ​​word nie. Die skolastiese beweging het begin as 'n reaksie op die bitter onrus van die donker eeue, en het op sy hoogtepunt in die twaalfde en dertiende eeu uitgeloop op 'n verfynde metode van kritiese denke. Skolastiek kan beskou word as die intellektuele verfyning van die kennis wat geleerdes van die Middeleeue beskikbaar het. Hoewel die Middeleeue nie 'n tyd van groot intellektuele groei was nie, het dit verseker dat Europa nooit weer 'n tyd van volledige intellektuele stilstand sou sien nie. Met betrekking tot die historiese konteks van skolastiek, kan die Middeleeue nie verstaan ​​word sonder die erkenning van die oorheersende krag van die Christendom deur die hele Europese samelewing nie. Die skolastiese beweging is binne -in gesaai, en het gegroei met die vordering van die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk: die belangrikste kultivars daarvan. Die vaders van die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk het die eerste outeurs van skolastiese denke geword deur harmonie te skep tussen die kontrasterende standpunte van filosofie en teologie. Die werke van heiliges het die tekste geword wat die skoliere van die klooster- en katedraalskole tot hul nagedagtenis verbind het. As gevolg hiervan het die groei van die Christendom en die onderwys saamgeval gedurende die hele middeleeuse Europa. Die intellektuele gedagte van die Middeleeue word beklemtoon deur die simbiotiese verhouding tussen die skolastiek en die Christendom, wat gelei het tot 'n vaste en formele onderwysstelsel en die behoud van godsdienstige, klassieke en antieke werke, wat saam die intellektuele weg na die Europese Renaissance.

Alhoewel die skolastiese beweging nie uit nuwe intellektuele ontwikkelinge bestaan ​​nie, het dit wel die doel van 'n intellektuele ontwaking gedien. Hierdie tydperk van opvoeding en intellektuele denke sou dien as die voorgrond vir die ontwikkeling van hoër onderwys. Die skolastiek begin in die Christelike kloosters met die opbou van kennis, hierdie kloosters sou later in universiteite verander. Die opkoms van universiteite het egter teen die einde van die regering van die skolastiek begin, en hierdie bespreking bly binne die perke van die ontwikkeling van die klooster- en katedraalskole. In sy breedste raamwerk het skolastiek binne die Kerk ontwikkel. Vanweë die skamele intellektuele materiaal wat beskikbaar is, "het die beperkte leer van die tye in 'n gesistematiseerde vorm ingedeel, grootliks op die deduktiewe basis van die Aristoteliaanse logika" (graf 51). Vanweë die mag wat die kerk uitoefen, is alle onderwerpe, hetsy godsdienstig of sekulêr, deur middel van 'n hoogs teologiese perspektief benader. Middeleeuse denke van die negende tot die twaalfde en dertiende eeu is oorheers deur hierdie ideaal, en is dus geleer binne die skole van die Kerk, waardeur die metodes van skolastiek versterk is. Die skolastiek was inderdaad “die eienaardige metodes en neigings van filosofiese bespiegeling wat binne die Kerk ontstaan ​​het”. Die term skolastiek is afgelei van 'doctor scholasticus', die term wat gebruik word vir die gemagtigde onderwysers in die kloosterskole (graf 50). Vanaf die begin van die kloosteropvoeding in die Middeleeue was skolastiek en die Christendom verweef, wat 'n invloed gehad het op diegene wat 'n hoër intellek in die skole wou soek. Beide die Christelike godsdiens en die skolastiese metode was die basis van die leerder van 'n skoolman. Dit het 'n jong geleerde se doel geword deur middel van skolastiese afleiding en argumentasie, om aan te toon hoe leerstellings 'in ooreenstemming met mekaar en volgens die rede' was (graf 51). Selfs met sy klaarblyklike gebreke, soos die kenmerkende beperkte omvang daarvan, was die grootste doel van skolastiek om 'n student toe te rus met die dialektiese en intellektuele dissipline wat 'n individu in staat gestel het om skerp kennis te dra van die tyd.

Middeleeuse onderwys in Europa het begin met die ontwikkeling van die klooster- en biskoplike skole, en dit is dus waar die oorsprong van skolastiek gevind word. Die vestiging van kloosters, “het ontstaan ​​uit protes teen ondeug en korrupsie en het die weg gewys na 'n dieper godsdiens en edeler lewe” (graf 21). Op grond van die Benediktynse kode was die primêre doel van kloosteropvoeding die dissipline en onderdrukking van die liggaam, en het die doktrines van arbeid en sistematiese lees baie prominent geword. Deur die daaglikse toewyding van lees het geletterdheid in Europa begin herleef (graf 10). Klein geïsoleerde gemeenskappe het rondom kloosters gevorm en 'n gereserveerde opgevoede kultuur geskep, wie se kennis binnekort sou versprei met die groeiende invloed en sterkte van die Kerk. Monnike in hierdie gemeenskappe het die vraag na manuskripte en die reproduksies van die teks geskep. As gevolg hiervan het kloosters waardevolle bewaarplekke geword wat die behoud van antieke literatuur en leer behou het. Namate die kloosterlewe gegroei het, het die belangstelling en versorging van ou manuskripte toegeneem, en die vraag na duplikate van die heilige geskrifte het gelei tot die toevoeging van die scriptorium, 'n ruimte wat gereserveer is vir die kopiëring van tekste. So het die behoud van tekste die primêre bron van arbeid in die monastieke lewe geword.

Terwyl die kopiëring van heilige tekste in die eerste plek betrekking het op die netheid van lyne en versigtige versiering, het monnike intellektuele en morele invloede uit die inhoud van hul werk gekry. Die teks versterk nie net die begrip van taal, lees en skryf nie, maar ook monnike het hul eie persoonlike verbintenisse met die godsdienstige onderwerpe begin maak. As gevolg hiervan het monnike outeurs geword oor hoofsaaklik godsdienstige onderwerpe soos: "kommentaar op die Skrif of die Christelike vaders, die lewens van die heiliges en die preke of morele verhale" (graf 12). Hierdie geskrifte dui die eerste voorbeelde aan van die rudimentêre eienskappe van skolastiese denke/opvoeding. Die monnike en skoliere van die kloosters het begin met 'n sterk klem op die uitbreiding van kennis deur dialektiese redenasie. Wat in die geskrifte van monnike begin het, was die metode van kritiese denke wat die leer van die Middeleeuse Europa sou oorheers.

'N Groter begrip van die verhoudings tussen die Christelike geloof en die skolastiese metode kan gesien word binne die invloedryke geskrifte van Middeleeuse monnike. Hulle werke verstewig beide die begrip van die leerstellings van die Christendom en die groei van die kritiese intellektuele denke wat kenmerkend is van skolastiek. Een so 'n Benediktynse monnik was die heilige Anselm van Bec (1033-1109), wie se geskrifte, in ooreenstemming met die metodes van skolastiek, baie bygedra het tot die begrip van die ingewikkeldhede van die Christelike geloof. Onthou dat skolastiek gekombineer het, "filosofie, gesien as die outonome werking van die rede, en teologie, waar die sekerheid van die gevolgtrekkings gebaseer is op die geloofsbeginsels" (Vignaux 35). Hierdie konsep word beskou as 'n idee onder die algemene term filosofiese teologie. Met die groeiende invloed van sekulêre werke in die Middeleeue, ondersteun monnike soos Anselm die Christelike dogma deur die uitskakeling van teenstrydighede deur intense dialektiese analise. Anselmus glo in die ooreenstemming van die rede met dogma, maar was van mening dat geloof kennis moet voorafgaan soos hy eenmaal gesê het: "Die Christen behoort deur te gaan tot kennis deur geloof, nie tot geloof deur kennis nie" (graf 51). Anselm bestee baie tyd daaraan om verskillende Christelike dogmas soos die Drie-eenheid duidelik te maak, en word die invloedrykste/beroemdste vir toekomstige geleerdes in sy 'ontologiese' argument vir die bestaan ​​van God (graf 51-52). In ooreenstemming met skolastiek, wou Anselm nie nuwe waarheid ontdek nie, maar wou hy 'n duideliker konsep van sy bestaande oortuigings definieer deur middel van die rede. Rede kom deur die vergelyking van werke soos sy De veritate, wat as filosofies beskou sou word, met die Heilige Skrif (Vignaux 35). Luscombe ondersteun hierdie idee, want in sy perspektief het Anselm “probeer om sy bestaande oortuigings te ondersoek met die instrument van die rede - en nie alleen hiermee nie, maar ook vir gebed - en met die doel om die betekenis, die implikasies daarvan na vore te bring en toe te lig , en ook die waarheid en die geloofwaardigheid van die Skrif en van die geopenbaarde waarheid ”(44). Anselm se werk, soos baie ander skolastici, het die komplekse begrip van tradisionele leerstellings bevorder. Die belangrikste kenmerke van Anselm se argumente was dat hoewel dit suiwer argumente van die Christelike geloof was, dit ook as argumente van logika en rede aangegaan het.

Terwyl die kloosterskole klein onderwysgemeenskappe gestig het, het leer eers wydverspreid geword met die oprigting van Abbey- en katedraalskole. Dit was deur die verhouding tussen opvoeding en die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk dat skolastiek gedurende die Middeleeue goed gevestig geraak het. Hierdie vordering het gestalte gekry gedurende 'n kort periode in die Middeleeue, die Karolingiese Renaissance genoem. Die Karolingiese dinastie het uit 'n tydperk ontstaan ​​wat politieke ontbinding weerspieël. Een van die meer prominente figure van hierdie era, bekend as Karel die Grote, of Karel die Grote (742-814), wat sy mag gebruik het wat die pous aan hom gegee het oor die verenigde Frankiese staat om 'n ware eenheid van sy volk te verseker (Pedersen 72) . Karel die Grote, wat deur monnike geleer is en sodoende formele opvoeding ontvang het, erken dat die eenheid van sy mense 'slegs deur die innerlike lewe bewerkstellig kan word deur middel van 'n gemeenskaplike taal, kultuur en idees', en dus 'n herlewing van leer nodig geag is (graf 27). Histories was daar aan die einde van die agtste eeu 'n gebrek aan opvoeding by nie net die amptenare van die Kerk nie, maar ook die 'sekulêre' geestelikes en adel. Die klooster- en katedraalskole het ongelukkig stilgestaan ​​in die produksie van manuskripte en intellek. Hierdie saak is bewys deur die brief van Karel die Grote aan die abt van Fulda, waarin hy verklaar,

Ons het gereeld briewe van monnike ontvang en daarin die regte gevoelens herken, maar 'n onbehoorlike styl en taal. Die gevoelens wat hulle geïnspireer het deur hul toewyding aan ons, kon hulle nie korrek uitdruk nie, omdat hulle die studie van taal verwaarloos het. Daarom het ons begin vrees dat, net soos die monnike die skryfkuns verloor het, net so ook die vermoë verloor het om die Heilige Skrif te verstaan ​​en dat ons almal weet dat, hoewel foute in woorde gevaarlik is, foute in begrip is nog meer so (graf 27).

Vanweë hierdie gebrek aan volgehoue ​​kennis het Karel die Grote sy mag oor die kloosters en bisdom gebruik as die grondslag van 'n hersiene georganiseerde onderwysstelsel. Dit was Karel die Grote wat openbare onderwys dus wou verbind met die reeds gevestigde opvoeding van monnike (Pedersen 74, 78). In 787 word 'n opvoedkundige hoofstad uitgereik aan die abte van al die kloosters, om die geestelikes van hul geletterdheid te weerlê, en vir die skole om ten minste 'n volledige elementêre opleiding aan te bied. Deur die Kerk as 'n leermiddel te gebruik, het die sluise van kennis begin oopgaan sodat die skolastiese beweging 'n groter poel van intelligente kon bereik. Leringe wat voorheen gereserveer was vir die 'gewone' geestelikes van die kloostergemeenskap, is aan die algemene Europese samelewing oorgedra.

Die skole wat in die kerke gevestig is, het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die groei van intellektuele ontwaking gedurende die Middeleeue. Hierdie skole het weliswaar begin as instellings vir fundamentele kennis waarin 'die woord skool byna altyd 'n grammatikaskool beteken: die belangrikste funksie was om die kerk geestelikes te voorsien' (Lawson 8). Die skole het aanvanklik begin om te lees, skryf, bereken, sing en Skrif, wat later tot die trivium (grammatika, retoriek en dialektiek) sou lei (graf 34). Uiteindelik is deur die werk van Alciun van York, die opvoedkundige adviseur van Karel die Grote, aangemoedig om deur die Carolingian Franks 'n opvoedingsprogram in die liberale kunste aan te neem (Luscombe 29), 'n samevoeging van beide die trivium en quadrivium (rekenkunde, meetkunde, sterrekunde en musiek). Namate die Middeleeue vorder, het skolastiek meer studiegebiede begin betrek in teenstelling met die teologiese gebied. Gedurende alle opvoeding het die Kerk egter 'n groot invloed en beheer oor kennis gehad, en skoolmense is geraak deur die direkte omgang met hul onderwysers. Die vaders was die eerste vertolkers van die heilige tekste "dit was hulle wat inspirasie en leiding gegee het aan die prestasies van die skoolmanne met die belangrikheid van filosofie en teologie, sodat die wetenskap van God die monument van die Middeleeuse leer geword het" (Cassidy iii). Eers met die agteruitgang van skolastiek het die Kerk die mag begin verloor oor die intellektuele kennis van Europese skole, wat die noue verband tussen skolastiek en Christendom bewys het.

Wat die skolastiese beweging betref, kan dit nie regverdig beoordeel word nie, afgesien van die historiese konteks waarin dit plaasgevind het. Skolastiek het binne die grense van die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk ontwikkel, en is dus, soos alle aspekte van die Europese samelewing van die tyd, onderworpe aan die krag van Goddelike openbaring. Die omvang van kennis wat die skolastiek van die tyd kon ondersoek, het beide 'n voor- en nadeel gedien. Ongelukkig kon slegs die onderdane wat deur die Kerk as ortodoks beskou word, verdedig word, sodat die mans nie vervolging sou wou verduur nie. Die Middeleeue het die groot denkers 'n fyn lyn gegee tussen sekulêre kennis wat as nuttig en aanvaarbaar beskou word, en dit wat die grondslag en mag van die Kerk bedreig het. In teenstelling hiermee, het die beperkte kennis die skoliere gedwing om kennis in 'n uiterste en logiese stelsel te verminder, en daarom "verplig om hul skerp analitiese verstand intensief te oefen, en so verdeel, onderverdeeld en systematisering buiten alle maat" ( Graf 59). Skolastiek het hierdie skoolmanne toegelaat om deur eeue tradisionele en taamlik irrasionele leerstellings te sif, en hul bevindings tot 'n rasionele stelsel van intellek te bereik. Die skolastiek het sy vakke nie net toegerus met die nodige vaardighede om krities te wees in wat as 'moderne' kennis beskou word nie, maar dit dwing ook die hoogste akkuraatheid in denke, verfyn deur noukeurige analitiese argumentasie. Die skolastiek het dus die intellektuele ontwikkeling bevorder wat nodig was vir die begin van die Renaissance. Soos Cassidy gesê het, “alles wat nuut geleer word, moet geleer word in terme van wat reeds bekend is (27). Skolastiek het, deur die behoud van kennis, sowel as die verfyning van intellektuele denke, die grondslag geword vir die ontstaan ​​van nuwe denke.

Angeles, Moses Aaron T. “St. Anselmel oor die wese van God. ” Philippiniana Sacra. 64.130 (2009): 5-20. Druk.

Cassidy Ph.D, eerwaarde Frank P. Molders of the Medieval Mind. Binghamton: B. Herder Book Co., 1944. Druk.

Graves, Frank Pierrepont. 'N Geskiedenis van opvoeding gedurende die Middeleeue en die oorgang na die moderne tyd. Norwood: The Macmillan Company, 1910. Druk.

Pedersen, Olaf. Die First Universities studium Generale en die oorsprong van universiteitsopleiding in Europa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Druk.

Vignaux, Paul. Filosofie in die Middeleeue. Londen: Burns & amp; Oates, 1959. Druk.


Kort geskiedenis van die Katolieke Kerk tydens die Romeinse Ryk

Die Rooms-Katolieke Kerk, die grootste denominasie van Christene wêreldwyd, het 'n glorieryke geskiedenis as die kerk van Jesus Christus en die enigste Christelike Kerk in die Weste gedurende die hoë en laat Middeleeue (1054-1550 nC). Verken kortliks die vroeë Christendom tydens die Romeinse Ryk, die eerste in 'n reeks wat die geskiedenis van die Rooms -Katolieke Kerk dokumenteer.

Die Christelike Kerk en Jesus Christus

Die Joodse rabbi Jesus van Nasaret (5 vC tot 30 nC) is die stigter van die Christelike godsdiens en die Christelike Kerk. Jesus het tydens die heerskappy van die Romeinse Ryk in Palestina gewoon, en sy dissipels het ná sy kruisiging gesukkel om Jesus se boodskap van nuwe lewe of opstanding te deel, alhoewel hulle geloof in Jesus as God gehad het. Gewilde Katolieke heiliges, soos St. Maria, die Heilige Maagdmoeder van Christus, St. Joseph, Johannes die Doper, St. Petrus en St. Thomas, is sleutelspelers in Jesus se lewe en bediening.

Romeinse Ryk vervolg Jesus en volgelinge

Die Romeinse Ryk, aangespoor deur Joodse leiers, het Jesus van Nasaret as 'n gewone misdadiger in 30 nC gekruisig. Jesus was die eerste van baie vroeë Christene wat deur die Romeinse staat 'n aaklige dood gesterf het. Die Romeinse Ryk het sy onderdane die nuutste in moderne geriewe gebied, soos doeltreffende vervoer, lopende water, polisiebeskerming en eksotiese vrugte uit die trope, en dit redelik behandel solank hulle die Romeinse keiser as God aanbid het.

Vroeë Christene het, net soos Christene vandag, geglo dat aanbidding van ander gode 'n oortreding van hul geloof is. Vroeë heiliges in die Kerk, soos Sint Petrus, St. Die Colosseum, die massiewe amfiteater in Rome, het die dood van duisende Christene gesien tydens die vervolging van die keisers Nero, Septimus Severus, Diocletianus en ander.

Eerste monnike in die Katolieke Kerk

Baie Christene het na afgeleë plekke gevlug om te vervolg van vervolgings uit Rome. Woestyne en ander afgeleë gebiede ver van stede het gebiede bied behalwe hawens uit Rome se bereik vir baie geteisterde Christene.

Later het Christene doelbewus begin vlug uit die beskawing om 'n verhouding met God te soek. Sint Antonius die Grote (251-356) het geglo dat isolasie die intimiteit met God verbeter. Volgens die legende het hierdie heilige in die woestyne van Egipte teen Satan geworstel en as oorwinnaars uit die stryd getree. Sy volgelinge het 'n paar van die eerste kloostergemeenskappe in die Kerk gestig.

Alhoewel Sint Anthony, die eerste van die woestynvaders, nie die eerste Christelike monnik was wat in die woestyn wou terugtrek om God te soek in 'n eenvoudige lewe vry van seks en toegeeflike voedsel nie, het hy 'n beweging binne die kerk begin. Anthony se volgelinge het 'n paar van die eerste kloostergemeenskappe gestig weg van die samelewing, en 'n ander heilige, Benedictus van Nursia, het die eerste reël vir die gedrag van 'n Katolieke godsdiensgemeenskap (6de eeu nC) geskryf.

Christendom Godsdiens van die Romeinse Ryk

Die verhouding van die Katolieke Kerk met die Kerk het drasties verander danksy keiser Konstantyn die Grote (227-304 nC). Konstantyn het hom tot die Christendom bekeer na 'n visioen van 'n kruis aan die hoof van sy leërs, volgens sy biograaf Eusebius. Die keiser het die tradisie begin om groot kerke as aanbiddingshuise te bou, en sy Kerk van die Heilige Graf staan ​​nog steeds in Jerusalem.

Constantine declared freedom of religion for Christians in the Roman Empire, and soon Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire in the East and West (380 AD). Rapidly, Christianity changed from a persecuted religion with a substantial minority to the state majority religion of the Roman Empire.

Jesus Christ, founder of Christianity, died at the hands of the Roman Empire. Jesus’ Church suffered persecution from Rome, and Christian monks formed from groups fleeing Rome’s grasp in the desert. Yet Rome’s conversion to Christianity changed the history of the Roman Catholic Church and opened the door for Europe’s conversion to Christianity during the early Middle Ages.

For more on Catholic Church history, Part 2: Brief Guide to Catholic History During the Middle Ages may be of interest.


Editorial note on the Timeline

The primary purpose of the Timeline is to be a quick reference to important dates for Catholic apologists. It also gives a general overview of the history of the Church to the Catholic who might like an idea of what occurred in the past, but has little inclination to read in-depth. The Timeline contains dates concerned with secular history that are pertinent to the Catholic apologist, as well as quirky Catholic history bits for the trivia buff. I've attempted to include as many important events as possible, both good and bad, and to include facts commonly raised in Catholic apologetic discussions. In some cases, I have attempted to debunk common myths. It would be beyond the scope of this work to count every historical objection and accusation made regarding Catholicism.


Obviously the Christians anti-pagan ideals affected idol sales among the converted.

Because Christians believed in treating all men equal — slave, nobility, male and female — it was assumed that they were subverters of the social order of their day. By today’s standards, we might have accused them of propagating socialistic agenda.

But being “equal under God” is not necessarily the same as having a political agenda to overthrow the government, to level the classes, and redistribute the wealth.

Ironically, scriptures that would have spoken to the times as “authoritative proof” of church held beliefs (specifically regarding slaves and masters), would not be available to the church in an official “canon” until after this wave of persecution had passed. It would however, be available to “the Church” once the New World was discovered and with it an opportunity to establish a new way of doing government. Here Christians would fight on both sides of the argument — whether or not to end slavery once and for all.


Church History to the Modern Era

Although originally settled by the Celtic Belgae and conquered by Caesar in 57 b.c., by the 5th century Belgium had achieved a large German population due to migrations southand eastward. Christianity entered the region — then part of Gaul — via merchants and soldiers who followed the Roman roads or descended the Rhine during these migrations. To the east, Tongeren formed a civitas whose first bishop was Servatius. In the western part of the country mention is made of Superior, Bishop of Bavai or cambrai (c. 350), although Christianity in this region seems to have been effaced during the German

invasions, whereas the Church continued to exist to the east. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, Gaul reverted to the Frankish kings. clovis (481 – 511), the first great king of the Frankish merovingian dynasty, was baptized in 506. This led to the conversion of all his people, the franks. Both Arras and Tournai had a bishop at the beginning of the 6th century, but for want of Christians, Arras was soon united with the See of Cambrai, and Tournai with that of Noyon.

Evangelization and Consolidation: 625 to 800. St. amandus, a native of France, founded an abbey at Elnone c. 625. After converting the inhabitants of Ghent, Amandus became bishop of Tongeren and Maastricht, founded several other abbeys, and continued his evangelizing efforts in Antwerp. The region to the west was evangelized by St. eligius, Bishop of Noyon, and St. willibrord, Bishop of Utrecht, while conversions in eastern Gaul became the work of St. lambert and St. hubert, bishops of Maastricht and li È ge. The present area of Belgium was completely converted c. 730.

From the 8th to the 10th century many rural parishes were founded. The earliest ones were proprietary churches (Eigenkirchen ) built on the estate of the founder, who continued to be their proprietor and who could dispose of them as he saw fit. Because of the element of control — the proprietor could sell his church, cede it as a benefice, appoint the pastor, and take for himself church revenues — this system soon became corrupted.

During the Middle Ages the union of Church and State resulted in the spirit of Christianity permeating all aspects of Western culture. Frankish king and Holy Roman Emperor charlemagne (742 – 814) demanded that bishops hold synods and visit their dioceses, supervised clerical training, reminded clerics of their obligation to the infirm, favored the multiplication of parishes and prescribed the payment of the tithe for the support of pastors. Through such demands, Charlemagne was instrumental in the cultural revival called the carolingian renaissance, but by the late 9th century Norman invaders had partially depopulated the country, and had devastated the episcopal towns and abbeys that had engaged in this Christian-inspired cultural renaissance.

The Feudal Church: 900 – 1100. Part of German-ruled Eastern Gaul, li È ge became home to an imperial church, the bishop of which was made a prince-bishop by the German emperor. During the investiture struggle, Bishop wazo of li È ge (1042 – 48) was a principal supporter of the reformer Pope Gregory VII, although Wazo's successors would side with the emperors in their conflicts with the popes.

In the 10th century, although monastic and cathedral schools enjoyed great renown, monastic life fell into decadence, partly as a result of the Norman invasions. However, it was restored by reformers such as St. gerard of brogne, founder of a reformed abbey near Namur and appointed to reform several other abbeys, including those of St. Pierre and St. Bavon in Ghent. In the 11th century the Church persuaded warlike lords and knights to abide by the peace of god, which protected women, religious, peasants and pilgrims and also by the Truce of God, which forbade wars during Lent, Advent and other periods. The knights of the Low Countries joined the cru sades, while godfrey of bouillon, a mediator between the French and Germans, because of his character and knowledge of the two languages, became the first ruler of Jerusalem.

The Communes and the Dukes of Burgundy: 1200 – 1400. By 1200 the ecclesiastical division of the Low Countries had become defined. In the west were the Dioceses of Cambrai, Tournai, Arras and Th é rouanne, all of which were suffragans to the ecclesiastical province of Reims in France. In the east was the See of Li è ge, and in the north the See of utrecht, both of which were suffragans of cologne. Flourishing towns were also established in the Low Countries beginning in the 12th century, and Franciscan and Dominican settlers acquired profound influence a century later. The beguines were a creation peculiar to the Low Countries and the Rhineland although not nuns, they observed a vow of chastity during their residence and devoted themselves to prayer, manual works, care of the sick and teaching. St. Juliana of Li è ge, an Augustinian canoness of the Monastery of mont-cornillon, helped in the first celebration of the Feast of Corpus Christi at Li è ge in 1251 it was prescribed for the whole Church in 1264 by Pope Urban IV. By far the most renowned mystic of the Low Countries was Blessed Jan van ruysbroeck (1293 – 1381), a devout prior of the convent of Groenendaal, who was one of the promoters of the devotio moderna, which insisted on the interior life and methodical meditation and which produced a spiritual classic in the imitation of christ by thomas À kempis.

The Reformation: 1500 – 1640. During the western schism (1378 – 1417) the Low Countries had remained faithful to the Roman line of claimants, and in 1477 they passed by marriage to the Hapsburg emperor. By the 16th century the region's traditionally strong faith remained deeply rooted, although piety was sometimes difficult to discern. Many priests were ignorant, and their disordered

private lives and lack of zeal caused scandals. The coming of the renaissance and the rise of humanism began to foster religious indifference. erasmus, a leading humanist, was a native of the Low Countries.

lutheranism penetrated the Low Countries through Antwerp, where the convent of the Augustinians provided the first Lutheran center. King charles v organized the inquisition and published severe edicts (placards ) against the Lutherans. After 1530 Anabaptism began to spread, especially in Holland and in Antwerp. In putting into effect the placards during the 16th century, the civil authorities put to death nearly 2,000 heretics, mostly Anabaptists, a group seen to disturb social order.

A peace with France in 1559 opened southern Belgium to calvinism, which quickly made inroads in Tournai, Cambrai, Lille and in the textile centers of French Flanders later they advanced toward Antwerp. philip ii, who succeeded Charles V in 1555 and who ruled the expanding Habsburg empire from Spain, was eager to apply the placards rigorously, but he did not comprehend the changes that had occurred in the distant Low Countries. The Compromise of the Nobles (1566), which demanded the cessation of the Inquisition and abolition of the placards, made the failure of a purely negative repression evident. At King Philip's request, Pope Paul IV reorganized the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the Low Countries by erecting 14 new sees and grouping the 18 bishoprics into three ecclesiastical provinces independent of Reims and Cologne. The decrees of the Council of trent were promulgated in the Low Countries in 1565 – 66, and seminaries were established that trained priests who were well educated and morally exemplary.

Unfortunately a revolution erupted in the region, its cause partly political and partly religious. Eighty years of war (1568 – 1648) ended with the permanent separation of the northern and southern section of the Low Countries. By 1600 the Protestant north had won its independence and began persecuting Catholics (who would continue to remain a minority in the Netherlands). The south — comprising for the most part present-day Belgium — remained subject to Spain and preserved its Catholic faith. Under Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella (1598 – 1633) the region became one of the most Catholic in the world. Fervent bishops, aided by the nuncios at Brussels, trained an enlightened clergy and attacked abuses. Through their colleges, jesuits oriented the laity toward a more profound piety and toward apostolic works, and also taught the catechism to thousands of children. The Capuchins (see franciscans, first order), who founded 41 convents between 1585 and 1629, were highly esteemed by the populace for their simplicity, their joyous abnegation and their simple, apostolic preaching.

The Age of Empires: 1640 – 1830. Augustinus, the posthumous work of Cornelius jansen, a professor at Louvain and former bishop of Ypres, appeared in 1640. During the second half of the 17th century jansenism gained fervent adherents among Louvain professors, bishops, clergy and educated laymen before it was finally subdued in the 18th century. Meanwhile it chilled the fervor of the Catholic restoration considerably.

In 1713 the Catholic Low Countries came under the control of Austria. During the next century the enlight enment made slight headway in Belgium except in Li è ge. In 1763 Johann Nikolaus von hontheim, coadjutor bishop of Trier, published De statu Ecclesiae, which conceded to the State great power over the Church while reducing the papal primacy to a mere primacy of honor (see febronianism). The ministers of Austrian Archduchess maria theresa (1740 – 70) also manifested their anticlericalism. Thus, when the Society of Jesus was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV in 1773, they treated the Jesuits with special severity.

Emperor joseph ii (1780 – 90), an enlightened despot, believed he had a vocation to reform the Church in the Catholic Low Countries. In 1781 he published an edict of tolerance in support of the region's Protestant minority, and the following year suppressed contemplative orders and confiscated the property of the 2,600 contemplative religious. He also reorganized parishes and liturgical worship, and in 1786 ordered seminarians to study at the college of philosophy, that he instituted at Louvain and staffed with professors imbued with his own ideas (see josephinism). These religious changes, together with administrative and judiciary reforms, incited a revolution to overthrow Austrian rule in 1789. Following a revolt in Li è ge the prince-bishop fled and the equality of all citizens was proclaimed. Unfortunately, the troops of the new emperor, Leopold II, would quickly reinstate the prince-bishop and reconquer the region.

In 1792, while in the midst of their own revolution, the French conquered Belgium. Religious persecution began in the region in 1796, and after the coup d' é tat of Fructidor 18 (Sept. 4, 1797) antireligious hatred was given free rein. When the oath of hatred for royalty and of submission to the laws of the republic was put into effect, 8,565 priests were condemned to deportation for refusing to subscribe to it, although only 865 were actually apprehended. Churches were closed and religious services celebrated only in secret. Ecclesiastical properties were sold, the University of Louvain was closed and all religious orders and congregations of religious were suppressed. The Flemish population to the north became exasperated by this persecution — as well as by compulsory military conscriptions demanded by Napoleon Bonaparte in his effort at world conquest — and began the wars of the peasants (Boerenkrijg ) in 1798. Lack of organization caused the failure of that uprising, and Bonaparte eventually gained the good will of Belgian Catholics by the French concordat of 1801 which permitted Catholic worship once again. However, that good will was rescinded after Bonaparte imposed the Imperial cate chism (1806), arrested and imprisoned Pope pius vii from 1809 – 14, interfered in religious matters and closed the seminaries in Ghent and Tournai. His downfall at Waterloo was hailed in Belgium with great joy.

After Waterloo, Belgium became a province of the Netherlands, and was ruled from 1815 to 1830 by King William I. The Fundamental Law the king imposed, which suppressed all the former privileges enjoyed by the clergy while proclaiming religious liberty, displeased many Catholics. Still more disquieting to them was William's determination to rule the Church as an enlightened despot. He subjected private education to severe restrictions, banished the Jesuits and Christian Brothers, and in 1825 imitated Joseph II by compelling seminarians to attend the college of philosophy at Louvain. Before 1825 Catholics aimed only to restore the privileges of the ancien r é gime, but from 1825 to 1830 they sought religious freedom. When negotiations for a concordat between the king and the Holy See failed in 1827, Catholics joined forces with the Liberals to demand both civil and religious liberties. This union created a climate favorable for the successful revolution of 1830.

1830 to World War II. In 1830 Belgium became an independent kingdom ruled by Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. The constitution of 1831 accorded liberty of association, reunion, education, the press and worship. It deprived the government of all right to interfere in clerical appointments or to prevent clerics from corresponding with their superiors. It also provided that the State would assume the obligation of financially compensating clergymen. In regard to marriage, the constitution provided that the civil ceremony precede the religious one. The cults recognized by the constitution were the Catholic, Protestant and Jewish. The encyclical of gregory xvi Mirari vos (1832) reflected Rome's concern over this constitution.

From 1830 to 1847 political figures from the right and the left worked together to form the new Belgian state. This period also witnessed another Catholic restoration: a papal nuncio was established in Brussels, the Diocese of Bruges was reestablished and Belgium's reorganized seminaries soon provided sufficient priests to replace a thinly scattered and aged clergy. The number of religious increased from 4,791 in 1829 to 11,968 in 1846. Missions preached by Redemptorists, Jesuits and secular priests worked among the populace, and soon the country was covered with a network of Catholic primary and secondary schools. The Catholic University of Louvain reopened in 1834.

Belgium's Liberal party was organized in 1846 and held an almost constant majority in the Chamber until 1884. One of the crushing arguments of the Liberals was that the Catholic approval of the constitution was feigned. To be sure, suspicion at this liberal constitution was voiced by one Catholic group promoting ultramontanism. However, Cardinal sterckx, the Archbishop of Mechelen (1832 – 67), was a vigorous defender of the constitution. It was Pope leo xiii who put an end to this dispute among Catholics by stating in March 1879: "The Belgian constitution consecrates some principles that I, as Pope, could not approve of but the situation of Catholicism in Belgium, after the experience of half a century, demonstrates that in the present state of modern society, the system of liberty established in this country is most favorable to the Church. Belgian Catholics should not only abstain from attacking the constitution, they should also defend it."

As early as 1850 Liberals passed a law on secondary education that displeased Catholics in 1879 they would instigate a five-year war over the school question, when laws were passed obliging each community to establish an official school wherein the teaching of the Catholic religion would only be permitted outside class hours. Catholic bishops reacted vigorously and the country was soon dotted with private schools. By 1881 the majority of Belgian students attended Catholic rather than public schools. In 1880 Liberals caused Belgium to sever diplomatic relations with the Holy See because of the Pope's refusal to disapprove the Belgian bishops. A Catholic government came into power after 1884 and restored educational freedom.

The Catholic party became a confessional party because of the activities of the anticlerical liberal government (1878 – 84), and between 1884 and 1914 it gained an absolute majority in the legislature. It lost this majority after the introduction of universal suffrage (1919) and was then obliged to form a coalition government.

During the late 1800s Catholic leaders attempted to remedy the social ills of the proletariat in an unfortunately paternalistic spirit. The encyclical rerum novarum (1891) finally set in motion a soundly conceived Catholic social movement. Around 1900 Christian trade unions were finally established, but in some cases it was too late masses of workers had lost the faith. Wallonia, the most highly industrialized area, saw the greatest decline in Catholics, as the majority of the working class there quit the Church. In Flanders, which was industrialized later and which imbibed much less influence from French anticlericalism because of language differences, the faith was much better safeguarded.

Besides engaging in educational work, caring for the sick and devoting themselves to other social and charitable works, Belgian religious were second only to the French in the numbers who served in mission territories by 1900. Best known among these religious were Pierre Jean de smet, SJ, who labored among native tribes in North America and whose statue was erected in Washington, D.C. Joseph damien, a Picpus priest and apostle of the lepers in Molokai and Konstant Lievens, SJ, a defender of the aborigines in Chota-Nagpur, India. The conversion of nearly half the Africans in the Belgian Congo was due almost exclusively to the labors of Belgian missionaries, although the region would suffer under Belgian control. The work of Flemish priests was also noteworthy of special note. P. Meeus established a foundation that led thousands to monthly Confession and Communion. Edward Poppe established the Eucharistic Crusade to promote the reception of Communion by the very young. And in 1925 the Jeunesse ouvri è re chretienne was organized by the parish priest Jozef Cardijn, created cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1965.

In 1914 Germany invaded Belgium and World War I began. Occupation followed, during which time Catholic religious supported Belgian interests. In 1940 Belgium was again invaded, forcing King Leopold III to exile in London for the duration of World War II. With their country under Nazi occupation, Belgian bishops were firm in their opposition to the doctrines of National Socialism and in their protest against the deportation of workers. Between 1940 and 1945, 85 Belgian priests and religious were either put to death by the Germans or perished in concentration camps.

Bibliografie: h. pirenne, Bibliographie de l'histoire de Belgique, ds. h. now É and h. obreen (3d ed. Brussels 1931). General. É. de moreau, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de g é ographie eccl é siastiques, ed. a. baudrillart et al., (Paris 1912 – ) 7:520 – 756 Histoire de l' É glise en Belgique, 5 v. (Brussels 1945 – 52), 2 Suppl L' É glise en Belgique (Paris 1944). Special studies. a. cauchie, La Querelle des investitures dans les dioc è ses de Li è ge et de Cambrai, 2 v. (Louvain 1890). u. berli È re, Monasticon beige, 3 v. (Maredsous-Li è ge 1890 – 1960). g. kurth, Notger de Li è ge et la civilisation au X e si è cle, 2 v. (Brussels 1905). c. terlinden, Guillaume I e r , roi des Pays-Bas et l' É glise catholique en Belgique, 1814 – 30, 2 v. (Brussels 1906). a. pasture, La Restauration religieuse aux Pays-Bas catholiques sous les archiducs Albert et Isabelle (Louvain 1925). a. poncelet, Histoire de la Compagnie de J é sus dans les anciens Pays-Bas, 2 v. (Brussels 1927 – 28). f. willcox, L'Introduction des d é crets du Concile de Trente dans les Pays-Bas et dans la principaut é de Li è ge (Louvain 1929). l. j. van der essen, De gulden eeuw onzer christianisatie VII e -VIII e eeuw (Diest 1943). m. lobet, L' É pop é e belge des Croisades (Li è ge 1944). j. scheerder, De Inquisitie in de Nederlanden in de XVI e eeuw (Antwerp 1944). a. mens, Oorsprong en betekenis van de Nederlandse Begijnenen Begardenbeweging (Louvain 1947). s. axters, The Spirituality of the Old Low Countries, tr. d. attwater (London 1954) Geschiedenis van de vroomheid in de Nederlanden, 4 v. (Antwerp 1950 – 60). l. willaert, Les Origines du jans é nisme dans les Pays-Bas catholiques (Brussels 1948). m. dierickx, De oprichting der nieuwe bisdommen in de Nederlanden onder Filips II, 1559 – 1570 (Antwerp 1950). a. simon, Le Cardinal Sterckx et son temps, 1792 – 1867, 2 v. (Wetteren 1950) Le Parti catholique belge, 1830 — 1945 (Brussels 1958). h. haag, Les Origines du catholicisme lib é ral en Belgique, 1789 – 1839 (Louvain 1950) "The Catholic Movement in Belgium," in Church and Society, ed. j. n. moody (New York 1953) 279 – 324. É . de moreau, Les Abbayes de Belgique, VII e -XII e si è cles (Brussels 1952). m. becqu É , Le Cardinal Dechamps, 2 v. (Louvain 1956). bl. hildebrand, Les Capucins en Belgique et au nord de la France (Antwerp 1957). k. van isacker, Het daensisme (Antwerp 1959). v. mallinson, Power and Politics in Belgian Education, 1815 – 1961 (London 1963).


Status: Inquisition in the Catholic Church

To assess the Inquisition properly, we must distinguish between the principle which undergirded it, and the actions of those responsible for implementing the principle.

Issue: What role did the inquisition play in the Catholic Church?

Response: According to Pope John Paul II, The Inquisition belongs to a tormented phase in the history of the Church, which . . . Christians [should] examine in a spirit of sincerity and open-mindedness. 1 To assess the Inquisition properly, we must distinguish between the principle which undergirded it, and the actions of those responsible for implementing the principle. The principle that the Church must guard the faith against deviations is an obligation of divine law (cf. Mt. 18:18 2 Tim. 1:14). The actions taken to implement the process sometimes were questionable and even deplorable. Yet, because of centuries of misinformation, we must take care to distinguish fact from fiction.

BESPREKING: Catholics have a duty to understand what happened during the Inquisition and why. This allows us to distinguish between what is defensible and what is not.

The use of the inquisition against heresy

With the reign of emperor Constantine (d. 337), the Church moved from being persecuted to being protected, and political and theological concerns began to overlap. The good of the Church likewise began to be seen as integral to the good of the State. Consequently, from the fourth century on, not only did emperors convene councils against heresies, but they also established a wide range of civil penalties for heresy. These penalties ranged from fines to capital punishment, as the famous Corpus Iuris Civilis (534) of the Emperor Justinian (d. 565) attests. Inquisition was one means by which both secular and Catholic courts addressed heresy.

By the end of Christianitys first millennium, most of western Europe had been converted to Christianity. By this time, there was little separation of Church and State. That is, secular and ecclesial offices and legal systems overlapped. The effects of one system were recognized within the other. Because of this, the secular powers and the Church, even with all their disagreements and failures, had developed a common foundation and aim in protecting the common good. One general effect of all this was that secular politics was not entirely severed from the Church. Instead, political and religious questions were inextricably intertwined, and religious heresies were considered a kind of political treason.

Catharism (from the Greek katharos, which means pure) was a heresy which threatened nearly every line of the Creed. Although there were many other heresies addressed by inquisitorial courts (including the Waldenses, Beguines, Fraticelli, and the Spirituals), Catharism was the most prevalent, and therefore the heresy which gave rise to the use of inquisition by the Catholic Church.

The Cathari believed that the physical, visible world was created by an evil god and the spiritual, invisible world was created by a good god. They believed that salvation came through the purification of their immaterial souls from the evils of physical creation. This dualism directly contradicted the truth about both the natural and supernatural good of creation. When the heresy of Catharism became visible around the year 1000, the response to it was at first haphazard, lacking both structure and discipline. As a result, Catharism spread rapidly from eastern Europe to southern Germany, northern Italy, and southern France. We must note, in all humility, that part of the cause of the rapid spread of heresy during this period was the deplorable behavior of many clergy, especially in southern France, who were wedded to Madame Luxury rather than Lady Poverty. In contrast to these deficiencies and abuses, the Cathari embraced poverty and strict asceticism.

During the next century, secular rulers, Church councils, and popes called for the investigation and prosecution of heresy as well as for the punishment of unrepentant heretics. Yet such efforts to address the spread of heresies such as Catharism remained disorganized and ineffective.

To remedy the disorganized response to heresy, Pope Gregory IX (1227-41) took on the task of bringing the investigation of heresy under the discipline of the Holy See. What we term the Inquisition is simply the ecclesiastical tribunal with specially appointed judges (inquisitors) answerable to both the local bishop and the pope, whose task it was to investigate charges of heresy in a systematic and fair way. The origin of this form of judicial inquiry, the inquisitio, was not Church law, but Roman law as incorporated into the procedures of civil and canon law alike. Pope Gregory wisely relied on the new mendicant orders, the Franciscans and the Dominicans, to handle most of the inquisitorial work.

This first phase of the Inquisition began to die out in the 1300s as the heresies themselves faded. The next phase began in 1478 when, at the request of the Spanish sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella, Pope Sixtus IV (1471-84) issued a papal bull allowing for the creation of the Spanish Inquisition. It lasted until it was formally abolished in 1834, although its most fervent activity was during the 15th and 16th centuries.

The Spanish Inquisition is the most notorious of the inquisitions for three reasons. First, it was more cruel precisely because it was administered by the secular government. Second, it was concerned, in large part, with the conversos. These were Jews who had converted either under duress or out of social convenience, and were suspected of secretly practicing the Jewish faith. And third, it has been the main target of Protestant and secular opponents of Catholicism who have fabricated through pamphlets, histories, plays, and even paintings cruelties and excesses far beyond what actually occurred.

With the advent of the Reformation in the 16th century, another phase of the Inquisition began. Alarmed at the spread of Protestantism, Pope Paul III (1534-49) established the Roman Inquisition in 1542. Perhaps its most famous act was the conviction of Galileo for violating its injunction of 1616 that he neither teach nor defend the thesis that the sun is the immovable center of the universe. The Roman Inquisition has undergone several name changes since its creation. At the time of Galileo, it was know as the Congregation of the Holy Office. Pope John Paul II gave it the name it bears today, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

Assessing the Inquisition

Die principle upon which the Inquisition was built is entirely defensible indeed, Catholics everywhere have the duty to defend it. The Church was given by Christ Himself the mission of safeguarding the deposit of faith from distortion or corruption (cf. Mt. 28:16-20 Mk. 16:14-20 Jn. 21:15-19 1 Thess. 2:13 Jude 3 Catechism, nos. 84-90, 172-75, 813-16).

However, we must distinguish between this principle and the beteken by which the faith should be defended. The Church herself, as evidenced in the Catechism, does not defend the regrettable practices of the Inquisition:

Furthermore, the Church does not proclaim that individuals in the Church, merely by being members of the Body of Christ, are infallibly Christ-like in all their actions. Eerder,

We must not forget that Catharism (and the other heresies) were influential to the degree that the Churchs shepherds were failing to live up to the obligations proper to their offices. The proper response to the heresy of Catharism was not violent opposition but repentance, reform, and a more fervent embrace of poverty and holiness by those binne the confines of orthodoxy, coupled with a zealous preaching of the true faith the response of St. Francis and St. Dominic.

With all that said, we must distinguish between the feite of the Inquisition and the fiction. As recent scholarship has shown, both Protestants and secularists, from the 16th century to the present, have wildly exaggerated the evils of the Inquisition in order to further their own ends, creating straw demons of inquisitors and popes alike. Sadly, these errors have been repeated so often that they have become facts.

Although such exaggerations have made facts from fiction, there is some truth about abuses that Catholics must admit. Unrepentant men found guilty of heresy were handed over to the State for punishment, even though Church authorities did not always agree with the States punishments. We must realize that in handing over the condemned heretic to the secular power, the Church knowingly was handing over the condemned for punishments ranging from imprisonment to burning at the stake. Furthermore, even with all the procedural precautions, there were inquisitors who did not follow the laws of the Church and all too readily handed over a significant number of heretics to be burned alive. However, anti-Catholic pamphleteers and historians have grossly exaggerated the numbers, asserting that millions died at the stake. Though the actual numbers are far less (3,000-5,000), these fiery deaths were quite real and regrettable.

It is also true, sadly enough, that the Church, following the judicial customs of the day, allowed for torture as a part of the judicial procedure. The approval of torture went all the way to the top, as Pope Innocent IVs bull Ad exstirpanda (1252) attests. However, the use of torture during judicial inquiry was not, contrary to her many detractors, the invention of the Church.

Just prior to the time of the Inquisition, Roman law had begun to displace the local judicial customs of western Europe. Roman law had allowed judicial torture in some circumstances. Under the medieval understanding of law, the accused in a capital crime could only be convicted if there were full proof of his guilt. This entailed either the testimony of two witnesses, being caught in the act, or personal confession. If the first two were lacking, and everything else pointed to the guilt of the accused, torture was used to extract his confession. To be considered a valid confession, the accused had to confess freely the next day.

In regard to the use of torture as well as capital punishment, the Church did not invent the practice, but regulated and codified these existing civil, judicial practices. In addition, it is important that the overwhelming effect and goal of the Church was to soften the punitive harshness of the secular powers, and correct the abuses of individual inquisitors who were arbitrary and cruel.

Learning from our mistakes

Despite these facts, Pope John Paul II warns us:

  1. Pope John Paul II, Address to the International Symposium on the Inquisition, October 31, 1998.
  2. Pous Johannes Paulus II, Tertio Millennio Adveniente, no. 35, quoting Vatican II, Declaration on Religious Freedom Dignitatis Humanae, no. 1.

The mission of the Magisterium is linked to the definitive nature of the covenant established by God with His people in Christ.
It is this Magisteriums task to preserve Gods people from deviations and defections and to guarantee them
the objective possibility of professing the true faith without error.
Thus, the pastoral duty of the Magisterium is aimed at seeing to it that the People of God
abides in the truth that liberates (Kategismus, no. 890).

____________________________________

Wiker, Benjamin D. Status: Inquisition in the Catholic Church. Lay Witness (April, 2000).

Reprinted with permission of Lay Witness tydskrif.

Lay Witness is a publication of Catholic United for the Faith, Inc., an international lay apostolate founded in 1968 to support, defend, and advance the efforts of the teaching Church.

Erkenning

Wiker, Benjamin D. Status: Inquisition in the Catholic Church. Lay Witness (April, 2000).

Reprinted with permission of Lay Witness tydskrif.

Lay Witness is a publication of Catholic United for the Faith, Inc., an international lay apostolate founded in 1968 to support, defend, and advance the efforts of the teaching Church.


What was the Holy Roman Empire?

The Holy Roman Empire was a loosely joined union of smaller kingdoms which held power in western and central Europe between A.D. 962 and 1806. It was ruled by a Holy Roman Emperor who oversaw local regions controlled by a variety of kings, dukes, and other officials. The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to resurrect the Western empire of Rome.

Many people confuse the Holy Roman Empire with the Roman Empire that existed during the New Testament period. However, these two empires were different in both time period and location. The Roman Empire (27 B.C. - A.D. 476) was based in Rome (and, later, Constantinople) and controlled nations around the Mediterranean rim, including Israel. The Holy Roman Empire came into existence long after the Roman Empire had collapsed. It had no official capital, but the emperors&mdashusually Germanic kings&mdashruled from their homelands.

In the fourth century, Christianity was embraced by the emperor and was pronounced the official religion of the Roman Empire. This blending of religion and government led to an uneasy but powerful mix of doctrine and politics. Eventually, power was consolidated in a centralized Roman Catholic Church, the major social institution throughout the Middle Ages. In A.D. 1054, the Eastern Orthodox Church separated from the Western (Roman) Church, in part due to Rome’s centralized leadership under the Pope.

Pope Leo III laid the foundation for the Holy Roman Empire in A.D. 800 when he crowned Charlemagne as emperor. This act set a precedent for the next 700 years, as the Popes claimed the right to select and install the most powerful rulers on the continent. The Holy Roman Empire officially began in 962 when Pope John XII crowned King Otto I of Germany and gave him the title of “emperor.” In the Holy Roman Empire, civil authority and church authority clashed at times, but the church usually won. This was the time when the Catholic Popes wielded the most influence, and the papacy’s power reached its zenith.

During the Middle Ages, a wide variety of new church traditions became official doctrine of the Roman Church. Further, the church-state engaged in many military conflicts, including the Crusades.

Late in the period of the Holy Roman Empire, a growing number of Christians grew uneasy with the dominance, teaching, and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church. In the 1500s, Martin Luther launched the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin became a Reformation leader based in Geneva, Switzerland, and others, including Ulrich Zwingli and a large Anabaptist movement, helped reform religion in the Western world.

The major theological issues in the Reformation focused on what are known as the five solas (five “only’s”), which expressed the primacy of biblical teaching over the authority of the Pope and sacred tradition. Sola gratia, the teaching of salvation by “grace alone” through faith alone in Christ alone, empowered a new era of evangelistic outreach in Europe that extended to those who would later colonize North America. Sola scriptura, or “Scripture alone,” taught that the Bible was the sole authority on matters of faith. This teaching led to the development of new churches outside of the Catholic system and the development of new statements of faith for the many Protestant groups founded during this time. The Holy Roman Empire continued to hold power after the Reformation, but the seeds of its demise had been sown after the Reformation, the Church’s imperial influence waned and the authority of the Pope was curtailed. Europe was emerging from the Middle Ages.

In summary, the Holy Roman Empire served as the government over much of Europe for the majority of medieval history. The Roman Catholic Church, melded in a church-state alliance with the emperor, was the major religious entity. The Church encountered numerous changes even as it amassed land and political clout. Late in this period, Martin Luther and other Reformers transformed the way religion was practiced in central Europe, and their work continues to influence many around the world today.


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