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Betty Ford herroep ingryping

Betty Ford herroep ingryping


Onthou Ma en Pa

As president Gerald Ford, 'n voormalige leier van die huishoudelike minderheid en die man wat president Richard Nixon na Watergate begenadig het, vandag lewe, sê sy dogter dat hy waarskynlik vir Amerikaners sou sê: 'Mense moet leer om oor die weg te kom en vir die beste van ons land te werk. . Tweepartigheid bestaan ​​wel en kan werk. ”

Susan Ford Bales sê daar was verhoudings oor die gang tydens haar pa se ampstermyn in Washington, DC

"Mense moet leer om nie saam te stem sonder om onaangenaam te wees nie," sê Bales. 'U kan kyk na my pa se verhouding met Tip O'Neill (spreker van die huis van 1977-87). Carl Albert [spreker van die huis van 1971-77] was een van die mense wat aan president Nixon gesê het: 'Gerry Ford is die persoon wat u deur die huis en die senaat as vise-president gaan kry.' President Nixon het ander mense in gedagte. Carl was aan die ander kant van die heining, maar hy werk al jare saam met my pa. ” Ford het vise -president geword nadat Spiro Agnew bedank het ná die ondersoek na Watergate.

Bales (59) was einde Januarie in die woestyn om op die Rancho Mirage Writers Festival oor haar ouers te praat. Die Fords het Rancho Mirage hul huis gemaak tydens hul jare ná die Withuis, en Bales sal nadink oor die tye tydens 'n tweede voorlegging, "President Gerald en Betty Ford: Their Lives & Legacies," 6 Maart in die Annenberg Sentrum vir Gesondheid Wetenskappe by die Eisenhower Mediese Sentrum in Rancho Mirage. Haar toespraak is deel van 'n JFS of the Desert -reeks, Desert Icons, aangebied deur Patrick Evans van CBS Local 2, na 18:00. VIP ontvangs.

FOTO HOF VAN SUSAN FORD BALE
Susan Ford Bales sê haar ma sou in Januarie die Women's March in Washington, DC ondersteun het: sy sou vroue daaraan herinner het waarom hulle die mag sou hê om hul mening te gee, ongeag die politieke manier.

Bales sê Rancho Mirage was die perfekte plek vir haar pa om gholf te geniet en vir haar ma om haar artritispyn te verlig. Haar ouers het hier gebly tot hul dood in onderskeidelik 2006 en 2011.

"My ouers het baie jare vakansie gegaan na die woestyn voordat hulle daar gewoon het," sê Bales. 'Ma kan inkopies doen en nie deur mense gepla word nie. Hulle kan na restaurante gaan en mense laat hulle rustig eet. Hulle was ondersteuners van baie dinge in die woestyn: Betty Ford -sentrum, Rancho Mirage -biblioteek, McCallum -teater en vele geleenthede. ” Die Fords het ook 'n tuiste in Colorado gehad.

Die voormalige presidentsvrou was mede-stigter van die Betty Ford-sentrum vir die behandeling van dwelm- en alkoholverslawing nadat haar dogter 'n gesinsintervensie gelei het. Bales onthou haar ma se pil en alkoholprobleme het toegeneem terwyl haar pa tydens aftrede buite die stad was. Die niewinsorganisasie het sedertdien saamgesmelt met 'n ander nasionale baanbrekersorganisasie om die Hazelden Betty Ford -stigting te word, waarvoor Bales as raadslid dien.

Betty Ford het 'n nasie vroue geïnspireer toe sy in die openbaar kom nadat sy borskanker oorleef het, met besonderhede oor haar verslawing en herstel. Sy en Gerald Ford het gehelp met die bekendstelling van die Nasionale Borskanker -bewustheidsweek in 1984. Bales sê in haar komende toespraak sal gekyk word na die "hoogtepunte en laagtepunte" van haar ouers se reis. Haar ma was 'n uitgesproke advokaat vir die wysiging van gelyke regte en vir aborsieregte. As Betty Ford vandag hier was, sou sy vroue aanmoedig om gelykheid na te streef, sê Bales en merk op dat een van haar eie dogters 'n saamtrek die naweek bygewoon het na die inhuldiging van president Trump.

"Ma sou die vroue gejuig het, veral solank hulle op 'n vreedsame manier was," sê sy. 'Sy sou vroue daaraan herinner het waarom hulle bevoeg moet voel om hul mening te gee, ongeag die politieke manier, Republikein of Demokraat of Onafhanklike of wat ook al. As u byvoorbeeld na gesondheidsorg kyk, word dit in twee verskillende dinge verdeel - voor Betty en na Betty - vanweë wat sy en Rosalynn Carter vir gesondheidsorg gedoen het. Hulle het op die heuwel gegaan om [vir wetgewing] te lobby, sodat depressie en alkoholisme onder versekering gedek sou word. ”

Bales sê die Carters was van haar ouers se beste vriende, saam met president George en Barbara Bush, wat hulle al baie jare geken het voordat Ford in 1974 president geword het.

Na afloop van Nixon se bedanking, het Ford tydens sy presidensiële inhuldiging gesê: 'Dit is 'n uur geskiedenis wat ons gedagtes pla en ons harte seermaak.' President Carter het Ford in sy eie inhuldigingstoespraak in 1977 vereer deur hom te bedank dat hy 'ons land genees' het. Bales sê haar pa het daardie oomblik vir die res van sy lewe gekoester. Sy sê Carter se vermelding van haar pa in sy openingsopmerkings "is 'n blink voorbeeld van waarna baie politici vandag moet kyk ... kyk na die verhouding."

Bales, 'n voormalige skrywer en fotojoernalis, sê die feit dat sy 'n president se dogter was, het haar 'politiek haat'. ... Ek het geen begeerte om vir die amp te staan ​​nie, ”sê sy. 'Ek voel verantwoordelik om te stem, maar politiek self is nie my koppie tee nie.'

Sy fokus eerder op die inbedryfstelling van die USS Gerald R. Ford van $ 13 miljard se superdiens vanjaar. Bales sê die skip was 'n baie belangrike projek vir my pa. Hy het dit ses weke voor sy dood uitgevind. Hy was baie bly. Hy was 'n nederige man en het nooit sulke dinge verwag nie, so dit het baie beteken. Ek sal baie trots wees om haar in die vloot te kry om Amerika te help ondersteun. Dan gaan ek voort met die Betty Ford -sentrum en Hazelden en ondersteun die bewustheid van borskanker. ”


Professor Bettye Caldwell sterf as kampioen vir kindersorg

Afgetrede professor in kinder- en gesinstudies, Bettye Caldwell, is op 17 April oorlede. Haar werk in die 1960's by die Children's Center van Syracuse het die grondslag gelê vir wat een van die belangrikste komponente geword het van die Great Society -programme wat vandag bekend staan ​​as Head Start.

Professor Caldwell, wat voorsitter was van die Departement Kinder- en Gesinsstudies, het meer as vyf dekades lank gewerk aan omvattende vroeë kinderontwikkelingsprogrammering, wat hoofsaaklik diens gedoen het op kinders van voorskoolse ouderdom en hul gesinne. Gedurende hierdie tyd werk sy nou saam met Julius Richmond, destyds voorsitter van kindergeneeskunde aan die Upstate Universiteit. In 1967 vorm hulle die Children's Center in Syracuse, die eerste vroeë intervensieprogram in die land. In daardie tyd was dit in die staat New York verbied om in groepe vir babas te sorg. Die voorspraak van Caldwell het gelei tot 'n spesiale kwytskelding wat die weg gebaan het vir die oprigting van die Kinderentrum.

Die sentrum, wat vanuit 'n ou huis in East Adamsstraat was, het groot nasionale belangstelling gehad en het in die eerste jaar meer as 1 000 besoekers gehad, waaronder Eunice Shriver. Caldwell erken hierdie nasionale figure deur die aandag op die program te vestig en dit in die beginjare te help oorleef.

"Dr. Bettye Caldwell was 'n ware pionier op haar gebied. Syracuse -universiteit is so trots op haar lewenslange toewyding wat daarop gemik was om die beste belang van kinders eerste te stel, en om tallose individue en gesinne die gereedskap te bied wat hulle nodig gehad het om dit ook te doen, ”sê Diane Lyden Murphy, dekaan van Falk College. "Ons is ewig dankbaar dat haar toewyding ons kampus en gemeenskap so diep geraak het in die tyd wat sy en haar gesin in Syracuse deurgebring het."

In 1969 verhuis Caldwell na haar gesin en dien jare lank aan die fakulteit van die Universiteit van Arkansas-Little Rock. In Little Rock het sy die projek vir vroeë opvoeding by die Kramer -skool vir jong kinders tot 12 jaar gestig. ' goed opgeleide versorgers wat in hul eie skoolgebou beskikbaar was, 'weerspieël die voormalige nagraadse student van professor Caldwell en nou professor emerita in kinder- en gesinstudies aan die Falk College Alice Sterling Honig.

In 'n onderhoud in 2014 het professor Caldwell opgemerk: 'Ek het Alice Honig professioneel ontmoet in 1963, toe ek my eerste groot navorsingstoelaag gehad het, ‘Infant Learning and Patterns of Family Care. ’ Die beurs het een pos vir 'n navorsingsassistent , en ek het Alice gehuur. Dit is met groot geluk en trots dat ek beweer dat haar ervaring met hierdie vroeë navorsingsprojek gehelp het om haar voor te berei op haar eie onafhanklike en self-geïnisieerde navorsing in die daaropvolgende jare. ”

Terwyl hulle saam aan die Universiteit van Syracuse gewerk het, het Caldwell en Honig gevind dat daar min dokumentasie beskikbaar was om 'n kurrikulum te beplan wat kinders sou help floreer. “Ek en Bettye en ander sou in die nag bymekaarkom, nadat ons ons kinders in die bed gesit het (en babasitters gekry het), om uit te dink wat ons dink teoretici wil hê ons moet doen om die kleinste te help floreer”, vertel Honig. 'Ons sou ons afvra: hoe sou die teoretiese geskrifte van Erikson en Piaget vertaal word in praktyk en programmatiese interaksies? Ons het werklik soos pioniers gevoel. ”

Caldwell het 'n span sielkundiges en psigiaters na China gelei, waaronder Honig, wat die heel eerste groep was ná die kulturele revolusie wat Mao Tse Tung toegelaat het om kindersorgsentrums en kinderhospitale te besoek. Met 'n wêreldwye reputasie en omvangryke invloed, het Caldwell gedurende haar loopbaan baie toekennings ontvang, waaronder die 1978 Ladies Home Journal Woman of the Year waarvoor sy vereer is tydens 'n seremonie waarby Betty Furness, Maya Angelou, Kate Smith en Betty Ford .

In September 2014 het 'n ruim geskenk van professor Caldwell die dr.Alice Sterling Honig -beursfonds geskep om studente te bevoordeel met kinders en gesinsstudies aan die Universiteit van Syracuse. "Danksy haar visioenêre vrygewigheid, sal studente van die toekoms die geleentheid kry om voort te bou op die innoverende werk van dr. Caldwell, wat so 'n kritieke deel van die geskiedenis van Falk College en die nasionale sosiale programme in die vroeë kinderjare is," voeg Dean Murphy by. Vir meer inligting oor die geskenk aan die beurs wat deur professor Caldwell geskep is, kontak die Falk College Office of Advancement by 315-443-8989.


Waarskuwingstekens: hoe om 'n alkoholiste met 'n hoë funksie te identifiseer

Net omdat iemand op die werk of in die lewe kan funksioneer, ondanks hul afhanklikheid van alkohol, beteken dit nie dat hy immuun is vir die gevolge daarvan nie. Hier is 'n paar tekens wat kan aandui dat iemand 'n hoogs funksionerende alkoholis is:

Hulle benodig alkohol om selfversekerd te voel.

Dikwels voel hoë-funksionele alkoholiste 'ingeslote' by hul drink omdat hulle bekommerd is dat hul sukses ook sal stop as die alkohol stop.

'Ek het gedink dat drink my skaamheid sou help, maar al wat dit gedoen het, was om al die negatiewe eienskappe te oordryf. Die drink en die pille het my natuurlike entoesiasme net verdoof. ” –Elizabeth Taylor

Hulle maak 'n grap dat hulle 'n alkoholprobleem het.

Hulle neem nie hul alkoholafhanklikheid ernstig op nie of glo dat hulle steeds die volle beheer daaroor het.

"Drink jy?" 'Natuurlik het ek net gesê ek is 'n skrywer.' –Stephen King

Dit lyk asof hulle nie meer kater kry nie.

Deur 'n toleransie vir alkohol te ontwikkel, kan hulle op hul beurt oortuig word dat hul drink nie 'n probleem is nie, omdat hulle nie die gevolge daarvan voel nie.

"Omdat ek my drank kon hanteer - of so het ek gedink - en baie alkohol kon inneem sonder om onbeheerbaar dronk te word, het ek geweier om dit as 'n probleem te beskou." –Buzz Aldrin

Hulle drink alleen.

Drink is nie 'n sosiale aktiwiteit vir hulle nie, dit is 'n alleenverdiende tydverdryf.

'Ek drink graag alleen. Ek word nooit lelik as ek te veel drink nie, ek verveel myself nooit met 'n baie saai gesprek nie, en ek het myself nog nooit genooi om na buite te stap nie. ” –Stephen King

Hulle vervang maaltye met alkohol.

Etes is dikwels 'n verskoning vir die hoëfunksionele alkoholis om te begin drink. Hulle kan selfs heeltemal van voedsel afstand doen.

'Ek sou nie snags eet as om nie rooiwyn en water te drink nie. –Ernest Hemingway

Hulle word 'n ander persoon as hulle drink.

Sosiale drinkers verander nie hul persoonlikheid dramaties as hulle drink nie. Alkoholiste gedra hulle egter redelik ongewoon.

'Die oomblik toe ons die laaste skoot klaargemaak het, sou ek 'n drankie drink. Toe word dit bietjie vir bietjie 'n reeks drankies. Voor ek dit weet, drink ek meer en meer omdat my verslawende persoonlikheid besig is om oor te neem. ” –Leonard Nimoy

Hulle word vyandig of argumenterend as hulle nie kan drink nie.

Alkoholiste ly dikwels aan onttrekkingsimptome as hulle gedwing word om nugter te bly of afgesny is van hul alkoholvoorraad.

'Ek het geweet dat ek 'n alkoholis is, want ek was besig met die vraag of alkohol bedien sou word of nie.' - Betty Ford

Hulle kan nie by een drankie stop nie.

Hulle sukkel om alkohol te laat "mors" en kan dalk die drankies van vriende vir hulle klaarmaak. Hulle sukkel om 'n beperking op hul drank te stel.

'Ek is nie die soort man wat 'n drankie kan drink nie. Ek kon nooit. Dit is wat ek moet onthou. Ek het in my hele lewe nog nooit een drankie gedrink nie. ” –Samuel L. Jackson

Hulle steek hul alkohol weg.

Hulle hou hul alkohol op 'n geheime plek waar hul vriende en familie dit nie sal vind nie, soos in hul lessenaar of motor.

'Ek het sy kantoor verlaat, om die draai gegaan, en by die eerste drankwinkel wat ek gevind het, het ek 'n bottel Scotch gekoop. Ek kon nie eers wag tot ek by die huis kom nie. Ek het 'n paar takkies geswel voordat ek uit die parkeerterrein getrek het. " –Buzz Aldrin

Hulle verduister gereeld.

Dit is nie ongewoon dat hulle nie kan onthou wat gebeur het terwyl hulle gedrink het nie.

'Die keerpunt het gekom toe my gesin my op die kombuisvloer raakgeloop het. Ek dink ek wou gevang word. ” –Samuel L. Jackson

Herken u hierdie waarskuwingstekens in uself of 'n geliefde? Skakel hulp in. Dis nie te laat nie.

Chris Clancy is die interne inhoudsbestuurder van die Digital Marketing-span van JourneyPure, waar hy 'n wye verskeidenheid onderwerpe rakende dwelmmisbruik en geestesgesondheid kan ondersoek. Hy het meer as 20 jaar ervaring as joernalis en navorser, met sterk werkkennis van hospitaalstelsels, gesondheidsversekering, inhoudstrategie en openbare betrekkinge. Hy woon in Nashville saam met sy vrou en twee kinders.

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Watter 'intervensie' het Amerika oor verslawing geleer?

Vir 'n verslaafde dwelmverslaafde soos ek, het een van die vermaaklikste kwarantynbande my in die 20 seisoene opgemerk Intervensie , die langdurige A & ampE-werklikheidsprogram oor verslaafdes wie se familielede met 'n ultimatum instap om behandeling te kry-of anders alles verloor.

Maar binge Intervensie deesdae het my ook laat nadink oor hoe onbesonne Amerika oor verslawing in 2005 was, die jaar toe die reeks verskyn. Neem byvoorbeeld “Dana” (seisoen dertien, episode twee), wat deur aanhangers verklaar is as die “hartseerste” episode ooit (’n woonstelbrand het drie van haar kinders doodgemaak). Dit is nou duidelik vir my-nadat ek die afgelope agt jaar in vergaderings van 12 stappe deurgebring het om te luister hoe mense probeer om hul verslawings te verstaan, asook die feit dat trauma vandag algemeen beskou word as 'n hoofoorsaak van verslawing-waarom Dana onmiddellik verslaaf aan die Vicodin wat voorgeskryf is om die pyn van haar eie derdegraadse brandwonde te behandel. 'Ek het iets nodig gehad om my te kalmeer van die skrikwekkende terugflitse van die vuur,' vertel sy nou en verduidelik dat die Vicodin 'die swaar op my bors en skouers' verwyder het.

Tog, toe die episode van Dana die eerste keer verskyn, moes Candy Finnigan, die intervensionis, die broer van Dana berispe omdat sy haar verslawing as 'n morele mislukking geklassifiseer het. "As ons die trauma nie behandel nie, sal ons haar nooit weer kan herstel nie," verduidelik Finnigan met deernis van 'n kleuterskoolonderwyseres.

En net so het Amerika 'n meesterklas aangebied oor die waarde van deernis by die behandeling van verslawing, ondanks die verband dat trauma nog sewe jaar lank nie wetenskaplik erken word nie.

Destyds het Amerikaners bedroef naïef gebly oor die ware aard van verslawing, 'n gevolg van 200 jaar se misverstand van die siekte (of dat dit selfs een was). Opiaatverslaafdes in die 1800's is byna uitsluitlik in die pers gekenmerk as mense van kleur, alhoewel 'n groot deel wit mense ook verslaaf was. Teen die sestigerjare het behandelingsentrums vir dwelmmisbruik applikante dikwels gedwing om ure lank stil te sit voor inname -onderhoude, waarna hulle moes erken dat hulle 'dom' was. En ná veldtogte van nul-verdraagsaamheid van die 1970's en 1980's (die 'War on Drugs', 'Say Just Nee', ens.), Het die fokus op 'n 'oplossing' vir chemiese afhanklikheid van behandeling na kriminalisering verskuif. Daardeur was 'n nie-so-subtiele godsdienstige suggestie dat verslawing 'n morele mislukking en sonde is.

Dit wil sê, die meeste Amerikaners se vertroudheid met ingrypings in die vroeë dae was beperk tot die vierde seisoen van Die Sopranos , waarin die gesin Christopher aanspoor om behandeling vir heroïenverslawing te kry (en daarin oorgaan dat hulle eerder die kak uit hom slaan). 'Mense het geglo dat 'n ingryping 'n groot bydrae was tot u geliefde,' Intervensie skepper Sam Mettler vertel my. 'Nee, dit is 'n aanbod van behandeling, en as iemand weier, 'n besluit of die gesin deel wil wees van die siekte of nie.'

Die gebruik van ingrypings het in die 1960's ontstaan ​​toe Vernon Johnson, 'n biskoplike predikant, familielede van verslaafdes aangespoor het om 'die bodem na hulle te bring' om hul lewens te red. Diegene wat in die eerste twee banke van die begrafnis sou sit, moet die ingryping lei, het Johnson verduidelik.

Dit is dus verbasend dat so 'n donker konsep vir so 'n TV -program die geesteskind was van Mettler, 'n jong komedieskrywer in die vroeë jare, wie se krediete 'Maintenance Guy' op die ABC -sitkom insluit Norm . Hy sê dat hy vantevore bewus was van ingrypings, maar die term het hom in 2001 regtig as 'n grap oor sy pa gekry. 'My pa sou dra manier te veel Keulen, ”sê Mettler. 'Hy sou my babaseun kom haal, en ons moes hom bad toe ons by die huis kom, want hy ruik na my pa. Ek het my suster gebel en gesê: 'Ons moet 'n ingryping op pa oor die keel doen. Dit raak belaglik. ’So het die woord in my brein gekom.”

Destyds werk Mettler aan 'n dokumentêre konsep vir MTV wat nêrens heen gaan nie. Hy draai dus na die idee vir Intervensie in plaas daarvan. 'Ek wou interessante mense vind wat alreeds dramatiese lewens gehad het, met 'n hoë inset, en hulle deur ons lewens moes laat neem sonder om hulle in te meng. Ek het omtrent geweet wat 'n ingryping was, maar my vooropgestelde idee was dat dit 'n veel hoër konflikonderhandeling was as die gawe wat dit eintlik is - 'n gawe van lewe, 'n gawe van behandeling, 'n gawe van 'n antwoord.

Hy het die konsep in 2001 aan MTV voorgelê, en hy sou na New York vlieg om die program op 12 September 2001 te begin ontwikkel. Natuurlik het hy nooit gegaan nie. Daar is vasgestel dat die land op 9/11 genoeg hartseer verduur het en nog nie gereed was vir 'n vertoning oor dwelmmisbruik nie. Die idee het nog drie jaar op Mettler se rekenaar gesit, voordat hy dit uiteindelik direk aan A & ampE gestuur het, wat van die konsep gehou het.

In die herfs van 2004 het hy Jeff VanVonderen, 'n voormalige pastoor in Orange County, gewerf, 'n alkoholis en 'n intervensionis wat opgelei is in 'n konfronterende styl van rehabilitasie, om 'n oudisie op die kamera te doen. VanVonderen vertel my dat hy gedink het dat die program nooit sou werk nie, want hy werk al jare saam met verslaafdes en weet nie wie kameras hulle deur die donkerste oomblikke van hul lewens wil volg nie.

Nietemin het Mettler hom gevra om 'n rolspelintervensie te voer. VanVonderen het 'n PA (wat die rol van die verslaafde vertolk het) opdrag gegee om die kamer te verlaat sodat hy die gesin kon toespreek. Hy het na 'n wit bord gegaan en begin met intervensie -opleiding vir die "gesin" in die kamer. 'Ek wou hê dat A & ampE duidelik moet sien,' verduidelik hy. 'Omdat mense geen idee gehad het wat 'n ingryping is nie. Hulle het net daaraan gedink dat die Sopranos Christopher geslaan het, of Cartman gedwing het om na 'n vet kamp te gaan Suidpark . Hulle het dit net nie gekry nie. ”

A & ampE bestel 'n vlieënier, solank VanVonderen daarin sou wees. En hoewel die pastoor van die stad Wisconsin nooit daarna op TV wou wees nie, het hy in elk geval ja gesê. 'Ek het my voorgestel hoe 'n ma en pa op die bank sit en 'n krisis beleef het met hul metamfetamienverslaafde seun of dogter, in die hoop dat hulle hul aandag kon trek voordat hulle hulself doodmaak. Maar dan struikel hulle verder Intervensie en besef daar is nog iets wat hulle kan probeer.

Nadat die program in 2005 opgetel is, het Mettler begin soek na 'n vroulike eweknie vir VanVonderen om die program af te rond. "Betty Ford het 'n lys van hul voorkeur -intervensioniste gehad en ek het hulle net begin bel," verduidelik hy. Finnigan, 'n herstelde alkoholis uit Kansas City, was boaan die lys, maar produsente was bekommerd dat sy 'te oud' lyk. 'Ek het 'n oproep gekry die dag nadat ek die skandelike ingryping gedoen het,' vertel Finnigan. 'Hulle het gesê:' Ons het nie besef dat u dit was nie daardie oud. ’Ek het gesê jy kan nie 17 wees en die blues sing nie. As jy iemand wil hê wat 5 voet-10 is met groot tiete en blonde hare, is ek dit nie. ”

Die dramatiese tonele van die verslaafde wat tydens die ingryping buite beheer geraak het, is op handkamera's geskiet deur veldprodusente soos Jeffrey Weaver, wat later as uitvoerende vervaardiger op die program gedien het. Intervensie Weaver verduidelik dat sy doel van die begin af was om eers met mense as onderwerpe te kommunikeer: "Ons het gevoel dat dinge belangrik was van die kant van die persoon wat sukkel." As sodanig het Weaver hom weke lank aan onderwerpe gedompel en dikwels op hul rusbanke of vloere geslaap. Die ononderbroke dokumentasie het beteken dat hy nie net verantwoordelik was vir die vertel van hul verhaal nie, maar ook om hul welstand te verseker.

Vir hierdie doel onthou hy dat hy in 'n badkamer gestaan ​​het met 'n heroïenverslaafde wat pas opgeskiet het, 'n kamera in die een hand en sy telefoon in die ander. 'Ek sou 911 skakel en my duim op die stuurknoppie hou as die persoon 'n oordosis neem,' vertel hy. 'Ons was baie toegewyd daaraan om te dokumenteer wat ons lewens werklik is, nie om dit te vervaardig, nie te verander nie, nie om 'n hiperboliese weergawe van hul ervaring te probeer skep nie. Dit was verhale wat nie in die populêre kultuur na vore gekom het nie, en ons was daartoe verbind om die idee te hê dat as ons hierdie verhale op 'n belangrike platform soos A & ampE sou deel, dit 'n veranderlike in die openbare gesprek oor verslawing sou wees.

Dit gesê, sommige kritici het gevind dat die deursigtigheid ten alle koste die uitgangspunt is Intervensie problematies te wees, veral omdat die verslaafde nooit die konfrontasie sien kom nie. Seisoen 20 was gefokus op die opioïedkrisis in Philadelphia, maar is deur verslaffers soos Brooke Feldman uitgebrei, wat voel dat die program 'sensasieer' wat werklik 'n gesondheidstoestand is. Weaver verwerp die kritiek egter: "Ons fokus was altyd daarop om seker te maak dat verslaafdes 'n pad na herstel kon kry, en alles wat ons gedoen het om die reis te dokumenteer, was daarop gemik om vakke toegang tot die hulp te gee."

Mense bevraagteken nou meer die doeltreffendheid van intervensies, en stel eerder voor dat motiveringsonderhoudvoering, 'n kognitiewe gedragsterapie wat ontwerp is om die motivering van verandering te versterk, minder bestrydend en doeltreffender is.

Tog, Seisoen 22 van Intervensie word hierdie lente in die vooruitsig gestel, hoewel A & ampE nog geen inligting oor die vrylating daarvan bekend sal maak nie, of die verslawing steeds oorheers sal word. Byna al die mees onlangse episodes het gefokus op die opiaatkrisis, en die laaste verslawing sonder stof-byvoorbeeld oefening, bulimie, dobbel, inkopies-was in 2013.

Hoe dan ook, ek sal vir ewig dankbaar wees vir die vertoning. Soos ek dit sien, maar veral as 'n verslaafde wat herstel, omdat hy Amerika gehelp het om sy eie dwelmprobleem die hoof te bied.

C. Brian Smith

C. Brian Smith skryf sterk gonzofunksies vir MEL, of dit nou opleiding met 'n masturbasie-afrigter is, 'n sielkundige liggaamlike behandeling van 'n spankterapeut ontvang, of 'n week lange plesiervaart met 75 kersvaders na hul besige seisoen.


Betty Ford se ingryping

Die voormalige presidentsvrou Betty Ford het die lenteoggend in haar sitkamer rondgekyk, soos die meeste hardnekkige junkies, dit nie reggekry nie.

My make -up was nie besmeer nie, ek was nie in die war nie, ek het my beleefd gedra en ek het nooit 'n bottel klaargemaak nie, so hoe kan ek 'n alkoholis wees? & rdquo onthou sy jare later. En ek het nie heroïen of kokaïen gebruik nie. Die medisyne wat ek geneem het en die slaappille, die pynpille, die ontspanningspille, die pille om die newe -effekte van ander pille te bestry, is deur dokters voorgeskryf, so hoe kan ek 'n dwelmverslaafde wees? ' daardie dag onthou dat Ford klein gelyk het, amper soos 'n pop, verlore in die [bank] kussings, en toe haar man sy eerste opmerkings maak, kon u die verwarring op haar gesig sien. & rdquo

Ford was nog in haar badjas, terwyl haar man en kinders een vir een die waarheid vertel het. Voormalige president Gerald R. Ford betreur die slurp van haar toespraak. Seun Mike en sy vrou Gayle het die moontlikheid gestel dat sy nie lank genoeg sou lewe om ooit die kinders te ken wat hulle wou hê nie. Seun Steve vertel die dag toe hy en sy vriendin 'n uitgebreide ete vir haar voorberei het, net om haar pogings te laat ignoreer terwyl sy TV kyk en in 'n alkoholiese waas gly. Seun Jack het gesê dat hy altyd om die hoek van die gesinskamer gaan loer het om te sien in watter vorm ma is. & Dogter Susan, wat die gesin byeengeroep het om die matriarg te konfronteer, het gebreek toe sy verduidelik hoe sy altyd bewonder het haar ma en rsquos genade as 'n Martha Graham-opgeleide danser en kon nie staan ​​om haar te sien val en lomp nie. & rdquo

Die Ford -familie -ingryping het nie lank geduur die oggend van 1 April 1978 nie, maar dit het 'n reeks gebeurtenisse begin wat die lewe van Betty Ford en nog baie meer verander het. Sy het ingestem om 'n week van mediese toesig en ontgifting te ondergaan waartydens sy gespeen is van alkohol, Librium, en wat sy later beskryf het as 'ldquogourmet-medisyne' by haar splinternuwe Rancho Mirage-huis. Toe, die dag na haar 60ste verjaardag, is Ford twee uur na die Navy -hospitaal in Long Beach gery om die 12 stappe van Anonieme Alkoholiste te leer ken. Skielik het die term & ldquopublic dronkenskap & rdquo 'n heel nuwe betekenis gekry.

Nadat hy in 'n standaardkamer met drie kamermaats gevestig was, het Ford 'n verklaring uitgereik wat, sonder om verskoning, haar voorneme beskryf om haar verslawing te oorkom.

Deur haar 'n openbare stryd te maak, eerder as 'n privaatstryd, het Betty Ford die beeld van 'n dwelmmisbruiker van 'n naamlose, gesiglose verloorder in 'n edele en aangename oorlewende verander. Sy het gehelp om die stigma wat lank verband hou met verslawing en behandeling, veral vir vroue, te verminder.

Die grimmige verrassingspartytjie wat haar op die pad begin het, het ook 'n herstelbeweging tot stand gebring wat Ford nooit kon voorstel nie, 'n nasionale gesprek waarin onrustige siele gewillig, selfs gretig, 'n openbare belydenis of daad van berou wou aflê. In die daaropvolgende dekades het dit moeilik geword om 'n televisie-geselsprogram aan te skakel sonder om oorlewendes te hoor en verhale oor alles te oorkom, van bloedskande, geslagsverwarring, kompulsiewe eetversteuring en bulimie tot seksuele verslawing, mede-afhanklikheid, verkragting, selfs ontvoering van vreemdelinge en sataniese besit.

Om te verstaan ​​waarom Betty Ford se ingryping so 'n uitwerking gehad het, is dit belangrik om haar onverwagte rol te verstaan ​​in wat bekend staan ​​as die 'moderne alkoholisme -beweging', wat in 1935 begin het toe twee mans 'n New Yorkse aandelemakelaar (Bill W.) en 'n Akron, Ohio, begin het. , chirurg (dr. Bob S.) en mdash was 'n pionier in 'n metode om stil en anoniem met verslawing om te gaan deur Anonieme alkoholiste te skep en die evangelie van 12 stappe te verkondig wat ontelbare apostels verander het. Destyds en in die 1960's het niemand heeltemal geweet wat om met dronkaards en junkies te doen nie. Sommige het hulle na genootskappe soos AA gerig, of bloot gekyk hoe hulle hulself doodmaak. Ander het hul dwelmmisbruikers na rondtes ontgifting na die sanitêre sentrums gestuur. Weer ander het dwelmmisbruikers aan eksperimentele gedragsveranderingsbehandelings onderwerp, insluitend hipnose, elektroskokterapie en metadoonbehandeling.

In 1970 het die federale Hughes Act amptelik dwelm- en alkoholverslawing erken as 'n siekte, wat die weg gebaan het vir wat uiteindelik 'n bedryf van meer as 'n biljoen dollar per jaar geword het van spesialiteitsbehandelingsentrums, nakoming van die hof en gesofistikeerde bemarking. Tog het daar 'n sosiale stigma gebly.

Betty Ford pas in 1978 nie netjies in by enige van die openbare stereotipes van 'n dronk of 'n dwelmverslaafde nie. Sy was 'n baie skoon, baie beleefde, baie suksesvolle middelmisbruiker en iemand bewonder eerder as beledig.

In Januarie 1977 verlaat sy die Withuis as die gewildste presidentsvrou sedert Jackie Kennedy. Sy het die internasionale kollig binnegegaan in 'n geknoopte era toe die prototipiese Republikeinse vrou 'n lakhaar dowe stom was met die aanbiddende oë van 'n akoliet. (Kan jy die stem van Pat Nixon en rsquos beskryf? Het dit nie so gedink nie.) Ford, gebore in Chicago en grootgemaak in Grand Rapids, Michigan, het Ford 'n neiging van die Midde -Weste gebring om eerlik op enige vraag te antwoord. Dit is nie 'n gebruik in Washington, DC nie, waar een van die vroeë uitruilings van Ford en die perskorps van die Withuis dui op 'n era van dikwels verfrissende eerlikheid in die hoofstad van die land.

Waarom het u ons nie vertel nie? & 'n verslaggewer het eenkeer geskel nadat hy verneem het dat mev Gerald Ford eens mev Bill Warren was.

U het nooit gevra nie, en sy het geantwoord.

Een van Ford & rsquos se eerste nie -amptelike optrede as First Lady was om in die openbaar haar voorneme te verklaar om nie net in dieselfde slaapkamer in die Withuis as haar man te slaap nie, maar ook in dieselfde bed, en sodoende tegnies die moontlikheid te verhoog dat seks kan plaasvind.

Sy en rsquod het haar entoesiastiese steun vir die gelyke regte -wysiging vir vroue met trots verklaar tot 'n posisie wat nie deur haar man of sy party gedeel word nie en toe haar man ondervoorsitter was onder Richard Nixon, het sy aan Barbara Walters gesê hoe bly sy was oor die Hooggeregshof & rsquos 1972 Roe vs Wade besluit om aborsie te wettig. President Ford & rsquos se perssekretaris het 'n verklaring uitgereik waarin verklaar word dat Gerald Ford & ldquolong [gelede] opgehou het om te steur aan sy vrou se opmerkings. & Rdquo

Ford was ook bewus van die positiewe openbare impak wat haar persoonlike gedrag kan hê. 'N Maand nadat hulle by die Withuis ingetrek het, het haar dokters 'n kwaadaardige knop aangetref en moes sy haar regterbors verwyder. Ford immediately went public with the news and began a course of chemo-therapy in the public spotlight. Supportive mail poured in, and the American Cancer Society saw a spike in donations. &ldquoEven before I was able to get up, I lay in bed and watched television and saw on the news shows lines of women queued up to go in for breast examinations because of what had happened to me,&rdquo she later recalled. One of those women was Happy Rockefeller, wife of then-Vice President Nelson Rockefeller. Turns out she had a lump, too, and had a similar operation a month after Ford&rsquos mastectomy. Her husband credited Ford&rsquos frank public disclosure with saving his wife&rsquos life.

A fter leaving the White House, Betty Ford hired ghostwriter Chris Chase and set to work on her autobiography, The Times of My Life. She and Jerry eventually retreated to Rancho Mirage, and by the spring of 1978, she was polishing the final chapters. Ford devoted early chapters to her unlikely rise to the pinnacle of power. In later chapters, she recounted the many moments when her candor had caught official Washington and much of the nation off-guard.

But nothing in Ford&rsquos nearly finished manuscript hinted at the most startling truth of all, one that not only would require a rushed final chapter for that book &mdash subtly titled &ldquoLong Beach&rdquo &mdash but an entirely new autobiography less than a decade later that dealt entirely with her battle against addiction. She had completely ignored her slide into a haze of cocktails and pain pills &mdash apparently the only Ford family member able to do so.

The intervention, back then, had not yet become one of the most controversial features of the recovery culture. The idea is based on the theory that the most effective way to compel someone with a problem to seek treatment is for the people closest to them, family and friends, to confront them with the truth about how the problem has affected their lives. Interventions represent a significant departure from the methods established by the founders of A.A., who favored a volunteer, rather than a confrontational, approach. This also was long before the horror stories of abuse in which well-intentioned parents essentially had their troubled children kidnapped and hauled off to tough-love treatment facilities.

Ford was no less skeptical that morning as her family gathered from around the country to confront her in a home still filled with moving boxes. But a week later, the former First Lady of the United States of America was taking meals in a basement cafeteria at the Navy base and sharing a room with three other women. One was an admiral&rsquos wife with a taste for Valium the other two were young, regular Navy. As word spread about Ford&rsquos treatment, the media began to portray addiction as a disease with no discernible demographic: the great equalizer.

&ldquoAfter I came into the hospital, it was as though a dam had burst,&rdquo Ford later recalled. &ldquoNewspapers and magazines poured in, filled with articles about women and drugs and alcohol. Bags of mail followed, and flowers, and messages sent by well-wishers.&rdquo

Two years after her intervention and public disclosure, on Oct. 9, 1981, Betty Ford helped break ground for an addiction treatment center at Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage. She committed her fund- and consciousness-raising efforts to the cause and, reluctantly, lent her name and face to what has become the best-known facility of its kind in the world. The Betty Ford Center was dedicated one year later. One of the earliest to step forward for treatment was another of America&rsquos most influential women, actress Elizabeth Taylor. Her decision to disclose her struggle had nearly as much impact as Ford&rsquos in terms of destigmatizing alcohol and drug rehabilitation.

Taylor&rsquos treatment also added a touch of glamour to the Betty Ford Center and to treatment in general, paving the way for other celebrity substance abusers to talk about their addictions and treatment. A curious snowballing began. At the time, insurance laws made rehab centers a potential profit center for hospitals, and facilities began cropping up fast.

The language began to soften. &ldquoDrunks&rdquo and &ldquodrug fiends&rdquo became &ldquoalcoholics&rdquo and &ldquosubstance abusers.&rdquo The people around them became &ldquoenablers&rdquo and &ldquoco-dependents.&rdquo The culture began suspending harsh judgments and began looking to family histories and childhood traumas as a way to explain someone&rsquos addiction. Ford&rsquos treatment also was followed by what one addiction specialist calls a &ldquonew temperance movement.&rdquo Mothers Against Drunk Driving was founded in 1980, the same year First Lady Nancy Reagan&rsquos &ldquoJust Say No!&rdquo slogan became the most memorable &mdash and ridiculed &mdash catchphrases of that decade. Warnings began to appear on beer, wine, and liquor labels, and anti-alcohol and drug programs became a staple of secondary and even elementary education.

More than 53,000 patients have sought help at Betty Ford Center since it opened. They have included homemakers, truck drivers, doctors, lawyers, athletes &mdash some nearly as famous as Ford and Taylor: baseball legends Mickey Mantle and Darryl Strawberry, football player Todd Marinovich, country music singer Tanya Tucker. The list reads like a Who&rsquos Who of the entertainment and sports worlds even though celebrities represent only a fraction of the center&rsquos clients.

But after all the talk, after decades of often dramatic self-exposure, there remains a bottom line: A government report suggests that of the estimated 13 million to 16 million Americans who need treatment for alcohol or drug problems in any given year, only 3 million actually receive it. And something else is happening that Ford could not have foreseen that day in 1978. While recovery has changed lives for the better, and while Ford&rsquos public struggle coaxed thousands of closeted addicts into the open and diminished the stigma of treatment, the lasting impact of all those public acts of contrition is hard to pin down. The snowball began to melt.

T he Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, an arm of the federal Department of Health and Human Services, has designated September as National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month partly because of a &ldquorestigmatization&rdquo of substance abuse and addiction in recent years. That same agency notes the impact of critics who have raised concerns about whether substance abuse is a medical or a behavioral problem. The backlash is obvious from a search of the Amazon.com online book catalog, which contains titles such as Peele&rsquos Diseasing of America: How We Allowed Recovery Zealots and the Treatment Industry to Convince Us We Are Out of Control en I&rsquom Dysfunctional, You&rsquore Dysfunctional: The Recovery Movement and Other Self-Help Fashions by Wendy Kaminer.

Spending on substance abuse treatment between 1987 and 1997 shifted heavily from private to public, meaning that fewer alcoholics and drug addicts in this age of managed care can count on insurance companies and other private payers to cover the cost of treatment.

&ldquoThree trends are evident since 1990,&rdquo wrote William L. White, author of Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America. &ldquoThe first is the restigmatization of severe and persistent alcohol and other drug problems. The images of First Ladies, next-door neighbors, and our own family members are being replaced with more demonized images that elicit fear and anger rather than compassion.&rdquo White said that trend, combined with the &ldquodemedicalization&rdquo of treatment and the &ldquorecriminalization&rdquo of addiction, now finds people like Betty Ford portrayed as &ldquoinfectious agent[s] of evil&rdquo and recovery as an exception rather than a rule.

White has called for a &ldquoNew Recovery Movement&rdquo in which &ldquoa vanguard of recovering people&hellipstep forward to offer themselves as living proof of the hope for sustained recovery from addiction&rdquo &mdash a seemingly radical departure from the A.A. filosofie. During a speech to a New Jersey recovery group several years ago, White wistfully recalled Ford&rsquos long-ago public confession as perhaps the best moment in the country&rsquos history to be an alcoholic.

From the book Poplorica: A Popular History of the Fads, Mavericks, Inventions, and Lore that Shaped Modern America by Martin J. Smith and Patrick J. Kiger.
Published by arrangement with HarperCollins Publishers. Alle regte voorbehou.


The Revolutionary Moment of First Lady Betty Ford: Her October 1975 Speech Still Makes History

With news of former First Lady Betty Ford's death at age 93, it is easy to simply recall her as the leader of the national movement for substance abuse recovery because of the famous southern California treatment center which bears her name. In fact, that was but one in a number of issues on behalf of which Mrs. Ford became a world-recognized trailblazer by simply being herself -- which is to say, speaking out honestly and rationally.

Although she was only in the White House from August 1974 to January of 1977, she made extraordinary good use of her time in that most visible of symbolic roles.

As First Lady, she broke the national taboo on discussing breast cancer, the need to seek professional services of a therapist for emotional issues, support of a woman's right to decisions about her own body including support of the Supreme Court's Roe vs Wade decision, and even an effort to mainstream the modern dance movement into the traditional forms.

At the core of her conscience was an ironclad belief in the equality of women and men. Like her role in the public issues of breast cancer, the value of therapy and substance abuse recovery, the issue of women's right to full legal equality emerged from her own personal life. When her first husband had fallen ill with what threatened to be a lifelong illness, she realized that her ability to financially support him was compromised by the lack of equal pay for equal work among the genders. Thus, when she became First Lady she quickly rose as the national leader of the fight for the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In that role, she delivered the opening speech at the October 1974 Conference on Women in Cleveland.

In this excerpt of that now largely-forgotten speech, Mrs. Ford delivered her crisp yet eloquent case for equal rights. As an example of the increasingly political and social importance of First Ladies to the nation, it ranks with two other revolutionary speeches -- those of Eleanor Roosevelt at the United Nations in outlining the Declaration of Human Rights, a document she helped draft, and of Hillary Clinton in Beijing at the U.N. Conference on Women.

In many respects, this speech is still ahead of its time. It isn't hard to imagine how the media and activists of all political stripes might respond if an incumbent First Lady in the 2010s were to say the words that Mrs. Ford did over a quarter of a century ago.


Donald Rumsfeld Recalls One of the Darkest Days of the Gerald Ford Administration

In any presidency there is an inherent tension between the requirement to do everything reasonable to protect a President’s safety and a President’s understandable desire to meet and shake hands with fellow Americans. In September 1975, one year into the Ford presidency, two events brought that tension front and center in dramatic fashion.

Only a few weeks earlier, David Packard, a senior advisor who had been a founder of the Hewlett-Packard company and had served as the Deputy Secretary of Defense in the Nixon administration under Secretary of Defense Mel Laird, had come to the White House to discuss with the President a challenging but important issue. Given the unique circumstances resulting from the resignation of both a Vice President and a President in recent years, the issue he wanted to discuss was what would take place in the event President Ford did not survive his presidency. This was a critically important and a historically unique question. In our lifetimes, President John F. Kennedy had been assassinated, and there had been concerns about President Nixon’s health during the long Watergate crisis. David Packard and I agreed it was important to raise these issues with the President: questions of command and control of America’s nuclear arsenal and what actions might have to be taken in the event of still another assassination or the incapacity of the President and the Vice President. Ford asked for a briefing on the matter and I had suggested that the Vice President have a separate briefing as well.

But these thoughts were not at the front of our minds, at least not then. The summer of 1975 had been filled with other issues and concerns. Betty Ford, for example, had appeared on 60 Minutes, talking openly about things most other First Ladies had avoided—such as her outspoken support for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution. She also got quite personal, telling interviewer Morley Safer she would probably try marijuana if she were a teenager, that she’d seen a psychiatrist, and that “I wouldn’t be surprised” if her daughter told her she had had an affair. The unusually forthcoming First Lady sparked a sensation across the country and led a fair number of Ford aides to raise questions about her effect on the Republican Party’s conservative base. I, for one, believed you’d be howling into the wind by trying to tell Betty Ford what she could or could not say. Over time, as it became clear Americans across the spectrum admired Betty’s outspokenness and general zest for life, the worries eased.

The summer of 1975 also featured a continuation of some hardly unprecedented differences between various officials—Bob Hart- mann was suspected of leaking stories to the media against Henry Kissinger, which Kissinger, understandably, was not happy about. He was determined to identify the leaker. “He may have a legitimate gripe,” I advised the President in August, “but you do not want to have your administration get like Nixon’s did about that problem of leaks.”4 Vice President Rockefeller was trying to persuade people into backing various policy proposals he’d developed, which concerned key Presidential aides, including Alan Greenspan. Based on feedback I’d received from a number of quarters, I raised a caution flag to the President. The Vice President is enthusiastic and many key staff members were reluctant to disagree with the positions he takes, I said. “That is not a criticism of the Vice President, it is a criticism of the circumstance that you deal with as President because those people are afraid to deal with him—they are afraid to speak up when he is present, they are afraid to speak up even when he is not present and you just ought to be aware of it.”

There were lingering discussions and differing views concerning America’s intelligence-gathering activities, further reports of Governor Reagan’s political activities, and the advent of new crises. Added to those immediate tasks were: a looming financial crisis in New York City and a search for a new Supreme Court Justice to replace the retiring William O. Douglas. The President outlined his criteria for the post: quality, confirmability, age—so that the nominee could be there for a while—breadth on the Court so the Court did not have eight people of any one category, some diversity, and finally that the individual should be moderate to moderate conservative. (Ultimately, he nominated John Paul Stevens.)

These controversies and issues—important, to be sure—were promptly put on pause when we were quite suddenly faced with a considerably more pressing concern: President Ford’s mortality.

On Friday, September 5, 1975, President Ford was in the historic Senator Hotel in Sacramento, across from the California State Capitol building where he was scheduled to meet with the state’s new Governor, Jerry Brown. At approximately 10:00 a.m., he left the hotel with his Secret Service detail. He moved toward a sizable gathering of people, several rows deep, who had come out to greet the President. They were lined along the side of a path through the large park in front of the state Capitol. As Ford crossed L Street onto the Capitol grounds, he deviated from the plan—but in a way that hardly surprised anyone who worked with him. He moved immediately to- ward the many well-wishers who had gathered to see him and started shaking hands left and right.

The President was pulling—as he had on his trip to Japan—what is often called an unscheduled “grip and grin” session. This understandably raised the pulse of the Secret Service agents—as well as the concern of those whose task it was to keep the President on schedule—but it was certainly not a surprise. Gerald Ford was a man of the people. He had concluded it was worth the risks given the challenges the country and he had faced together—and overcome—to meet and engage personally with his fellow Americans. Further, very simply, he liked people and, given his midwestern friendliness, he truly appreciated their coming out to meet him.

As the President approached a stand of trees on the left, a woman in the second row of the crowd caught his eye. She was wearing, Ford later recalled, “an unusual red or orange dress.” The woman, he re- counted, “had gray-brown hair and a weathered complexion.” Ford assumed she was going to shake his hand, but he hesitated to greet her. His sensitivity and awareness was understandable. As a member of the Warren Commission, which had been assigned the responsibility to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Ford was fully aware of the dangers that lurked for prominent public figures surrounded by crowds. While he felt it was important to greet as many people as he could, he was still sensitive to the reality of the potential threats a President faces. Apparently something about this woman—perhaps her “unusual” brightly colored dress—stood out for him. Suddenly, when he was just a few feet away from her, he noticed she was gripping an object. It was a .45 caliber pistol, which she began to raise in the direction of the President.

The threat that September morning in California was thwarted quickly. An alert Secret Service agent beside the President had also seen the pistol. True to his training, he did not hesitate before pouncing on the would-be assassin. The quick-thinking team of agents then grabbed the President by his shoulders and moved him down and out of the possible line of fire. As he was being rapidly moved away toward the state Capitol building to safety, Ford turned and looked back just long enough to see a flash of red as several officers wrestled to the ground the armed woman who had set out that morning to assassinate the President of the United States.

From WHEN THE CENTER HELD: Gerald Ford and the Rescue of the American Presidency by Donald Rumsfeld. Copyright © 2018 by Donald Rumsfeld. Reprinted by permission of Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.


Betty Ford

A groundbreaking First Lady, Betty Ford is often remembered for her candor in addressing the controversial issues of her time.

Elizabeth Anne “Betty” Bloomer was born in Chicago and raised in Grand Rapids, Michigan. After graduating from Central High School, she went on to study modern dance at Bennington School of the Dance. While a student at Bennington, she met renowned choreographer Martha Graham and became a member of her Auxiliary Performance Troupe in New York City.

Bloomer returned to Michigan in 1941 and became a fashion coordinator for a department store. During this time, she continued to pursue her love of dance by starting her own performance group and teaching dance to handicapped children.

Shortly after her marriage to Gerald Ford, the Fords moved to Washington, DC, where Mr. Ford served as a member of the House of Representatives and Mrs. Ford assumed the duties of a congressional spouse.

In 1973, Mr. Ford was appointed Vice President of the United States. One year later, in a dramatic turn of political events, upon the resignation of President Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38 th President of the United States and Mrs. Ford became the First Lady. A few months later, Mrs. Ford was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a radical mastectomy. Rather than suppressing the diagnosis, she courageously shared her story and inspired countless women across the nation to get breast examinations. During her tenure as First Lady, Mrs. Ford continued to be an outspoken advocate of women’s rights, addressing public issues like the Equal Rights Amendment and increasing the number of women appointed to senior government posts.

The Fords left politics in 1976 and moved to Rancho Mirage, California. In 1978, following a family intervention, Mrs. Ford underwent successful treatment for addiction to alcohol and prescription drugs. She again used her personal story to raise public awareness of addiction, and in 1982, she co-founded the Betty Ford Center to treat victims of alcohol and chemical dependency.

Mrs. Ford was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991 and the Congressional Gold Medal, with President Gerald R. Ford, in 1999.

Year Honored: 2013

Birth: 1918 - 2011

Born In: Illinois

Achievements: Geesteswetenskappe

Educated In: Michigan, Vermont

Schools Attended: Central High School, Bennington School of the Dance


Betty Ford dies at 93 former first lady

Former First Lady Betty Ford, who captivated the nation with her unabashed candor and forthright discussion of her personal battles with breast cancer, prescription drug addiction and alcoholism, has died. She was 93.

Ford died Friday at the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, according to Barbara Lewandrowski, a family representative. The cause was not given.

As wife of Gerald R. Ford, the 38th president of the United States and the only person to hold that office without first being elected vice president or president, she spent a brief, yet remarkable time as the nation’s first lady. But after he left office and even after his death in 2006 at 93, she had considerable influence as founder of the widely emulated Betty Ford Center in Rancho Mirage for the treatment of chemical dependencies.

“Throughout her long and active life, Elizabeth Anne Ford distinguished herself through her courage and compassion,” President Obama said Friday in a statement. “As our nation’s First Lady, she was a powerful advocate for women’s health and women’s rights. After leaving the White House, Mrs. Ford helped reduce the social stigma surrounding addiction and inspired thousands to seek much-needed treatment. While her death is a cause for sadness, we know that organizations such as the Betty Ford Center will honor her legacy by giving countless Americans a new lease on life.”

Former First Lady Nancy Reagan also offered a tribute in her statement: “She has been an inspiration to so many through her efforts to educate women about breast cancer and her wonderful work at the Betty Ford Center. She was Jerry Ford’s strength through some very difficult days in our country’s history, and I admired her courage in facing and sharing her personal struggles with all of us.”

Former President George H.W. Bush added, “No one confronted life’s struggles with more fortitude or honesty, and as a result, we all learned from the challenges she faced.”

Ford was an accidental first lady who had looked forward to her husband’s retirement from political life until Richard Nixon chose him to replace Vice President Spiro Agnew, who had resigned amid allegations of corruption. When turmoil engulfed Nixon during the Watergate scandal, she told anyone who asked that she did not want to be first lady, but the job became hers when the president resigned on Aug. 9, 1974.

The groundbreaking role she would play as first lady may have been foreshadowed in President Ford’s inaugural address.

“I am indebted to no man and only to one woman — my dear wife, Betty,” he told the nation. Over the next 800 days of his tenure, she would outshine him in the polls, and when he ran for election in 1976, one of the most popular campaign buttons read “Betty’s Husband for President.”

Her taboo-busting honesty — about abortion, sex, gay rights, marijuana and the Equal Rights Amendment — was a bracing antidote to the secrecy and deceptions of the Watergate era. Although her opinions may have cost him some votes, historians and other observers would argue later that Gerald Ford could not have ended “our long national nightmare” without Betty leading the way.

“I was terrified at first,” she once said about her sudden elevation to first lady. “I had worked before. I had raised a family — and I was ready to get back to work again. Then, just at that time, this thing happened. And I didn’t have the vaguest idea what being a first lady was and what was demanded of me.”

Die oplossing? “I just decided to be myself,” she said.

Ford caught the attention of a scandal-weary America with her opinions on her children’s dating habits and their possible marijuana use, and on her and her husband’s decision not to follow the White House tradition of separate bedrooms.

She enthusiastically campaigned for feminist causes that she believed in — the Equal Rights Amendment, for example, and the nomination of a woman to the Supreme Court. Her vigorous support of the women’s movement inspired leading feminist Gloria Steinem to remark that she “felt better knowing that Betty Ford was sleeping with the president.”

Two months after Ford moved into the White House, a malignancy was discovered in her right breast. She underwent a radical mastectomy, followed by chemotherapy.

At that time, breast cancer was a taboo subject, so it was remarkable news that she not only disclosed the illness but openly talked about it and her treatment. “It’s hard for anyone born perhaps after 1980 or even in 1970 to understand that these things were not talked about,” Dr. Patricia Ganz, director of cancer prevention and control research at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, told The Times in 2006.

“They were very stigmatizing. A woman didn’t dare mention to her friends, employer, extended family that she had breast cancer,” Ganz said. Ford’s belief that if it could happen to her, “it could happen to anyone,” heightened public awareness of the disease. The American Cancer Society reported a 400% increase in requests about breast cancer screenings, and tens of thousands of women sought mammograms. Among those helped by her frank attitude was Happy Rockefeller, the wife of Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, who discovered she had breast cancer and subsequently underwent a mastectomy.

The public outpouring led Ford to realize that when she spoke, people listened. For the rest of her White House days, she would use her position as a bully pulpit to advance the causes and issues she believed in.

She “made the personal political, creating new options for women and for political wives,” historian Mary Linehan wrote in an essay for the book “The Presidential Companion: Readings on the First Ladies.” In so doing, Ford redefined the role of the first lady for herself and those who followed.

During the ratification process for the Equal Rights Amendment, which ultimately failed to win approval, she wrote letters and telephoned state lawmakers in an attempt to enlist their support. Her outspoken advocacy alienated ERA foes, who at one point organized an angry picket line in front of the White House.

She startled a nationwide television audience one Sunday evening shortly after becoming first lady, telling CBS “60 Minutes” interviewer Morley Safer that she wouldn’t be surprised if her daughter Susan, then 18, decided to have an affair. Ford said that she would “certainly counsel her and advise her on the subject, and I’d want to know pretty much about the young man that she was planning to have the affair with.”

She went on to say that she assumed her children had tried marijuana and called the Supreme Court decision supporting a woman’s right to have an abortion “the best thing in the world … a great, great decision.”

The interview unleashed a torrent of negative mail to the White House. Some constituents said her comments reflected a breakdown of American morality and that they would not vote for her husband when he ran for election.

In 1976, President Ford lost to Jimmy Carter by fewer than 2 million votes but not because of his wife’s outspokenness analysts attributed his loss largely to his pardon of Nixon. National pre-election polls showed that almost three-quarters of Americans thought Betty Ford was an excellent first lady, and solid majorities agreed with her stands on controversial subjects, including whether she was right to talk about what she would do if Susan Ford was having an affair.

Although she was often counseled to temper her public remarks, Ford remained true to herself and held little back. The world found out that Gerald Ford was her second husband she divorced the first, a furniture company representative named William Warren, on grounds of incompatibility after five years of marriage.

She offered information, even when she wasn’t asked. Reporters “asked me everything but how often I sleep with my husband,” she once said. “If they’d asked me that I would have told them: ‘As often as possible.’ ”

Her husband had been minority leader of the House when he was selected by Nixon in 1973 to replace Agnew, who had resigned after pleading no contest to federal charges of income tax evasion. Ford served as vice president for only eight months, before Nixon himself resigned in the face of impeachment and certain conviction in the Senate for his role in the Watergate scandal.

At the start of her husband’s abbreviated White House term, Ford indicated that she would prefer that her husband not run for the presidency in 1976. She later changed her mind, and campaigned for him enthusiastically. When it was all over, because Ford’s voice had been reduced to a whisper by campaign speeches, he had his wife read to the press the telegram he had written conceding to Carter.

She was born Elizabeth Ann Bloomer in Chicago on April 8, 1918, and moved with her family to Grand Rapids, Mich., when she was 3. She was a vivacious child — her mother liked to say that Betty “popped out of a bottle of champagne.” Although her father, a traveling salesman, was often away from home, she had a sunny childhood with few clouds until she was 16, when her father died of carbon monoxide poisoning while working on the family car.

At the age of 8, she began studying dance, which developed into a lifelong interest. After graduating from Grand Rapids’ Central High School in 1936, she attended two summer sessions of the Bennington School of Dance in Vermont, where she met Martha Graham. She continued her dance career, studying with Graham for two years in New York, eventually as a member of the Martha Graham Concert Group. She also modeled part-time with the John Powers Agency.

She returned to Grand Rapids in 1941 and became a fashion coordinator for a department store. She also formed her own dance group and taught dance to disabled children. She decided to remain in Michigan. She continued to dance until she pinched a nerve in 1964 while trying to raise a window. The injury led her to begin taking prescription painkillers.

Not long after she divorced her first husband, she met Gerald Ford, who had recently returned to Grand Rapids after serving in the Navy in World War II. Their marriage was delayed for several months because Ford, a lawyer, was running for U.S. representative from Michigan’s 5th Congressional District.

Ford was immediately caught up in his new work, and Betty Ford was determined to keep up with him. But soon she had other things to do: the Fords had four children within seven years.

“That was perhaps more than I expected,” Mrs. Ford told Steinem in 1984.

In her 1973 interview with The Times, shortly after Ford was appointed vice president, she described the tensions and loneliness she suffered as a congressman’s wife, problems that she said were compounded by the constant discomfort of the pinched nerve. In 1972, she began to see a psychiatrist, who also asked to see her husband.

“He saw him a couple of times,” she said. “But it had nothing to do with Jerry. It was just his dumb wife.”

She added: “It was helpful talking over the problems of being here alone quite a bit of the time and having to make decisions about the children at a crucial stage in their growing up. I had been assuming the role of both mother and father.”

The pressures escalated in the White House, however, and Ford began to rely on tranquilizers and alcohol to cope. She later told Barbara Walters that she was taking 20 to 30 pills a day.

Her addictions, she said some years after leaving Washington, was “an escapism from all that living in a fishbowl to a certain extent and the pressure of always having to be ‘on’ when perhaps you feel very ‘un-on’ or very down inside.”

A year after her husband’s loss to Carter, Ford’s problems worsened. She was dependent on “sleeping pills, pain pills, relaxer pills and the pills to counteract the side effects of other pills,” she wrote in her 1987 book “Betty: A Glad Awakening.” She had a glass of vodka or bourbon before dinner and another after dinner. She canceled or missed dates, shuffled around the house in her bathrobe, forgot important conversations with her children and spoke in a slur she was groggy most of the time, walked unsteadily and cracked a rib in a fall. “I was dying,” she said, “and everybody knew it but me.”

Their daughter Susan was so alarmed by her mother’s condition that, one week before her mother’s 60th birthday — on April Fool’s Day, 1978 — she arranged an intervention. Family members, accompanied by a medical team, gathered unannounced at the house in California and one by one told her how her addictions were hurting them and destroying her.

Their remarks cut her to the core she was angry and resentful. “You hit the wall,” she told Life magazine years later, recalling that day. “When you hit the wall, you better find a way to either go around it or over it. The disease (of addiction) is the wall.”

When the emotionally grueling session was over, she decided to scale the wall. She publicly announced that she had an addiction problem and checked into the Long Beach Naval Hospital for a month of detox and therapy.

When she was well on the road to recovery, she had a facelift “to go with my beautiful new life.” Of course, she told everyone about that too.

Ford figured if addiction could happen to her, it could happen to anyone, and she turned her energies toward helping others. With her neighbor, tire magnate Leonard Firestone, she raised $5 million to build an 80-bed facility in Rancho Mirage. Since its opening in October 1982, it has treated more than 75,000 people, including such well-known personalities as Peter Lawford, Liza Minnelli, Johnny Cash and Mary Tyler Moore, and it remains the most prestigious name in the drug and alcohol rehabilitation field.

“Rarely does anyone’s name become a noun. Everyone knows what you’re talking about if you say, ‘I’m going to Betty Ford,’ ” John Robert Greene, a historian and Ford biographer, told the Baltimore Sun in 2006.

In her 80s, Betty Ford remained actively involved as chairwoman of the board and regularly welcomed new residents. Once a month, she started a meeting with patients by saying: “Hello, I’m Betty Ford, I’m an alcoholic and an addict.”

“She speaks as one recovering alcoholic to another,” the late actress Elizabeth Taylor, one of the facility’s most celebrated residents, told People magazine of Ford. “There are no airs about her being first lady.”

Ford, who lived in Rancho Mirage, is survived by her sons Michael Ford, John “Jack” Ford and Steven Ford daughter Susan Ford Bales grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

A service is planned in the Coachella Valley. The former first lady will be buried next to her husband at the presidential library in Grand Rapids.

Cimons is a former Los Angeles Times staff writer.

Los Angeles Times staff writer Elaine Woo and former staff writer Claudia Luther contributed to this report.