Geskiedenis Podcasts

Albert David - Geskiedenis

Albert David - Geskiedenis

Albert David

(DE-1050: dp. 3.426 (v.); 1. 414'6 "; b. 44'1"; dr. 24'6 "; art. 27+ k.
kpl. Z20; a. 2 5 ", ASROC, 6 15,5" tt .; kl. Garcia)

Albert David (DE-1050) is neergelê op 2X Apri1 1964 in Seattle, Washington, deur die Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Co. van stapel gestuur op 19 Desember 1964 geborg deur mev Lvnda Mae David, en in opdrag by die Puget Sound Naval Shipyard op 19 Oktober 1968, het Comdr. Roy S. Reynolds in bevel.

Vir die res van 1968 het Albert David die uitrusting in Bremerton, Washington, voltooi en proewe en toetse na die ingebruikneming uitgevoer. Hierdie ondersoeke het tot in 1969 voortgesit. 'N Reis na Hawaii het in Maart gevolg. Vroeg in April het die seebegeleier begin met vyf weke se opknappingsopleiding uit San Diego. Op 1 Mei 1969 is sy in Long Beach, Kalifornië, as haar tuiste aangewys. Sy het agt dae later heropleiding voltooi en op die 10de in Long Beach aangekom. Op die 12de het Albert David egter teruggekeer na Bremerton vir 'n tydperk van agt weke na die afskud by die Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Die oorlogskip het op 7 Julie teruggekeer na die see, op pad na die kus van Suid -Kalifornië en 'n paar dae se operasies uit San Diego. Sy het op die 18de na Long Beach teruggekeer.

Albert David het normale bedrywighede vanaf die basis op Long Beach tot die begin van die tweede week in Oktober uitgevoer. Op 8 Oktober staan ​​sy uit Long Beach op haar eerste uitstappie na die westelike Stille Oseaan. Nadat dit oor Pearl Harbor en Midway Island gestoom het, het die oorlogskip op 31 Oktober in Yokosuka, Japan, aangekom. Albert David dien daarna twee weke op die patrollie van die Straat van Taiwan en besoek Subicbaai in die Filippyne voordat hy op 24 November by Danang, Suid -Viëtnam, aanmeld om 'n skutondersteuningsdiens te begin. Die opdrag het tot 10 Desember geduur toe die see -begeleier na 'n kort stop by Danang na die Golf van Tonkin gegaan het. Van die 11de tot die 18de het sy op die suidelike SAR (seelugreddings) stasie in die golf geopereer. Op 16 Desember sluit Albert David saam met Hancock (CVA-19) twee dae diens aan by die vliegtuigwag. Die oorlogskip het op 18 Desember die stasie in die Golf van Tonkin verlaat en na Bangkok, Thailand, gegaan waar haar bemanning 'n vyf dae lange hawe-besoek geniet het. Op 30 Desember,

sy het 'n afspraak gemaak met Coral Sea (CVA - 3) en begin met vyf weke vliegtuigwag by die draers van Task Force (TF) 77.

Vroeg in Februarie 1970 verlaat sy die Golf van Tonkin om hawe by Subicbaai en Hong Kong te besoek. Op pad terug na die Viëtnamese waters het Albert David Okinawa besoek en tydens die besoek die see gaan ondersoek om 'n Sowjet -treiler wat in die gebied ronddwaal, te ondersoek. Sy keer op 27 Februarie terug na Viëtnam in Danang om die missies te ondersteun vir die troepe wat aan wal kom. Aan die begin van die tweede week in Maart het die seebegeleier die vuurwapen verlaat om weer by die draers van TF 77 in die Golf van Tonkin aan te sluit. Agt dae later trek sy Subicbaai in om voorbereidings te tref vir die reis terug na die Verenigde State. Op 21 Maart staan ​​Albert David uit Subicbaai op pad huis toe.

Die oorlogskip het by Guam, Midway en Pearl Harbor stilgehou voordat hy op 9 April in Long Beach, Kalifornië, aangekom het. Na die staking na die ontplooiing, het Albert David vasgestel in die normale skedule van opleidingsoperasies wat oorlogskepe tussen oorsese ontplooiings uitgevoer het. Daardie evolusies het haar tyd in beslag geneem tot begin November toe sy die Long Beach Naval Shipyard binnegegaan het. Albert David se eerste gereelde opknapping het meer as agt maande geduur. Op 1 Julie 1971 het sy na die opknapping van proewe en oefeninge gegaan, en sy was die res van die maand so besig. August het opknappingsopleiding uit San Diego gebring, en in September het sy weer begin met die normale eerste vlootbedrywighede uit Long Beach.

Op 12 November 1971 vertrek Albert David uit Long Beach op haar tweede uitstappie na die Verre Ooste. Onderweg het sy meer as 'n week op die Hawaiiaanse eilande deurgebring voordat sy na die Filippyne gegaan het. Die seebegeleier het op 9 Desember in Subicbaai aangekom en daar amper 'n week gebly. Op die 15de keer het sy na die Golf van Tonkin gegaan, en twee dae later op die stasie aangekom. Albert David het die daaropvolgende ses weke op 'n vuurwapensteunstasie voor die kus van Viëtnam deurgebring. Einde Januarie 1972 het sy teruggegaan na Subicbaai om te rus, op te rus en te herbesorg. Die oorlogskip het op 6 Februarie teruggekeer na die gevegsgebied - hierdie keer in die Golf van Siam, aan die oewer van die Suid -Viëtnamese Militêre Regie IV - en hervat sy diens as 'n swaar artilleriebattery wat grondmagte aan land ondersteun.

Albert David verlaat die Golf van Siam op 24 Februarie na die Golf van Tonkin. Sy ontmoet op 29 Februarie met Constellatior (CVA-64) en dien as begeleier van die vervoerder vir twee dae se operasies in die Golf van Tonkin sowel as tydens die reis na Subic Bay. Na tien dae se instandhouding en herstelwerk by Subiebaai, het die seebegeleier op 14 Maart uit die Filippyne vertrek na Hong Kong. Die hawe -besoek in Hong Kong duur van 16 tot 22 Maart. Op die laaste dag het die oorlogskip 'n koers gelê wat haar via Okinawa na die see van Japan geneem het. Sy het tussen 26 en 29 Maart antisubmarine warfare (ASW) -oefeninge uitgevoer en van 30 Maart tot 5 April 'n hawe -oproep gemaak by Yokosuka, Japan.

Na 'n vals begin huis toe op die 5de en 'n terugkeer na Japan om die nodige toerusting te herlaai, het Albert David dieselfde dag teruggekeer na die Viëtnamese waters. Sy het op 10 April aangemeld vir skutondersteuning by die DMZ tussen Noord -Viëtnam en Suid -Viëtnam, en het ook 'n verskeidenheid ander take verrig. Na vier dae se skietondersteuningsopdragte het die oorlogskip by Long Beach (CGN-9) aangesluit vir 10 dae begeleiding op die stasie. Van 28 April tot 12 Mei het sy weer geweerskote ondersteun. Albert David het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die diensplig in die gevegsgebied met vier dae diens by Denver (LPD-9) op die kennisgewinglyn gestig is om handelskepe te waarsku oor myne in Noord-Viëtnamese hawens.

Op 17 Mei het die see -begeleier saam met Constellation na Subic Bay vertrek. Die twee oorlogskepe het Subicbaai van 19 tot 22 Mei besoek en daarna na Singapoer begin. Na 'n vierdaagse hawe -oproep na Singapoer, keer hulle op 30 Mei terug see toe op pad terug na die waters rondom Viëtnam. Albert David het op 2 Junie met Constellation geskei om vuurwapens te ondersteun aan troepe in militêre streke I en II in Suid -Viëtnam. Aan die einde van 10 dae op die geweer het sy op die 12de weer met Constellation saamgespan. Die twee oorlogskepe het op die 15de by Subic Bay gestop en byna onmiddellik na die see teruggekeer. Op 20 Junie arriveer hulle in Yokosuka vir 'n tweedaagse hawe-oproep voordat hulle die reis oor die Stille Oseaan begin. Albert David en Constellation het Yokosuka op 22 Junie op die been gebring na die Verenigde State. Albert David het die vervoerder tot 30 Junie begelei toe sy bevele ontvang het om onafhanklik voort te gaan. Die seebegeleier het die volgende oggend Long Beach binnegekom.

Na 'n maand lange verlof en instandhoudingsperiode na die ontplooiing, het die seebegeleier op 3 Augustus normale operasies met die eerste vloot begin met vliegtuigwagdienste vir Ranger (CVA41) in die operasionele gebied in die suide van Kalifornië. Op 26 Augustus het sy van Long Beach af op see gegaan om deel te neem aan Operasie "RimPac-72", uitgevoer op die Hawaise Eilande met eenhede van die vloot van Australië, Kanada en Nieu-Seeland. Albert David het op 19 September van die oefening na Long Beach teruggekeer en drie weke in die hawe gebly. Op daardie stadium hervat sy die normale bedrywighede langs die kus van Kalifornië.

Die oorlogskip het opleiding verrig vanaf Long Beach tot teen die einde van die eerste week in Januarie 1973. Op die 5de keer staan ​​sy uit die see op pad terug na die teer -ooste. Stom saam met Constellation Albert David het die transito van die Stille Oseaan by Subic Bay op 22 Januarie voltooi. 'n paar dae later het sy die reis na die Golf van Tonkin aangepak en weer die konstellasie begelei. Vir die volgende drie weke het sy vliegtuigwagdienste en antisubmarine -beskerming vir die draers van TF 77 gelewer tydens wat haar laaste diensplig in die tydperk was, voordat die IJnited States uit die konflik in Viëtnam getrek het. Albert David keer op 14 Februarie terug na Subic Bay en bestee die volgende drie weke aan geringe herstelwerk en opleiding in die Filippyne.

Op 6 Maart vertrek Albert David uit Iloilo op die eiland Panay om terug te keer na die Viëtnamese waters. Hierdie keer was haar missie egter vreedsaam. Sy was deel van Operasie "Endsweep", die verwydering van mynvelde uit die waters langs Noord -Viëtnam. Haar deelname aan hierdie poging - onder meer deur hawe -besoeke aan Sasebo in Japan, Subic Bay in die Filippyne en Hvng Kong - duur tot die tweede week in Junie. Die oorlogskip het op 9 Junie Viëtnamese waters skoongemaak, Keelung op Taiwan besoek op die 12de en 13de en het op die 17de in Yokosuka aangekom. Twee dae later keer die see -begeleier terug see toe vir die reis terug na die Verenigde State. Sy stop kortliks vir brandstof op Midway Island en Pearl Harbor voordat sy op 3 Julie by Long Beach kom.

Stand-by na ontplooiing gevolg deur 'n lang beperkte beskikbaarheid by die Todd Shipyard in San Pedro het haar tyd tot einde November beset. Sy het op 21 November na Long Beach teruggekeer, maar daar net lank genoeg gebly om voorbereidings te tref om na San Diego, die nuwe tuiste waarna sy op 20 Augustus aangewys is, te verhuis. Albert David het op 1 Desember die tuishawe -skuif gemaak en ses dae later met die plaaslike bedrywighede uit San Diego begin. Die oorlogskip het die diens voortgesit

einde 1973 en gedurende die eerste vier maande van 1974. Op 23 April 1974 verlaat sy San Diego in geselskap met Leonard F. Mason (DD-852) en Waddell (DDG-24) na die westelike Stille Oseaan. Albert David en haar reisgenote het brandstof by Pearl Harbor en Midway Island gestop voordat hulle op 14 Mei in Yokosuka aangekom het. Op 25 Mei het die seebegeleier die see in 'n taakgroep opgebou wat rondom Midway (CVA - 1) gebou is om operasies op die eiland Honshu uit te voer. So het sy haar eerste diensperiode begin met die 7de Vloot waarin gevegspligte aan die Viëtnamese kus geen rol gespeel het nie. Die oorlogskip het afgewissel tussen periodes van opleiding op see en hawe -oproepe op plekke soos Yokosuka Hong Kong, Guam en Subic Bay.

Toe sy op 22 Oktober 1974 na San Diego terugkeer, het Albert David 'n tydperk van byna 42 maande begin sonder om na die Verre Ooste te gaan. Sy het die grootste deel van die res van 1974 in die hawe deurgebring, aanvanklik besig met 'n afwyking na die ontplooiing en later in die vakansie. Die seebegeleier het 'n aantal oefeninge in 1975 uitgevoer. Laat Maart en begin April het 'n reis na Hawaii gebring vir operasie "RIMPAC" 1-75, 'n multinasionale oefening wat in samewerking met die vloot van Australië, Nieu-Seeland en Kanada uitgevoer is. In die middel van April keer sy terug na die weskus en hervat die plaaslike bedrywighede. Op 30 Junie 1975 is Albert David herklassifiseer as 'n fregat en herontwerp FF-; 050. In September het sy nog 'n vaart na die Hawaiiaanse eilande gemaak, waar sy vier weke lank aan oefeninge deurgebring het voordat sy vroeg in November na San F [) iego teruggekeer het. Plaaslike bedrywighede het haar tyd weer in beslag geneem tot die lente van 1976. Laat in April 1976 vaar die fregat na Long Beach, waar sy op die 22d 'n gereelde opknapping van 11 maande begin. Albert David het haar herstelwerk by die Long Beach Naval Shipyard op St Patrick's Day 1977 voltooi en nege dae later na San Diego teruggekeer. Sy het 'n normale oefenskedule uit haar tuishawe uitgevoer tot begin Augustus toe sy weer na Hawaii reis vir opleidingsdoeleindes. By die terugkeer na San Diego op 29 Augustus het die fregat weer 'n normale roeteskedule vir die weskus gevestig.

Die onderbreking van ontplooiings in die Verre Ooste het in die lente van 1978 tot 'n einde gekom. Albert David het op 4 April uit San Diego gestaan ​​en 'n koers na Hawaii gesit. Onderweg daarheen het sy deelgeneem aan "RIMPAC" 1-78. Na 'n stop by Pearl Harbor op die 23d en 24th, het die fregat haar reis na die weste op die 25ste voortgesit. Sy het op 16 Mei in Subicbaai aangekom. Gedurende die daaropvolgende vyf maande het Albert David oefeninge gedoen met eenhede van die 7de vloot en het hy deelgeneem aan die binasionale oefening "Sharkhunt XXVII" met elemente van die Taiwanese vloot. Sy het ook hawens in Japan, Korea en Taiwan besoek. Die fregat het die diensplig in die Verre Ooste afgesluit met 'n gereedheidsoefening en 'n reeks spesiale operasies. Na 'n besoek aan Guam tussen 11 en 14 Oktober begin Albert David die reis terug na die Verenigde State. Sy het San Diego op 29 Oktober weer binnegekom en, behalwe vir 'n tydperk van twee dae wat plaaslik aan die gang was, het sy die res van 1978 in die hawe deurgebring.

Twaalf dae in 1979 begin die oorlogskip met die gewone skedule van opleiding, proewe en inspeksies. Die diens het haar tyd in beslag geneem gedurende die eerste 10 maande van die vear. Op 13 November 1979 verlaat sy San Diego om terug te keer na die westelike Stille Oseaan. Albert David stop op 21 November 'n baie kort rukkie by Pearl Harbor en hervat op dieselfde dag haar reis na die weste. Sy het op 9 Desember by Subicbaai aangekom en die res van die jaar in die hawe deurgebring. Die fregat werk plaaslik uit die Luzon-hawens tot die tweede week in Februarie 1980, toe sy 'n reis na Singapoer onderneem het saam met Long Beach (CGN-9) Worden (CG-18) en Bromstein (FF-1037). 'N Ongeval het egter gedwing om terug te keer na Subicbaai onder sleeptou van Long Beach en later van USNS Ute (T-ATF-76). Sy het van 12 Februarie tot einde van die maand in Subicbaai gebly. Die oorlogskip het op 1 Maart teruggekeer vir twee weke se oefeninge, gevolg deur 'n hawe -besoek aan Bucknerbaai, Okinawa.

Na 'n antisubmarine -oorlogvoering en nog 'n stop by Bucknerbaai, het Albert David op 23 Maart 'n koers vir Pusan, Korea, ingestel. Die oorlogskip het die laaste week van die maand toegegee aan vryheid in Pusan. Van daar af verhuis sy na Sasebo, Japan, vir 'n herstel- en instandhoudingsperiode voor haar terugkeer na die Verenigde State. Op 9 April 1980 vertrek die fregat uit Sasebo en begin die reis huis toe deur Guam, Kwajalein en Pearl Harbor. Sy het op 2 Mei weer na San Diego gekom. Die stilstand na die ontplooiing het die res van Mei beset, terwyl Junie en Julie 'n hervatting van die plaaslike bedrywighede meebring. Vroeg in Augustus besoek sy die waters van Alaskan voordat sy half maand met gereelde opknapping by die Puget Sound Naval Shipyard begin het.

Hierdie herstelwerk het die fregat vir die res van 1980 en die eerste nege maande van 1981 beset. Vroeg in Oktober 1981 hervat Albert David die plaaslike bedrywighede uit San Diego. Die plig het haar tot einde Mei 1982 besig gehou. Op die 29ste het sy via Pearl Harbor na die westelike Stille Oseaan begin. Die fregat het op 2 Julie in Subicbaai aangekom. Na byna drie weke by die basis in die Filippyne, verhuis Albert David noordwaarts na Sasebo, Japan, waar sy van 26 Julie tot 12 Augustus gebly het. Die oorlogskip het op 17 Augustus teruggekeer in Subiebaai, maar het vier dae later weer op die 21ste vertrek in geselskap met John Young (DD-973) en San Jose (AFS-7) op pad na die Arabiese See en 'n diensplig saam met die Midde -Ooste mag. Sy het van 7 September tot 18 Oktober toesighoudende take in die Arabiese See uitgevoer. Op 19 Oktober begin Albert David met die lang reis na die Verenigde State. Sy het San Diego op 30 November binnegekom en die res van 1982 besig met verlof na onderhoud en onderhoud.

Standdown het tot in die derde week van 1983 oorgedra. Op 20 Januarie het Albert David plaaslike bedrywighede uit San Diego begin met 'n gereedheidsoefening van drie dae. 'N Verskeidenheid opleidingsontwikkelinge wat in die waters aan die kus van Suid -Kalifornië gedoen is, het haar tyd in beslag geneem gedurende die nege maande tussen Januarie en Oktober 1983. Op 4 Oktober het die fregat egter op pad na die Verre Ooste gestaan. Sy het 'n stop van vyf dae by Pearl Harbor gemaak en 'n gevegsprobleem op die Mariana-eilande ontduik voordat sy aan die begin van die tweede week in November in Subiebaai gestroom het. Teen die middel van die maand het Albert David weer die see in gegaan om deel te neem aan 'n reeks bilaterale oefeninge met eenhede van die Royal Malaysian Navy, die Royal Smgapore Navy en die Navy van die Republiek van Korea. Onder die oefeninge was welwillendheids- en vryheidsoproepe in Lumut in Maleisië, Singapoer, Chinhae in Korea en in Hong Kong. Op 28 Desember keer sy terug na die Filippyne in Manila, waar sy die nuwe jaar ingelui het.

Albert David se ontplooiing in die westelike Stille Oseaan duur voort tot vroeg in April 1984. Januarie het 'n besoek aan Cebu City in die Filippyne gebring, 'n kort terugkeer na Subiebaai en nog 'n bilaterale oefening, hierdie keer saam met die Royal Thai Navy. Oefeninge met ander eenhede van die 7de vloot het gevolg. Einde Januarie vaar die fregat noord na Japan vir onderhoud en herstelwerk by Yokosuka. Aan die begin van die afgelope week m Februarie, het die oorlogskip herstelwerk voltooi en onderneem om eonduet -oorlogsvoering te onderneem met elemente van die Japanse maritieme selfverdedigingsmag. Einde Februarie en begin Maart het besoeke aan Sasebo en Fukuoka in Japan gebring. Gedurende die middel van Maart het sy weer saam met die Suid -Koreaanse vloot -eenhede gewerk en daarna hawe -besoeke in Chinhae en Pusan, Korea, en in Sasebo, Japan, gedoen. Albert David vertrek op 3 April uit Sasebo op pad terug na die Verenigde State. Onderweg vertoef sy in die Marianas om aan 'n ander gevegsprobleem deel te neem en stop op 21 en 22 April by Pearl Harbor. Die oorlogskip het op 30 April na San Diego getrek. Die stilstand ná die ontplooiing het in Mei plaasgevind, en bedrywighede langs die kus van Kalifornië het die somer en vroeë herfs van 1984 beset. Begin November begin Albert David met beperkte beskikbaarheid by die Long Beach Naval Shipyard.

Die herstelperiode het haar in 1985 ingeneem. Teen 5 Januarie in San Diego het sy die plaaslike bedrywighede teen die einde van die maand hervat. Die fregat het vasgestel in 'n skedule van oefenoefeninge langs die weskus, beklemtoon deur hawe -besoeke aan stede in Kanada en die Verenigde State, wat haar gedurende 1985 en byna tot 1986 besig gehou het. Op 29 September 1986 het Albert David die werf van die National Steel & Shipbuilding Co in San Diego begin met gereelde opknapping.

Albert David verdien drie gevegsterre vir diens in die Viëtnam -konflik.


Baumhart is gebore in Vermilion, Ohio. [1] Hy studeer aan die Universiteit van Ohio in Athene, Ohio, en ontvang sy AB en M.A. in 1931. [1]

Hy was 'n uitgewer se verteenwoordiger in Vermilion, Ohio, van 1932 tot 1939. [1] Hy was 'n lid van die Ohio State Senate van 1937 tot 1940. [1]

Baumhart is as Republikein verkies tot die sewe-en-sewentigste kongres. [1] Gedurende die hele 1940 en die grootste deel van 1941 was hy bekend as 'n 'intervensionistiese Republikein' wat gepleit het dat Amerika in Europa oorlog voer teen Nazi -Duitsland om die Verenigde Koninkryk te help. Hy het bedank om 'n kommissie in die Amerikaanse vloot op 2 September 1942 te aanvaar. [1] Hy is as luitenant-bevelvoerder op 17 Januarie 1946 ontslaan. Hy was 'n lid van die skakelbeampte van Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corp., in Toledo, Ohio, van 1946 tot 1953. [1] Hy was in 1953 en 1954 direkteur van die Republikeinse Nasionale Komitee. [1]

Baumhart is weer verkies as 'n Republikein tot die vier-en-tagtig, vyf-en-tagtig en ses-en-tagtigste kongresse. [1] Hy was nie 'n kandidaat vir hernominasie in 1960. Baumhart het ten gunste van die Civil Rights Acts van 1957 en 1960 gestem. [2] [3] Hy was 'n afgevaardigde van die Republikeinse Nasionale Konvensie van 1968. [1]

Hy het later as openbare betrekkinge -konsultant gewerk. [1]

Hy is op 23 Januarie 2001 in Lorain, Ohio, oorlede. [1] Hy word begrawe by die Maple Grove Cemetery in Vermilion, Ohio. [1]

  1. ^ abcdefghekjklm"A. David Baumhart Jr., voormalige kongreslid". Die Morning Journal . Ontvang 2020-06-08.
  2. ^
  3. "HR 6127. WET OP BURGERREGTE VAN 1957". GovTrack.us.
  4. ^
  5. "HR 8601. PASSAGE".

Hierdie artikel oor 'n lid van die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers uit Ohio is 'n stomp. U kan Wikipedia help deur dit uit te brei.


Albert David Bpk.

Albert David is in 1938 gestig. Die onderneming is deel van die Kothari -groep.

Albert David, wat al dekades lank in die gesondheidsorgbedryf voorkom, vervaardig farmaseutiese formulerings en grootmaatmiddels, infusieoplossings en orale vaste stowwe, weggooibare spuite en naalde en kruieformulerings. Die onderneming voer hierdie produkte uit na Viëtnam, Rusland, Wit -Rusland, Egipte, Bangladesj, Kenia, Tanzanië, Uganda, Soedan, Ethiopië, Nigerië, Zaïre, Haïti, Brasilië, Kanada, die VSA, die Verenigde Koninkryk, Nederland en Duitsland, aangesien die onderneming 'n WGO is 8211 goedgekeurde verskaffer.

Dit het ook DMF vir die grootmaatmiddels, Tolbutamide en Chlorpropamide, by die Amerikaanse Food and Drugs Administration (USFDA). Die vervaardigingsfasiliteit vir hierdie produkte is deur die Amerikaanse geneesmiddelreguleerder geïnspekteer en bekragtig.

Die vervaardigingsaanlegte van die onderneming is geleë in Ghaziabad naby New Delhi, Kolkata en Mandideep naby Bhopal.

Die aminosuurreeks van die onderneming onder die handelsnaam Alamin bevat suiwer kristallyne aminosuur van hoë internasionale standaarde wat vervaardig word volgens 'n unieke tegnologie, wat voldoen aan die aanbevelings van die WGO en die FAO. In die kruie -segment verkoop die onderneming sy produkte onder handelsname soos Adliv, 'n hepato -beskermende en Siotone -kapsule, wat die enigste adaptogeen is wat vir stres aangedui word.

ADL het 'n goeie band met Ajinomoto Co en Roussel Morishita Co van Japan vir die vervaardiging en bemarking van 'n wye reeks kristalagtige aminosuur -infusieoplossings, orale vaste stowwe en vloeistowwe in Indië.


Albert David Ltd. Maatskappygeskiedenis en jaarlikse groei -besonderhede

- Albert David Limited het 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan met die Japannese chemikaliemaatskappy Ajinomoto Co Inc. Indië.

- Die maatskappy het 'n dividend aanbeveel teen 'n koers van 20% per gewone aandele van Rs 10/- elk vir die boekjaar wat geëindig het.

- Die maatskappy het 'n dividend aanbeveel teen 'n koers van 25% per gewone aandele van Rs 10/- elk vir die boekjaar wat geëindig het.

- Die maatskappy beveel aan dat dividend van 30% betaal word op aandele van R10 elk.

- Die maatskappy het mnr. Arun Kumar Kohari, voorsitter, as ook besturende direkteur aangestel.

- Die maatskappy het aanbeveel dat 'n dividend van Rs 3,50 per ekwiteitsaandeel van Rs 10/- elk betaal word op 5707162 aandele.

- Die maatskappy het aanbeveel dat 'n dividend van Rs betaal word. 4,50 per ekwiteitsaandeel van Rs. 10/- elk op 5707162 Aandele.

- Die maatskappy het 'n dividend van R aanbeveel. 4,50 per ekwiteitsaandele van Rs. 10/- elk vir die boekjaar geëindig.

- Die maatskappy het 'n dividend van R aanbeveel. 4,50 per ekwiteitsaandele van Rs. 10/- elk vir die boekjaar geëindig.

2013
-Albert David Bpk het aanbeveel dat 'n dividend van Rs. 4,50 per ekwiteitsaandeel van Rs. 10/- elk.


Hoe het Albert Lin sy voet verloor? Lost Cities -aanbieder het 'n waansinnige ongeluk gehad!

'N Nuwe verkenningsreeks het op Sondag 20 Oktober op die National Geographic -kanaal begin.

Lost Cities with Albert Lin neem kykers mee op 'n reis van die Lost Kingdom of the Pacific na die Tempeliers in Israel. Die doel van die reeks is om te sien hoe wetenskaplikes moderne tegnologieë kan gebruik om antieke kulture en geskiedenis te ondersoek.

Die aanbieder op die program is miskien nie bekend vir die meeste kykers nie, maar hy verdien vinnig 'n naam in die wêreld van verkenning - hy is selfs die bioniese Indiana Jones genoem!

Dus, wie is Albert Lin, die aanbieder van die program? En hoe het hy sy voet verloor? Hier is alles wat u moet weet!

Skermkiekie: Antieke stad Nan Madol | Verlore stede met Albert Lin - National Geographic YouTube

Wie is Albert Lin?

Albert Lin is 'n 38-jarige TV-aanbieder, tegnoloog van die Universiteit van Kalifornië in San Diego en National Geographic Explorer.

'N National Geographic Explorer is 'n geleerde wat deur die organisasie befonds word om navorsing of 'n verkenningsprojek te doen. Albert se eerste projek met National Geographic was Valley of the Khans, 'n ondersoek na Mongolië se verlede. U kan hier meer oor hierdie projek lees.

MasterChef 2021 | Sleepwa - BBC Trailers

Albert was 'n student aan UCSD. Hy studeer daar sy baccalaureus- en meestersgrade, en behaal daarna 'n Ph.D. in materiële wetenskap.

Ondanks sy ontluikende loopbaan as TV-ontdekkingsreisiger, het Albert sy liefde vir studie en wetenskap nie heeltemal laat vaar nie, aangesien hy mede-stigter was van 'n onderneming wat videospeletjies gebruik om studente wetenskap te leer.

Meer onlangs het Albert en 'n paar ander dosente aan UCSD die Center for Human Frontiers geloods. Dit is 'n dinkskrum wat fokus op die rol van tegnologie in die vorming van die moderne samelewing en die moderne mens. Nogal indrukwekkende goed!

Hoe het Albert sy voet verloor?

Op 26 September 2016 het Albert Lin 'n groot ongeluk gehad wat beteken het dat hy sy regterbeen moes afneem.

Albert was in 'n veldrenongeluk wat sy beenbene laat spat het. Daarna is sy been - onder die knieskyf - verwyder en 'n prostetiese ledemaat. Dit was na drie weke se beraadslaging oor die vraag of 'bionies' in die hospitaal sou gaan of nie.

Maar hy het nie toelaat dat die ongeluk sy liefde vir verkenning wegneem nie, en jy kan Albert - en sy nuwe voet - gereeld sien branderplankry, skaats en stap!

En Albert was baie openhartig oor sy ongeluk, en 'n groot deel van die verhaal word op sy Instagram oorgedra.

Volg Albert op sosiale media

As u meer wil weet oor Albert Lin, is die beste plek om op hoogte te bly van sy nuutste werke op Instagram en Twitter.

Hy deel foto's van al sy epiese avonture met mense soos Jordanië, Peru, Israel en Death Valley in Kalifornië. Albert sal enige terrein aanneem!

Kyk na Albert op Instagram @exploreralbert of op Twitter onder dieselfde handvatsel.

KYK VERLORE STEDE MET ALBERT LIN SONDAGE OM 20:00 OP DIE NASIONALE AARDRYKSKANAAL

TEKEN IN EN LEES DIE NUWE WERKLIKHEID TITBIT TYDSKRIF HIER


A History of Solitude deur David Vincent 'n Biografie van eensaamheid deur Fay Bound Alberti - Review

Eensaamheid is nie dieselfde as eensaamheid nie. Eensame mense voel die behoefte aan geselskap, terwyl eensame tipes probeer om daaraan te ontsnap. Die mooiste definisie van eensaamheid, skryf David Vincent in sy uitstekende nuwe studie, is 'mislukte eensaamheid'. 'N Ander verskil tussen die twee groepe is dat kluisenaars, hengelaars, trappiste -monnike en romantiese digters kies om alleen te wees, terwyl niemand kies om verlate en beroerd te voel nie. Om jouself 'self-partnering' te noem, wat beteken dat jy in die bioskoop sit (as hulle oop is) met jou eie hand, kan óf 'n ware begeerte na eensaamheid wees óf 'n manier om die stigma van isolasie te rasionaliseer. Die grootste verskil is egter dat alleenheid selde iemand gedood het, terwyl eensaamheid jou na die graf kan dryf. Terwyl die koronavirus toeneem, kan sommige van ons nou 'n keuse vind tussen fisiese infeksie en geestelike ineenstorting.

Vir die 18de-eeuse Verligting was alleenwees 'n afwyking van die ware aard van die mensdom, wat in sy kern gesellig was. Dit het by die Romantici begin verander. Isolasie was nou wat ons gemeen het. Die monster van Frankenstein is een van die eerste groot eensame van die Engelse letterkunde, wat deur die mensdom afgemaak en verneder word. Alhoewel eensaamheid 'n simptoom van die moderne era was, kan alleenheid 'n kritiek daarop wees. Dit was een van die min maniere waarop u met die transendente in aanraking kon kom en sodoende kon onthul wat in 'n toenemend materialistiese samelewing ontbreek. As Wordsworth skryf dat hy as 'n wolk eensaam rondgedwaal het, bedoel hy eenvoudig dat hy alleen was, of dat hy nie geselskap gehad het nie, of dat alleenwees hom ruimte kon gee vir selfkennis en geestelike meditasie.

Dat die self slegs in toevlug tot die wêreld geopenbaar word, is 'n oortuiging wat ten minste teruggaan na die vroeë Christelike woestynvaders, maar hierdie boek toon hoe die behoefte aan selfgemeenskap toeneem namate die moderne samelewings meer druk word. So 'n onttrekking kan 'n prys kos: Virginia Woolf dring aan op die behoefte aan 'n eie kamer, maar slegs die hoër middelklasse kon destyds een gehad het. In die 19de eeu het slegs 1% van die Britse bevolking in 2011 alleen gewoon, dit was 31%, of ongeveer 8 miljoen mense. Terwyl verstedeliking en groot gesinne mense bymekaargemaak het, het die anonieme wêreld van industriële kapitalisme hulle ook uitmekaar geskei. Die plattelandse lewe was dalk rof, maar jy het ten minste geweet wie langsaan woon. Dus, as die verlange om alleen te wees, skerper word, het die gevoel van verlate geword.

A History of Solitude vra vir 'n 'stille geskiedenis van die Britse samelewing', of ''n geskiedenis van niksdoen nie'. Dit is 'n buitengewoon veelsydige studie, wat wissel van die poësie van John Clare tot die 'netwerke -eensaamheid' van die internet en die kultus van mindfulness. Daar is 'n fassinerende gedeelte oor eensaam loop, wat die middelklasse van die 19de eeu toegegee het vir geestelike ontspanning (Wordsworth het na verneem word ongeveer 180 000 myl gedurende sy leeftyd gestap), en die arbeidsklasse het onderneem om werk te vind. Konstante deurdringing het die boer en patrisiër verenig.

U kan natuurlik alleen in geselskap wees. Trouens, die sielkundige Donald Winnicott beweer dat 'n kind slegs in die teenwoordigheid van 'n betroubare volwassene kan leer om alleen te wees. Die tweede helfte van die 19de eeu was 'n uitslag van nuwe kloosters, waar vroue alleen kon wees, terwyl die gevangenisstelsel 'n minder beskeie vorm van eensame opsluiting bied. (Die seiljagvaarder Robin Knox-Johnson het gedink dat die misdaadsyfer kan daal as mense alleen oor die hele wêreld sou vaar in plaas van om te gaan, maar 'n komedie oor rook wys hoe die gewoonte in die naoorlogse era minder beskou word as 'n weg na die kerkhof as 'n weg na innerlike kalmte, selfs as 'n verskeidenheid gebede.

Vincent twyfel oor die sogenaamde epidemie van eensaamheid in die moderne lewe. Hy wys daarop dat meer en meer mans en vroue na die tweede wêreldoorlog besluit het om alleen te woon omdat dit moontlik was. Wydverspreide eensaamheid is in elk geval nie nuut nie, en sommige sosioloë sien min bewyse dat dit toeneem. Daarteenoor benader Fay Bound Alberti se A Biography of Loneliness die kwessie met 'n dieper gevoel van dringendheid. As Vincent 'n sosiale historikus is, is sy emosioneel, oortuig daarvan dat menslike gevoelens, ver van tydloos en universeel, net so histories gekondisioneer is as denke en optrede, en net so veranderlik. Die saak kan uitgedaag word: die manier waarop ons emosie uitdruk, word beslis deur ons kultuur gevorm, maar om te treur oor die verlies van 'n geliefde, of om paniekerig te raak wanneer 'n grizzly dit omhels, hang nie af van of u uit Kansas of Kambodja. Dit is net so twyfelagtig dat alle emosionele toestande geslagtelik is, soos hierdie boek beweer. Reageer vroue regtig anders as mans as hulle van 'n berg af val? 'Alle emosies is polities', beweer Alberti, maar 'alles is polities' verklarings kan die term 'politiek' leegmaak van enige nuttige betekenis. Dit verteenwoordig 'n oorreaksie vir diegene wat dink dat die pos van heerskanselier nie polities is nie, maar natuurlik.

There’s a gripping account here of Queen Victoria’s pathological grief over Prince Albert’s death, which compares the stricken monarch with the surreal Miss Havisham of Dickens’s Great Expectations. The book is impressively balanced: it sees that loneliness, in the sense of Vincent’s “solitude”, can be the price one pays for creativity. Loneliness can be restorative as well as destructive, but only when it is a choice. Historically speaking, it springs from the separation of self and society but this long pre-dates 1800, as Hamlet or Othello might testify. Overlooking this fact, the book idealizes the 18th century as a “relatively collective world”, which would have come as something of a surprise to the vagrants and workless who wandered its highways.

All the same, Alberti is right to politicize loneliness, unlike the neuroscientists who are racing to develop a pill to cure it. One can’t dissociate feeling useless and disconnected from the history of possessive individualism, even if that history stretches further back than the author imagines. If, as she points out, “there are very few physical spaces where people can meet in the 21st century without paying for the privilege of being there”, it is largely because the gospel of neoliberalism can see no point in them. There is, then, a villain in this book, as there isn’t in the more cautious reflections of Vincent. But there is also a good deal more: a brief history of old age, speculations on homelessness, refugees, soul mates, hunger artists, and Fomo, the connections between loneliness and obesity, a digression on Wuthering Heights which fails to drive home what an utter bastard Heathcliff is, and an array of other topics.

What distinguishes both these studies is their mixture of empirical research and general commentary. Both recount a grand narrative about solitude or loneliness, unfolding across the centuries, but they do so on the basis of detailed documentation. In their combination of scholarship and sympathy, poetry and clinical psychology, they appeal as much to the common reader as to the expert. One answer to loneliness is solitude. Enjoying being on one’s own, or at least being able to tolerate it, is part of being grown up. But Vincent and Alberti both highlight the privilege this involves – how positive aloneness is possible for the middle-class poet, but not for the impoverished housewife with children to care for, not least in a society which has hacked social provision to the bone.

Even so, this is a compassionate, wide-ranging study, which makes the bold claim that loneliness was invented around 1800. This may help to explain why Robinson Crusoe doesn’t once complain of lacking company. It also chimes with Vincent’s case: in his view, “lonely” becomes a negative emotion only around this time. It is now less a fact (“on one’s own”) than an existential condition, as with Byron’s gloomy heroes. Today, Alberti argues, lonely people are 30% more likely to die early than less lonely ones, the poor are lonelier than the well-off and the young are the loneliest of all. To be lonely is to cease “to exist in a meaningful way with other people”.


Is Albert Bandura a Behaviorist?

While most psychology textbooks place Bandura’s theory with those of the behaviorists, Bandura himself has noted that he ". never really fit the behavioral orthodoxy."

Even in his earliest work, Bandura argued that reducing behavior to a stimulus-response cycle was too simplistic. While his work used behavioral terminology such as 'conditioning' and 'reinforcement,' Bandura explained, ". I conceptualized these phenomena as operating through cognitive processes."

"Authors of psychological texts continue to mischaracterize my approach as rooted in behaviorism," Bandura has explained, describing his own perspective as 'social cognitivism.'


Ongeveer

The mission of the Barnes is to promote the advancement of education and the appreciation of the fine arts and horticulture.

Our founder, Dr. Albert C. Barnes, believed that art had the power to improve minds and transform lives. Our diverse educational programs are based on his teachings and one-of-a-kind collections.

Philadelphia art collector Albert C. Barnes (1872–1951) chartered the Barnes Foundation in 1922 to teach people from all walks of life how to look at art. Over three decades, he collected some of the world’s most important impressionist, post-impressionist, and modern paintings, including works by Renoir, Cézanne, Matisse, and Picasso. He displayed them alongside African masks, native American jewelry, Greek antiquities, and decorative metalwork.

Dr. Barnes was a strong supporter of progressive education and social justice, and he worked closely with black communities in the belief that people—like art—should not be segregated.

The main gallery upon entering the Barnes collection.

Dr. Albert C. Barnes, c. 1946. Photograph by Angelo Pinto. Photograph Collection, Barnes Foundation Archives

Raised in a working-class household, Albert Barnes excelled in school and earned a medical degree by age 20. Instead of practicing medicine, he turned to pharmacology, where he made a fortune by co-inventing an antiseptic. In 1912, at the age of 40, he began purchasing modern paintings with the help of his childhood friend William Glackens. Following the philosophy of John Dewey—who believed that education was fundamental to democracy—Dr. Barnes held art appreciation lessons at his factories. Each day, for two hours, production stopped as his workers discussed painting and philosophy. Many were women or African Americans to whom, in defiance of the era’s prejudices, Dr. Barnes had extended employment.

Galvanized by the success of the factory teachings, and with a rapidly growing art collection at his disposal, Dr. Barnes decided to undertake a full-blown experiment in education. In 1922, he purchased a 12-acre arboretum in Merion, Pennsylvania, and hired architect Paul Phillippe Cret to design a residence and gallery. This would become the first home of the Barnes Foundation, an educational institution that offered free art appreciation classes. The unique approach to teaching—now known as the Barnes Method—emphasized close looking, critical thinking, and prolonged engagement with original works of art. Dr. Barnes worked closely with his colleague Violette de Mazia to shape the program.

To better serve Dr. Barnes’s educational mission, the Foundation moved to Center City Philadelphia in 2012, where its vastly expanded program reaches 12,000 Philadelphia schoolchildren every year. In its award-winning Parkway home, designed by Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects | Partners, Dr. Barnes’s final 1951 arrangement of the collection is still on view, enhanced by a wide variety of special exhibitions, public programs, and classes for adult learners. Community and family programs are offered on-site and in neighborhoods throughout the city, honoring Dr. Barnes’s commitment to diversity and inclusivity.


Richard Albert Turner

Click on one of the headings below to go to a specific part in the article.

Rick Turner was a charismatic political philosopher and theorist who was also an activist and educationist. He was highly influential in the re-emergence of the Black labour movement and one of the first in the White-left to appreciate the significance of the Black Consciousness Movement. He influenced many future activists, historians and theorists before he was killed at the age of 36 by an apartheid assassin.

A biography of Rick Turner

Richard “Rick” Albert Turner was born in Cape Town on 25 September 1941, the only child of Jane and Owen “Paddy” Turner, working class English parents who had settled in South Africa. Paddy had earlier been to South Africa when he fought in the Second Anglo-Boer War.

Rick grew up in Stellenbosch on a fruit farm, Welcarmas. After his father died in 1953, when he was 12, he was raised by his mother Jane, and became a boarder St George’s Grammar School, a private school in Cape Town run by the Anglican Church.

In 1959 he registered for a course in Engineering at the University of Cape Town, but he switched to Philosophy in his second year. He joined the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS), and taught adult literacy classes in a Black township with his childhood friend, John Clare. He completed an Honours degree in Philosophy in 1963.

At UCT he was friendly with Alan Brooks and others who joined the African Resistance Movement, a White liberal organisation that initiated acts of sabotage before it was crushed by the apartheid regime. According to Turner’s daughter Jann, writing in 2008: “Brooks was arrested and badly tortured and on his release left for England. In 1974 Dad commented that ‘the ARM episode, in which disillusioned students tried sabotage, shattered their own and others lives and did great damage to the cause they were fighting for, made me acutely aware of the dangers of students turning to violence’.”

In 1964 Turner married his sweetheart Barbara Hubbard just before they left for France, where their daughter Jann was born.

Turner secured a place at the prestigious Sorbonne in Paris, where he completed a doctorate in 1966 after producing a thesis on the political philosophy of Jean Paul Sartre, titled Quelques implications de la Phenomenologie Existentielle (Implications of existential phenomenology). He met with Sartre on one occasion.

Turner was transformed by his stay in Paris. Observing the nascent French student movement convinced him that students could wield genuine power. He returned to South Africa in 1967 and took up a series of teaching posts in Cape Town. He became involved in protests against the government’s decision to refuse permission for anthropologist Archie Mafeje to teach at UCT.

Turner moved to the University of Natal in 1970, when he got a job there teaching political philosophy. Soon after he arrived in Durban, he met Steve Biko, who was then studying medicine at Natal University’s Black Section, and Omar Badsha, an activist and photographer who introduced Turner to Mewa Ramgobin and other activists about the same time as they were reviving the Natal Indian Congress.

Biko had by then broken away from NUSAS to form the South African Student Organisation (SASO), the first organization to initiate the programme of what would become the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). Turner was receptive to Black Consciousness and acted as a mediator between SASO’s black students and white students from NUSAS, advising white students on the way forward after the exodus of Black students.

Turner was invited by Mewa to join the board of the Phoenix Settlement Trust and with Schlemmer, Badsha, Eli Gandhi organized the first of two work camps at Phoenix settlement which had a profound influence on the students that attended them.

Turner also developed strong relationships with academics at the university, people such as Fatima Meer, Lawrence Schlemmer and Eddie Webster.

The year 1970 also saw the end of his first marriage and the beginning of his second, to Foszia Fisher, who he met through Biko. Their marriage was a daring act of resistance against apartheid’s Mixed Marriages Act, the Immorality Act and the Group Areas Act. Turner converted to Islam so that he could be married by an imam and to appease Fisher’s Muslim parents and was conducted at the home of Fatima and Ismail Meer. the imam being the only cleric prepare to join the couple. The marriage was conducted according to Muslim rites, and was not legally recognised in South Africa.

He bought a house in Bellair, Durban, where he gathered together a community of activists, academics and unionists, including Lawrence Schlemmer, Gerry Maré, and Turner’s student Peter Hudson and others. The house became a centre of left activity.

Turner threw himself into political activity in Durban, conducting workshops and forming, with Badsha and others , the Education Reform Association, a body that sought to popularize alternative education methods, a school of thought influenced by radical educationist Paulo Friere.

According to Badsha, Turner always bought at least three copies of books he was interested in and passed on copies to Biko, Badsha and others.

Turner also established Using a forum called Platform, which met fortnightly at the University of Natal Warwark Avenue campus. Where he and guest speakers gave lectures on Marxism and other topics reflecting the thinking of the New Left, which he had imbibed during his stay in Paris. Turner’s Marxism was decidedly non-Stalinist, Sartrean and aligned to the New Left., which appealed to activists and students.

Turner was loved by his students – especially because of his teaching style, which transformed the teaching situation into a more democratic encounter than that found at traditional schools and universities. This was a movement that the BCM was also propagating, with many activists at the time influenced by the works of Ivan Illich and Paulo Friere.

A passionate lecturer pioneering the teaching of radical political philosophy and an advisor to NUSAS, Turner encouraged activism by whites in the aftermath of the 1969 departure of blacks from NUSAS. Among the students he taught were lawyer Halton Cheadle, Dan O’Meara (Marxist historian, author of Volkskapitalisme), and political philosopher Peter Hudson.

Turner who was an advisor to NUSAS provided support to students such as David Hempson, Halton Cheadle, David Davis who had started the Nusas Wages Commission With the help of trade unionist Harriet Bolton, Cheadle and others, Turner and the Student Wages Commission found a base at the Garment Union head office in Durban to help with the formation of the General Factory Workers Benefit Fundencouraged white students to get involved in the unionisation of black workers, spurring the formation of the NUSAS Wages Commissions in 1971. Turner, Fisher became the A moving force behind the Institute for Industrial Education and the South African Labour Bulletin during and after the Durban strikes of 1973, he worked with Gerry Maré, Alec Erwin, Eddie Webster and John Copelyn, and helped to recruit and train many future labour organisers.

Jann, Kim, Foszia Turner (Richard Turner's second wife) and Barbara Follet (Richard Turner's first wife (née Hubbard)

Turner like Fatima Meer, Schlemmer and other white and black academics and theologians became a member of As a contributor to the publications of the Study Project on Christianity in Apartheid Society (SPROCAS), he compelled his colleagues to consider more radical recommendations than those prescribed by traditional liberalism. In an influential response to the final report of the SPROCAS Political Commission, in 1972 he wrote the utopian The Eye of the Needle: A Guide to Participatory Democracy in South Africa, in which he envisioned a decentralized socialist society.

The "Durban Moment" of intellectual excitement centering on Turner ended when he was banned along with seven national NUSAS leaders in March 1973, when several BCM leaders, including Biko, were also banned.

Turner banning made it illegal for him to teach, publish. The University of Natal showed its support for Turner by keeping him on the academic but he continued informally to advise unions and remained in contact with student leaders and secretly supervised the work of some student activists like bobby Marie., but it became illegal for him to teach, publish or be quoted. A brief respite from his non-person status occurred when he testified as a defencedefense witness during the 1975-76 trial of "the SASO Nine", officially known as The State vs Cooper and eight others.

The University of Natal showed its support of Turner by keeping him on the academic staff, although he could not teach because of his banning order.

In 1976 the government denied him permission to take up a prestigious Humboldt fellowship in Germany.

Shortly after midnight on 8 January, 1978, two months before his ban was due to expire, Turner was shot through a window of his suburban Durban home and died in the arms of his 13-year old daughter, Jann. Following four months after Biko's death in detention, Turner's murder created a public outcry.

Rick Turner’s funeral was attended by about a thousand people – many of them former students, colleagues and activists, as well as banned people who were allowed to attend, among others. Although the funeral was conducted according to Islamic rites, it was an inter-faith affair, with Muslim, Hindu, Catholic and Jewish priests delivering speeches.

He was buried in the Muslim cemetery at Brook Street in Durban.

Turner and the Security police

Even before he was banned, Turner was an object of scrutiny by the apartheid security police unit, the Bureau of State Security (BOSS). His phone was tapped, he was followed and they attempted to kill him on at least one occasion, when he was with Omar Badsha at workcam at Phoenix Settlement when they were nearly run over by security police agents. and the cops tried to run them down with a motor car.

His Bellair home was firebombed in March 1972, and in December his car’s tyres were slashed and his engine damaged.

In his book on Turner, Choosing to be Free, Billy Keniston reproduces a slew of security police reports about Turner, many of them painting a picture of his political activities, trying to present these as “communistic” activities.

Eventually he was killed by an assassin, in all likelihood a security cop.

Predictably, after his death, police investigations turned up no clues, and his killers were not identified.

The original investigating officer, murder and robbery captain Chris Earle, testified at a section 29 hearing of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in post-apartheid South Africa. He said he suspected from the beginning that Turner had been killed by apartheid state agents. Earle said Turner had been killed by “people who were part of the security forces and that they wanted to protect this and not have it known”. He added that BOSS operative Martin Dolinchek “and possibly other members of BOSS were involved. I also had information available that the firearm used to shoot the deceased was of Angolan origin.”

Earle requested that Dolinchek’s firearms be forensically tested but this request did not lead to any conclusion.

The TRC said: “Former Vlakplaas Commander Eugene de Kock reported that one of his informants, former BOSS member Piet Botha, told him that Dolinchek had killed Turner and that Dolinchek’s brother-in-law, Mr Von Scheer, drove the getaway vehicle.”

Dolincheck also testified, but denied he had killed Turner.

Both Earle and his immediate superior, Major Christoffel Groenewald, told the TRC that they believed the investigation had been obstructed when Groenewald and his superior, Brigadier Hansen (now deceased), were called to Pretoria and instructed not to waste time investigating Dolinchek, because there was no proof of his involvement in the killing. Both expressed the view that Dolinchek had been responsible for the killing.

The TRC found that national police commissioner General GL Prinsloo ordered the investigation to be shut down.

Turner, Biko and Black Consciousness

Turner was a close friend of Biko, and one of the first white left leaders to comprehend the significance of the Black Consciousness Movement – to recognize that the move to separate themselves from whites was not a racist tendency, as some considered, but an authentic attempt to spur blacks on to regain the will to fight apartheid and to lead the struggle.

He displayed a genuine understanding of the BC point of view and affirmed its insights with great clarity. Above all, he understood the power dynamics at play between whites and blacks, and the need for blacks to break free of the psychological strangleholds within which they had been locked by a long history of oppression.

But the BC intervention was clouded by confusing threads. Some whites saw the BC position as black racism, while apartheid apologists cheered the BCM stance, thinking it was in line with “separate development”. Confusion also arose from the BC position that whites had to leave blacks to themselves to operate on their own to overthrow apartheid, and that they should instead “conscientise” other white people, to transform white society into an anti-racist community. This left whites perplexed as to their role in the struggle against apartheid.

Turner wrote an article, “Black consciousness and white liberals”, published in Reality in July 1972, which “untangled” some of the confusions surrounding the relationship between white liberals and BC activists. He spelt out the reasons BC activists rejected earlier modes of resistance, in which liberal whites were cultivated by black progressive forces.

“As a group, white opponents of apartheid are not a significant political force, and are certainly not going to be the chief agent in the overthrow of apartheid. It would therefore be wrong for blacks to orient their political activity towards an appeal to whites to help them. There has always been a tendency for black political organisations to make appeals to the moral sensibility of the whites. It is this strategy that is being attacked by proponents of ‘black consciousness’. And of course they are quite right to attack it. Blacks cannot leave their case to be argued by whites in the context of white political institutions.”

He also “tried to show in this article where the attacks by ‘black consciousness’ on ‘white liberalism’ are justified, and where they are too sweeping”. He argued that there had to be a role for both whites and blacks, and that sweeping rejections of any group were unproductive and based on dubious and simplistic assumptions. He argued that apartheid was dehumanizing for both blacks and whites, and that its destruction would be a liberation for both groups – for humanity.

He wrote: “Black consciousness is a rejection of the idea that the ideal for humankind is ‘to be like the whites’. This should lead to the recognition that it is also bad for whites ‘to be like the whites’. That is, in an important sense both whites and blacks are oppressed, though in different ways, by a social system which perpetuates itself by creating white lords and black slaves, and no full human beings.”

Turner’s interventions allowed for a certain amount of cooperation between the white NUSAS students and SASO’s black students, and a certain division of labour when he encouraged the white left to get involved in union building.

Turner and the Labour movement

Turner was involved in several initiatives to resuscitate the labour movement among black workers, which had been suppressed after the banning of the South African Council of Trade Unions (SACTU) in the early 1960s.

After Black students left NUSAS, white activists tried to “conscientise” their own communities but were unsuccessful and instead got involved in organizing black worker unions. Turner was involved with the Wages Commission as an advisor before the “Durban Moment” in 1973, when spontaneous strikes crippled industries in the city.

The Wages Commission was initiated by mainly white students, many of them taught by Turner, at the University of Natal in 1971. It sought to investigate the wages of Black workers and stressed the fact that black workers’ wages were generally well below that of a living wage, sometimes less than half of a living wage.

Turner acted as an advisor, but there was also something of a break with his orientation in the commission, whose main drivers – among them Halton Cheadle, Charles Nupen, Karel Tip and David Hemson, all except Hemson heavily influenced by Turner – were turning to a more traditional Marxist class analysis to help them mobilise black workers. They experienced class analysis and the necessity of connecting with the working class as a way out of the immobility imposed on them by the Black Consciousness Movement. But they remained in a dialogue with Turner.

On the other hand, Dan O’Meara asserts that it was Turner who suggested that white students work with black workers as a way out of their immobility. “Rick’s analysis started to give the white left a sense that there was something that we could do, something that we could do that SASO couldn’t,” he says in Keniston’s biography, Choosing to be Free.

Soon after he was banned in March 1973, Turner started the South African Labour Bulletin (SALB), together with Badsha, Bolton, Cheadle, Fisher, Webster and Dave Hemson. Turner had written up virtually all the articles for the first issue, but he appointed John Copelyn to act as editor as well as author, since he was not allowed to publish his works. The Bulletin survives to this day as a major source of analysis and information about the labour movement in South Africa.

In the wake of the Durban strikes in 1973, the GFWBF became transformed to accommodate the need of the growing move to form Industrial Unions. white radicals formed and the Trade Union Advisory and Coordinating Council (TUACC) was formed to coordinate the various unions that were in the process of emerging. Turner was not directly involved in TUACC but acted as an advisor, playing a key background role with to the organisers, who included David Hemson, Paula Ensor, Halton Cheadle, Omar Badsha, Jonny Copelan Alec Erwin and Gerry Maré.

Alonside the formation of the trade unions Turner and Fisher with Schlemmer and the TUACC leadership also formed the Institute for Industrial Education (IIE) soon after he was banned. The IIE, essentially a correspondence school, straddled the worlds of education as well as labour, with many of its members also members of TUACC. This initiative would prove to be a point of conflict (see next section).

Turner and democratic pedagogy

Throughout his career as an academic, Turner was interested in transforming education into a more democratic process. His lectures resembled discussions more than prepared texts delivered from a podium in a lecture hall.

This interest in drawing the best out of students and in tailoring the education process to the specific experience and needs of oppressed people was very much in the air, and was also taken up by the BCM.

Much of this project was based on the works of Ivan Illich, Paulo Friere and liberation theology. Friere, a Brazilian theorist of education and author of Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970), developed a “critical pedagogy” to teach colonised people in a manner that would uplift them. The main tenet of this school was that teaching and learning were political acts, and that education was a process of remaking oneself. He declared in his book: “No pedagogy which is truly liberating can remain distant from the oppressed by treating them as unfortunates and by presenting for their emulation models from among the oppressors.”

Illich, an Austro Croatian Catholic who worked in Latin America, was critical of the manner in which institutions approached social problems, especially the school system, although he extended his analysis to medicine, labour and economic development, among others. He lamented that the education system was obsessed with certificates and failed to develop critical thinking. His book Deschooling Society (1971) was immensely influential in South Africa and throughout the world.

Turner used these theorists to inform his approach to education, and in 1973, together with Fisher, Cheadle, Badsha, Schlemmer and Eddie Webster, Bolton he formed the Institute for Industrial Education (IIE). The educational programme, aimed at workers, sought to stimulate the study of capitalism, the role of workers and the working class organization. Turner developed much of the curriculum for the courses, while Fisher served as director.

According to Schlemmer: “What Rick was saying, through the IIE, was, ‘Listen, these workers are oppressed people. We’ve got to take their consciousness seriously and see where they’re at. We need to give them the intellectual tools and the awareness to occupy whatever power bases they’re going to create, meaningfully’… He asked us not to decide for them, but to let themsee for themselves what they must do to change their situation.”

The project produced a study, The Durban strikes, subtitled “Human Beings with Souls”, in 1973, which was published in 1974.

As mentioned in the previous section, the IIE worked closely with TUACC, with many members belonging to both organisations. Despite promising beginnings, the IIE lasted about two years before it was shut down by TUACC after hostile camps developed regarding the direction of the institute. Conflicts revolved around allegations that each camp was imposing itself on workers rather than taking direction from them, a.nd Turner and Schlemmer insistence that the IIE should also serve the needs of other groupings. Things came to a head when they wanted to serve the needs of the newly established Inkatha established by Gatcha Buthelezi the Zulu Homeland leader.

TUACC’s John Copelyn was particularly impatient with Turner’s emphasis on education, as he was convinced that organizing workers was a greater priority. He accused Turner of using the IIE to influence the ideas of workers and of being “anti-organisation”. Turner’s decision to admit anyone, not only workers, was also criticized for attracting the “wrong kind” of workers.

TUACC wanted to bring the IIE into the council as a subcommittee, but the project fell apart in 1975.