Geskiedenis Podcasts

5 berugte vroulike seerowers

5 berugte vroulike seerowers

1. Cheng I Sao


Een van die invloedrykste plunderaars in die geskiedenis het haar loopbaan in 'n Chinese bordeel begin. Cheng I Sao, oftewel die 'vrou van Cheng', was 'n voormalige prostituut uit Kanton wat in 1801 getroud is met 'n magtige corsair met die naam Cheng I. Hulle uitrusting spog met honderde skepe en ongeveer 50 000 man, en dit vang straffeloos op die vissersvaartuie, die junk en die kusdorpe van Suid -China.

By die dood van haar man in 1807, het mev. Cheng 'n elmboog gekry en saam met 'n betroubare luitenant en minnaar genaamd Chang Pao. In die volgende paar jaar het sy oor Suidoos -Asië geplunder en 'n vloot bymekaargemaak wat met baie lande se vloot ooreenstem. Sy het ook 'n streng gedragskode vir haar seerowers geskryf. Die verkragting van vroulike gevangenes is strafbaar deur onthoofding, en die ore van die woestyne is afgeslaan. Mevrou Cheng se bloedige regering het haar openbare vyand nommer een van die Chinese regering gemaak, en in 1810 is die Britse en Portugese vloot ingeroep om haar voor die gereg te bring. Eerder as om dit op see uit te duik, het sy skerp ingestem om haar vloot af te staan ​​en haar kapsel neer te lê in ruil vir die reg om haar rykdom te behou. Cheng het afgetree as een van die suksesvolste seerowers uit die geskiedenis, en het tot haar dood in 1844 op 69 -jarige ouderdom 'n dobbelhuis bestuur.

2. Anne Bonny

Die berugte seerower Anne Bonny het haar lewe begin as die buite -egtelike dogter van 'n welgestelde Ierse prokureur. In 'n poging om haar twyfelagtige ouerskap te verberg, het haar pa haar 'n seuntjie laat aantrek en haar as 'n advokaat vir 'n deel van haar jeug voorgehou. Sy verhuis later na Amerika, waar sy in 1718 met 'n matroos trou en na die eiland New Providence in die Bahamas reis. Daar het sy haar man verlaat en onder die ban van "Calico" Jack Rackam geval, 'n flambojante buccaneer wat sy ambag in die Karibiese Eilande gedoen het.

Bonny was nog altyd bekend vir haar 'kwaai en moedige humeur' - volgens een legende het sy amper 'n man doodgeslaan toe hy homself op haar wou dwing - en sy het vinnig gewys dat sy rum kan vloek, 'n pistool kan swaai en cutlass met die beste van die span van Calico Jack. Sy het later 'n vriendskap gesmee met die mede -seerower Mary Read, en die paar het in die somer en herfs van 1720 'n leidende rol gespeel in 'n reeks strooptogte op klein vissersbote en handelstroke. , toe Calico Jack se skip deur 'n groep seerowerjagters gevange geneem is. Calico Jack en verskeie ander mans is tereggestel, maar Bonny en Read ontwyk die strop nadat hulle swanger was.

3. Mary Read

Mary Read, gebore in die laat 17de eeu, het die grootste deel van haar jeug vermom as haar oorlede halfbroer, sodat haar ma sonder geld die bedrog van die seuntjie kon bedrieg. In die hoop om haar dors na avontuur te les, het sy later die naam Mark Read aangeneem en 'n opeenvolging van tradisioneel manlike poste aangeneem, eers as soldaat en later as koopvaarder. Read het aan die einde van die 1710's seerower geword nadat buccaneers die skip waarop sy gewerk het aangeval het en haar in hul geledere beïndruk het. Sy het later haar pad aan boord van die boot van Calico Jack Rackam gevind, waar sy Anne Bonny ontmoet en haar bevriend het en haar as 'n vrou onthul het.

Read seil slegs 'n paar maande saam met Calico Jack, maar gedurende hierdie tyd het sy 'n vreesaanjaende reputasie gekry. Een van haar beroemdste plunderinge kom in Oktober 1720, toe sy en Bonny soos 'n banshees baklei tydens 'n aanval deur seerowerjagters. 'As daar 'n man onder u is,' het sy vermoedelik geskreeu na die mannetjies wat onder die dekke kom, 'sal u opkom en veg soos die man wat u moet wees!' Ondanks Read se heldedade, is sy en die res van Calico Jack se bemanning gevange geneem en aangekla van seerowery. Read het teregstelling vermy deur toe te gee dat sy 'vinnig' met 'n kind was ', maar sy het later koors gekry en is in die gevangenis dood.

4. Grace O'Malley

Gedurende 'n tyd toe die meeste vroue 'n opleiding geweier is en in hul huise gehou word, het seerower Grace O'Malley 'n vloot van 20 skepe gelei wat die sterkte van die Britse monargie weerstaan. O'Malley, ook bekend as 'Granuaille', of 'kaal', is gebore in 'n kragtige stam wat oor die kuslyne van Wes -Ierland heers. Nadat sy in die 1560's die leisels geneem het, het sy 'n familietradisie van seerowery voortgesit deur Engelse en Spaanse skeepsvaartuie te plunder en mededingende hoofmanne aan te val. Haar eskapades was legendaries - een verhaal beweer dat sy slegs 'n dag na die geboorte op die see geveg het - maar dit het ook die woede van die owerhede ontketen. Sy moes in 1574 'n beleg teen haar vesting by Rockfleet Castle afweer, en later 18 maande agter tralies nadat sy tydens een van haar aanvalle gevange geneem is.

O'Malley hervat haar oproer na haar vrylating, maar in die vroeë 1590's het meer probleme ontstaan ​​toe die Britse owerhede haar vloot in beslag geneem het. Met nêrens anders om te draai nie, het die 63-jarige buccaneer direk 'n beroep op koningin Elizabeth I gedoen om hulp. Tydens 'n beroemde koninklike gehoor in Londen, beskryf O'Malley haarself as 'n moeë en gebroke ou vrou en smeek die koningin om haar skepe terug te gee, een van haar gevange seuns vry te laat en haar in staat te stel om in vrede terug te tree. Die omwenteling het gewerk, maar dit lyk asof 'Granuaille' nie haar einde aan die winskopie gehou het nie - rekords toon dat sy en haar seuns tot by haar dood in 1603 aan die seer is.

5. Rachel Wall

Die biografie van Rachel Wall is bederf met mites en legendes, maar as sekere verhale oor haar waar is, was sy een van die eerste en enigste Amerikaanse vroue wat hulself probeer beoefen het in seerowery. Soos die verhaal vertel, was Wall 'n inwoner van Pennsylvania wat as tiener van die huis weggeloop het en met 'n visser met die naam George Wall getroud is. Die egpaar het hulle in Boston gevestig en probeer om 'n bestaan ​​te maak, maar konstante geldprobleme het hulle uiteindelik tot 'n lewe van misdaad gelei. In 1781 het die mure 'n klein bootjie aangeskaf, saam met 'n paar seevaarders en hulle het begin vang op skepe voor die kus van New England. Hulle strategie was net so vindingryk as brutaal. Elke keer as daar 'n storm deur die streek was, trek die boeiers hul bootjie aan om te lyk asof dit deur rowwe see verwoes is. Die aangename Rachel sou dan op die dek staan ​​en smeek om hulp van verbygaande skepe. Toe die niksvermoedende redders naby kom, is hulle dadelik aan boord geneem, beroof en vermoor.

Wall se sirene -liedjie het moontlik tot 'n dosyn skepe na hul ondergang gelok, maar haar geluk raak in 1782 op, toe 'n ware storm haar boot vernietig en George doodmaak. Sy het voortgegaan met diefstal op land, en is later in 1789 gearresteer omdat sy 'n Boston -vrou aangeval en beroof het. Terwyl sy in die gevangenis was, het sy 'n bekentenis neergeskryf waarin sy erken het dat sy 'sabbatsbreek, steel, lieg, ongehoorsaamheid aan ouers en byna elke ander sonde wat 'n mens kan doen, behalwe moord'. Ongelukkig vir Wall was die mea culpa nie genoeg om die owerhede te beïnvloed nie. Op 8 Oktober word sy die laaste vrou wat ooit in Massachusetts tereggestel is toe sy in Boston doodgehang is


9 vroulike seerowers waarvan u moet weet

As jy aan seerowers dink, is dit waarskynlik dat jy bebaarde buccaneers of paalbeen-skubbe met name soos Blackbeard, Barbarossa en Calico Jack voorstel. Terwyl die meeste seerowers mans was, was daar vroue in hierdie geledere van stropers wat net so genadeloos, berug en gevrees was. Ons strek oor die wêreld en eeue en stel u voor aan die berugte seerowers van die sewe seë.

1. Anne Bonnie

Hierdie Ierse meisie met heerlike rooi lokke en 'n gevaarlike humeur, gebore as Anne Cormac in 1698, het 'n ikoon geword van The Golden Age of Piracy (1650's-1730s) nadat hy met 'n klein seerower James Bonny getrou het. Anne se gerespekteerde vader het haar van die huwelik verloën, sodat sy en haar nuwe man na 'n deel van die Bahamas met die bynaam Pirates Republic verhuis het, 'n soort heiligdom vir scalawags. Maar die Bonnys was nie lank gelukkig getroud nie.

Hulle is geskei, en sy het Calico Jack Rackham aangegaan, eers as sy geliefde, daarna as sy eerste stuurman van die skip Wraak. In Oktober 1720 is sy en die res van Rackham se bemanning gevange geneem ondanks Bonny en haar boesemvriendin Mary Read se dapper pogings om die oprukkende Engelse magte te beveg. Bonny blameer Rackham vir hul gevangenskap. Haar laaste woorde aan hom in die gevangenis word opgeteken as: "Jammer om jou daar te sien, maar as jy soos 'n man baklei het, sou jy nie soos 'n hond gehang gewees het nie."

Hy is opgehang, maar Bonny se swangerskap het haar 'n uitstel van uitvoering opgelê. Geen historiese rekord van haar doodsvonnis is egter gevind nie. Sommiges bespiegel dat haar welgestelde pa 'n goeie prys betaal het om haar vry te laat.

2. Mary Read

Die beste maat van Anne Bonny was Mary Read, 'n Engelsman wat as die baster van 'n weduwee van 'n seekaptein gebore is. Terwyl daar gesê word dat Bonny klere dra wat haar as vrou identifiseer, het Read 'n lang geskiedenis van mannetjie wat haar dateer uit haar jeug. Haar ma sou Read as haar oorlede ouer broer aantrek om geld uit die dooie se ouma aan vaderskant te haal. Jare later het sy as Mark Read by die Britse weermag aangesluit. Sy het liefde gevind by 'n Vlaamse soldaat, maar na sy ontydige dood het Read na die Wes -Indiese Eilande gegaan. Soos die noodlot dit wou hê, is haar skip deur seerowers geneem, wat haar gedwing het om by hul geledere aan te sluit.

Cross het as 'n man gekruis en vaar met Anne Bonny en Calico Jack op die Wraak in 1720. Sommige verhale dui daarop dat slegs Bonny en Jack van Read se vrouwees geweet het, en slegs omdat laasgenoemde jaloers geword het toe eersgenoemde met 'Mark' flirt. Later daardie jaar sou 'n derde in hul bemanning Read se geheim leer, en sy het hom as haar man opgeëis.

Wanneer die Wraak deur die seerowerjagter, kaptein Jonathan Barnet, gevang is, het Read saam met Bonny 'die maag gesmeek'. Maar die swangerskap van haar naamlose man sou haar nie red nie. Sy sterf op 28 April 1721 aan 'n gewelddadige koors in haar tronksel. Daar word geen rekord gemaak van die begrafnis van 'n baba nie. Sommige vermoed Read en die baba is tydens die bevalling dood.

3. Sadie die bok

Die Amerikaanse seerower van die 19de eeu, Sadie Farrell, het haar ongewone bynaam gekry vir haar gewelddadige modus operandi. Op die strate van New York het Sadie 'n reputasie as 'n genadelose bedrieër gekry deur haar slagoffers met 'n kop te slaan. Daar word gesê dat Sadie uit Manhattan gejaag is toe 'n harde vrou, Gallus Mag, met haar baklei het en Sadie se oor afgebyt het.

Om uit die stad te vlug, het sy in die lente van 1869 'n nuwe bende gestamp om 'n sloep te steel. Met 'n Jolly Roger wat bo -oor hulle waai, het Sadie en haar bemanning seerowers geword wat die Hudson- en Harlemrivier vir buit gevee het. Sy sou klopjagte op die plaashuise en deftige herehuise wat langs die rivier gestroom het, lei, en soms mense vir losprys ontvoer. Teen die einde van die somer het hierdie aanvalle te riskant geraak toe die boere op die sloep afvuur toe dit nader kom. Sadie die bok keer dus terug na die vasteland, waar sy vrede maak met Gallus Mag, wat haar verlore oor wat vir die nageslag ingelê is, na Sadie terugkeer.

Sadie, wat nou bekend staan ​​as 'Queen of the Waterfront', neem haar afgesnyde oor en sit dit in 'n kissie, wat sy die res van haar dae om haar nek gedra het.

4. Koningin teuta van illyria

Een van die vroegste aangetekende vroulike seerowers was eintlik 'n seerowerkoningin. Toe haar man Agron in 231 vC sterf, het Teuta van Illyria koningin geword, aangesien haar stiefseun Pinnes te jonk was om te regeer. Gedurende haar vier jaar van heerskappy oor die Ardiaei -stam van die huidige Wes -Balkan, moedig Teuta seerowery aan as 'n manier om terug te veg teen die heersende bure van Illyria. Dit het nie net die plundering van Romeinse skepe beteken nie, maar ook die vang van Dyrrachium en Phoenice. Haar seerowers het van die Adriatiese See na die Ioniese See versprei en die handelsroete van Griekeland en Italië geterroriseer. Terwyl die seevaardige stamme van Teuta haar koninkryk groot rykdom en mag gebring het, het hulle haar ook 'n groot vyand besorg.

Romeine het verteenwoordigers na Teuta gestuur vir 'n diplomatieke vergadering. Sy bespot hulle pleidooie en dring daarop aan dat haar stam seerowery as deel van wettige handel beskou. Vandaar het diplomasie by die venster uitgegaan. Dit is onbekend wat die Romeinse verteenwoordigers daarna gesê het. Maar een ambassadeur is dood, terwyl die ander in die tronk was. So begin 'n oorlog tussen Rome en Illyria wat duur van 229 vC tot 227 vC, toe Teuta gedwing is om oor te gee op voorwaardes wat haar mag onderbreek en haar stam genoodsaak om jaarliks ​​hulde aan Rome te bring.

Alhoewel sy teen die Romeinse heerskappy voortgegaan het, het sy haar troon verloor. Die res van haar lewe is verlore aan die geskiedenis.

5. Terug van die dooie rooi

Jacquotte Delahaye, gebore as die dogter van 'n Fransman en 'n Haïtiaanse vrou in die 17de eeu, het ontelbare lotgevalle gesteel en die verbeelding van baie seevarende storievertellers vasgevang. Hierdie buccaneer het haar ma aan die bevalling verloor en haar broer was verstandelik gestrem, en toe haar pa vermoor is, was Delahaye alleen om vir hom te sorg. Volgens die legende het sy dit reggekry om seerowery te doen.

Haar bynaam kom van die gewildste aspek van haar verhaal, wat beweer dat hierdie rooikop seerower haar eie dood vervals het om te ontsnap aan die regeringsmagte wat haar in die 1660's toegesluit het. Vandaar het sy 'n nuwe identiteit aangeneem, wat 'n paar jaar as 'n man geleef het. Uiteindelik, toe die hitte verdwyn, duik sy weer op met haar pakkende nuwe naam Back From the Dead Red.

6. Die leeuwyfie van Bretagne

Die verhaal van Jeanne de Clisson handel oor tragedie, wraak en vertoon. As die vrou van Olivier III de Clisson, was Jeanne 'n gelukkig getroude ma van vyf en 'n dame van Bretagne, Frankryk. Maar toe grondoorloë tussen Engeland en Frankryk daartoe gelei het dat haar man van verraad aangekla en met onthoofding gestraf is, het sy wraak gesweer op die Franse koning Philip VI.

Die weduwee de Clisson het al haar grond verkoop om drie oorlogskepe te koop, wat sy haar Swart Vloot genoem het. Dit is swart geverf, bedek met bloedrooi seile en beman met genadelose privaat persone. Vanaf 1343-1356 vaar die leeuwyfie van Bretagne oor die Engelse kanaal, vang die skepe van die Franse koning, kap sy bemanning af en onthoof elke aristokraat wat die ongeluk gehad het om aan boord te wees met 'n byl. Opmerklik, ondanks al haar diefstal en bloedvergieting, het de Clisson rustig afgetree. Sy het selfs weer getrou en met die Engelse luitenant Sir Walter Bentley afgesluit.

Daar word geglo dat sy in 1359 gesterf het, en sommige sê dat sy sedertdien teruggekeer het na de Clisson -kasteel in Bretagne, waar haar grys spook in die sale loop.

7. Anne Dieu-Le-Veut

Die Franse vrou uit Bretagne was ook die Franse vrou wie se naam vertaal word na Anne God-Wants, en 'n titel spreek haar hardnekkige geaardheid. Sy het in die laat 1660's of vroeë 1670's na die Karibiese eiland Tortuga gekom. Van daar af het sy 'n paar rotsjare gely wat haar twee keer 'n weduwee gemaak het, sowel as 'n ma van twee. Maar soos die noodlot dit wou hê, is haar tweede man vermoor deur die man wat haar derde geword het. Dieu-le-Veut het aangedring op 'n tweegeveg met Laurens de Graaf om haar oorlede maat te wreek. Die Nederlandse buccaneer was so getref deur haar moed dat hy geweier het om teen haar te veg, en in plaas daarvan sy hand aangebied het. Hulle trou op 28 Julie 1693 en het nog twee kinders.

Dieu-le-Veut vaar met de Graaf, wat as vreemd beskou word, aangesien baie seemanne vroue op skepe as ongeluk beskou het. Tog is Dieu-le-Veut en de Graaf se verhouding vergelyk met die van Anne Bonny en Calico Jack, deurdat hulle onafskeidbare vennote was wat by die bygeloof bespot het. Soos baie seerowers, is hul verhaal ook in die laaste hoofstuk daarvan gebreek.

Die legende van Dieu-le-Veut het hierdie brassige breë oorneem as kaptein toe de Graaf deur 'n kanonskoot geslaan is. Ander stel voor dat die egpaar omstreeks 1698 na Mississippi gevlug het, waar hulle al dan nie aan die seerower was nie. En nog ander verhale beweer dat Dieu-le-Veut se stoutmoedige gees voortleef in haar dogter, wat gesê het dat sy wenkbroue in Haïti sou lig deur 'n tweegeveg met 'n man te eis.

8. Sayyida al Hurra

Sayyida al-Hurra, 'n tydgenoot en bondgenoot van die Turkse seerower Barbarossa, was 'n seerowerkoningin en was die laaste vrou wat die titel al Hurra (koningin) gekry het na die dood van haar man wat in Tétouan, Marokko, regeer het. Trouens, haar regte naam is onbekend. Sayyida al Hurra is 'n titel wat vertaal word na edele dame wat vry en onafhanklik is, die vroulike soewerein wat voor geen hoër gesag buig nie. ”

Sy regeer van 1515-1542 en beheer die westelike Middellandse See met haar seerowervloot terwyl Barbarossa aan die oostekant dwaal. Al Hurra se inspirasie om oor te neem tot piraterij kom uit 'n wens om wraak te neem teen die 'Christelike vyand' wat sy gevoel het haar jare tevore 'n onreg aangedoen het toe die Katolieke vorste Ferdinand en Isabella haar Moslem -gesin uit Granada gehardloop het. Sy was 'n gevreesde figuur vir die Spaanse en Portugese, wie se historiese rekords besaai is met papierwerk wat verslae oor haar uitbuiting en lospryse insluit.

Op die hoogtepunt van haar mag, trou Al-Hurra weer met die koning van Marokko, maar weier om haar magstoel in Tétouan prys te gee. Maar in 1542 het sy geen keuse gekry toe haar skoonseun haar omverwerp nie. Die Jemen Times weeg haar laaste hoofstuk in en skryf: "Sy is van haar eiendom en mag ontneem en haar lot is onbekend."

9. Ching Shih

Een van die mees gevreesde seerowers van alle tye was hierdie bedreiging van die Chinese See. Sy is gebore in 'n nederige begin as Shi Xiang Gu, en het as prostituut gewerk toe seerowers haar gevang het. In 1801 trou sy met die berugte Chinese seerower Zheng Yi (ook bekend as Cheng I), wat uit 'n lang reeks vreesaanjaende diewe kom. Yi's Red Flag Fleet was geweldig, bestaan ​​uit 300 skepe en iewers tussen 20.000 en 40.000 man. Maar dit alles loop die risiko om uitmekaar te val toe hy op 16 November 1807 sterf.

Gu het bekend geword as Ching Shih, wat weduwee van Zheng beteken het. Sy was vinnig om die steun van haar skoonouers te soek in haar poging om die Rooi Vlag-vloot te lei. Om haar te help om die daaglikse bekommernisse van 'n uitgestrekte seerower-leër te handhaaf, het Ching Shih die hulp ingeroep van Chang Pao, 'n visserman se seun wat deur Yi aangeneem is. Hulle was 'n uitstekende span, en teen 1810 het die Rooi Vloot na 1800 seilskepe en 80,000 bemanningslede gegroei. Om soveel te bestuur, het Ching Shih in wese haar eie regering gestig om wette en selfs belasting op te stel. Tog was sy geen sagte aanraking nie. Die oortreding van haar wette lei tot onthoofding. Sy was tot in Groot -Brittanje vereer en gevrees.

In 1810 het Ching Shih en haar vloot dit oorweeg om uit die seerowery te kom toe amnestie aangebied is. Om dit te kry, moet 'n seerower egter die knie buig voor regeringsamptenare. Dit word beskou as 'n teken van skandelike oorgawe, maar Ching Shih het 'n slim manier gevind om 'n kompromie aan te gaan. Met Pao en 17 vroue en kinders op sleeptou, marsjeer sy na die kantoor van amptelike Zhang Bai Ling en vra dat hy met haar en haar eerste maat moet trou. Hy het dit gedoen, en die pasgetroudes het gekniel om hom te bedank. Ching Shih tree terug met haar waardigheid en al haar buit wat sy nie gekry het nie, wat volgens sommige mense haar die suksesvolste seerower van alle tye maak. Sy het tot die ouderdom van 69 geleef.


Inhoud

Daar word vermoed dat Bonny se geboortedatum ongeveer 1700 sal wees. [4] Daar word gesê dat sy in Old Head of Kinsale, [5] in County Cork, Ierland, gebore is. [6] Sy was die dogter van die diensmeisie Mary Brennan en Brennan se werkgewer, advokaat William Cormac. Amptelike verslae en eietydse briewe oor haar lewe is skaars, en die meeste moderne kennis spruit uit Charles Johnson 'N Algemene geskiedenis van die Pirate ('n versameling seerowerbiografieë, die eerste uitgawe gedeeltelik akkuraat, die tweede baie versier). [7] [8] [9]

Bonnie se pa, William Cormac, het eers na Londen verhuis om weg te kom van sy vrou se familie, en hy het sy dogter as 'n seuntjie begin aantrek en haar 'Andy' genoem. Toe Cormac se vrou ontdek dat William die buite -egtelike dogter opgeneem het en die kind as 'n prokureur se klerk opgeneem het en haar as 'n seuntjie aangetrek het, het sy opgehou om hom toelae te gee. [10] Cormac verhuis daarna na die provinsie Carolina en neem sy voormalige dienende meisie, die ma van Bonny, saam. Bonnie se pa het die oorspronklike "Mc" -voorvoegsel van hul familienaam laat vaar om makliker by die Charles Town -burgerskap in te skakel. Aanvanklik het die gesin 'n rowwe begin in hul nuwe huis gehad, maar Cormac se kennis van die regte en die vermoë om goedere te koop en te verkoop, het spoedig 'n meenthuis en uiteindelik 'n plantasie net buite die stad gefinansier. Bonnie se ma is dood toe sy 12 was. Haar pa het probeer om hom as 'n prokureur te vestig, maar dit het nie goed gegaan nie. Uiteindelik het hy by die meer winsgewende handelsonderneming aangesluit en 'n aansienlike fortuin opgebou. [11]

Daar word opgemerk dat Bonny rooi hare gehad het en as 'n 'goeie vangs' beskou is, maar moontlik op 13 -jarige ouderdom 'n vurige humeur gehad het. Sy het vermoedelik 'n bediende meisie met 'n mes gesteek. [8] Sy trou met 'n arm matroos en 'n klein seerower met die naam James Bonny. [12] James het gehoop om die besit van sy skoonpa se boedel te verkry, maar Bonny is deur haar pa verloën. Anne se pa het James Bonny nie as 'n man vir sy dogter goedgekeur nie, en hy het Anne uit hul huis geskop. [13]

Daar is 'n verhaal dat Bonny die plantasie van haar vader aan die brand gesteek het, maar daar is geen bewyse daarvoor nie. Dit is egter bekend dat sy en James Bonny iewers tussen 1714 en 1718 na Nassau, op New Providence Island, verhuis het, bekend as 'n heiligdom vir Engelse seerowers, die Republic of Pirates genoem. [14] Baie inwoners het 'n King's Pardon gekry of andersins die wet ontduik. Daar word ook opgeteken dat James Bonny na die aankoms van goewerneur Woodes Rogers in die somer van 1718 'n informant vir die goewerneur geword het. [15] James Bonny sou aan goewerneur Rogers verslag doen oor die seerowers in die omgewing, wat daartoe gelei het dat 'n menigte van hierdie seerowers gearresteer is. Anne hou nie van die werk wat haar man vir goewerneur Rogers gedoen het nie.

Terwyl sy op die Bahamas was, het Bonny met seerowers in die tavernes begin meng. Sy het John "Calico Jack" Rackham ontmoet, en hy het haar geliefde geword. Hy het geld aan haar man James Bonny aangebied as hy van haar sou skei, maar haar man het geweier en glo gedreig om John te slaan. Sy en Rackham het saam die eiland ontsnap, en sy het 'n lid van die bemanning van Rackham geword. Sy het haar as 'n man op die skip vermom, en slegs Rackham en Mary Read was bewus daarvan dat sy 'n vrou was [13] totdat dit duidelik geword het dat sy swanger was. Rackham laat haar toe op Kuba land waar sy 'n seun gebaar het. [10] Sy het daarna weer by Rackham aangesluit en die seerowerlewe voortgesit, nadat sy van haar man geskei het en met Rackham getroud was terwyl sy op see was. Bonny, Rackham en Read het die skip gesteel William, dan op die anker in die Nassau -hawe, en op die see gelê. [16] Rackham en die twee vroue het 'n nuwe bemanning gewerf. Hul bemanning het jare in Jamaika en die omliggende gebied deurgebring. [17] Bonny het saam met die mans aan die geveg deelgeneem, en goewerneur Rogers noem haar in 'n omsendbrief "Wanted Pirates" wat gepubliseer is in Die Boston News-Letter. [15]

In Oktober 1720 is Rackham en sy bemanning aangeval deur 'n sloep onder leiding van Jonathan Barnet onder kommissie van Nicholas Lawes, goewerneur van Jamaika. Die meeste seerowers van Rackham het min weerstand gebied, aangesien baie van hulle te dronk was om te veg. Hulle is na Jamaika geneem waar hulle skuldig bevind is en deur goewerneur Lawes veroordeel is om opgehang te word. [18] Volgens Johnson was Bonny se laaste woorde aan Rackham: "As jy soos 'n man geveg het, hoef jy nie soos 'n hond opgehang te gewees het nie". [19] [20]

Read en Bonny het albei "hul mae gesmeek" en genade gevra omdat hulle swanger was, [21] en die hof het hulle 'n uitstel van die teregstelling gegee totdat hulle geboorte gegee het. Read sterf in die gevangenis, waarskynlik aan 'n koors as gevolg van die bevalling. 'N Grootboek van 'n kerk in Jamaika lys haar begrafnis op 28 April 1721, "Mary Read, seerower". [22]

Daar is geen rekord van Bonny se vrylating nie, en dit het bespiegelings oor haar lot veroorsaak. [23] 'n Grootboek bevat 'n lys van die begrafnis van 'n 'Ann Bonny' op 29 Desember 1733, in dieselfde stad in Jamaika waar sy verhoor is. [22] Charles Johnson skryf in 'N Algemene geskiedenis van die rooftogte en moorde op die berugste Pirate, gepubliseer in 1724: "Sy is voortgesit in die gevangenis tot die tyd waarin sy gelê het, en daarna van tyd tot tyd herhaal, maar wat van haar geword het, ons kan nie net dit weet wat ons weet dat sy nie tereggestel is nie". [24]

  • Bonny en Read word uitgebeeld in die Speurder conan animasie film Speurder Conan: Jolly Roger in die Deep Azure.
  • Bonny verskyn in die videospeletjie, Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag, eers as 'n subkarakter, en later as Quarter Master vir Edward Kenway, word sy uitgespreek deur die aktrise Sarah Greene.
  • Bonny is 'n speelbare karakter in Lot/Groot Orde as 'n ruiterklas en 'n boogskutterkneg saam met Read Bonny word uitgespreek deur Ayako Kawasumi.
  • Bonny is 'n hoofkarakter in die Starz -reeks Swart seile en word uitgebeeld deur Clara Paget
  • Read (Cara Roberts) stel haarself voor aan Bonny onder die naam Mark Read in die laaste episode van Swart seile. [25]
  • Bonny verskyn in die liedjie "The Ballad of Mary Read en Anne Bonny" deur die Baja Brigade. [26]
  • Die tweede liedjie van die Death Grips -album Regeringsplate heet Anne Bonny.
  • Bonny word uitgebeeld as 'n seerowerheer wat Libertalia gestig het saam met Henry Avery, Thomas Tew en verskeie ander beroemde seerowers in Uncharted 4: A Thief's End in 'n veranderde weergawe van die stigting van die seerowerkolonie. Haar lyk word op 'n sekere punt in die spel aangetref.
  • Bonny en Mary Read word genoem in die roman van Charlie Kaufman in 2020 Antkind.
  • In die manga Een stuk, die karakter Jewelry Bonney is vernoem na Anne Bonny.
  • Bonny word uitgebeeld deur Mia Tomlinson in die Netflix -reeks Die verlore seeroweryk.
  • Anne Bonny is 'n prominente karakter in die Duitse animasiefilm Die Abrafaxe - Unter schwarzer Flagge (The Pirates of Tortuga - Under the Black Flag)

In 2020 is 'n standbeeld van Bonny en Read onthul by Execution Dock in Wapping, Londen. Daar word beplan om die standbeeld uiteindelik na die eiland Burgh in die suide van Devon te bring. [27]


Die Swashbuckling History of Women Pirates

Dit het begin met 'n eenvoudige vraag: waar was al die seerowers? Laura Sook was lief vir Duncombe Peter Pan As 'n kind het ek elke boek oor seerowery wat sy kon vind, weggesmyt. Maar terwyl sy lees, word sy gedwing om die eerlikste waarheid in die oë te kyk: dit lyk asof al die vroue na voetnote en kort paragrawe gedruk is wat deur boeke oor manlike seerowers versprei is. Hierdie nuuskierigheid het 'n soeke na antwoorde aangespoor en tot haar nuwe boek gelei Pirate Women: Die prinsesse, prostitute en privaat persone wat die sewe seë regeer het.

Verwante inhoud

Min historiese figure maak die verbeelding op dieselfde manier as wat seerowers doen. Die rum, die papegaaie wat praat, die hoede en mantels en skatte sorg vir dramatiese, teaterverhale. Maar die boek van Duncombe ’ doen nie net meer die geheimenis en skande van die seerowers nie: dit kontekstualiseer hulle en bied geskiedenis en agtergrond oor die samelewings waaruit hulle gekom het. Of dit nou die Marokkaanse seerowerkoningin Sayyida al-Hurra is (wat die Middellandse See tydens die middel van die 16de eeu geterroriseer het) of koningin Elizabeth I se vrouhond, Lady Mary Killigrew, Duncombe skei die mites van die feite en beskou die sjarme van 'n min verstaanbare groep vroue.

“ Ek wou iets as 'n onweerlegbare waarheid hê dat vroue net so deel uitmaak van die seerowergeskiedenis as mans, ” Duncombe. Smithsonian.com het met die skrywer gepraat oor die uitdagings, geleenthede en verrassings wat gepaard gegaan het met die skryf oor die vroue wat gereeld oor die hoof gesien word.

Pirate Women: Die prinsesse, prostitute en privaat persone wat die sewe seë regeer het

Die geskiedenis het hierdie vroulike swashbucker tot dusver grootliks geïgnoreer. Van die ou Noorse prinses Alfhild tot Sayyida al-Hurra van die Barbary corsairs, seil hierdie vroue langs – en soms in bevel van –male seerowers. Hulle kom uit alle lewensterreine, maar het een ding gemeen: 'n begeerte na vryheid.

Vroeg in die boek sê jy dat niemand 'n eerste-persoon-verslag van seerowery wat deur 'n seerower geskrywe is, ontdek het nie en dat die verhale 'n kombinasie van mite en feit is. Watter uitdagings en geleenthede het dit in u navorsing en skryfwerk gebied?

Ek wou regtig so deursigtig as moontlik wees. Ek kom uit 'n regsagtergrond, so dit is vir my belangrik om die waarheid te sê. Redelik vroeg in die navorsing het ek besef dat ek met 'n goeie gewete nie kon sê dat dit alles presies gebeur het soos ek berig het nie. , Ek het gedink dit is belangrik om dit te sê.

Of hierdie vroue geleef het of nie soos die verhale vertel is nie, hierdie verhale het deur die eeue bestaan. Waarom hierdie verhale vertel word soos dit is en waarom mense omgee vir hierdie verhale, sê baie oor ons kultuur en die kultuur waaruit hierdie verhale kom. Maar almal wat vir u sê dat hulle 'n volledige feitelike beskrywing van seerowers het, probeer om iets aan u te verkoop.

Het iets u verbaas in die navorsingsproses?

Hoeveel lae sommige van hierdie verhale deurgegaan het, was vir my verbasend. Viking -vroue se verhale is mondelings oorgedra en eers later deur Christelike sendelinge opgeteken. Die vooroordeel wat [die sendelinge] gehad het om die orde in die kerk en die gesin te handhaaf, beteken dat hulle ideale geslagsrolle aanbied wat voordelig was vir die tydperk. Dit is net die ervaring om te wonder hoe hierdie verhale moontlik was voordat hulle deur soveel hersienings gegaan het. U wonder oor die oorspronklike bedoeling in al hierdie seerowerverhale.

Toe ek eers begin soek, was dit duidelik hoeveel mense hierdie verhale in die hande gehad het en hoeveel geskiedenis op dieselfde manier opgeteken is. Selfs [as u teenwoordig is vir 'n geleentheid], het almal 'n agenda, selfs die mense wat die geskiedenis so onpartydig as moontlik probeer aanbied. Ek dink nie daar is 'n 100 persent objektiewe aard nie, tensy jy 'n videokamera na iets wys en net wegstap. Maar selfs waar plaas jy die kamera?

U sluit die verhaal van Sint Augustinus in oor Alexander die Grote wat 'n seerower gevang het en hom beledig het omdat hy die see gemolesteer het, waarop die seerower antwoord, en#8220 Hoe durf u die hele wêreld aanstoot gee? Omdat ek dit met 'n klein bootjie doen, word ek 'n seerower en 'n dief genoem. U, met 'n groot vloot, misbruik die wêreld en word 'n keiser genoem. ” Kan u praat oor hierdie idee van die see as 'n plek wat deur almal en niemand besit word nie en waarom dit 'n beroep op vroue kon wees?

Maritieme reg is steeds 'n aparte tak van die reg. Misdade wat op vaartuie gepleeg word, word anders behandel as misdade wat op   gepleeg isterra firma. Die idee dat die see 'n plek van geleenthede is wat nie per land gebonde is nie, is aantreklik. Lande wat moontlik bondgenote in Europa was, is nou [op skepe] in die Karibiese Eilande, en dit is gratis vir almal. Die veranderende alliansies het gelei tot 'n ontploffing van seerowery omdat almal vir hulself was. U weet nie waar iemand vandaan kom nie, u kan met 'n vlag uit 'n ander land wapper en voorgee dat u iemand is wat u nie is nie. Dit is 'n multinasionale maskeradebal.

Vir vroue was dit aantreklik omdat hulle hulself meer kon ontneem van die onderdrukkende rolle wat hulle in hul eie samelewings gehad het. Hulle kon hulself nuut maak.  

Anne Bonny was 'n beroemde seerower in die Karibiese Eilande. (Wikimedia Commons) Nadat haar man oorlede is, het koningin Artemisia van Halicarnassus heersende dele van Klein -Asië oorgeneem, wat soms plundering per skip insluit. (Gerard van Honthorst/Wikimedia Commons) The Viking pirate Ladgerda. (Wikimedia Commons)

Did women succeed in getting rid of those roles society had set for them?

Some women clearly did. You’ve got Cheng I Sao, who commanded a fleet larger than many of the legitimate fleets of her day. We have women who commanded male pirates and were astoundingly successful. This is where I bemoan the lack of primary sources: we don’t know how women felt when they were on the sea, with the wind in their hair. We don’t really know what their day-to-day life was like, if they found the peace and the freedom they were seeking.

But there’s something to the fact that we know women continued to do this over millennia. That siren song of the sea does continue to draw them to it and away from their home and their lives on the shore. Somehow women keep going to sea. It’s not a piece of cake to be a pirate, to be a sailor, but time after time after time, women weighed the pros and cons and did so.

Did women have to give up their femininity to be pirates?

Many of them dressed like women. They were not in disguise, so clearly they were able to maintain some semblance of outward femininity while aboard these ships. Grace O’Malley [an Irish pirate of the 16th century] gave birth to her youngest son on a pirate ship. I love this idea of, you’ve got a sword in one hand and you have a baby on your hip. Some of the pirates we’re told were very pretty, but we can only guess at how much they would’ve used their feminine wiles. A pretty face would not get you particularly far on a ship. I’m sure they had to keep up with the men because there’s not enough room on a ship for ornaments—but we only know about the ones who were caught. So there may have been scores of women who lived and died as men that we just don’t even know about.

You call Cheng I the most successful woman pirate of all time. Can you talk about her code of conduct and the way she surrendered, and how these things only amplified her success?

Lots of different pirates had codes of conduct that were observed on their ships. Cheng I is unique in her harshness of the penalties for the offenses and also the strict proscription of sexual activity, both consensual and nonconsensual, on- and off-board of the ship. [Raping female captives was punishable by death and even if captives had consensual sex they would still be killed.] There are some conflicting accounts of who actually wrote this code, whether or not it was her husband Chang Pao, but [the code] has been associated with her. It’s interesting when you think about women lawmakers, how men and women sometimes prioritize different things when they’re making the rules.

Her surrender is, to my knowledge, one of the only of its kind. She was the only one I can think of who was able to secure pensions for her crew. She was so terrifying that she basically forced the Chinese government to pay her to stop pirating.

She had to have been brilliant to do what she did. She married into a decent pirate operation but then expanded it beyond her late husband’s wildest dreams. I think her calculation [with the surrender] was, the government is expecting somebody coming to them with a phalanx of burly bodyguards armed to teeth. And she comes in with a bunch of ladies. That would’ve at the very least been very surprising and shifted the balance to power, and forced everyone to reconsider. She was incredibly successful in her negotiations, so it was a smart gambit.

You talk about pirates from the ancient Mediterranean all the way to modern times. Is there anything that unites all these women from different cultures and time periods?

They all had ships that were very different and methods that were very different. But I think they share the desire to control their own fates. And the desire for freedom from convention would unite all these women. Their hopes to escape the normal and be a part of something adventurous would tie all these women together. That’s part of what calls so many people to a love of piracy today. We share that desire for adventure. Not the desire for slitting throats and plundering the high seas, but one can empathize with the desire to have a say in how their lives go.

What do you want readers to come away from these stories with?

If someone comes away from this inspired to follow a path that they hadn’t felt bold enough to pursue before, I hope these women can be role models. Not in stealing, but going after your heart’s desire with everything you’ve got.

Do you have a favorite from all the women you wrote about?

I say different pirates all the time because I love them all so much. I love Ladgerda, the Viking pirate who said it was better to rule without her husband and murdered him after rescuing him. His fleet was in distress after he left her for another woman. She sailed in to save the day but had a knife in her skirt and stabs him and says, ok I’m in charge now. I just think she’s cheeky. 


The pioneer of the Jolly Roger flag, Calico Jack Rackham was a Caribbean buccaneer who had few epic plunders to his name, but is known for his association with Anne Bonny as well as his classic pirate death. Captured in Jamaica in 1720, Rackham was hanged, tarred and displayed as a warning to others in a location now called Rackham's Cay.

A noble to some but an outlaw to others, Drake spent time — between circumnavigating the globe and defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588 — engaging in piracy and slave-trading in the Caribbean. The raids he led, especially on Spanish colonies in Central America, took some of the richest bounties in pirating history.


If There’s a Man Among Ye: The Tale of Pirate Queens Anne Bonny and Mary Read

Last week Mike Dash told a tale of high seas adventure that put me in mind of another, somewhat earlier one. Not that Anne Bonny and Mary Read had much in common with kindly old David O’Keefe—they were pirates, for one thing, as renowned for their ruthlessness as for their gender, and during their short careers challenged the sailors’ adage that a woman’s presence on shipboard invites bad luck. Indeed, were it not for Bonny and Read, John “Calico Jack” Rackam’s crew would’ve suffered indignity along with defeat during its final adventure in the Caribbean. But more on that in a moment…

Much of what we know about the early lives of Bonny and Read comes from a 1724 account titled A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates, by Captain Charles Johnson (which some historians argue is a nom de plume for Robinson Crusoe author Daniel Defoe). A General History places Bonny’s birth in Kinsale, County Cork, Ireland, circa 1698. Her father, an attorney named William Cormac, had an affair with the family maid, prompting his wife to leave him. The maid, Mary Brennan, gave birth to Anne, and over time William grew so fond of the child he arranged for her to live with him. To avoid scandal, he dressed her as a boy and introduced her as the child of a relative entrusted to his care. When Anne’s true gender and parentage were discovered, William, Mary and their child emigrated to what is now Charleston, South Carolina. Mary died in 1711, at which point the teenaged Anne began exhibiting a “fierce and courageous temper,” reportedly murdering a servant girl with a case knife and beating half to death a suitor who tried to rape her.

William, a successful planter, disapproved of his daughter’s rebellious ways the endless rumors about her carousing in local taverns and sleeping with fishermen and drunks damaged his business. He disowned her when, in 1718, she married a poor sailor by the name of James Bonny. Anne and her new husband set off for New Providence (now Nassau) in the Bahamas, where James is said to have embarked on a career as a snitch, turning in pirates to Governor Woodes Rogers and collecting the bounties on their heads. Woodes, a former pirate himself, composed a “most wanted” list of ten notorious outlaws, including Blackbeard, and vowed to bring them all to trial.

Anne, meanwhile, spent most of her time drinking at local saloons and seducing pirates in A General History, Johnson contends that she was “not altogether so reserved in point of Chastity,” and that James Bonny once “surprised her lying in a hammock with another man.” Anne grew especially enamored of one paramour, John “Calico Jack” Rackam, so-called due to his affinity for garish clothing, and left Bonny to join Rackam’s crew. One legend holds that she launched her pirating career with an ingenious ploy, creating a “corpse” by mangling the limbs of a dressmaker’s mannequin and smearing it with fake blood. When the crew of a passing French merchant ship spotted Anne wielding an ax over her creation, they surrendered their cargo without a fight.

John “Calico Jack” Rackam (Public Domain)

A surprising number of women ventured to sea, in many capacities: as servants, prostitutes, laundresses, cooks and—albeit less frequently—as sailors, naval officers, whaling merchants or pirates. Anne herself was likely inspired by a 16th-century Irishwoman named Grace O’Malley, whose fierce visage (she claimed her face was scarred after an attack by an eagle) became infamous along the coast of the Emerald Isle. Still, female pirates remained an anomaly and perceived liability Blackbeard, for one, banned women from his ship, and if his crew took one captive she was strangled and pitched over the side. Anne refused to be deterred by this sentiment. Upon joining Rackam’s crew, she was said to have silenced a disparaging shipmate by stabbing him in the heart.

Most of the time Anne lived as a woman, acting the part of Rackam’s lover and helpmate, but during engagements with other ships she wore the attire of a man: loose tunic and wide, short trousers a sword hitched by her side and a brace of pistols tucked in a sash a small cap perched atop a thicket of dark hair. Between sporadic bouts of marauding and pillaging, pirate life was fairly prosaic our modern associations with the profession draw more from popular entertainment—Peter Pan, The Pirates of Penzance, a swashbuckling Johnny Depp—than from historical reality. The notion of “walking the plank” is a myth, as are secret stashes of gold. “Nice idea, buried plunder,” says maritime historian David Cordingly. “Too bad it isn’t true.” Pirates ate more turtles than they drank rum, and many were staunch family men Captain Kidd, for instance, remained devoted to his wife and children back in New York. Another historian, Barry R. Burg, contends that the majority of sexual dalliances occurred not with women but with male shipmates.

Accounts vary as to how Anne met Mary Read. According to Johnson, Rackam’s ship conquered Mary’s somewhere in the West Indies, and Mary was among those taken prisoner. After the engagement, Anne, dressed in female attire, tried to seduce the handsome new recruit. Mary, perhaps fearing repercussions from Rackam, informed Anne she was actually a woman—and bared her breasts to prove it. Anne vowed to keep Mary’s secret and the women became friends, confidantes and, depending on the source, lovers.

Learn more about Anne and Mary after the jump…

They had much in common Mary was also an illegitimate child. Her mother’s first child (this one by her husband) was a boy, born shortly after her husband died at sea. Mary’s mother-in-law took pity on the widow and offered to support her grandson until he was grown, but he died as well. Mary’s mother quickly became pregnant again, gave birth to Mary, and, in order to keep receiving money from her husband’s family, dressed her daughter to resemble her dead son. But her grandmother soon caught on and terminated the arrangement. To make ends meet, Mary’s mother continued dressing her as a boy and occasionally rented her out as a servant.

Mary excelled at living as a man. Around age 13, she served as a “powder monkey” on a British man-of-war during the War of the Grand Alliance, carrying bags of gunpowder from the ship’s hold to the gun crews. Next she joined the Army of Flanders, serving in both the infantry and cavalry. She fell in love with her bunkmate and divulged her secret to him. Initially, the soldier suggested that Mary become his mistress—or, as Johnson put it, “he thought of nothing but gratifying his Passions with very little Ceremony”—but Mary replied, with no apparent irony, that she was a reserved and proper lady. After informing her entire regiment that she was a woman, she quit the army and married the solider, who died shortly before the turn of the 18th century.

Mary resumed her life as a man and sailed for the West Indies on a Dutch ship, which was soon captured by English pirates. The crew, believing Mary to be a fellow Englishman, encouraged her to join them. Calico Jack Rackam served as the quartermaster of her new crew, and he, along with his shipmates, never suspected Mary’s true gender. She was aggressive and ruthless, always ready for a raid, and swore, well, like a drunken sailor. She was “very profligate,” recalled one of her victims, “cursing and swearing much.” Loose clothing hid her breasts, and no one thought twice about her lack of facial hair her mates, most of them in their teens or early twenties, were also smooth-faced. It’s also likely that Mary suffered from stress and poor diet while serving in the army, factors that could have interrupted or paused her menstrual cycle.

Initially, Rackam was jealous of Anne’s relationship with Mary, and one day burst into her cabin intending to slit her throat. Mary sat up and opened her blouse. Rackam agreed to keep Mary’s secret from the rest of the crew and continued to treat her as an equal. (He was also somewhat mollified when she took up with a male crewmate.)

During battles Anne and Mary fought side by side, wearing billowing jackets and long trousers and handkerchiefs wrapped around their heads, wielding a machete and pistol in either hand. “They were very active on board,” another victim later testified, “and wiling to do any Thing.” The summer and early fall of 1720 proved especially lucrative for Rackam’s crew. In September they took seven fishing boats and two sloops near Harbor Island. A few weeks later, Anne and Mary led a raid against a schooner, shooting at the crew as they climbed aboard, cursing as they gathered their plunder: tackle, fifty rolls of tobacco and nine bags of pimento. They held their captives for two days before releasing them.

Near midnight on October 22, Anne and Mary were on deck when they noticed a mysterious sloop gliding up alongside them. They realized it was one of the governor’s vessels, and they shouted for their crewmates to stand with them. A few obliged, Rackam included, but several had passed out from the night’s drinking. The sloop’s captain, Jonathan Barnett, ordered the pirates to surrender, but Rackam began firing his swivel gun. Barnett ordered a counterattack, and the barrage of fire disabled Rackam’s ship and sent the few men on deck to cowering in the hold. Outnumbered, Rackam signaled surrender and called for quarter.

But Anne and Mary refused to surrender. They remained on deck and faced the governor’s men alone, firing their pistols and swinging their cutlasses. Mary, the legend goes, was so disgusted she stopped fighting long enough to peer over the entrance of the hold and yell, “If there’s a man among ye, ye’ll come up and fight like the man ye are to be!” When not a single comrade responded, she fired a shot down into the hold, killing one of them. Anne, Mary and the rest of Rackam’s crew were finally overpowered and taken prisoner.

Calico Jack Rackam was scheduled to be executed by hanging on November 18, and his final request was to see Anne. She had but one thing to say to him: “If you had fought like a man, you need not have been hang’d like a dog.” Ten days later, she and Mary stood trial at the Admiralty Court in St. Jago de la Vega, Jamaica, both of them pleading not guilty to all charges. The most convincing witness was one Dorothy Thomas, whose canoe had been robbed of during one of the pirates’ sprees. She stated that Anne and Mary threatened to kill her for testifying against them, and that “the Reason of her knowing and believing them to be women then was by the largeness of their Breasts.”

Anne and Mary were found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, but their executions were stayed—because, as lady luck would have it, they were both “quick with child.”

Captain Charles Johnson. A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates. London: T. Warner, 1724.

Barry R. Burg. Sodomy and the Pirate Tradition: English Sea Rovers in the Seventeenth-Century Caribbean. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

David Cordingly. Seafaring Women: Adventures of Pirate Queens, Female Stowaways, and Sailors’ Wives. New York: Random House, 2007.

_________. Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. New York: Random House, 2006.

_________. Pirate Hunter of the Caribbean: The Adventurous Life of Captain Woodes Rogers. New York: Random House, 2011.

Margaret S. Creighton and Lisa Norling. Iron Men, Wooden Women: Gender and Seafaring in the Atlantic. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Tamara J. Eastman and Constance Bond. The Pirate Trial of Anne Bonny and Mary Read. Cambria Pines, CA: Fern Canyon Press, 2000.

Angus Konstam and Roger Kean. Pirates: Predators of the Seas. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2007.

Elizabeth Kerri Mahon. Scandalous Women: The Lives and Loves of History’s Most Notorious Women. New York: Penguin Group, 2011.

C.R. Pennell. Bandits at Sea: A Pirates Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2011.

Diana Maury Robin, Anne R. Larsen, Carole Levin. Encyclopedia of Women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England.

“Scholars Plunder Myths About Pirates, And It’s Such A Drag.” Wall Street Journal, April 23, 1992 “West Indian Sketches.” New Hampshire Gazette, April 10, 1838 “How Blackbeard Met His Fate.” Washington Post, September 9, 1928 “Seafaring Women.” Los Angeles Times, March 8, 1896 “Capt. Kidd and Others.” New York Times, January 1, 1899 “Female Pirates.” Boston Globe, August 9, 1903.


Black Bellamy: Robin Hood Of Pirates?

Black Bellamy was a famous pirate and also the richest pirate ever. (Allen & Ginter / CC0)

The notorious pirate “Black Sam” Bellamy (English, 1689 – 1717 AD) sailed the seven seas, plundering and pirating, becoming the richest buccaneer ever known. He was born in Devonshire, England, and in his late teens, he joined the British navy and fought in several battles. In 1716 AD, after a mutiny aboard a ship, he was named the new captain, and during just one year he and his crew robbed more than 50 ships in the Atlantic and the Caribbean, accumulating the equivalent to $120 million in today’s money, making him the richest pirate ever. Bellamy was also famous for his expensive clothes, especially black coats. As a captain, he was almost democratic, and the crew liked to call him “Pirate Robin Hood.” But this was no storybook ending – his pirate career was short-lived. In 1717 AD, he and his crew drowned when their ship was wrecked, and the 102 lost souls have recently been found buried in a secret location in Massachusetts. He was 28.


Ching Shih Gains Control of the Red Flag Fleet

In 1801, Pirate Zhèng Yi, who commanded a fleet of ships called the “Red Flag Fleet,” noticed Ching Shih’s beauty, and wished to be with her. There are varying accounts of how they actually came to be together. According to some, Zhèng Yi sent a raid and ordered them to plunder the brothel. He asked that they bring him Ching Shih, his favorite prostitute. The men did as they were ordered, and Zhèng Yi and Ching Shih were married.

By other accounts, Zhèng Yi simply asked Ching Shih to marry him. She agreed to his proposal so long as she would have some power within his organization, and would receive an equal share of his plunder. While the accounts vary as to how they actually came to be together, Ching Shih and Zhèng Yi began to run the Red Flag Fleet together.

With Zhèng Yi and Ching Shih side-by-side, the Red Flag Fleet quickly grew from 200 ships to more than 600 ships, and eventually to 1700-1800 ships. Their fleet was “color-coded,” with the lead fleet being Red, and the remaining fleets Black, White, Blue, Yellow, and Green. They formed the Cantonese Pirate Coalition with pirate Wu Shi’er. Zhèng Yi died in 1807, only 6 years after marrying Ching Shih. At the time of his death, the Red Flag Fleet included approximately 50,000 – 70,000 pirates.

Ching Shih , not wishing to go back to a life of prostitution, knew that this was her opportunity to rise to become a powerful female pirate lord. She could have simply stepped down from the organization, allowing Chang Pao, Zhèng Yi’s second in command, to take over. Chang Pao had been adopted as a son by Zhèng Yi and Ching Shih. However, Ching Shih craved the power and glory of being the leader of the Red Flag Fleet. With Chang Pao’s support, Ching Shih took charge.

The distinctive curve of a Chinese 'Junk Ship'. Pirate fleets flew a red flag ( adventures in history land )


Early Years

Most of what is known about Anne Bonny's early life comes from Captain Charles Johnson's "A General History of the Pyrates" which dates to 1724. Johnson (most, but not all, historians believe that Johnson was actually Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe) provides some details of Bonny's early life but did not list his sources and his information has proven impossible to verify. According to Johnson, Bonny was born near Cork, Ireland probably sometime around 1700, the result of an affair between a married English lawyer and his maid. The unnamed lawyer was eventually forced to bring Anne and her mother to America to escape the gossip.

Anne’s father set up in Charleston, first as a lawyer and then as a merchant. Young Anne was spirited and tough: Johnson reports that she once badly beat up a young man who “would have lain with her, against her will.” Her father had done quite well in his businesses and it was expected that Anne would marry well. Instead, at about age 16, she married a penniless sailor named James Bonny, and her father disinherited her and cast them out.

The young couple set out for New Providence, where Anne's husband made a meager living turning in pirates for bounties. Sometime in 1718 or 1719, she met pirate "Calico Jack" Rackham (sometimes spelled Rackam) who had recently wrested command of a pirate vessel from the ruthless Captain Charles Vane. Anne became pregnant and went to Cuba to have the child: once she had given birth, she returned to a life of piracy with Rackham.


5 Notorious Female Pirates - HISTORY

Today I found out about the prostitute that rose to command a huge armada that controlled the South Chinese Sea and the Guangdong province.

While female pirates weren’t uncommon off the coast of Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries, one woman stood above them all. Her birth name isn’t known, but this Cantonese pirate went by the name Ching Shih (also, by Zhèng Yi Sao, “wife of Zhèng”, and Zhèng Shì, “widow of Zhèng”. For the purpose of this article, I’ll just refer to her as Ching Shih to avoid any confusion.)

Ching Shih was born sometime around 1775 (the exact date isn’t known). At the age of 26, she found herself working as a prostitute in a floating brothel in Canton. While there, she caught the eye of Zhèng Yi, already a successful pirate with a small fleet of ships at his command, known as the “Red Flag Fleet”. Exactly how the two ended up together is disputed. Some historians hold that Zhèng Yi sent a raid to plunder the brothel and asked his men to bring back his favorite prostitute, Ching Shih, for his portion of the loot, while others claim he simply went there himself and proposed that they wed, which she only agreed to after he consented to give her equal share of his plunder and to allow her to help run the organization. Whatever the case, once married, Ching Shih did indeed begin helping Zhèng Yi run the Red Flag Fleet.

During the next six years, their fleet grew initially from about 200 ships to 600 with some key alliances, including forming the Cantonese Pirate Coalition with pirate Wu Shi’er, and then to 1700-1800 ships by 1807, as more and more pirates flocked to their banner. Unfortunately for Zhèng Yi, on November 16, 1807, he found himself caught in a typhoon and didn’t manage to survive the ordeal.

Rather than step aside, handing over the organization to someone else, Ching Shih convinced Zhèng Yi’s second in command, 21 year old Chang Pao, to support her in taking over the Red Flag Fleet. Chang Pao was the son of a fisherman and had actually been captured by Zhèng Yi when Chang Pao was just 15. He was then forced into the life of a pirate. He quickly gained favor in the eyes of Zhèng Yi due to his intelligence, bravery, and skill in a fight and was adopted by the pirate captain and Ching Shih as a son and made second in command of the fleet.

With Chang Pao leading their troops in raids and the like, Ching Shih focused on the “business” side of things, continuing to plan military strategy and also to govern and grow the organization into something that went beyond just partnered pillaging pirates. At the Red Flag Fleet’s peak in 1810, she commanded about 1800 ships, both big and small 70,000-80,000 pirates (about 17,000 male pirates directly under her control, the rest being other pirate groups who agreed to work with her group, then female pirates, children, spies, farmers enlisted to supply food, etc.) controlled nearly the entire Guangdong province directly held a vast spy network within the Qing Dynasty and dominated the South Chinese Sea.

She didn’t just rely on looting, blackmailing, and extortion to support her troops either. She setup an ad hoc government to support her pirates including establishing laws and taxes. Because she controlled pretty much the entire criminal element in the South Chinese Sea, she also was able to guarantee safe passage through it to any merchants who wanted to pay. Of course, if they didn’t pay, they were fair game for her pirates.

In order to manage her ruffians and get them all to do what she said without question, she setup a strict system of law within the Red Flag Fleet which basically equated to, “You don’t follow the rules or I think you aren’t and you get your head chopped off. No exceptions.” Specific laws included:

  • If you disobey an order, you get your head chopped off and body thrown in the ocean.
  • If you steal anything from the common plunder before it has been divvied up, you get your head chopped off and body thrown in the ocean.
  • If you rape anyone without permission from the leader of your squadron, you get your head chopped off and your body thrown in the ocean.
  • If you have consensual sex with anyone while on duty, you get your head chopped off and your body thrown in the ocean and the woman involved would get something heavy strapped to her and also tossed in the ocean.
  • If you loot a town or ship of anything at all or otherwise harass them when they have paid tribute, you get your head chopped off and your body thrown into the ocean.
  • If you take shore-leave without permission, you get your head chopped off and body thrown into the ocean.
  • If you try to leave the organization, you get your head… ha, just kidding, in this case you get your ears chopped off.
  • Captured ugly women were to be set free unharmed. Captured pretty women could be divvied up or purchased by members of the Red Flag Fleet. However, if a pirate was awarded or purchased a pretty woman, he was then considered married to her and was expected to treat her accordingly. If he didn’t, he gets his head cut off and body thrown in the ocean.

She didn’t just restrict herself to sea battles either. She used her numerous shallow-bottomed boats to good advantage along rivers to raid towns along the way, including defeating any armies that came against her. For instance, two towns once banded together, raised an army, and sent it against her forces. The Red Flag Fleet won the battle and she subsequently marched her army to the two towns and ransacked them, including beheading every male found there.

Now, a pirate controlling a large portion of the Emperor’s land and subjects didn’t sit well with him. As such, he raised a fleet of ships to attack Ching Shih’s fleet. Unfortunately for him, Ching Shih was also a brilliant military strategist and rather than running from the Emperor’s armada, she sailed out to meet it with her fleet, which defeated the armada quite easily. Not only this, but she managed to steal 63 of the large ships sent against her and convinced most of the surviving crews to join her… by letting them choose between being nailed to the deck by their feet and then beaten to death or becoming members of the Red Flag Fleet and celebrating the victory with the rest of the pirates. Needless to say, she found herself with plenty of replacements for the pirates she’d lost in the battle. As for the Admiral of the fleet sent against her, Kwo Lang, he committed suicide before he could be captured by Ching Shih.

The attacks on her fleet didn’t stop there. However, now without a fleet large enough to take her on alone, the Qing Dynasty government enlisted the aid of the super-power British and Portuguese navies, as well as many Dutch ships, paying them large sums for their help. These combined forces waged war on Ching Shih’s organization for two years with little success. She won battle after battle until finally the Emperor decided to take a different tack. Instead of trying to defeat her, he offered her and most of her organization amnesty.

Ching Shih initially rejected the terms of the amnesty treaty. However, in 1810 she unexpectedly showed up at the home of the Governor General of Canton with the intention of working out a peace treaty. The deal that she struck was that the fleet would disband, including giving up most of their ships, and in return, they would nearly all be granted amnesty and allowed to keep any loot they had acquired during their time as pirates. The exceptions were 376 of her crew of which 126 were executed and the other 250 received some punishment or other for their crimes.

All the rest got off scot-free and as part of the agreement any who wanted it were to be allowed to join the military, including her second in command and now husband, Chang Pao. He was given command of 20 ships in the Qing Dynasty navy to command. Ching Shih was also given money to distribute to her crew to help offset the cost of them switching from a life at sea, to one in the mainland.

As for Ching Shih herself, she negotiated the rights to keep the fortune she’d accumulated and acquired a noble title, “Lady by Imperial Decree”, which entitled her to various legal protections as a member of the aristocracy. She then retired at the age of 35, opening a gambling house/brothel in Guangzhou, Canton, which she managed until her death at the age of 69. During this time, she also became a mother to at least one son and a grandmother. One can only imagine the bedtime stories she told her son and grandchildren.

So not only was she arguably the most successful pirate of all time, but unlike pretty much every other famous pirate in history, she also managed to escape being executed or punished in any way for her crimes and retired extremely wealthy and a member of the aristocracy. The Dread Pirate Roberts has nothing on her.

If you liked this article and the Bonus Pirate Facts below, you might also like:


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