Geskiedenis Podcasts

Die ABC-konferensie (Mei-Junie 1914)

Die ABC-konferensie (Mei-Junie 1914)

Die Vera Cruz -voorval dreig om oor te loop op 'n nuwe Mexikaanse oorlog - 'n konflik wat nie deur die Verenigde State of Mexiko verlang word nie. en Mexiko.'N Plan is einde Junie afgehandel, wat voorsiening maak vir die volgende:

  • Generaal Huerta sou die leisels van sy regering oorgee aan 'n nuwe regime
  • Die Verenigde State sou geen skadevergoeding ontvang vir sy verliese in die onlangse chaotiese gebeure nie

Huerta tree in Julie uit die amp en verlaat later die land. Sy opvolger, Venustiano Carranza, verwerp die ooreenkoms, omdat hy nie verbind wil word met 'n mag wat sy land beset nie. Carranza -regime. 'N Tydperk van relatiewe kalmte het gevolg, maar dit is gou verpletter deur die optrede van Pancho Villa.


Vir ander Wilson -buitelandse sake.


Vandag in die geskiedenis

Vandag is Woensdag 10 Maart, die 69ste dag van 2021. Daar is nog 296 dae oor die jaar.

Vandag se hoogtepunt in die geskiedenis:

Op 10 Maart 1864 het president Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant, wat pas sy opdrag as luitenant-generaal ontvang het, opgedra aan die bevel van die leërs van die Verenigde State.

In 1785 word Thomas Jefferson aangestel as minister van Amerika in Frankryk, as opvolger van Benjamin Franklin.

In 1848 bekragtig die Amerikaanse senaat die Verdrag van Guadalupe Hidalgo, wat die Mexiko-Amerikaanse oorlog beëindig het.

In 1876 hoor die assistent van Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Watson, Bell oor sy eksperimentele telefoon: "Mr. Watson - kom hier - ek wil jou sien ”uit die volgende kamer van Bell se Boston -laboratorium.

In 1906 is ongeveer 1100 mynwerkers in Noord-Frankryk dood deur 'n steenkoolstofontploffing.

In 1913 sterf die voormalige slaaf, afskaffingskrywer en "kondukteur" van die Underground Railroad, Harriet Tubman, in Auburn, New York, in die 90's.

In 1914 is die Rokeby Venus, 'n 17de -eeuse skildery deur Diego Velazquez wat in die National Gallery in Londen te sien was, verskeie kere gesny deur Mary Richardson, wat protesteer teen die inhegtenisneming van die medesuffragis Emmeline Pankhurst. (Die skildery is herstel.)

In 1927 word die Sinclair Lewis -roman "Elmer Gantry" uitgegee deur Harcourt, Brace & Co.

In 1969 pleit James Earl Ray in Memphis, Tennessee (op sy 41ste verjaardag) skuldig op die sluipmoord op burgerregte -leier Martin Luther King Jr. (Ray verwerp later die pleidooi en behou sy onskuld tot sy dood.)

In 1985 sterf Konstantin U. Chernenko, wat 13 maande lank die leier van die Sowjetunie was, op die ouderdom van 73 jaar, opgevolg deur Mikhail Gorbatsjof.

In 1988 sterf die popsanger Andy Gibb in Oxford, Engeland, op 30 -jarige ouderdom aan hartontsteking.

In 2000 het pous Johannes Paulus II die heiligdom goedgekeur vir Katharine Drexel, 'n Philadelphia -sosialis wat 'n gelofte van armoede afgelê het en haar fortuin gewy het aan die hulp van arm Swartes en Amerikaanse Indiane. (Drexel, wat in 1955 oorlede is, is in Oktober 2000 heilig verklaar.)

In 2015, nadat sy haar stilte verbreek het in die lig van 'n toenemende kontroversie oor haar gebruik van 'n privaat e -posadres en bediener, het Hillary Rodham Clinton toegegee dat sy die regering se e -pos as minister van buitelandse sake moes gebruik het, maar het volgehou dat sy geen federale wette of Obama oortree het nie administrasie reëls.

Tien jaar gelede: die House Homeland Security Committee het Moslem -ekstremisme in Amerika ondersoek tydens 'n verhoor wat deur tranerige getuienis en woedende beskuldigings onder die loep geneem is. (Voorsitter Peter King, R-N.Y., beskuldig Amerikaanse Moslems daarvan dat hulle te min gedoen het om terreur in Amerika te bekamp, ​​het die Demokrate gewaarsku teen die aanstoot van anti-Moslem-sentiment.)

Vyf jaar gelede: Donald Trump en sy Republikeinse mededingers het hul presidensiële debat in Miami omskep in 'n meestal respekvolle, maar tog skerp bespreking van sosiale sekerheid, Islam, handel en meer. Die Kanadese premier, Justin Trudeau, het 'n amptelike besoek aan die Withuis gemaak.

Een jaar gelede: Bernie Sanders en Joe Biden het primêre nagbyeenkomste in Cleveland gekanselleer te midde van kommer oor die verspreiding van die koronavirus. Biden het voorverkiesings in die slagveldstaat Michigan en drie ander state gewen, wat Sanders 'n ernstige knou toegedien het. Klusters van die koronavirus het aan beide Amerikaanse kuste geswel, met meer as 70 gevalle wat verband hou met 'n biotegnologiese konferensie in Boston en infeksies by 10 verpleeginrigtings in die Seattle -omgewing. Besmettings in Italië het die 10 000 -kerf gehaal, aangesien die owerhede 'n omvattende landwye inperking toegepas het. Aandele het die meeste van hul historiese verliese van 'n dag vroeër verhaal, te midde van wisselende hoop op Wall Street dat die regering sou probeer om die ekonomiese pyn van die koronavirus te demp.

Vandag se verjaarsdae: Die talkshow-gasheer Ralph Emery is 88. Bluegrass/country-sanger-musikant Norman Blake is 83. Akteur Chuck Norris is 81. Drama David Rabe is 81. Sanger Dean Torrence (Jan en Dean) is 81. Akteur Katharine Houghton (Film : "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner?") Is 79. Akteur Richard Gant is 77. Rockmusikant Tom Scholz (Boston) is 74. Voormalige Kanadese premier Kim Campbell is 74. TV -persoonlikheid/sakevrou Barbara Corcoran (TV: "Shark Tank ”) Is 72. Akteur Aloma Wright is 71. Blues-musikant Ronnie Earl (Ronnie Earl en die omroepers) is 68. Vervaardiger-regisseur-skrywer Paul Haggis is 68. Alt-country-/rockmusikant Gary Louris is 66. Akteur Shannon Tweed is 64. Pop/jazz -sangeres Jeanie Bryson is 63. Die akteur Sharon Stone is 63. Rockmusikant Gail Greenwood is 61. Die towenaar Lance Burton is 61. Die rolprentvervaardiger Scott Gardenhour is 60. Die akteur Jasmine Guy is 59. Rockmusikant Jeff Ament (Pearl Jam) ) is 58. Musiekvervaardiger Rick Rubin is 58. Brittanje se prins Edward is 57. Rock -sanger Edie Brick ell is 55. Akteur Stephen Mailer is 55. Akteur Philip Anthony-Rodriguez is 53. Akteur Paget Brewster is 52. Akteur Jon Hamm is 50. Rapper-vervaardiger Timbaland is 49. Akteur Cristian (kris-tee-AHN ') de la Fuente is 47. Rockmusikant Jerry Horton (Papa Roach) is 46. Akteur Jeff Branson is 44. Sanger Robin Thicke is 44. Akteur Bree Turner is 44. Olimpiese goue medalje -gimnas Shannon Miller is 44. Kontemporêre Christelike sanger Michael Barnes (Red) is 42. Die akteur Edi Gathegi is 42. Die akteur Thomas Middleditch is 39. Die countrysangeres Carrie Underwood is 38. Die akteur Olivia Wilde is 37. Die R & B-sanger Emeli Sande (EH'-mihl-ee SAN'-dag) is 34. Country sanger Rachel Reinert is 32. Die country -musikant Jared Hampton (LANCO) is 30. Die akteur Emily Osment is 29.


Die ABC -konferensie (Mei -Junie 1914) - Geskiedenis

Tydlyn van die Mexikaanse Revolusie - Jaar 1914


18 Januarie 1914
Emiliano Zapata teken 'n verdrag met Julián Blanco , die rebellehoof in Guerrero.


14 Maart 1914
Emiliano Zapata en sy manne sluit in die stad Chilpancingo.


16 Maart 1914
Pancho Villa vorder van die stad Chihuahua na Torre n, wat weer deur die federale beset is. Ry onder Villa se uitrusting Generaal Felipe Engel , nou 'n bevelvoerder van Villa's Afdeling van die Noorde.

Wat doen Felipe hier, is hy nie tronk toe gestuur nie? Sien 18 Februarie 1913.

Ja, maar ná die moord op Francisco I. Madero het Victoriano Huerta Felipe laat gaan en hom na Europa gestuur, na Frankryk van alle plekke. Felipe sluip terug na Mexiko en sluit by Venustiano Carranza se rebelleër aan. Trouens, Carranza het Felipe tot minister van oorlog aangestel. Pancho Villa veg ook vir Carranza. Pancho en Felipe het goeie vriende geword. So naby, dat Pancho eendag in die toekoms oor Angeles sal sê dat hy my geleer het dat daar iets soos genade is.

Dit is in elk geval die rede waarom hulle vandag saamry.


17 Maart 1914
Agust'n Breton slaag Adolfo Jimnez Castro as goewerneur van Morelos.


22 - 26 Maart 1914
Slag van Gmez Palacio. Pancho Villa neem Gémez Palacio , 'n stad in die deelstaat Durango. Ongeveer 1 000 mans is dood en 3 000 gewond. Villa is aan die rol en stuur sy troepe rigting Torren.


23 Maart 1914
Chilpancingo val op Emiliano Zapata.


26 Maart - 2 April 1914
Tweede Slag van Torre n . Villa wen.


6 April 1914
Algemene karton aka Die & quotVictor & quot van Huautla word geskiet.

Emiliano Zapata stig sy hoofkwartier in Tixtla.


8 April 1914
Rebelle leier Jes Salgado en sy manne neem Iguala.

Zapata verhuis sy hoofkwartier na Tlaltizapn. Zapata se permanente probleem is die gebrek aan wapens en ammunisie.


9 April 1914
Vir jare het die VSA oorlogskepe in die Mexikaanse Golf onderhou. Vandag het 'n groep Amerikaanse matrose, waaronder hul kaptein, by die hawe van Tampico aan wal gegaan om olie vir hul geweerboot te koop USS Dolphin.

Terwyl hulle in 'n beperkte dokgebied beland het, was die federale bevelvoerder van die stad Pablo Gonz lez besluit om die Amerikaners vir 'n uur en 'n half aan te hou. Hy begelei hulle dan terug na hul walvisboot. Hy vra om verskoning vir die voorval, maar agteradmiraal Henry T. Mayo en later die Amerikaanse president Woodrow Wilson eis 'n formele verskoning in die vorm van 'n gehysde Amerikaanse vlag vergesel van 'n 21 geweersaluut.

Die Mexikaanse president Victoriano Huerta weier en die Amerikaanse president Wilson sê vir sy mariniers om hul bondels te pak en gereed te maak vir 'n klein uitstappie.


14 April 1914
Woodrow Wilson beveel die res van die Amerikaanse Atlantiese vloot na Tampico.


15 April 1914
Pancho Villa betree San Pedro De Las Colonias.


21 April - 14 November 1914
Veracruz -voorval . Amerikaanse magte beset die Mexikaanse hawe Veracruz, die belangrikste hawe in Mexiko.


AMERIKAANSE TROOPE IN VERACRUZ
Library of Congress (?)


22 April 1914
Die hawe van Veracruz is stewig in Amerikaanse hande. Negentien mense is dood, 70 gewond. Honderde Mexikaanse slagoffers.

Die Amerikaanse ambassade in Mexiko is op versoek van die Mexikaanse owerhede gesluit. Nelson O'Shaughnessy steek rond in sy funksie as charg d'affaires vir die VSA, wat basies beteken tydelike ambassadeur.


24 April 1914
Pablo Gonz lez neem Monterrey sonder enige weerstand.

Amerikaanse president Woodrow Wilson gee toestemming vir die mobilisering van die gewone weermag, 54.000 troepe sterk en 150.000 nasionale wagte.

As gevolg hiervan, vloei 'n groot anti-Amerikaanse golf deur Mexiko. Alle totalitariërs, revolusionêre en teenrevolusionêres, hoe vyandig hulle ook al is, maak gesamentlik bekend dat hulle Huerta eerder op die lippe wil soen as om agteroor te sit en die VSA hul land te laat binnedring.

Amerikaanse eiendomme word oral gebrand. Dit is nie 'n goeie tyd vir Amerikaanse wittebrood in Cancun nie.


Einde April 1914
Slegs Jojutla en Cuernavaca bly as federale vestings in Morelos . Emiliano Zapata beleër Jojutla met 'n troepeverhouding van 3 tot 1. Die 1200 federale troepe word verslaan en Zapata neem die stad in.


Middel Mei 1914
Zapata beweeg noordwaarts in die rigting van Cuernavaca. Intussen het Pancho Villa en Venustiano Carranza meningsverskille.


20 Mei 1914
Pancho Villa neem Saltillo.


2 Junie 1914
Zapata begin die Belegging van Cuernavaca . Die omringde federale troepe word gelei deur Generaal Romero .


9 Junie 1914
Ongeveer 2 000 mans onder Kolonel Hernandez slaag daarin om deur te dring na en na die beleërde stad Cuernavaca.


10 Junie 1914
Zapata beveel om terug te trek en in die heuwels terug te trek. Slegs 'n paar troepe sal daar bly vir die beleg, die res beweeg na Mexico -stad.


13 Junie 1914
Pancho Villa bedank sy pos in Venustiano Carranza se weermag. Carranza is gelukkig en vra sy generaals om Pancho se opvolger te kies.


14 Junie 1914
Carranza se generaals verklaar dat hulle nie tevrede is met die vertrek van Pancho Villa nie.


17 Junie 1914
Sonder raadpleging Carranza, Pancho Villa beweeg saam met sy manne na Zacatecas.

Onbekend aan die Zapatistas, ontbind die Kongres van die Unie die staat Morelos en vestig dit op dieselfde gebied in die federale gebied.


21 Junie 1914
Pan American Union direkteur John Barrett woon 'n konferensie by met verskeie prominente Mexikane, wat beide kante van die huidige kontroversie verteenwoordig en 'n nuwe leier vir Mexiko vind.

In 'n New York Times die volgende dag, lewer Barrett kommentaar oor die vind van 'n geskikte man vir voorlopige president - een wat beide kante nie suksesvol kan bewys nie. Dit kan moeilik wees om iemand te vind wat beide kante sonder twyfel maklik sal aanvaar, maar uiteindelik sal daar gevind word teen wie geldige en finale besware nie logies gehandhaaf kan word nie, te midde van die eis van alle Amerika om vrede. Daar bestaan ​​beslis so 'n man, en ek glo dat die bemiddelaars hom binne die volgende drie weke 'n naam kan gee. & Quot


23 Junie 1914
Slag van Zacatecas . Pancho Villa neem Zacatecas. Hy beweer dat slegs 200 van die 12 000 verdedigers van die stad daarin geslaag het om te ontsnap.


Einde Junie 1914
Zapata se weermag verhuis na die Federale Distrik.


4 Julie 1914
Villa-Carranza-vredeskonferensie in Torreon. Sien foto hieronder.


Vrede-konferensie van Villa-Carranza, Torreon
Links na regs: Miguel Silva, Antonio J. Villarreal, Isabel Robles,
Rogue Gonzalez Garza, Ernesto Meade Fierro, Yngeniero Manuel Bonilla, Cesareo Castro, Luis Caballero


6 Julie 1914
Alavaro Obreg n neem Guadalajara.

Die Zapatistas neem Cuernavaca.

Genovevo de la O neem Juvencio Robles 'sitplek as Morelos goewerneur.


9 Julie 1914
Huerta begin sy ontsnapping voorberei. Hy maak hoofregter Francisco S. Carvajal Sekretaris van Buitelandse Betrekkinge.


15 Julie 1914
Huerta dien sy bedanking by die Kamer van Afgevaardigdes in en vlug na Puerto Mexiko.


17 Julie 1914
Huerta klim op die Duitse kruiser Dresden en vaar in ballingskap in Spanje.


18 Julie 1914
Huerta se bedanking het niks vir Zapata verander nie. Hy hou aan en val Milpa Alta aan.

In die noorde, die Konstitusionaliste verslaan die regeringsmagte en vang San Luis Potos .


20 Julie 1914
Milpa Alta gevang deur Zapata.


28 Julie 1914
Carranza se verteenwoordigers kuier saam met Zapata. Zapata hou by syne Plan van Ayala en aanvaar nie afwykings nie.


11 Augustus 1914
Carranza neem die trein na Teoloyucan om met die vyand te gesels. Teoloyucan is slegs 32 kilometer noord van Mexico -stad geleë. Die tussentydse president Carvajal het reeds in ballingskap op die hakke van Huerta gevlug.

Carranza bereik 'n ooreenkoms wat sy konstitusionalistiese magte, onder leiding van Alavaro Obreg n , sou Mexico -stad sonder bloedvergieting oorneem. Die federale troepe sou tot die laaste minuut bly sit om te keer dat Zapata se troepe eers die stad binnekom. As die manne van Carranza in posisie is, sal die federale troepe die rigting Puebla terugtrek, met ander woorde rigting Zapata.

Obregon dring daarop aan dat die Feds wapens en ammunisie moet agterlaat.


13 Augustus 1914
Die Oorlogsdepartement gee die federale weermag oor aan Obregon by Teoloyucan. Op dieselfde dag betree Zapata se troepe Cuernavaca, die hoofstad van die staat Morelos .


14 Augustus 1914
Lorenzo V zquez is die nuwe goewerneur van Morelos . Hy sal so bly tot 2 Mei 1916.


15 Augustus 1914
Obregon betree Mexiko -stad sonder enige opposisie. Die Federale Weermag is ontbind deur die Convenios de Teoloyuc n (Verdrag van Teoloyucan).


16 Augustus 1914
Carranza skryf Zapata en gee hom 'n persoonlike onderhoud. Zapata skryf terug om by Yautepec te ontmoet.


21 Augustus 1914
Emiliano Zapata skryf aan Lucio Blanco & quot; dit Carranza wek nie veel vertroue in my nie. Ek sien by hom baie ambisie en 'n neiging om die mense te mislei. & Quot

Zapata skryf aan Pancho Villa en waarsku hom dat Carranza se ambisies baie gevaarlik is en waarskynlik nog 'n oorlog kan veroorsaak.


Laaste week van Augustus 1914
Venustiano Carranza stuur 'n gesant om Zapata en sy manne in Cuernavaca te ontmoet. Carranza se agente dui aan dat Carranza die landbeleid wat Zapata en sy manne aangedring het, weier. Hulle word later gyselaars gemaak om die veilige vervoer van die sendelinge van Pancho Villa deur Mexiko -stad te waarborg.


25 Augustus 1914
Pancho Villa se verteenwoordigers ontmoet Emiliano Zapata. Zapata gee vir hulle 'n brief aan Villa waarin gesê word dat die tyd 'n voorlopige regering tot stand kan bring. & Quot


Laat in Augustus 1914
Emiliano Zapata publiseer nog 'n manifes wat sy teleurstelling toon en verklaar dat hy nie sal toegee aan die valse beloftes van die Konstitusionalis leiers.

Historikus John Womack merk op dat & quotCarranza polities verouderd was. . In Morelos nou was trou aan 'n man soos Carranza onmoontlik. . Villa voel dieselfde en hy ontvang die brief van Zapata met simpatieke instemming. & Quot


3 September 1914
Pancho Villa ontmoet met Alavaro Obreg n , die leier van die Konstitusionalis reis op 15 Augustus na Mexico -stad in Chihuahua City. As gevolg hiervan het die mans 'n 9-punt plan opgestel om die gevaar van verdere oorlog uit te skakel.

Een bepaling was dat Venustiano Carranza moet tussentydse president wees en belas word met die reël van presidentsverkiesings, wat Carranza self sou uitsluit.

Intussen voel Carranza dat die presidentstoel redelik gemaklik is. Hoekom beweeg.


5 September 1914
Carranza pers onderhoud. Hy weier om die Plan van Ayala . Hy weier om saam te stem dat 'n revolusionêre byeenkoms vergader om 'n tussentydse president te noem. Maar hy sê dat hy bereid is om 'n agrariese hervorming te bespreek en nooi Zapata's Weermag van die Suide om 'n afvaardiging te stuur om dit te doen.

Af en toe breek daar skietery uit Konstitusionaliste en Zapatistas.


8 September 1914
Zapata gee 'n bevel van Cuernavaca uit waarin gesê word dat dit tyd is Artikel 8 van die Plan van Ayala , wat verwys na totale nasionalisering van goedere wat aan die verhuurders behoort wat die plan van Ayala teëstaan. Landelike eiendom wat op hierdie manier geneem word, sal oorhandig word aan pueblos of weduwees en weeskinders van die revolusie wat grond benodig.


30 September 1914
Pancho Villa berei hom voor om suid te trek en gee a Manifes vir die Mexikaanse volk . Villa nooi alle Mexikane uit om saam met hom die vervanging van die Konstitusionalis leier Venustiano Carranza met 'n burgerlike regering.


Begin Oktober 1914
Alavaro Obreg n en sy manne beraadslaag met afgevaardigdes van Pancho Villa by Zacatecas. Daar word besluit om 'n volledige byeenkoms te hou wat alle elemente van die rewolusie op 10 Oktober in Aguascalientes (Aguas Calientes) verteenwoordig, met die doel om eenheid te herstel en die toekoms van Mexiko te beplan.


10 Oktober 1914
Revolusionêre Konvensie van Aguascalientes. Die revolusionêre konvensie begin by die Morelos teater in Aguascalientes. Zapata woon nie persoonlik by nie, maar stuur 'n waarnemer, later 'n afvaardiging. Sien 23. Oktober. Hierdie byeenkoms duur tot 13 November 1914.


12 Oktober 1914
Derde dag van die revolusionêre byeenkoms. Algemeen Felipe esngeles stel voor om nog 'n formele uitnodiging aan die Zapatistas.


14 Oktober 1914
Die Konvensionaliste verklaar hulself die soewereine gesag in die land.


15 Oktober 1914
Felipe esngeles stem in om self na Cuernavaca te gaan en die Zapatistas om by te woon.


19 Oktober 1914
Felipe esngeles kom by Cuernavaca aan.


20 Oktober 1914
Felipe esngeles ontmoet Zapata. Zapata verduidelik sy penarie. Die revolusionêre konvensie moet die Plan van Ayala .


22 Oktober 1914
Konferensie op die hoogste vlak by die Zapata -hoofkwartier. Die bywoning is ook Felipe esngeles . 'N Kompromis word bereik: nie volledig nie Plan van Ayala as sodanig, maar slegs die beginsels van die plan moet deur die konvensie erken word.


23 Oktober 1914
'N Afvaardiging van Zapatistas, 26 man, vertrek na Aguascalientes. Zapata bly in Cuernavaca. Leier van die afvaardiging is Paulino Martenez .


Zapatista -afvaardiging - die Convention of Aguascalientes
Voor, tweede van links: Paulino Martinez.
Derde van links: Antonio Diaz Soto y Gama

24 Oktober 1914
Die afvaardiging van Zapata bereik Mexiko -stad.


25 Oktober 1914
Die afvaardiging van Zapata klim op 'n trein na Aguascalientes waar 'n verwelkomingskomitee dit verwag. MAAR die trein stop nie daar nie. Dit loop tot by Guadalupe, die hoofkwartier van Pancho Villa.

Die Zapata -afvaardiging kontroleer dubbel of Pancho Villa steeds die belange van die suidelike beweging op die hart dra. Verseker skuifel hulle terug na Aguascalientes. Hierdie keer stop die trein by Aguascalientes.


26 Oktober 1914
Die afvaardiging van Zapata arriveer in Aguascalientes.


27 Oktober 1914
Paulino Martenez spreek goed by die revolusionêre byeenkoms. Hy noem Grond en vryheid, Grond en geregtigheid, en Grond vir almal! Hy stel nie belang in rykdom of die presidentstoel nie. Hy wys daarop dat dit alles waarskynlik nie gaan gebeur nie Carranza in die voortou. Die enigste ware rigting sou wees om die Plan van Ayala .

Die volgende spreker is Soto en Gama , a Zapatista, 33 jaar oud, 'n prokureur. Sy toespraak is 'n ramp. Hy probeer daarop wys dat individuele eer belangriker is as mitiese eer vir 'n simbool, en om sy punt te onderstreep, gryp hy die vlag, op watter punt die hele huis begin freak.

Eduardo Hay , a Carrancista en 'n baie slim man, maak gebruik van die fout van Soto en laat die mense opstaan ​​teen die Zapatistas.

Stryery duur voort vir die volgende vier dae tussen die Carrancistas, die Zapatiste, en die Villistas. Die voorheen gematigdes word aangetrokke tot die Carrancistas na die fout van Soto.

Pancho Villa kondig aan dat hy gereed is om af te tree as Carranza dit ook sou doen.


29 Oktober 1914
Alavaro Obreg n lees 'n boodskap van Carranza aan die konvensie. Carranza stem in om af te tree as Villa en Zapata gelyktydig uittree.


30 Oktober 1914
Die konvensies sluit die breë publiek uit en stem oorweldigend ten gunste van Villa's en Carranza se aftrede.


1 November 1914
Carranza gaan nie aftree nie, aangesien hy beweer dat daar nie aan sy voorwaardes voldoen is nie en Villa nie gaan uittree nie, aangesien Carranza nie gaan nie.

Carranza verlaat die hoofstad na Tlaxcala.


2 November 1914
Die anti-Carranza-deel van die konvensie kies Eulalio Guti rez as die nuwe presidentskandidaat in plaas van Carranza .

Manuel Palafox word minister van landbou.


10 November 1914
Villa skryf aan Zapata dat die tyd vir vyandelikhede aangebreek het


13 November 1914
Laaste sessie van die Revolutionary Convention in Aguascalientes. Almal klap vas. Geen kompromie naby nie.

Nou is die revolusionêre verdeel in Konstitusionaliste en Konvensionaliste. Om hulle uitmekaar te hou: Die konstitusionaliste is die Carrancistas, ook genoem Gematigdes. Die konvensionaliste is almal wat tydens die revolusionêre byeenkoms in Aguascalientes teen die Konstitusionaliste, dit wil sê die Villistas en die Zapatistas, voortaan steeds genoem Revolusionêre.


19 November 1914
Alavaro Obreg n verklaar formeel oorlog aan Pancho Villa en berei hom daarvoor voor terwyl hy in Mexikostad is.


20 November 1914
Obreg n en sy troepe trek uit Mexico City. Villa is die aangestelde opperbevelvoerder van die Konvensioneel magte.


23 November 1914
Die Amerikaners begin ontruiming uit die hawe van Veracruz en Carranza bereid om in te trek. Intussen berei Villa en Zapata voor om Mexiko -stad binne te gaan.


24 November 1914
Zapata se troepe betree Mexiko -stad.


26 November 1914
Zapata arriveer per trein in Mexico City. In plaas daarvan om in die Nasionale Paleis te bly, neem hy 'n kamer by 'n klein hotel, ironies genoeg San L zaro.


27 November 1914
Personderhoud met Zapata. Die arme verslaggewers het nie meer as 'n paar gemompelde sinne gekry nie. Zapata het 'n uitnodiging geweier om seremonies in die paleis by te woon.

Villa bly buite Mexico -stad in die nabygeleë dorpie Tacubya.


28 November 1914
Zapata terug na Cuernavaca. Sy troepe trek kort daarna uit Mexico City.


4 Desember 1914
Eerste historiese ontmoeting tussen Zapata en Villa by die munisipale skool van Xochimilco, 20 myl suid van die hoofstad.

Saam met Emiliano Zapata kom sy broer Eufemio , Zapata se neef Amador Salazar , Zapata se suster Mara de Jes , en Zapata se klein seuntjie Nicol s .

Met Pancho Villa het sy elite troepe, die Dorados, of die Goue Onesies, so genoem as gevolg van die goue kentekens wat hulle op hul kakie -uniforms en Stetsons gedra het.

Hulle het ingestem om saam te werk in die nuwe veldtog teen Carranza met die volgende strategie: Zapata en syne Weermag van die Suide sou ry op Puebla terwyl Villa en syne Afdeling van die Noorde sou via Apizaco op Veracruz trek.

'N Amptelike en gesamentlike besetting van Mexico City was op 6 Desember 1914 geskeduleer.


Emiliano Zapata en Pancho Villa
lei hul troepe na Mexico City
Hugo Brehme fotografie

6 Desember 1914
Tussentydse president Eulalio Guti rez hou 'n banket by die Nasionale Paleis. Groepsfoto skiet sessie.


PANCHO VILLA EN EMILIANO ZAPATA 6 DESEMBER 1914
OP DIE PRESIDENSIALE PALEIS IN MEXICO CITY.
Met verbande kop: Otilio E. Montano
Regter boonste hoek: Rodolfo Fierro



PANCHO VILLA, EULALIO GUTI RREZ EN EMILIANO ZAPATA
Banket in die presidensiële paleis in Mexiko -stad - Desember 1914


Iemand het die gebeurtenis op video vasgelê.
Kyk hoe Villa en Zapata wegknars:



Hier is nog een. Klik om te vergroot.

Let op die boonste ry van die kind met 'n groot hoed en 'n enorme boog.
Jy kyk na die skutter Don Antonio Gmez Delgado op die ouderdom van 14,
en hier is 'n onderhoud met hom nadat die grimering ouens huis toe gegaan het:

7 Desember 1914
Villa en Zapata verduidelik hul veldtogplanne om tussentydse president te wees Eulalio Guti rez .


9 Desember 1914
Zapata verlaat Mexico -stad om sy veldtog te begin. Hy gaan Villa nie weer sien nie.

Saam het Villa en Zapata op hierdie stadium ongeveer 60 000 man gehad.


13 Desember 1914
Zapata hoor berigte oor gevegte tussen Villa se beamptes en sy offisiere in Mexikostad. Blykbaar infiltreer ex-federale agente die geledere van die revolusionêre en versprei wantroue.


15 Desember 1914
Zapata vang Puebla City. Die garnisoen laat vaar hul verdediging en vlug na Veracruz.


16 Desember 1914
Zapata skryf aan Villa dat vyande baie aktief werk om die noorde en suide te verdeel.

Zapata laat vaar sy veldtog. In plaas daarvan om verder na Veracruz te gaan en Puebla City onder beheer te hou, gaan hy terug Morelos .

Rondom hierdie tyd Villa en Guti rez vind uit dat hulle op verskeie punte verskil. Guti rez begin onderhandel Obreg n , die Carrancista generaal by Veracruz.


Transkripsie

[Musiek: 'When You Wear a Tulip and I Wear a Big Red Rose']

Robyn Williams: Sulke onskuldige dae. 100 jaar gelede hierdie week het oorlog en wetenskap in Australië ontplof. Hierdie week in 1914 het die BA 'n vergadering hier gehou, die British Association, wat wetenskaplikes as 'n beroep aangewys het, en selfs gehelp het om Charles Darwin bekend te maak. Maar waarom soontoe hierheen kom soos die oorlog bedreig het? Dit is Geoffrey Fishburn, 'n besoekende genoot aan die Universiteit van Nieu -Suid -Wallis.

Ons kyk na 'n vergadering wat 100 jaar gelede gehou is. Hoe het hierdie ontmoeting in Australië ontstaan ​​toe daar soveel mense van al die kant af moes kom? Waarom is dit gevra?

Geoffrey Fishburn: Ek dink dit is die gevolg van die aankoms van 'n telegram by die vergadering in 1884 wat in Kanada gehou is. En die telegram was baie eenvoudig, daar staan ​​eenvoudig 'Monotremes oviparous, ovum meroblastic'.

Robyn Williams: 'Monotremes' beteken platypus ...

Geoffrey Fishburn: Platypus in hierdie geval. Echidnas ja, maar daar is spesifiek na platypus verwys.

Robyn Williams: Met ander woorde dat hulle eiers lê.

Geoffrey Fishburn: Hulle lê eiers ...

Robyn Williams: Maar…

Geoffrey Fishburn: Maar eierdeling is nie voltooi nie ... in meroblastiese verdeling, as gevolg van die groot hoeveelheid eiergeel in die sel, is die verdeling nie voltooi nie.

Robyn Williams: En so is hierdie telegram gestuur van ...

Geoffrey Fishburn: Sydney, van 'n heer Shepherd in Sydney, na die vergadering wat in Kanada gehou is.

Robyn Williams: En hoe is die telegram ontvang?

Geoffrey Fishburn: Die president van die afdeling destyds in Montréal het gesê, en ek haal aan, hy het nie van mening dat daar ooit 'n belangriker telegram in wetenskaplike sin deur die ondersese kabels gegaan het nie. En so het die afgevaardigdes natuurlik gedink dat ons eendag na hierdie vreemde wese en die ander dinge wat daarmee gepaard gaan, moet gaan kyk.

Robyn Williams: Die British Association for the Advancement of Science besluit dus al die jare later, 30 jaar later, om na Sydney te kom. Dit is 'n ontsaglike lang pad. Hoe lank het dit hulle geneem?

Geoffrey Fishburn: Ek dink dit het 'n paar maande geneem.

Robyn Williams: Hoeveel het gekom?

Geoffrey Fishburn: 300 afgevaardigdes.

Robyn Williams: 300 het al die pad gekom net om te sien hoe Australië lyk en 'n vergadering te hou.

Geoffrey Fishburn: Ja. Die amptelike opening was 8 Augustus, wat toevallig die verjaardag was van die president van die vereniging William Bateson.

Robyn Williams: Dus het ons waarskynlik ook 'n aantal Australiese wetenskaplikes deelgeneem?

Geoffrey Fishburn: O ja, daar was baie Australiese wetenskaplikes, diegene wat reeds hier was en diegene wat teruggekeer het. As ons die Australiese na die Australasiese uitbrei, het Ernest Rutherford teruggekom, en ons het Grafton Elliot Smith, die anatomis, teruggekeer.

Robyn Williams: 'N Regte sterbelaaide rolverdeling.

Geoffrey Fishburn: Dit was, ja.

Robyn Williams: So waaroor het hulle gepraat?

Geoffrey Fishburn: Hulle het oor alles gepraat, en in die verskillende afdelings het hulle gepraat oor wiskunde, fisika en chemie, biologie of fisiologie, opvoeding, daar was selfs 'n gedeelte oor ekonomiese wetenskap.

Robyn Williams: En u is eintlik 'n ekonoom, en dit maak u trots.

Geoffrey Fishburn: Wel, nie so trots nie, maar nuuskierig.

Robyn Williams: Inderdaad. Het hulle dus al die pad gekom, 'n bietjie vertoef en rondgekyk?

Geoffrey Fishburn: Hulle het gereis. 'N Gevorderde partytjie het vooraf in Perth aangekom en daarna na verskillende dele van Wes -Australië gereis. Toe begin die amptelike verrigtinge, soos ek gesê het, op 8 Augustus in Adelaide. Die vergadering is vier dae in Adelaide gehou, en daarna sewe dae na Melbourne, Sydney sewe dae en Brisbane vier dae.

Robyn Williams: Hulle het dus hul waarde gekry. Wie het dit alles eintlik befonds?

Geoffrey Fishburn: Dit is grootliks gefinansier, as ek uit die amptelike verslag van die vergadering kan noem, behalwe die bydrae van £ 15,000 vir reis na die buiteland, het die Gemenebest -regering al die uitgawes van die organiserende sekretaris en die wat verband hou met die werk van die Federale Raad gedek. Die staatsregerings, behalwe om die totale koste van lede se spoorweg in Australië te onderneem, dra elkeen 'n groot bedrag by tot die algemene uitgawes. En as ek net kan wys dat die £ 15,000 gelyk is aan ongeveer 1,7 miljoen dollar in die huidige geldeenheid.

Robyn Williams: So hulle het dit regtig ernstig opgeneem.

Geoffrey Fishburn: Hulle het dit baie, baie ernstig opgeneem, en die Handboek van die Gemenebest met sy essays van wetenskaplike aard is inderdaad 'n momentopname van die Australiese wetenskap van 1914.

Robyn Williams: Net om dit in konteks te stel, as u na die geskiedenis van die Britse wetenskap kyk, wel, in 1833 het u die woord 'wetenskaplike' in 1833 in Cambridge tydens die BA -byeenkoms daar. 'N Paar jaar later in Oxford het u die beroemde debat oor Darwinisme gehad, waar TH Huxley teen die biskop van Oxford geveg het, dink ek.

Geoffrey Fishburn: Seperige Sam.

Robyn Williams: Dit is reg, Soapy Sam, soos hy genoem is. Omtrent daardie tyd, dink ek Richard Owen, het hulle die dinosourusse genoem deur Richard Owen, wat nie noodwendig ten gunste van Darwin was nie, maar tog baie as anatomiste gedoen het om uit te vind dat dinosourusse werklik 'n aparte spesie is. Dus noem hy hulle daar, en eintlik was Richard Owen die persoon wat teruggaan na die platypusse wat hulle eintlik ontleed het en bewys het dat hulle nie 'n vals voorwerp is nie. Die BA, die British Association for the Advancement of Science, het 'n ongelooflike rekord in die geskiedenis van die moderne wetenskap, nie waar nie.

Geoffrey Fishburn: Dit doen inderdaad. It was set up, as we know, in 1831, not as an alternative to the Royal Society, in fact most of the officers of the BA were fellows of the Royal Society. But I'll put it this way, Robyn, if I could The Science Show of the day.

Robyn Williams: You're very kind!

Geoffrey Fishburn: In other words, to bring to a scientifically literate public a discussion of scientific matters by persons highly qualified to do so outside of the Academy.

Robyn Williams: Sekerlik. Well, the Academy itself, the Royal Society was a professional association, to which you were elected if you reached a certain standard as an investigator. It was quite different.

Geoffrey Fishburn: As you said, many discoveries, innovations, were announced at meetings of the British Association.

Robyn Williams: Tell me about the ship that brought them or ships, and what happened next.

Geoffrey Fishburn: This is an interesting story. They came out on a number of ships, but one in particular, the one that brought out a large number of delegates and carried the delegates who had already arrived in Perth across to the Adelaide opening was the RMS Orvieto, an Orient Line ship. At the outbreak of the war, and remember the war was declared on 4th August, four days before the official opening of the meeting, the Orvieto was requisitioned by the Commonwealth of course. Now, it later, in its first voyage away from Australia, carried the first Australian troops to Alexandria. Now, from Alexandria they were destined to go of course to the western front. But of course while they were in Alexandria somebody had come up with a brilliant idea why don't we force the Dardanelles, send them to Gallipoli instead? Sodat die Orvieto, which had brought scientists to Australia, eventually carried our first troops to Gallipoli, and the rest is history of course.

Robyn Williams: Dit is. What about the effect of that meeting on the history of Australian science? Did it have after effects?

Geoffrey Fishburn: It did have after effects, although probably they weren't to be seen for some time. One of course would have been, with respect to the organising secretary David Rivett, who I could say more about in a minute, on 18th August though while the meeting was being held in Melbourne a small group of scientists, astronomers, went to Joseph Cook who was then Prime Minister of course, and remember the government was in Melbourne at the time, parliament was still meeting in Melbourne, suggesting that we have a national observatory. And Cook couldn't do anything about it at the time of course, but what was later to be Mount Stromlo, the seed was sown at that point. And of course once the war expenses and everything were out of the way in the early 1920s they could get on with that.

Robyn Williams: And what happened to that young man David Rivett?

Geoffrey Fishburn: David Rivett, a very interesting person in himself. He had married the daughter of Alfred Deakin, Stella Deakin. At the age of 27 he was organising the conference out here, an enormous job because he had to come back to Australia from Oxford where he was a research chemist having taken his PhD in Melbourne, and organise across the length and breadth of Australia…in fact Rohan, his son, in his biography records how he and Stella had to travel the length of Australia in old trains, bumpy old cars, on unmade roads, to organise the whole lot really across the capital cities. He later went on of course to be the chairman of what became the CSIRO, and was later knighted for his efforts, and is credited with in large part the establishment of the Australian National University.

Robyn Williams: Geoffrey, that's a fascinating story, of which I had not a clue, may I tell you. What made you look all this up?

Geoffrey Fishburn: I came across it quite by accident. I was doing some research on the economist Alfred Marshall, as best I remember, and there was a slight reference to the meeting of the British Association in Australia, and I thought this is very interesting, something I had never heard of before. And the centenary would be coming up relatively soon, so I thought I would do something about it.

Robyn Williams: Very kind indeed. Thank you so much.

Geoffrey Fishburn: Dankie.

Robyn Williams: Geoffrey Fishburn is a visiting fellow at the University of New South Wales School of Social Sciences, and he tells me that the BA meeting here was covered extensively in the journals Wetenskap en Natuur.


30 for 30: 'Pony Excess' on ESPN+

In 1987, the NCAA issued the "death penalty" on a college football program for the first and only time in its history. Watch on ESPN+

Sherrill: Texas and Texas A&M, and then you throw in Arkansas, none of the rest had the same money. But the oil money in Texas made a big difference. So you did have some alumni at Rice, at Baylor, at TCU, at SMU that were very, very wealthy.

John Jenkins, Houston offensive coordinator 1987-89, head coach 1990-92: [In the 1980s, SMU] started lining up and beating the likes of Texas and certainly A&M. And that's when some problems started occurring . the bitterness of rivalries, the intense competition of recruiting. [SMU coach] Ron [Meyer] went on probation, but so did everybody else at the same time. I mean, everybody, other than Rice, got put on probation for cheating with some sort of restrictions put on 'em.

Mike Glazier, NCAA enforcement 1979-86: What we believed at that period of time is that there was a lot of money or benefits being provided to athletes to go to certain schools. Obviously, SMU got caught up in that at the time and then probably other schools, either trying to compete with SMU or SMU was trying to compete with some of the other schools and they're the ones who got caught first. Who knows? It's kind of a chicken-and-egg deal. But at that point in time, I think many would have considered football recruiting in the Southwest Conference to be -- I don't know what the right term is . but almost [with] no limits.

One of the Southwest Conference's iconic stars of the 1980s, Eric Dickerson was the subject of a fierce recruiting battle. AP Photo/David Breslauer

In 1985, the NCAA banned SMU from bowl games for two seasons and stripped the Mustangs of 45 scholarships over two years, one of the strongest punishments in NCAA history. It stemmed from a payroll system for players involving wealthy boosters. The same year, oilman Dick Lowe, a TCU trustee, confessed to helping the Horned Frogs with their own slush fund and personally paying players, including star running back Kenneth Davis. The scheme "was born out of total frustration, from getting our butts beat by people we knew were buying players," Lowe told The New York Times. ''I think there are 91 Division 1-A schools and my assessment is that 80 of them are buying football players." The SWC could not keep its members from pointing fingers at each other to the NCAA.

Sherrill: You had a lot of coaches that completely started the whole thing [turning each other in]. And then some of their alumni got involved in putting up some money to go after some schools.

Teaff: It became very much a lot of hard feelings, because you knew what was happening. I saw kids cry and say, "Coach, I've got to go to such-and-such school. I can't afford not to." The men I knew that were coaching at other schools were not criminals, they were not bad guys, you know. But they had to do what they had to do, and they did it.

Glazier: At the same point in time, recruiting in the Southeast was very competitive, specifically the Southeastern Conference. Charley Pell at the University of Florida was involved in a pretty significant infractions case then. I can tell you what the sense was at the time was that you could start probably in West Texas and move directly east all the way to the East Coast through the Florida Panhandle and all the SEC schools, and it was all pretty wide open in terms of recruiting back in those days.

Slocum: In other parts of the country where the schools were more scattered, things would probably not have reached the level where they got the publicity they got. But with everybody here living right on top of each other, word got out. Every Sunday in church everybody's upset at each other.

Nothing scarred the league more than the NCAA's "death penalty" handed down to SMU in 1987 after it was designated a repeat offender for continuing the payroll to honor its promise to some of the players. The Mustangs were forced to cancel their 1987 and '88 seasons. After going 41-5 in the pre-probation years from 1981 to '84, the Mustangs would have only one winning season from 1989 to 2005 and would not win 10 games again until 2019.


League of Nations instituted

On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect.

In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of the most costly war ever fought to that date. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, and in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war.

In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months later, the Allies met with conquered Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson urged a just and lasting peace, but England and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies. The League of Nations was approved, however, and in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the U.S. Senate for ratification.

Wilson suffered a severe stroke in the fall of that year, which prevented him from reaching a compromise with those in Congress who thought the treaties reduced U.S. authority. In November, the Senate declined to ratify both. The League of Nations proceeded without the United States, holding its first meeting in Geneva on November 15, 1920.

During the 1920s, the League, with its headquarters in Geneva, incorporated new members and successfully mediated minor international disputes but was often disregarded by the major powers. The League’s authority, however, was not seriously challenged until the early 1930s, when a series of events exposed it as ineffectual. Japan simply quit the organization after its invasion of China was condemned, and the League was likewise powerless to prevent the rearmament of Germany and the Italian invasion of Ethiopia. The declaration of World War II was not even referred to by the then-virtually defunct League.

In 1946, the League of Nations was officially dissolved with the establishment of the United Nations. The United Nations was modeled after the former but with increased international support and extensive machinery to help the new body avoid repeating the League’s failures.


Our ongoing commitment

That commitment endures today through an organization that remains truly international. Only 16 years after being founded, Rotary had clubs on six continents. Our members now span the globe, working to solve some of our world’s most challenging problems.

We’re not afraid to dream big and set bold goals. We began our fight against polio in 1979 with a project to immunize 6 million children in the Philippines. Today, polio remains endemic in only three countries — down from 125 in 1988.


The Death of Barbaro

Jan. 29, 2007— -- At Churchill Downs they post the name of every Kentucky Derby winner on the white walls of the place, literally encircling the paddock area in 132 years of rich racing history.

From Aristides in 1875 to Citation in 1948 to Secretariat in 1973, you read the names and channel the majesty.

But for as long as the place stands, everyone who experienced the bittersweet racing summer of 2006 will look at the sign saying "Barbaro" and feel a spasm of sadness. No Derby story ever took such a sharp turn toward tragedy.

Two minutes of glory, followed by two weeks of adulation.

An instant of horror, followed by weeks of worry.

Then weeks of cautious, growing optimism.

Now a final moment of sorrow.

That was Barbaro's vivid streak across our consciousness. From a stirring sprint down the stretch in Louisville on the first Saturday in May to a horrible afternoon two weeks later in Baltimore to a somber announcement from a Pennsylvania animal hospital in January, he left his mark on us.

It is a testament to his athletic prowess and equine beauty that we cared this much. It is a testament to the will and skill of many humans that he lived this long. Yet ultimately it is a testament to the brutal realities of thoroughbred racing as it exists today: Despite every effort of man and medicine, this magnificent colt could not be saved from injuries that are far too common in the sport of kings.

"I won't say it was a surprise, but I will say that my heart broke and 100 million hearts broke with mine because we had all gotten so connected with this horse," Laura Hillenbrand, author of "Seabiscuit," said in an exclusive interview with ABC News. "Some of it has to do with the time we're living in. We wanted to find a story that had a happy ending and for so long it seemed like this story was going to have a happy ending."

Given the fragility of the breed and the amount of stress inflicted upon these animals at the young age of 3, we're probably lucky these catastrophic breakdowns don't happen more often. And in the case of Barbaro, we're absolutely lucky there was ever any hope of survival at all.

From the moment the colt's shattered right hind leg torqued out at a gruesome angle just 200 yards into the Preakness last May 20, it took a heroic effort from everyone involved to give Barbaro a chance to live as long as he did.

Jockey Edgar Prado brought the surging and scared colt to a rapid halt, giving the track vets a chance to treat him on the Pimlico front stretch. Emergency personnel quickly vanned Barbaro from Baltimore to the New Bolton Center in Kennett Square, Pa. Once there, Dr. Dean Richardson performed a surgery described as both intricate and exquisite to stabilize the colt's fractured leg.

Richardson warned everyone it would take months to heal the horse, with many pitfalls along the way. Despite the efforts of the doctor and his staff, and the unwavering dedication of owners Roy and Gretchen Jackson, Richardson's prediction proved depressingly accurate.

Laminitis, a debilitating and often fatal hoof disease, set in on Barbaro's left hind leg during early July. But even after surgery to remove most of the hoof, the colt showed remarkable progress -- to the point that in December, Barbaro's release to the rolling bluegrass hills of a Kentucky horse farm seemed imminent.

It never happened. Laminitis intensified, and an abcess developed in the hoof of the damaged right hind leg. The combination became too much to overcome. Monday, 254 days after the injury and 268 days after he became a racing hero, Barbaro was put down.

Hard-luck horse racing did it to us again, capturing our imagination and then breaking our hearts. For every Seabiscuit, it seems there are two or three Barbaros.

It's a sport rife with romanticism, brimming with inspirational stories fit for accompaniment by soaring cinematic symphony scores. But the romance is shattered easily, as brittle as the bones in a 1,200-pound horse's skinny legs.

What needs to be unbroken is this: an industry-wide resolve to examine horse racing and make it a safer sport. That could be the positive to come out of this tragedy, and the lasting Barbaro legacy.

The colt's death probably can't be blamed on the usual racing suspects. Nobody believes the horse was physically unsound. Nobody believes the Pimlico Race Course surface was unsafe on Preakness Saturday. Nobody believes this had anything to do with an American obsession on breeding for speed, or pushing a young horse too hard, or Triple Crown races bunched too closely together.

It was, most likely, either one horribly bad step or -- if you believe, as some do, that Brother Derek accidentally kicked Barbaro shortly after the start -- one horribly bad bit of timing.

But obsessing over that individual injury misses the bigger picture, which shows that horse racing routinely devours its stars.

At Arlington Park in Chicago, the '06 summer race meet was devastated by the catastrophic breakdowns of 17 horses in racing and three during morning training hours. In California there were more than 240 fatalities at horse tracks between 2003 and 2005.

Those kind of statistics cannot be tolerated in a sport that is at risk of losing even more of its already splintered audience. Neither can the death of the star of 2006, just one race after America got to know him. It's time to question everything.

Here are the issues horse racing must now confront and discuss, in the wake of its worst fatal breakdown since Ruffian in 1975:

• Safer racing surfaces. Turfway Park in northern Kentucky has gone to Polytrack, a synthetic surface, with encouraging results in terms of reduced injuries. Tradition-steeped Keeneland in Lexington is switching to Polytrack in time for its October meet. Tracks in California have been mandated to adapt to Polytrack as well.

Polytrack will not eradicate catastrophic injury, and its long-term viability is not yet clear. But tracks everywhere should monitor closely how the surface performs over the next 12 months and be prepared to change, if there is compelling evidence that it is safer than dirt.

• A change in medication controls. In recent decades thoroughbreds have become walking pharmaceutical labs, routinely running on blood-thinning medication and anti-inflammatories. There is concern that some of these drugs are used to keep horses going through infirmities and injuries -- and those are the legal drugs. (Every track backside buzzes with whispers about which trainers are a step ahead of the drug-testing posse.)

At the very least, it would help to have more uniform rules on what's allowed from state to state, and how to test for the latest contraband.

• A change in age. This is about as likely to fly as an anvil, but some thoroughbred advocates would like to see 2-year-old racing banned completely and the Triple Crown pushed back from a 3-year-old contest to 4-year-olds.

That affront to 130-plus years of tradition is based on the very reasonable belief that today's race horses are far more delicate than they were generations ago. Very few of the top 2-year-olds are still at their prime at age 3, and even today's lightly raced horses are difficult to keep sound through a Triple Crown campaign.

In fact, just getting horses to the Kentucky Derby has become a battle of attrition. Take a snapshot of the Derby starting gate the minute it opens and record it for posterity. Many of the horses in the field will never been heard from again after that race. A large number of them are cooked each year in the rigorous campaign up to the run for the roses.

Why not, the argument goes, wait until the horses are mature enough to handle the grind?

• A change in calendar, adding more time between the Kentucky Derby, Preakness and Belmont. Instead of packing all three long and grueling races into five weeks, space them out between the first weekends of May, June and July.

This also is an affront to ancient tradition, but it would seem a more likely and palatable alternative than making the Triple Crown a 4-year-old competition. It might sustain interest in racing over a longer period, and it would definitely increase the likelihood of having more horses race in all three legs of the Crown. This year, for the second time this century, no horse ran in all three races.

Some people also would like to see a change in the classic distances, shortening all three races -- or, if the idea of running the Kentucky Derby at 1 1/8 miles is too heretical, shortening two of the three.

Change is not something thoroughbred racing does well, but doing nothing should not be an option. Doing something to make the sport safer would burnish Barbaro's legacy, and might lessen the sadness we'll feel when we see his name on the Churchill Downs wall.


The ABC Conference (May-June 1914) - History

The period from 1918 to 1948 was one of lost peace, of unrest, instability, economical crisis, crimes, suffering, war and eventually the cold war and peace.

Synopsis

With the armistice of 11 November, 1918 quiet descends on Europe for the first time in over four years. Among the casualties the First World War is liberal idealism and confidence in the achievements of science and technical advance to further the progress of man. Into the void will come a new and darker idealism forged in the fires of war and destruction. With the unhappy peace treaty of Versailles, come the arbitrary drawing of lines on a map, the sundering of empires and peoples, the creation of convenient catch-all nations, the treachery of politics. The flowering of Fascism in Italy emboldens those who have similar designs in other countries. Political unrest and instability quickly devolve into the inflation of 1923 and after a brief period of recovery, when the nations seemed to have found their footing, to the Great Depression of 1929.
As the world struggles into the 1930's the democracies of the west will suffer a crises of confidence, and the fledgling Weimar Republic of Germany will be guided onto the rocks of totalitarianism by an unhappy concurrence of men and events. The League of Nations, the only real achievement of the victors of the Great War is never properly empowered by it's member nations who do not wish to surrender any bit of sovereignty in the interest of collective security and will sputter out of existence. The stage is set for the emergence of Hitler, the evil of Stalinism and the brutal militarism of the Japanese Army and it's savaging of China. The democratic West, under seige by doubt, division and economic hardship will prove to be not equal to the demands of peace and as the thirties come to a close, Europe and the world are again plunged into war. The violence of total war will be hurled onto soldier and civilian alike. Nearly all of Europe and half of China and the vast Pacific regions will feel the terrors of war before the final victory of the Allied Nations. When the dust settled in 45, some 60 million people had died in the war and in the worst crime that ever happened, the holocaust.
This time, the mistakes of Versailles will not be repeated after the war as the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of the devastated nations is implemented. Still it is an uneasy peace, beset with fears of tyranny and nuclear anihilation that blankets Europe, America and Asia as the frightening realites of the Cold War between the West and the Soviet Union take hold. Eventually the West will demonstrate that it has well learned the folly of appeasement win the face of aggression. When Soviets try to bully Berlin into their occupation zone, they are defeated by the Berlin Airlift. With this, Western Germany is reassured of it's future and it's place with the Western democracies, the period of Soviet expansionism shifts from Europe to other places, setting the stage for the Cold War.


On This Day - 28 July 1914

Theatre definitions: Wesfront comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Oosfront comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Bron: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London copyright expired)

Austria issues manifesto and declares war on Serbia at noon: refuses proposals of mediation or Conference: has no quarrel with Russia.

Russia says mobilisation of Southern Corps will be announced tomorrow, but she has no aggressive intentions against Germany.

Russian Ambassador at Vienna wires to M. Sazonov that Austrian general mobilisation order has been signed.

Kaiser wires to Tsar he will use his influence with Austria.

Germany conciliatory, but throws responsibility of possible war on Russia.