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Waar word Havillah, die land van goud, in Genesis beskryf?

Waar word Havillah, die land van goud, in Genesis beskryf?

Genesis 2: 11-12 beskryf 'n land met die naam Havilla, waar daar baie goeie goud is.

Is daar historiese pogings aangewend om hierdie land op te spoor, en wat weet ons van sulke ekspedisies as dit wel bestaan?


Land van Punt

Dit is heeltemal Bybels en geen manier om die bestaan ​​daarvan te bewys nie, maar volgens Wikipedia en. "Die ligging van die tuin van Eden" Sommige Bybelgeleerdes beweer dat hul term vir die ligging "Havilah" ooreenstem met "Land of Punt".

Land van Punt, Wikipedia

terwyl sommige Bybelwetenskaplikes dit met die Bybelse land Put of Havilah geïdentifiseer het

Ligging van Land of Punt

Geleerdes en historici kan nie met mekaar saamstem oor die presiese ligging van die land van punt nie, maar ek sal 'n foto van Wikipedia verskaf wat die algemene gebied ter sprake bring.

LOP, Wikipedia

Historici bespreek die presiese ligging van Punt. Daar is verskillende plekke aangebied, suidoos van Egipte, 'n kusgebied van die Rooi See: Somaliland, Djiboeti, noordoos van Ethiopië, Eritrea en Noordoos-Soedan. Dit is ook moontlik dat dit beide die Horing van Afrika en Suid -Arabië gedek het

LOP deur Cush op die Engelse Wikipedia

Egiptiese rekords

Die land Punt is in Egiptiese rekords bekend as 'n uitstekende plek vir goudmynbou.

LOP, Wikipedia

The Land of Punt (Egyptian: Pwente.png "> 3 /pu: nt /) was 'n antieke koninkryk. Dit was 'n handelsvennoot van Antieke Egipte en was bekend daarvoor dat dit goud, aromatiese harse, swarthout, ebbehout, ivoor en wilde diere vervaardig en uitvoer. Die streek is bekend uit antieke Egiptiese verslae van handelsekspedisies daarheen.4

Wat weet ons van sulke ekspedisies as hulle wel bestaan?

Egiptoloë lyk vol vertroue dat volgens die Palermo -steen Sahure (ongeveer 2465 - ongeveer 2325 v.C.) die eerste gedokumenteerde farao is wat 'n ekspedisie na die land Punt onderneem het.

Buitelandse aktiwiteite, handel en huldeblyk, Wikipedia

In sy laaste jaar het Sahure die eerste gedokumenteerde [73] ekspedisie na die legendariese land Punt gestuur, [74] waarskynlik langs die Somaliese kus. [75] Die ekspedisie, wat vermoedelik uit Egipte vertrek het uit die hawe van Mersa Gawasis, [16] word op die Palermo -steen berig7

Sahure

Khufu

Alhoewel vroeëre ongedokumenteerde ekspedisies reeds aan die gang was, was goud volgens Wikipedia reeds in die oerheid in antieke Egipte reeds tydens die bewind van Khufu.

Die vroegste aangetekende antieke Egiptiese ekspedisie na Punt is gereël deur Farao Sahure van die vyfde dinastie (25ste eeu v.C.), terug met vragte antyue en Puntites. Daar word egter aangeteken dat goud uit Punt reeds in die tyd van Farao Khufu van die Vierde Dinastie in Egipte was. [14]

Khufu

Aratta

Volgens 'n onbekende bewering op wikipedia verskyn 'n geheimsinnige land ryk aan goud ook in die vroeë Sumeriese literatuur. Die land kry die naam Aratta.

Rol in die Sumeriese literatuur, Wikipedia

Aratta word soos volg in die Sumeriese literatuur beskryf: Dit is 'n wonderlike ryk plek vol goud, silwer, lapis lazuli en ander kosbare materiale, sowel as die vakmanne om dit te vervaardig.

Die land van goud wat in Genesis beskryf word?

Alhoewel daar onomwonde niks gesê kan word waar Havilah eintlik was nie, blyk dit dat die meeste Bybelwetenskaplikes en historici wat op dokumentasie gebaseer is, waarskynlik saamstem dat die punt Punt, naby die rooi see, waarskynlik die plek sou wees.


'N Vinnige blik op die Bybelteks noem twee bekende riviere (Tigris en Eufraat) en twee onbekende, waarvan een (die Pishon) uit hierdie land Havillah vloei. Volgens die teks is Eden by die seewater van al vier, wat dit êrens in Anatolië sou plaas.

'N Google -soektog na' Havilah and Pishon River 'bevat 'n paar interessante kaarte, waarvan die meeste die hoofwaterkonsep weggooi en Eden en die vermiste riviere in die moderne Irak, naby die Perisaanse Golf, plaas. Hulle postuleer dan twee verlore riviere wat uit Arabië of Iran instroom. Een van hierdie kan dus die gebied wees waaroor gepraat word. Sommige ander stel dit gelyk aan die Nyl, wat beslis die goud het, maar wel nie vloei oral naby die Tigris en Eufraat.

Selfs as u die regte gebied geken het, word goud gereeld deur riviere neergelê in rivieroewers, wat in die daaropvolgende millennia baie uitgeput kan wees, sodat antieke Havillah waarskynlik nie meer goud kan vind nie.


Waar word Havillah, die land van goud, in Genesis beskryf? - Geskiedenis

boom van die kennis van goed en kwaad, so genoem omdat dit 'n toets van gehoorsaamheid was waarmee ons eerste ouers verhoor sou word, of hulle nou goed of sleg was, God gehoorsaam of sy gebooie sou verbreek.

Goed, dit wil sê beter as normaal.

Bdellium, wat óf 'n kosbare tandvleis beteken, waarvan Numeri 11: 7, óf juwele en pêrels. Let maar eens op dat baie van die Hebreeuse woorde of name van klippe, bome, voëls en diere selfs vir die Hebreeuse dokters en ander, ou sowel as moderne tolke, van onseker betekenis is, en dit sonder enige groot ongerief vir ons , wat vry is van die verpligtinge wat die Jode vroeër onderneem het om sulke klippe aan te skaf, en hul dieet van sulke diere en voëls onthou het as wat hulle destyds genoegsaam bekend was; hulle.

Die onikssteen, 'n soort edelgesteentes, sien Exodus 25: 7, Exodus 28: 9, Exodus 28:20.

daar is die bdellium, en die onikssteen die eerste hiervan is óf 'n aromatiese tandvleis; die boom is volgens Plinius (z) swart en is so groot soos 'n olyfboom, het die blaar van 'n eikebome en sy vrugte is soos kappertjies, dit word in Arabië, Indië, Media en Babilon aangetref, maar volgens hom is die beste in Bactriana, en daarnaas die bdellium van Arabië: of anders is dit 'n edelsteen, en wat die Joodse skrywers (a) word gewoonlik kristal, en volgens Solinus (b) is die beste kristal in Skithië. Bochart (c) wil hê dat die pêrel bedoel is vanweë sy witheid en rondheid, waarna die manna daarmee vergelyk word, Numeri 11: 7 en eerder as gevolg van die pêrelvissery in Catipha, wat Havilah as deel beskou van Arabië wat aan die Persiese golf lê. Laasgenoemde, die oniks, is 'n edelsteen wat sy naam het as gevolg van die kleur van 'n man se spyker, en volgens Plinius (d) word die oniks marmer in die berge van Arabië aangetref, en die ou mense het dit gedink was nêrens anders nie en hy praat elders van die Arabiese oniks edelsteen, en van die sardonyx, soos in dieselfde land (e) en sommige meen dat dit hier bedoel word, alhoewel die woord soms deur die Septuagint die smarag is en die beste hiervan is , volgens Solinus (f) en Plinius (g), was in Skithië. (Na die wêreldwye vernietiging van Noag se vloed is dit te betwyfel of die ligging van hierdie plekke vandag met sekerheid bepaal kan word. Red.)

(x) Bibliothec. l. 2. bl. 133. (y) Aardrykskunde. l. 1. bl. 31. & amp l. 11. bl. 344. (z) Nat. Hist. l. 12. c. 9. (a) Jarchi in Numb. XI. 7. David de Pomis Tzemach David, fol. 8. 3. ((b) Polyhistor c. 25. (c) Hierozoïese par. 2. l. 5. c. 5. bl. 675, en ampc. (D) Nat. Hist. L. 36. c. 7. (e) lb. l. 37. c. 6. (f) Polyhistor. Ut supra. (C. 25) (g) Ut supra, (Nat. Hist. L. 36.) c. 5.

12. bdellium] LXX ἄνθραξ: Lat. bdellium. In Numeri 11: 7 word “manna” vergelyk met “bdellium” waar die LXX κρύσταλλος gee. Dit kan moontlik geïdentifiseer word met 'n aromatiese deursigtige hars, verkry uit balsem (balsamodendron mukul), en gevind in Arabië sowel as in Indië, Bactria en Afrika. Die Hebreeuse naam b'dôlaḥ is waarskynlik 'n vreemde woord. 'N Ander weergawe, "pêrels" (wat oorvloedig in die Persiese Golf voorkom), sou meer poëties en moontlik meer geskik vir vergelyking met "manna" wees, maar ons kan net vermoed.

die onikssteen] of beryl. Hebreeus Shoham wat elders genoem word, Eksodus 25: 7, Job 28:16. 'N Edelgesteen is duidelik bedoel as' karbonkel '. Assirioloë het dit geïdentifiseer met 'n Assiriese woord Samdu, maar wat Samdu was, is nie bekend nie. Sayce vermoed "turkoois" Haupt "pêrel."

Wat ons moet verstaan ​​onder ה ב ּ ד ל ח is onseker. Daar is geen sekere grond vir die betekenis van "pêrels", wat in Saad gegee word nie. en die latere Rabbins, en aangeneem deur Bochart en ander. Die weergawe β δ ε ́ λ λ α of β δ ε ́ λ λ ι ο ν, bd, gis #x3bf ι ̔ δ ε ̀ μ α ́ δ ε λ κ ο ν ο γ γ γ x3bf λ χ ο ̀ ν κ α λ χ ο ̀ ν, en Plinius, "alii brochon appellant, alii malacham, alii maldacon" maar aan die ander kant is daar die feit dat Plinius hierdie tandvleis beskryf as nigrum en hadrobolon, en Dioscorus as υ ̔ π ο π ε ́ λ ι ο (swart) , wat nie ooreenstem met Numeri 11: 7, waar die voorkoms van die wit korrels van die manna vergelyk word met die van bdolach. - Die steen shoham, volgens die meeste vroeë weergawes, is waarskynlik die beryl, wat waarskynlik die klip is wat die lxx bedoel het (ο ̔ λ ι ́ θ ο ς ο & #788 π ρ α ́ σ ι ν ο ς, die prei-groen klip), soos Plinius, as hy van beryls praat, dit beskryf as probatissimi, qui viriditatem puri maris imit ander is dit die oniks of sardonyx (vid., Ges. sv).

(Opmerking: die twee produksies lewer geen bewys dat die Phishon in Indië gesoek moet word nie. Die bewering dat die naam bdolach Indies is, is redelik ongegrond, want dit kan nie bewys word dat mada ̂laka in Sanscrit 'n groentegom is nie dit is bewys van mada ̂ra, wat moontlik daarmee verband hou (vgl. Lassen's indische Althk. 1, 290 noot). Boonop praat Plinius van Bactriana as die land "in qua Bdellium est nominatissimum," hoewel hy byvoeg, "nascitur et in Arabia Indiaque, et Media ac Babylone "en Isidorus sê van die Bdella wat uit Indië kom," Sordida est et nigra et majori gleba ", wat weereens nie saamstem met Numeri 11: 7. - Die Shoham -steen ook word nie noodwendig met Indië verbind nie, hoewel Plinius van die beryls sê: "India eos gignit, raro alibi repertos," merk hy ook op, "in nostro orbe aliquando circa Pontum inveniri putantur.")

Die Gihon (van ג ּ ו ּ ח om uit te breek) is die Araxes, wat in die omgewing van die Eufraat opstaan, van wes na oos vloei, by die Kores aansluit en daarmee saamval in die Kaspiese See . Die naam stem ooreen met die Arabiese Jaihun, 'n naam wat die Arabiere en Perse aan verskeie groot riviere gegee het. Die land Cush kan natuurlik nie die latere Cush of Ethiopië wees nie, maar moet verbind wees met die Asiatiese Κ ο σ σ α ι ́ α, wat tot by die Kaukasus gekom het, en na wat die Jode (van Shirwan) nog steeds hierdie naam gee. Maar al kom hierdie vier strome nie nou uit een bron nie, maar inteendeel, hulle bronne word deur bergreekse geskei, maar hierdie feit bewys nie dat die vertelling voor ons 'n mite is nie. Saam met of sedert die verdwyning van die paradys, het daardie deel van die aarde moontlik sulke veranderinge ondergaan dat die presiese ligging nie meer met sekerheid bepaal kan word nie.

(Let wel: dat die kontinente van ons wêreld sedert die skepping van die mensdom groot veranderings ondergaan het, 'n waarheid is wat deur die feite uit die natuurgeskiedenis en die vroegste nasionale tradisies onderhou word, en toegelaat word deur die mees gevierde natuurkundiges. (Sien die versameling van Bewyse deur Keerl.) Hierdie veranderinge mag nie alles toegeskryf word aan die vloed wat baie voor en baie daarna kon plaasgevind het nie, soos die ramp waarin die Dooie See ontstaan ​​het, sonder om in die geskiedenis opgeteken te word soos dit was. Nog minder moet ons interpreteer Genesis 11: 1 (in vergelyking met Genesis 10:25), soos Fabri en Keerl gedoen het, wat dui op 'n volledige omwenteling van die aardbol, of 'n geogoniese proses waardeur die kontinente van die ou wêreld verdeel is, en hul huidige fisignomie aangeneem het .)


Waar word Havillah, die land van goud, in Genesis beskryf? - Geskiedenis

Nuwe internasionale weergawe
Die seuns van Kus was Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabteka. Die seuns van Raäma: Skeba en Dedan.

Nuwe lewende vertaling
Die afstammelinge van Kus was Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah en Sabteca. Die afstammelinge van Raamah was Skeba en Dedan.

Engelse standaard weergawe
Die seuns van Kus was: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabteka. Die seuns van Raäma: Skeba en Dedan.

Berean Study Bible
Die seuns van Kus was: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabteka. En die seuns van Raäma: Skeba en Dedan.

King James Bybel
En die seuns van Kus Seba en Havila en Sabta en Rama en Sabtega; en die seuns van Raäma Skeba en Dedan.

Nuwe weergawe van King James
Die seuns van Kus was Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabtega en die seuns van Raama was Sheba en Dedan.

Nuwe Amerikaanse standaardbybel
Die seuns van Kus was Seba, Havila, Sabtah, Raamah en Sabteca en die seuns van Raamah was Sheba en Dedan.

NASB 1995
Die seuns van Kus was Seba en Havila en Sabta en Raamah en Sabteca en die seuns van Raäma was Skeba en Dedan.

NASB 1977
En die seuns van Kus was Seba en Havila en Sabta en Raema en Sabteka en die seuns van Raäma was Sheba en Dedan.

Versterkte Bybel
die seuns van Kus: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabteka en die seuns van Raäma Skeba en Dedan.

Christelike Standaard Bybel
Cush se seuns: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah en Sabteca. En Raamah se seuns: Skeba en Dedan.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Cush se seuns: Seba, Havila, Sabtah, Raamah en Sabteca. En die seuns van Rama: Skeba en Dedan.

Amerikaanse standaard weergawe
En die seuns van Kus: Seba en Havila en Sabta en Rama en Sabteka en die seuns van Raäma: Skeba en Dedan.

Aramese Bybel in gewone Engels
En die kinders van Kus: Skeba en Khavila en Sabta en Rama en Sebathka en die kinders van Rama: Skeba en Daran.

Brenton Septuagint -vertaling
En die seuns van Chus: Saba en Evila en Sabatha en Rhegma en Sabathaca. En die seuns van Rhegma, Saba en Dadan.

Douay-Rheims Bybel
En die seuns van Chus: Saba en Hevila, en Sabata, en Regma, en Sabatacha. Die seuns van Regma: Saba en Dadan.

Engels hersiene weergawe
En die seuns van Kus Seba en Havila en Sabta en Rama en Sabteka; en die seuns van Raäma Skeba en Dedan.

Goeie Nuus Vertaling
Die afstammelinge van Kus was die mense van Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah en Sabteca. Die afstammelinge van Raamah was die mense van Skeba en Dedan.

GOD SE WOORD & reg Vertaling
Die afstammelinge van Cush was Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah en Sabteca. Raamah se afstammelinge was Skeba en Dedan.

Internasionale standaard weergawe
Cush se afstammelinge was Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah en Sabteca. Raamah se afstammelinge was Skeba en Dedan.

JPS Tanakh 1917
En die seuns van Kus: Seba en Havila en Sabta en Rama en Sabteka en die seuns van Raäma: Skeba en Dedan.

Letterlike standaard weergawe
En die seuns van Kus was Seba en Havila en Sabta en Rama en Sabtega en die seuns van Raäma Skeba en Dedan.

NET Bybel
Die seuns van Kus was Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabteka. Die seuns van Raäma was Skeba en Dedan.

New Heart Engelse Bybel
Die seuns van Kus was: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabteka. Die seuns van Raäma: Skeba en Dedan.

Wêreld Engelse Bybel
Die seuns van Kus was: Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabteka. Die seuns van Raäma: Skeba en Dedan.

Young se letterlike vertaling
En die seuns van Kus was Seba en Havila en Sabta en Rama en Sabtega en die seuns van Rama: Skeba en Dedan.

Genesis 10: 8
Cush was die vader van Nimrod, wat 'n magtige man op aarde begin word het.

1 Konings 10: 1
En toe die koningin van Skeba hoor van die roem van Salomo oor die Naam van die HERE, het sy hom kom toets met moeilike vrae.

1 Kronieke 1: 9
Die seuns van Kus was Seba, Havila, Sabta, Raäma en Sabteca. Die seuns van Raäma: Skeba en Dedan.

Job 1:15
die Sabeane skuif af en neem hulle weg. Hulle het die dienaars aan die swaard gesteek, en ek alleen het ontsnap om dit vir u te vertel! "

Psalm 72:10
Mag die konings van Tarsis en verre kus hulde bring, mag die konings van Skeba en Seba geskenke aanbied.

Jesaja 21:13
Dit is die las teen Arabië: In die ruigtes van Arabië moet julle gaan woon, o woonwaens van Dedaniete.

Jesaja 43: 3
Want Ek is die HERE jou God, die Heilige van Israel, jou Verlosser, Ek gee Egipte vir jou losprys, Kus en Seba in jou plek.

Esegiël 27:15
Die manne van Dedan was u kliënte; baie kuslande was u mark, hulle het u met ivoortande en ebbehout betaal.

Esegiël 27:20
Dedan was jou handelaar in saaddoeke om te ry.

Esegiël 27:22
Die handelaars van Skeba en Raama het met jou handel gedryf vir jou ware; hulle het goud, die beste speserye en edelgesteentes verruil.

En die seuns van Kus Seba en Havila en Sabta en Rama en Sabtega; en die seuns van Raäma Skeba en Dedan.

Psalm 72:10 Die konings van Tarsis en die eilande moet geskenke bring: die konings van Skeba en Seba moet geskenke bring.

Genesis 2:11 Die naam van die eerste is Pison: dit is dit wat die hele land Havila omring, waar daar is goud

1 Konings 10: 1 En toe die koningin van Skeba hoor van die roem van Salomo oor die Naam van die HERE, kom sy hom met harde vrae kom bewys.

Esegiël 27:22 Die handelaars van Skeba en Raama, hulle was u handelaars: hulle was op u kermis besig met die hoof van alle speserye en met alle edelgesteentes en goud.

Jesaja 21:13 Die las op Arabië. In die woud in Arabië sal julle vertoef, o reisigers van Dedanim.

Esegiël 27:15 Die manne van Dedan was u handelaars baie eilande was die koopware van u hand: hulle het u gebring vir huidige horings van ivoor en ebbehout.

1. Seba. -Die naam in hierdie tyd van 'n Arabiese stam, wat daarna na Afrika gemigreer het en hulle in Meroe gevestig het, wat volgens Josephus nog steeds hierdie benaming in sy dae gedra het. Hulle het ook hul naam aan die oostelike kant van die Rooi See agtergelaat, nie ver noord van die Straat van Bab-el-Mandeb nie.

2. Havila, aan die rivier die Pison (Genesis 2:11), was ongetwyfeld 'n streek van Arabië, waarskynlik geleë aan die Persiese Golf. Havila word weer in Genesis 10:29 genoem.

3. Sabtah. -Waarskynlik Hadramaut, in Arabië Felix. (Sien Nota oor Genesis 10:26.)

4. Raamah, aan die Persiese Golf, was verdeel in Dedan in die suidweste en Skeba in die middel, terwyl Havilah aan die noordwestelike kant lê. Hiervan het Sheba later bekend geword as die koninkryk van die Himyaritiese Arabiere.

5. Sabtechah. -Blykbaar nog meer suid van Dedan, maar deur sommige aan die oostekant van die golf geplaas.

Op die tydstip toe hierdie tabel geskryf is, was die suidelike helfte van Arabië dus Kusities, en 'n swarte ras word nog steeds daar aangetref, veral in Jemen en Hadramaut, baie donkerder as die ligbruin Arabiere. Om van plek tot plek langs die see te migreer, was die deur van die Kusiete na Nubië en Abessinië maklik. Maar hul hoofhuis was in hierdie tydperk in Mesopotamië, en die spykerskrifskrifte het nou hul lang stryd daar met mans van die ras van Sem onthul.

Vers 7. - En die seuns van Kus Seba. Meroe, in Nubië, noord van Ethiopië (Josephus, 'Ant.', 2. 10). En Havila. Α ὐ ι λ ὰ (LXX.) kan verwys na 'n Afrikaanse stam, die Avalitae, suid van Babelmandeb (Keil, Lange, Murphy), of die distrik Chaulan in Arabia Felix (Rosenm & uumlller, Kalisch, Wordsworth ). Vers 29 noem Havila as 'n Shemitiese gebied. Kalisch beskou hulle as "dieselfde land wat strek van die Arabier tot by die Persiese Golf en, vanweë sy groot omvang, maklik in twee verskillende dele verdeel kan word" (vgl. Genesis 2:11). En Sabtah. Die Astaborans van Ethiopië (Josephus, Gesenius, Kalisch) die Ethiopiërs van Arabië, wie se hoofstad Sabota was (Knobel, Rosenm & uumlller, Lange, Keil). En Raamah. Ρ έ γ μ α (LXX.) Ragma aan die Persiese Golf, in Oman (Bochart, Rosenm & uumlller, Kalisch, Lange). En Sabtechah. Nigritia (Targum, Jonathan), wat die naam Subatok, wat op Egiptiese monumente ontdek is, gunstig lyk (Kalisch) in die ooste van die Persiese Golf by Samydace van Carmania (Be-chart, Knobel, Rosenm & uumlller, Lange). En die seuns van Raäma Skeba. Die belangrikste stad van Arabië Felix (1 Konings 10: 1 Job 1:15 Job 6:19 Psalm 72:10, 15 Jesaja 60: 6 Jeremia 6:20 Esegiël 27:22 Joël 3: 8) kom weer voor (Genesis 5:28 ) as seun van Joktan was waarskynlik deur Hamiete en Semiete bevolk. En Dedan. Daden op die Persiese Golf (kyk Jesaja 21:13 Jeremia 49: 8 Esegiël 25:13 Esegiël 27: 12-15).

van Cush:
כ֔וּשׁ (ḵūš)
Selfstandige naamwoord - eienaardig - manlik enkelvoud
Strong's 3568: 'n Seun van Gam, ook sy afstammelinge, ook 'n land in die suidelike Nylvallei

Seba,
ס ְ ב ָ א ֙ (s ə · ḇ ā)
Selfstandige naamwoord - eie - manlik enkelvoud
Strong's 5434: Seba - seun van Cush, ook sy nageslag en hul land

van Raamah:
ר ַ ע ְ מ ָ ֖ ה (ra ‘ ·m āh)
Selfstandige naamwoord - eienaardig - manlik enkelvoud
Strong's 7484: Raamah - 'bewe', seun van Cush, ook 'n handelsvolk

Skeba
שְׁבָ֥א (šə·ḇā)
Selfstandige naamwoord - eienaardig - manlik enkelvoud
Strong's 7614: Sheba - 'n gebied in die suidweste van Arabië, ook die naam van een of meer afstammelinge van Noag


Waar word Havillah, die land van goud, in Genesis beskryf? - Geskiedenis

Die skepping van man en vrou

1 So is die hemel en die aarde voltooi, en al hulle leërskare (inwoners). 2 En teen die sewende dag het God sy werk voltooi wat Hy gedoen het, en op die sewende dag het Hy gerus van al sy werk wat Hy gedoen het. 3 So het God die sewende dag geseën en dit geheilig [as syne, dit wil sê, afgesonder as heilig van ander dae], want daarin het Hy gerus van al sy werk wat Hy geskep en gedoen het.

4 Dit is die geskiedenis van [die oorsprong van] die hemele en die aarde toe hulle geskep is, op die dag [dit is die skeppingsdae] waarop die [a] HERE God die aarde en die hemele gemaak het-- 5 geen struik nie of die plant van die veld was nog op die aarde, en daar het nog geen kruie van die veld gespruit nie, want die HERE God het dit nie op die aarde laat reën nie, en daar was niemand om die grond te bewerk nie, 6 maar 'n [c] mis (mis, dou, damp) het vroeër uit die land gestyg en die hele oppervlak van die grond natgemaak- 7 toe het die HERE God [d] die liggaam van die mens gevorm uit die stof van die aarde en die asem van die lewe in sy neus geblaas en die mens het 'n lewende wese geword ['n individu wat in liggaam is] en gees]. 8 En die HERE God het 'n tuin (oase) in die ooste, in Eden (vreugde, land van geluk) geplant en die man wat Hy gevorm het (daar) daar neergesit. 9 En [in daardie tuin] het die HERE God elke gewenste boom uit die grond laat groei en aangenaam om te sien en goed (geskik, aangenaam) om te eet, was die boom van die lewe ook in die middel van die tuin, en die boom van die [ervarings] kennis (erkenning) van [die verskil tussen] goed en kwaad.

10 Nou het 'n rivier uit Eden gevloei om die tuin nat te maak, en daarvandaan het dit verdeel en vier riviere geword. 11 Die eerste [rivier] heet Pishon, dit vloei deur die hele land Havila, waar daar goud is. 12 Die goud van die land is goeie bdellium ('n geurige, waardevolle hars) en die [g] onikssteen word daar aangetref. 13 Die naam van die tweede rivier is Gihon, dit vloei om die hele land Kus [in Mesopotamië]. 14 Die derde rivier het die naam Hiddekel (Tigris), oos van Assirië. En die vierde rivier is die Eufraat.

15 So het die HERE God die mens [wat Hy gemaak het] geneem en hom in die tuin van Eden gevestig om dit te bewerk en te bewaar. 16 En die HERE God het die man beveel en gesê: Jy mag (onvoorwaardelik) [die vrug] van elke boom van die tuin eet 17 maar van die boom van die kennis (erkenning) van goed en kwaad mag jy nie eet nie; anders sal jy op die dag dat jy daarvan eet, sekerlik [h] sterf [as gevolg van jou ongehoorsaamheid]. ”

18 Nou het die HERE God gesê: Dit is nie goed vir die man om alleen te wees nie; ek sal hom 'n helper maak [iemand wat hom in balans bring-'n eweknie] en aanvullend vir hom. ” 19 So het die HERE God elke dier van die veld en elke voël van die hemel uit die grond gevorm en na Adam gebring om te sien wat hy hulle sou noem en wat die mens ook al 'n lewende wese sou noem, dit was sy naam. 20 En die man het name gegee aan al die vee en aan die voëls van die hemel en aan al die diere van die veld, maar vir Adam is daar geen helper gevind wat vir hom geskik was nie. 21 So het die HERE God 'n diep slaap op Adam laat val, en terwyl hy slaap, neem Hy een van sy ribbes en sluit die vlees op daardie plek toe. 22 En die rib wat die HERE God geneem het van die man wat Hy gemaak het (gemaak), en het haar gebring en het haar aan die man voorgehou. 23 Toe sê Adam:

Dit is nou 'n been van my gebeente,

Sy sal Vrou genoem word,

Omdat sy uit Man gehaal is. ” 24 Om hierdie rede sal 'n man sy vader en sy moeder verlaat en by sy vrou aansluit, en hulle sal een vlees word. 25 En die man en sy vrou was albei kaal en was nie skaam nie of verleë.

[a] 4 Heb JHWH (Yahweh), die Hebreeuse naam van God wat tradisioneel nie deur die Jode uitgespreek word nie, word gewoonlik met Jehovah vertaal. Sien voorste materiaal, Beginsels van vertaling.
[b] 5 Lit werk.
[c] 6 Of vloei van water.
[d] 7 Die woord is “vorm ” (Heb yatsar), maar in 1:26, 27 word die aksie beskryf met die Hebreeuse woord “created ” (Heb. bara).
[e] 7 Die essensiële chemiese elemente wat in die grond voorkom, word ook by mense en diere aangetref. Hierdie wetenskaplike feit is eers in die afgelope tyd ontdek, maar God wys dit hier.
[f] 8 Dit verwys nie na die skepping van plantlewe in die algemeen nie, maar na die plant van spesifieke plante in die tuin van Eden (2: 8, 9).
[g] 12 Dit is dikwels moeilik om die name of beskrywings van ou juwele en ander materiale by hul ewewydige ekwivalente te pas. Moderne navorsing dui daarop dat dit eerder 'n karneool, 'n rooi edelsteen, kan wees.
[h] 17 Sowel geestelik as fisies, fisiese dood in die sin dat hulle sterflik word, is hulle onsterflik geskep.
[i] 18 Lit soos sy teenoorgestelde.


Die Hebreeuse betekenis van die riviere van die tuin van Eden (deel I)

Die Bybel vertel ons in die tweede hoofstuk van die boek Genesis oor die rivier wat uit die tuin van Eden gevloei het:

'' N Rivier het uit Eden gevloei om die tuin nat te maak, en daar het dit verdeel en vier riviere geword. ' (Genesis 2:10)

Die name van die eerste twee riviere was 'Pishon' <פישון>en Gihon ' <גיחון>- soos genoem in die volgende verse:

'Die eerste naam is die Pishon. Dit is die een wat deur die hele land Havila gevloei het, waar goud is. En die goud van die land is goeie bdellium en onikssteen is daar. Die naam van die tweede rivier is die Gihon. Dit is die een wat deur die hele land Kus gevloei het. ” (Genesis 2: 11-14)

Die name van die twee riviere - 'Pishon' en Gihon ' - is' klassieke 'Hebreeuse patroon vir name van riviere. Voorbeelde kan gevind word in die name van riviere regoor die land Israel, soos in die geval van die 'Yarkon' <ירקון>River ’, wat in die Bybel in die boek Josua genoem word en vandag in die moderne stad Tel-Aviv geleë is (baie naby Jaffa, soos die Bybel ons vertel):

"En ek-Jarkon en Rakkon met die gebied teenoor Joppe." (Josua 19:46)

'N Ander voorbeeld is die' Kidron <קדרון>River ’wat net buite die Ou Stad van Jerusalem geleë is, soos genoem in die Boek van II Samuel:

“En die hele land het hard gehuil toe die hele volk verbygaan, en die koning het die spruit Kidron oorgesteek, en die hele volk het na die woestyn gegaan.” (II Samuel 15:23)

Met ander woorde, die Hebreeuse patroon vir name van riviere - of enige natuurlike waterstroom - bestaan ​​uit twee dele (*nie alle riviere se name in Hebreeus volg hierdie patroon nie - en ons sal dit môre sien).

Die eerste kenmerk bestaan ​​uit 'n Hebreeuse wortel of 'n Hebreeuse woord. Die tweede kenmerk is die Hebreeuse agtervoegsel (eindigend) 'aan' <ון>wat algemeen gebruik word vir ander Hebreeuse name wat dinge in die natuur beskryf, soos berge.

Dit beteken dat die Hebreeuse betekenis van die naam 'Pishon' afkomstig is van die ou Hebreeuse wortel 'P-O-SH' <פ-ו-ש>wat 'spring' of 'wip' beteken en verwys na die sterk waterstroom.

Die naam van die tweede rivier is 'Gihon', afkomstig van die Hebreeuse wortel 'G-Y-CH' <ג-י-ח>wat beteken 'om te spring' - en soos in die geval van die eerste rivier 'Pishon' - verwys na die toestand van die water.

'N Rivier met die naam' Gihon 'kan vandag buite die ou stad van Jerusalem gevind word. Hierdie rivier word 'Gihon' genoem vanweë die Bybelse beskrywing van die kroning van koning Salomo, soos beskryf in die Boek van I Konings:

'En die koning sê vir hulle:' Neem die knegte van u heer saam, en laat my seun Salomo op my muil ry, en bring hom na Gihon. ' (I Konings 1:33)

Ek wil afsluit met 'n interessante staaltjie. Vandag is die Hebreeuse naam van die Jerusalem watermaatskappy ... 'Gihon!'
In die volgende berig sal ek die Hebreeuse betekenisse van die ander twee riviere van die tuin van Eden bespreek, so bly gerus.


Die Eden -tuin en die rivier die Pishon


Egipte het toeriste dorpe as gevolg van die Bybelse Moses, die Piramides en die Sfinx wat die volk Israel vir hulle gemaak het! Israel het toeriste dorpe as gevolg van Jesus Christus, Bethlehem en Jerusalem!

Saoedi -Arabië het toeristedorpe vanweë die profeet Mohammed, Mekka en Medina! Maar waarom nie Ethiopië nie, vanweë Adam en Eva, en die Bybelse tuin van Eden ?!

Daar bestaan ​​geen twyfel dat die oorsprong van die mensdom in Afrika is nie, en dit lyk asof daar konsensus bestaan ​​tussen geleerdes oor hierdie kwessie. Ek het byvoorbeeld 'n artikel gelees deur die voormalige sekretaris -generaal van die Verenigde Nasies, mnr Kofi Anan (in Ethiopian Herald verlede jaar, ek het die uitgawe vergeet) waarin hy noem dat die oorsprong van die mensdom in Afrika is.

Nie net dit nie, tydens die opening van die Wêreldbeker -toernooi in Suid -Afrika, het mnr. Jacob Zuma, president van Suid -Afrika, die gaste van die wêreld toegespreek en gesê: "Afrika is die oorsprong van die mensdom wat welkom is in u huis".

Die vraag is waar is die spesifieke plek waar God sy skepsel Adam en EVE geplaas het?

Of dit nou 'n Christen, 'n Moslem, 'n Jood of iemand uit enige godsdiens is wat die boeke van Moses in die Bybel aanvaar, dit is nie vir hom/haar moeilik om te verstaan ​​dat God sy skepsel Adam in die Eden of Garden geplaas het nie, dit is gevind in Ethiopië.

Verminderingsteorie kan gebruik word om die feit te ondersoek dat die Bybelse tuin van Eden, waar God Adam geplaas het, in Ethiopië is.

Die Heilige Bybel vertel ons duidelik dat Gihon (Wit Nyl en die Nyl) deur die hele land Kus, of Ethiopië, gaan (Genesis 2:13). Op hierdie punt stem baie geleerdes saam. Cush in Hebreeus, Ethiopië in Grieks en Soedan in Arabies bedoel dieselfde, verbrande gesig, en dit is 'n feit dat hierdie verbrande gesigmense histories in hierdie deel van die Globe, die land Kus, gewoon het.

Daar moet op gelet word dat alle lande in Oos -Afrika, met die uitsondering van Egipte, waardeur die rivier die Gihon na die Indiese Oseaan loop, geïdentifiseer is as die Bybelse Ethiopië of Kus.

Die Bybel vertel ons ook dat Noag die vader van Ham was, en Ham die vader van Kus en Kus die vader van Havila (Genesis 10: 1-7), en die land Havila word vandag in Ethiopië geïdentifiseer as Godjam, die land wat omsingel word deur die rivier Pison (Genesis 2: 11-12) of die Blou Nyl, die eerste van die vier riviere van Eden.

If, according to the Bible, we identify Gihon as the second river of Eden, which encompasses the land of Cush or Ethiopia, and that Havilah, whose land is skirted by the river Pishon, is the son of Cush, then Havilah and Pishon cannot be elsewhere other than in Ethiopia.

Cush cannot send his son Havilah to the other part of the World rather than share from his land. From this, it is easy to understand that Pishon and Gihon, the first and second rivers of Eden, are in East Africa, biblically known as Ethiopia and those of the third and fourth rivers of Eden, namely, Ephratus and Tigrus, in the Middle East.

Again it is clearly stated in the Bible that a river went out of Eden to water the Garden (Genesis 2:10). Although the Bible does not indicate which river waters the Garden after the division of the river Eden into the four river heads, it should, however, be Pishon because

Pishon (Abay) is still watering and moisturizing a region in Ethiopia known as Godjam (Biblically Land of Havilah).

This is the Eden Garden, and this is an important point that links the river Pishon (Abay) and the Eden Garden, where God put His Creatures Adam and EVE.

I feel that calling Abay as Gihon is wrong. It is true that Gihon encompasses the whole land of ancient Ethiopia (Genesis 2:13), but the river which skirts Godjam is not Gihon it is the river Pishon that skirts Godjam. The Bible states that, “the name of the first river is Pishon it is the one which skirts the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. Bdellium and the onyx stone are there” (Genesis 2:11).

That is why this region had remained as the point of focus by Great Britain during the colonial era and that of Italy until recently (e.g. willing to develop the Pawe agricultural village). The current announcement by Midrock Ethiopia about the presence of over 35,000KG gold deposits in the region is one good evidence that reinforces the statement in the Bible is true.

Besides, Aleka (Master) Kidanewold Kifle, in his book Mezgebe Kalat Addis (page 287), also defines and locates the river Pishon as “one of the four rivers of Eden and that river is the one which skirts Godjam”.

This paper raises a point of debate between scholars who have different opinions on the issue so that further research can be conducted. Secondly it triggers those who accept the above facts to aspire for other big opportunities to be exploited on the river Abay (Pishon).

This big opportunity is a tourism industry in the region in addition to our tourism villages like the Axum Obelisk, Lalibela Rock Hewn Churches, Gondar Castle, the Harar Wall, etc.
Introducing and promoting the presence of the first river Pishon and the Eden Garden in Ethiopia, where God put Adam and EVE, is as big a development project as the Grand Renaissance Dam.

What is needed is to develop multi-facet development programs and projects. The implementation of which is to be started now. Some of the strategies can include:
Developing cooperation with the Nile down-stream countries like Egypt and Sudan, even with all African countries as the heritage is to all of them, to invest in the Blue Nile (Abay) and surrounding regions in re-forestation, and preservation of the region like what it was in the era of Adam.

This is also a contribution to the environmental preservation of Africa. Resettling and engaging the Abay and peripheral region inhabitants in the development program of the region for a tourism village.

Organizing an authoritative body that studies the heritages and manages the development program of the region in a manner that attracts tourists of the world.

Promoting the historic asset (the Eden Garden, Adam and EVE, the fist river of God, Pishon, etc) of Ethiopia nationally and internationally.

This program does not only create a giant tourism industry in Ethiopia, as well as Africa, but also ensures the sustainability of the already started Grand Renaissance Dam.

It is true that this goal and objectives may seem like a dream and unachievable, but nothing is impossible for an envisioned, determined and dedicated government and people.

If this generation cannot achieve it, the succeeding generation will. Let’s have emotional acceptance.


Ophir in Genesis 10 (the Table of Nations) is said to be the name of one of the sons of Joktan. [a] The Books of Kings and Chronicles tell of a joint expedition to Ophir by King Solomon and the Tyrian king Hiram I from Ezion-Geber, a port on the Red Sea, that brought back large amounts of gold, precious stones and 'algum wood' and of a later failed expedition by king Jehoshaphat of Judah. [b] The famous 'gold of Ophir' is referenced in several other books of the Hebrew Bible. [c]

In Septuagint, other variants of the name are mentioned: Ōpheír, Sōphír, Sōpheír en Souphír. [3]

The New Testament apocrypha book Cave of Treasures contains a passage: "And the children of Ophir, that is, Send, appointed to be their king Lophoron, who built Ophir with stones of gold now, all the stones that are in Ophir are of gold." [4]

In 1946 an inscribed pottery shard was found at Tell Qasile (in modern-day Tel Aviv) dating to the eighth century BC. [5] [6] It bears, in Paleo-Hebrew script, the text "gold of Ophir to/for Beth-Horon [. ] 30 shekels" [d] [7] The find confirms that Ophir was a place from which gold was imported. [8]

Indië Redigeer

A Dictionary of the Bible by Sir William Smith, published in 1863, [9] notes the Hebrew word for parrot Thukki, derived from the Classical Tamil for peacock Thogkai and Sinhalese "tokei", [10] joins other Classical Tamil words for ivory, cotton-cloth and apes preserved in the Hebrew Bible. This theory of Ophir's location in Tamilakkam is further supported by other historians. [11] [12] [13] [14] The most likely location on the coast of Kerala conjectured to be Ophir is Poovar in Thiruvananthapuram District (though some Indian scholars also suggest Beypore as possible location). [15] [16]

Earlier in the 19th century Max Müller and other scholars identified Ophir with Abhira, near the Indus River in modern-day state of Gujarat, India. According to Benjamin Walker Ophir is said to have been a town of the Abhira tribe. [17]

In Jewish tradition, Ophir is often associated with a place in India, [e] named for one of the sons of Joktan. [20]

Sri Lanka Wysig

The 10th-century lexicographer, David ben Abraham al-Fasi, identified Ophir with Serendip, the old Persian name for Sri Lanka (aka Ceylon). [21] Moreover, as mentioned above, A Dictionary of the Bible by Sir William Smith, [9] notes the Hebrew word for parrot Thukki, derived from the Classical Tamil for peacock Thogkai and Sinhalese "tokei", [22] . Both Sinhalese and Tamil are native to Sri Lanka, while the Sinhalese language is indigenous to the island.

Philippines Edit

In Tomo III (1519-1522), pages 112-138, of the book Colección general de documentos relativos a las Islas Filipinas existentes en el Archivo de Indias de Sevilla, [23] found in the General Archive of the Indies in Spain, Document No. 98 describes how to locate the land of Ophir. The navigational guide started from the Cape of Good Hope in Africa to India, to Burma, to Sumatra, to Moluccas, to Borneo, to Sulu, to China, then finally Ophir which is said to be the Philippines.

Africa Edit

Biblical scholars, archaeologists and others have tried to determine the exact location of Ophir. Vasco da Gama's companion Tomé Lopes reasoned that Ophir would have been the ancient name for Great Zimbabwe in Zimbabwe, the main center of southern African trade in gold in the Renaissance period — though the ruins at Great Zimbabwe are now dated to the medieval era, long after Solomon is said to have lived. The identification of Ophir with Sofala in Mozambique was mentioned by Milton in Paradise Lost (11:399-401), among many other works of literature and science.

Another, more serious, possibility is the African shore of the Red Sea, with the name perhaps being derived from the Afar people living in the Danakil desert (Ethiopia, Eritrea) between Adulis and Djibouti.

Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the Carthaginians, who dwelt in North Africa, in modern-day Tunisia. This name, that later gave the rich Roman province of Africa and the subsequent medieval Ifriqiya, from which the name of the continent Africa is ultimately derived, seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe originally, however, see Terence for discussion. The name is usually connected with Phoenician afar, "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis [24] has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri (meervoud ifran) meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers. [25] This is proposed [25] to be the origin of Ofir ook. [26]

Americas Redigeer

In a letter written in May, 1500 Peter Martyr claimed that Christopher Columbus identified Hispaniola with Ophir. [27]

The theologian Benito Arias Montano (1571) proposed finding Ophir in the name of Peru, reasoning that the native Peruvians were thus descendants of Ophir and Shem. [28]

Solomon Islands Edit

In 1568 Alvaro Mendaña became the first European to discover the Solomon Islands, and named them as such because he believed them to be Ophir. [29]

    , another Biblical location providing Solomon with riches. , an explorer who inadvertently discovered Great Zimbabwe when searching for Ophir.
  1. ^ This is also stated in 1 Chronicles 1:22
  2. ^ The first expedition is described in 1 Kings 9:28 10:11 1 Chronicles 29:4 2 Chronicles 8:18 9:10, the failed expedition of Jehoshaphat in 1 Kings 22:48
  3. ^Book of Job 22:24 28:16 Psalms 45:9 Isaiah 13:12
  4. ^ Beth-Horon probably refers to the ancient city 35 km south of Tell Qasile another interpretation is that Beth-Horon means 'the temple of Horon', (a Canaanite deity also known as Hauron), see Lipiński (2004, p. 197)
  5. ^ Fourteenth-century biblical commentator, Nathanel ben Isaiah, writes: "And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab (Gen. 10:29), these are the tracts of countries in the east, being those of the first clime," [18] and which first clime, according to al-Biruni, the sub-continent of India falls entirely therein. [19]
  1. ^"Ophir". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^Schroff, The Periplus of the Erythræan Sea 1912, p. 41.
  3. ^Mahdi, The Dispersal of Austronesian boat forms in the Indian Ocean 1999, p. 154.
  4. ^ Badge, William (1927). The Book of The Cave of Treasures by Ephrem the Syrian: Translated from the Syriac Text of The British Museum. London: The Religious Tract Society. bl. 32 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Maisler, B., Two Hebrew Ostraca from Tell Qasîle, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Oct., 1951), p. 265 [1]
  6. ^ Boardman, John, The Prehistory of the Balkans: The Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries B.C., Part 1, Cambridge University Press, 1982, p. 480 [2]
  7. ^ Kitchen, Kenneth A. Handy, Lowell K. (ed.), The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Millennium, BRILL 1997, p. 144 [3]
  8. ^Lipiński 2004, p. 144.
  9. ^ ab Smith, William, A dictionary of the Bible, Hurd and Houghton, 1863 (1870), pp.1441
  10. ^Smith's Bible Dictionary
  11. ^ Ramaswami, Sastri, The Tamils and their culture, Annamalai University, 1967, pp.16
  12. ^ Gregory, James, Tamil lexicography, M. Niemeyer, 1991, pp.10
  13. ^ Fernandes, Edna, The last Jews of Kerala, Portobello, 2008, pp.98
  14. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition, Volume I Almug Tree Almunecar→ ALMUG or ALGUM TREE. The Hebrew words Almuggim or Algummim are translated Almug or Algum trees in our version of the Bible (see 1 Kings x. 11, 12 2 Chron. ii. 8, and ix. 10, 11). The wood of the tree was very precious, and was brought from Ophir (probably some part of India), along with gold and precious stones, by Hiram, and was used in the formation of pillars for the temple at Jerusalem, and for the king's house also for the inlaying of stairs, as well as for harps and psalteries. It is probably the red sandal-wood of India (Pterocarpus santalinus). This tree belongs to the natural order Leguminosæ, sub-order Papilionaceæ. The wood is hard, heavy, close-grained, and of a fine red colour. It is different from the white fragrant sandal-wood, which is the produce of Santalum album, a tree belonging to a distinct natural order.Also see notes by George Menachery in the St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Vol. 2 (1973)
  15. ^
  16. Menon, A. Sreedhara (1967), A Survey of Kerala History, Sahitya Pravarthaka Co-operative Society [Sales Department] National Book Stall, p. 58
  17. ^
  18. Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (2004) [first published 1911], Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India, Asian Educational Services, pp. 60–, ISBN978-81-206-1850-3
  19. ^
  20. Walker, Benjamin (1968), Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism, Volume 2, Allen & Unwin, p. 515
  21. ^
  22. Ben Isaiah, N. (1983). Sefer Me'or ha-Afelah (in Hebrew). Translated by Yosef Qafih. Kiryat Ono: Mechon Moshe. bl. 74.
  23. ^ Sunil Sharma, Mughal Arcadia: Persian Literature in an Indian Court, Harvard University Press: Cambridge 2017, p. 66
  24. ^Josephus, Oudhede van die Jode (Book 8, chapter 6, §4), s.v. Aurea Chersonesus
  25. ^ Solomon Skoss (ed.), The Hebrew-Arabic Dictionary of the Bible, Known as `Kitāb Jāmiʿ al-Alfāẓ` (Agron) of David ben Abraham al-Fasi, Yale University Press: New Haven 1936, vol. 1, bl. 46 (Hebrew)
  26. ^Smith's Bible Dictionary
  27. ^
  28. Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas. Colección general de documentos relativos a las Islas Filipinas existentes en el Archivo de Indias de Sevilla. Tomo III--Documento 98, 1520–1528. pp. 112–138.
  29. ^Names of countriesArchived 2017-08-15 at the Wayback Machine, Decret and Fantar, 1981
  30. ^ ab The Berbers, by Geo. Babington Michell, p 161, 1903, Journal of the Royal African Society book on ligne
  31. ^Lipiński 2004, p. 200.
  32. ^ De orbe novo decades
  33. ^
  34. Shalev, Zur (2003). "Sacred Geography, Antiquarianism and Visual Erudition: Benito Arias Montano and the Maps in the Antwerp Polyglot Bible" (PDF) . Imago Mundi. 55: 71. doi:10.1080/0308569032000097495. S2CID51804916 . Retrieved 2017-01-17 .
  35. ^ HOGBIN, H. In, Experiments in Civilization: The Effects of European Culture on a Native Community of the Solomon Islands, New York: Schocken Books, 1970 (1939), pp.7-8
  • Lipiński, Edward (2004), Itineraria Phoenicia Studia Phoenicia 18, Peeters Publishers, ISBN978-90-429-1344-8
  • Mahdi, Waruno (1999), "The Dispersal of Austronesian boat forms in the Indian Ocean", in Roger Blench Matthew Spriggs (eds.), Archaeology and Language III Artefacts, languages and texts, Routledge, pp. 144–179, ISBN0-415-10054-2
  • Schroff, Wifred H. (1912), The Periplus of the Erythræan Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean, New York: Longmans, Green, and Company
  • (fr) Quatremère (1861), Mémoire sur le pays d’Ophir, in Mélanges d'histoire, Ducrocq, Paris, p. 234 (read @ Archive).

For many references and a comprehensive outline of the products exported from Muziris, Ariake &c. vgl. George Menachery ed. The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, 1973, 1982, 2009.


Inhoud

Genesis Edit

The second part of the Genesis creation narrative, Genesis 2:4–3:24, opens with YHWH-Elohim (translated here "the L ORD God", see Names of God in Judaism) creating the first man (Adam), whom he placed in a garden that he planted "eastward in Eden". [16] "And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil." [17]

The man was free to eat from any tree in the garden except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Last of all, God made a woman (Eve) from a rib of the man to be a companion for the man. In chapter three, the man and the woman were seduced by the serpent into eating the forbidden fruit, and they were expelled from the garden to prevent them from eating of the tree of life, and thus living forever. Cherubim were placed east of the garden, "and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way of the tree of life". [18]

Genesis 2:10-14 [19] lists four rivers in association with the garden of Eden: Pishon, Gihon, Hiddekel (the Tigris), and Phirat (the Euphrates). It also refers to the land of Cush—translated/interpreted as Ethiopia, but thought by some to equate to Cossaea, a Greek name for the land of the Kassites. [20] These lands lie north of Elam, immediately to the east of ancient Babylon, which, unlike Ethiopia, does lie within the region being described. [21] In Oudhede van die Jode, the first-century Jewish historian Josephus identifies the Pishon as what "the Greeks called Ganges" and the Geon (Gehon) as the Nile. [22]

According to Lars-Ivar Ringbom the paradisus terrestris is located in Takab in northwestern Iran. [23]

Ezekiel Edit

In Ezekiel 28:12-19 [24] the prophet Ezekiel the "son of man" sets down God's word against the king of Tyre: the king was the "seal of perfection", adorned with precious stones from the day of his creation, placed by God in the garden of Eden on the holy mountain as a guardian cherub. But the king sinned through wickedness and violence, and so he was driven out of the garden and thrown to the earth, where now he is consumed by God's fire: "All those who knew you in the nations are appalled at you, you have come to a horrible end and will be no more." (v.19).

According to Terje Stordalen, the Eden in Ezekiel appears to be located in Lebanon. [25] "[I]t appears that the Lebanon is an alternative placement in Phoenician myth (as in Ez 28,13, III.48) of the Garden of Eden", [26] and there are connections between paradise, the garden of Eden and the forests of Lebanon (possibly used symbolically) within prophetic writings. [27] Edward Lipinski and Peter Kyle McCarter have suggested that the Garden of the gods (Sumerian paradise), the oldest Sumerian version of the Garden of Eden, relates to a mountain sanctuary in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges. [28]

The location of Eden is described in Genesis 2:10-14: [29]

″And a river departed from Eden to water the garden, and from there it divided and became four tributaries.

The name of the first is Pishon, which is the circumnavigator of the land of Havilah where there is gold. And the gold of this land is good there are bdellium and cornelian stone. And the name of the second river is Gihon, which is the circumnavigator of the land of Cush.

And the name of the third is Chidekel, which is that which goes to the east of Ashur and the fourth river is Phirath.″

Suggestions for the location of the Garden of Eden include [9] the head of the Persian Gulf, in southern Mesopotamia (now Iraq) where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers run into the sea [10] and in the Armenian Highlands or Armenian Plateau. [11] [30] [12] [13] British archaeologist David Rohl locates it in Iran, and in the vicinity of Tabriz, but this suggestion has not caught on with scholarly sources. [31]

Outside of the Middle East, some religious groups have believed the location of the Garden to be local to them. The 19th century Panacea Society believed that their home town of Bedford, England, was the site of the Garden, [32] while preacher Elvy E. Callaway believed it to be located on the Apalachicola River in Florida, near the town of Bristol. [33]

    in the Sumerian story of Enki en Ninhursag is a paradisaical abode [34] of the immortals, where sickness and death were unknown. [35]
  • The garden of the Hesperides in Greek mythology was somewhat similar to the Jewish concept of the Garden of Eden, and by the 16th century a larger intellectual association was made in the Cranach painting (see illustration at top). In this painting, only the aksie that takes place there identifies the setting as distinct from the Garden of the Hesperides, with its golden fruit.
  • The Persian term "paradise" (borrowed as Hebrew: פרדס ‎, pardes), meaning a royal garden or hunting-park, gradually became a synonym for Eden after c. 500 BCE. Die woord "pardes" occurs three times in the Hebrew Bible, but always in contexts other than a connection with Eden: in the Song of Solomon iv. 13: "Thy plants are an orchard (pardes) of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits camphire, with spikenard" Ecclesiastes 2. 5: "I made me gardens and orchards (pardes), and I planted trees in them of all kind of fruits" and in Nehemiah ii. 8: "And a letter unto Asaph the keeper of the king's orchard (pardes), that he may give me timber to make beams for the gates of the palace which appertained to the house, and for the wall of the city." In these examples pardes clearly means "orchard" or "park", but in the apocalyptic literature and in the Talmud "paradise" gains its associations with the Garden of Eden and its heavenly prototype, and in the New Testament "paradise" becomes the realm of the blessed (as opposed to the realm of the cursed) among those who have already died, with literary Hellenistic influences.

Jewish eschatology Edit

In the Talmud and the Jewish Kabbalah, [36] the scholars agree that there are two types of spiritual places called "Garden in Eden". The first is rather terrestrial, of abundant fertility and luxuriant vegetation, known as the "lower Gan Eden" (gan = garden). The second is envisioned as being celestial, the habitation of righteous, Jewish and non-Jewish, immortal souls, known as the "higher Gan Eden". The rabbis differentiate between Gan and Eden. Adam is said to have dwelt only in the Gan, whereas Eden is said never to be witnessed by any mortal eye. [36]

According to Jewish eschatology, [37] [38] the higher Gan Eden is called the "Garden of Righteousness". It has been created since the beginning of the world, and will appear gloriously at the end of time. The righteous dwelling there will enjoy the sight of the heavenly chayot carrying the throne of God. Each of the righteous will walk with God, who will lead them in a dance. Its Jewish and non-Jewish inhabitants are "clothed with garments of light and eternal life, and eat of the tree of life" (Enoch 58,3) near to God and His anointed ones. [38] This Jewish rabbinical concept of a higher Gan Eden is opposed by the Hebrew terms gehinnom [39] and sheol, figurative names for the place of spiritual purification for the wicked dead in Judaism, a place envisioned as being at the greatest possible distance from heaven. [40]

In modern Jewish eschatology it is believed that history will complete itself and the ultimate destination will be when all mankind returns to the Garden of Eden. [41]

Legends Edit

In the 1909 book Legends of the Jews, Louis Ginzberg compiled Jewish legends found in rabbinic literature. Among the legends are ones about the two Gardens of Eden. Beyond Paradise is the higher Gan Eden, where God is enthroned and explains the Torah to its inhabitants. The higher Gan Eden contains three hundred ten worlds and is divided into seven compartments. The compartments are not described, though it is implied that each compartment is greater than the previous one and is joined based on one's merit. The first compartment is for Jewish martyrs, the second for those who drowned, the third for "Rabbi Johanan ben Zakkai and his disciples," the fourth for those whom the cloud of glory carried off, the fifth for penitents, the sixth for youths who have never sinned and the seventh for the poor who lived decently and studied the Torah. [42]

In chapter two, Legends of the Jews gives a brief description of the lower Gan Eden. The tree of knowledge is a hedge around the tree of life, which is so vast that "it would take a man five hundred years to traverse a distance equal to the diameter of the trunk". From beneath the trees flow all the world's waters in the form of four rivers: Tigris, Nile, Euphrates, and Ganges. After the fall of man, the world was no longer irrigated by this water. While in the garden, though, Adam and Eve were served meat dishes by angels and the animals of the world understood human language, respected mankind as God's image, and feared Adam and Eve. When one dies, one's soul must pass through the lower Gan Eden in order to reach the higher Gan Eden. The way to the garden is the Cave of Machpelah that Adam guards. The cave leads to the gate of the garden, guarded by a cherub with a flaming sword. If a soul is unworthy of entering, the sword annihilates it. Within the garden is a pillar of fire and smoke that extends to the higher Gan Eden, which the soul must climb in order to reach the higher Gan Eden. [42]

Islamic view Edit

Die term jannāt ʿadni ("Gardens of Eden" or "Gardens of Perpetual Residence") is used in the Qur'an for the destination of the righteous. There are several mentions of "the Garden" in the Qur'an, [43] while the Garden of Eden, without the word ʿadn, [44] is commonly the fourth layer of the Islamic heaven and not necessarily thought as the dwelling place of Adam. [45] The Quran refers frequently over various Surah about the first abode of Adam and Hawwa (Eve), including surat Sad, which features 18 verses on the subject (38:71–88), surat al-Baqara, surat al-A'raf, and surat al-Hijr although sometimes without mentioning the location. The narrative mainly surrounds the resulting expulsion of Hawwa and Adam after they were tempted by Shaitan. Despite the Biblical account, the Quran mentions only one tree in Eden, the tree of immortality, which God specifically claimed it was forbidden to Adam and Eve. Some exegesis added an account, about Satan, disguised as a serpent to enter the Garden, repeatedly told Adam to eat from the tree, and eventually both Adam and Eve did so, resulting in disobeying God. [46] These stories are also featured in the hadith collections, including al-Tabari. [47]

Latter Day Saints Edit

Followers of the Latter-day Saint movement believe that after Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden they resided in a place known as Adam-ondi-Ahman, located in present-day Daviess County, Missouri. It is recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants that Adam blessed his posterity there and that he will return to that place at the time of the final judgement [48] [49] in fulfillment of a prophecy set forth in the Book of Mormon. [50]

Numerous early leaders of the Church, including Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and George Q. Cannon, taught that the Garden of Eden itself was located in nearby Jackson County, Missouri, [51] but there are no surviving first-hand accounts of that doctrine being taught by Joseph Smith himself. LDS doctrine is unclear as to the exact location of the Garden of Eden, but tradition among Latter-Day Saints places it somewhere in the vicinity of Adam-ondi-Ahman, or in Jackson County. [52] [53]

The Garden of Eden motifs most frequently portrayed in illuminated manuscripts and paintings are the "Sleep of Adam" ("Creation of Eve"), the "Temptation of Eve" by the Serpent, the "Fall of Man" where Adam takes the fruit, and the "Expulsion". The idyll of "Naming Day in Eden" was less often depicted. Much of Milton's Paradise Lost occurs in the Garden of Eden. Michelangelo depicted a scene at the Garden of Eden in the Sistine Chapel ceiling. In the Divine Comedy, Dante places the Garden at the top of Mt. Purgatory. For many medieval writers, the image of the Garden of Eden also creates a location for human love and sexuality, often associated with the classic and medieval trope of the locus amoenus. [54] One of oldest depictions of Garden of Eden is made in Byzantine style in Ravenna, while the city was still under Byzantine control. A preserved blue mosaic is part of the mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Circular motifs represent flowers of the garden of Eden.

The Garden of Eden by Lucas Cranach der Ältere, a 16th-century German depiction of Eden


What is the Biblical view of Gold and Silver?

The first mention of Gold in the Bible is in Genesis 2:11-12. Gold in the land of Havilah gets the endorsement of being "good". God created gold to be the foundation of an economic system that would be solid, stable and not subject to manipulation. No inflation, no deflation, and no monetary crisis. History has called this biblically oriented monetary system, "The Gold Standard", meaning an economic system that is based on a specific, established amount of gold or silver.

God is the author of the gold standard, not man. In the Scriptures, He established the weights, the measurements and set the value of gold and silver. He created this monetary law in order to protect the poor and to keep the greed and manipulative power of Rulers under control.

There is no Hebrew word for money. Silver was used for normal transactions and gold, which was worth twenty times as much as silver, was used more as a store of value. Die money changers, (mentioned in the New Testament), were cheating the Jews, who had come from all over the Mediterranean region to visit their Temple, of fair currency exchanges. These are the people that Jesus Christ drove from the Temple.

I would recommend reading "The Making of America" which you can get on Amazon.

This book by W. Cleon Skousen, gives an excellent education on money and the Constitution.


from Keith Mathison Feb 20, 2012 Category: Articles

Key to Genesis and a Pivotal Point in Redemptive History

The call of Abram in Genesis 12:1&ndash9 is a pivotal point in redemptive history. According to Gordon Wenham, no section of Genesis is more significant than 11:27&ndash12:9. i It is, as Bruce Waltke observes, “the thematic center of the Pentateuch.” ii While the first eleven chapters of Genesis focus primarily on the terrible consequences of sin, God’s promises to Abram in Genesis 12 focus on the hope of redemption, of restored blessing and reconciliation with God. God is going to deal with the problem of sin and evil, and he is going to establish his kingdom on earth. How he is going to do this begins to be revealed in his promises to Abram. iii The remaining chapters of Genesis follow the initial stages in the fulfillment of these promises. Thus Genesis 12:1&ndash9 sets the stage for the remainder of Genesis and the remainder of the Bible. iv

The key section of Genesis 12:1&ndash9 is the explicit call of God to Abram found in verses 1&ndash3.

Now Yahweh said to Abram, “Go from your country and your kindred and your father’s house to the land that I will show you. And I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you and make your name great so that you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and him who dishonors you I will curse, and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”

The theme of God’s call to Abram is evident in the fivefold repetition of the key terms “bless” or “blessing.” Also important is the repetition of the word “you” and “your.” Man’s sin has resulted in God’s curse (Gen. 3:14, 17 4:11 5:29 9:25), but here God promises to form a people for himself and to restore his original purposes of blessing for mankind (cf. Gen. 1:28). v Abram is somehow going to be the mediator of this restored blessing.

Four Promises

Within God’s call of Abram there are four basic promises: (1) offspring, (2) land, (3) the blessing of Abram himself, and (4) the blessing of the nations through Abram. vi In verse 1, God commands Abram to leave his home and go to the land that he will show Abram. The promise of land is not explicit in this initial command. It is only made explicit when Abram reaches the land of Canaan. At that point, God promises Abram, “To your offspring I will give this land” (12:7). This promise of land becomes a key theme throughout the remainder of the Old Testament. vii It is especially prominent in the remainder of the Pentateuch and in the books referred to in the Hebrew canon as the “Former Prophets” (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings). In terms of God’s kingdom purposes, the land promise indicates that God has not abandoned his plan to establish his kingdom on earth. The land promise would have certainly been important to Israel at the time the Pentateuch was originally composed. As Israel stood on the plains of Moab, they were assured that the land they were about to enter had been promised to Abraham and to his offspring by God himself.

In Genesis 12:2, God promises that he will make of Abram “a great nation.” This promise will be fulfilled initially in the birth of the nation of Israel. viii This promise necessarily implies that Abram will have offspring, but like the promise of land, the promise of offspring is only made explicit when Abram reaches Canaan (cf. 12:7). The promise of offspring is also related to God’s ultimate kingdom purposes. Just as the land promise provides a realm for God’s kingdom in the midst of his creation, the promise of offspring anticipates a people for his kingdom. God then promises to bless Abram and make his name great so that he will be a blessing. ix The fourth element of God’s promise is that in Abram “all the families of the earth shall be blessed” (12:3). Abraham will be the head of the “one family by whom all of the other families of the earth will be blessed.” x In fact, the blessing of all the families of the earth is the primary purpose behind God’s calling of Abram. His calling and the promises he is given are not ends in themselves. Abram is promised offspring, a land, and personal blessing in order that he might be the mediator of God’s blessing to all the families of the earth. xi As we proceed, the eschatological significance of God’s promises to Abram and his determination to bless all the families of the earth will become clearer. As we will see, this blessing will come through the establishment of God’s kingdom. From this point forward in Genesis, “the writer’s primary concern is to trace the development of God’s resolution to bless.” xii

i Gordon Wenham, Genesis 1&ndash15 (Waco: Word Books, 1987), 281.
ii Bruce Waltke, Genesis: A Commentary (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2001), 208.
iii Paul R. Williamson, Sealed With An Oath: Covenant in God&rsquos Unfolding Purpose, NSBT 23 (Downers Grove, IL : InterVarsity, 2007), 77 William J. Dumbrell, Covenant and Creation: A Theology of Old Testament Covenants (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1984), 47.
iv Bruce Waltke (Genesis, 209) elaborates on this important point, &ldquoThe call of God to Abraham is the sneak preview for the rest of the Bible. It is a story of God bringing salvation to all tribes and nations through this holy nation, administered at first by the Mosaic covenant and then by the Lord Jesus Christ through the new covenant. The elements of Abraham&rsquos call are reaffirmed to Abraham (12:7 15:5&ndash21 17:4&ndash8 18:18&ndash19 22:17&ndash18), to Isaac (26:24), to Jacob (28:13&ndash15 35:11&ndash12 46:3), to Judah (49:8&ndash12), to Moses (Exod. 3:6&ndash8 Deut. 34:4), and to the ten tribes of Israel (Deut 33). They are reaffirmed by Joseph (Gen. 50:24), by Peter to the Jews (Acts 3:25), and by Paul to the Gentiles (Gal. 3:8).&rdquo
v See Thomas E. McComiskey, The Covenants of Promise: A Theology of the Old Testament Covenants (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1985), 15&ndash58.
vi As Willem VanGemeren observes, Abraham (22:17&ndash18), Isaac (26:3&ndash4), and Jacob (28:13&ndash15) each received God&rsquos fourfold promise. Sien The Progress of Redemption (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1988), 108.
vii See Philip Johnston and Peter Walker, eds. The Land of Promise (Downers Grove, IL : InterVarsity, 2000).
viii Dumbrell, Covenant and Creation 66&ndash67.
ix Williamson (Sealed With An Oath, 78&ndash79) argues that the words weheyeh berakah at the end of verse 2 should be translated as a second command, &ldquoBe a blessing,&rdquo rather than as a certain consequence &ldquoso that you will be a blessing&rdquo because of the imperative form of the verb. This is a possible translation, and the ASV does translate the words in this way, but it is not required. In this type of sentence, the imperative verb can express a consequence (See GKC , § 110i cf. also Joüon, § 116h).
x NIDOTTE , 4:665.
xi T. D. Alexander, From Paradise to the Promised Land: An Introduction to the Pentateuch, 2de uitg. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002), 85&ndash86. Allusions to this promise are found in prophetic texts such as Isaiah 19:24 and Jeremiah 4:2.
xii Allen P. Ross, Creation and Blessing (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1988), 253.


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