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Waarom het die Spaanse Armada misluk?

Waarom het die Spaanse Armada misluk?

In 1586 het Philip II van Spanje genoeg gehad van Engeland en sy koningin, Elizabeth I. Nie net het Engelse privaatmanne op Spaanse besittings in die Nuwe Wêreld toegeslaan nie, maar Elizabeth het ook troepe gestuur om Nederlandse rebelle te help in die Spaans-beheerde Nederland . Philip kon nie meer Engelse inmenging in Spaanse belange duld nie, en hy het voorbereidings begin tref om iets daaraan te doen.

Twee jaar later beveel Philip 'n groot vloot - ongeveer 130 skepe met 24,000 man - om na die Engelse kanaal te vaar en 'n Spaanse landinval uit Engeland uit Vlaandere te ondersteun.

Die daaropvolgende Engelse oorwinning teen hierdie Spaanse Armada het 'n belangrike oomblik geword in die opkoms van Protestantse Engeland as 'n wêreldmoondheid. Dit word ook algemeen beskou as een van Engeland se grootste vlootoorwinnings. Maar waarom het die Spaanse Armada presies misluk?

Dan gesels met een van die voorste kenners van die Reformasie en bespreek of Iain Duncan Smith reg was om parallelle te tref tussen Brexit en die skeuring van die 16de eeu met Rome.

Luister nou

'N Gebrek aan geheimhouding

Reeds in 1583 was nuus dat Philip van plan was om 'n groot vloot te bou, algemene kennis in Europa. Verskeie gerugte het die beoogde bestemming van hierdie nuwe vloot omring - Portugal, Ierland en die Wes -Indiese Eilande is almal aangewys.

Maar Elizabeth en haar hoofadviseur, Francis Walsingham, het gou by hul spioene in Spanje verneem dat dit so is armada (die Spaanse en Portugese woord vir "vloot") was bedoel vir 'n inval in Engeland.

En so, in 1587, beveel Elizabeth sir Francis Drake, een van haar mees ervare seekapteins, 'n gewaagde aanval op die Spaanse hawe in Cadiz. Die aanval in April was uiters suksesvol en het die voorbereidings vir die Armada ernstig benadeel - soveel so dat dit Philip genoop het om die invalveldtog uit te stel.

Sir Francis Drake. In 1587 het Drake onlangs teruggekeer van 'n groot plundering -ekspedisie teen Spaanse kolonies in die Nuwe Wêreld.

Dit het die Engelse kosbare tyd gegee om voor te berei op die naderende aanval. Drake se gewaagde optrede by Cadiz het bekend gestaan ​​as 'die baard van die koning van Spanje sing' omdat dit Philip se voorbereiding suksesvol belemmer het.

Vir Philip het sy onvermoë om die beplande invalsveldtog geheim te hou hom baie tyd, sowel as geld, duur te staan ​​gekom.

Santa Cruz se dood

Danksy die aanval van Drake op Cadiz, is die bekendstelling van die Armada vertraag tot 1588. En hierdie vertraging het gelei tot 'n verdere katastrofe vir die Spaanse voorbereidings; voordat die Armada vaar, sterf een van Philip se bekwaamste vlootkommandante.

Die eerste markies van Santa Cruz.

Die markies van Santa Cruz was die aangewese leier van die Armada. Hy was ook al jare 'n toonaangewende voorstander van die aanval op Engeland - alhoewel hy teen 1588 steeds skeptieser was oor Philip se plan. Sy dood in Februarie 1588, net voordat die invalsveldtog van stapel gestuur is, het die beplanning nog meer oproerig gemaak.

Santa Cruz is vervang deur die hertog van Medina Sidonia, 'n edelman wat nie die vlootervaring van sy voorganger gehad het nie.

Philip se ongeduld

Na die uitstel van die inval, het Philip al hoe meer ongeduldig geraak. In Mei 1588 beveel hy Medina Sidonia om die vloot te loods, ondanks die voorbereidings wat nog nie voltooi is nie.

Baie galjoene het dus nie die nodige voorrade gehad nie, soos ervare kanonne en kanonskote van hoë gehalte. Alhoewel dit 'n wonderlike gesig was, het die Armada ernstige foute in sy wapens gehad toe hy vaar.

Hierdie foute het hulself gou geopenbaar in die Slag van Gravelines, waar die Spaanse kanonne ondoeltreffend geblyk het weens die onervarenheid van die bemanning wat dit gebruik het.

Op Midsommersdag in 1509 word 'n 17 -jarige as koning van Engeland gekroon. Hy sou sy koninkryk oor byna vier dekades op die troon verander. Maar wie was Henry VIII? Mens of monster, staatsman of tiran?

Kyk nou

Engeland se voortreflike skepe

Anders as die Spaanse galjoene, was die kleiner, veelsydiger Engelse skepe goed toegerus om te veg. Teen 1588 het die Engelse vloot bestaan ​​uit baie vinnig bewegende skepe gevul met kanon- en skutspesialiste wat dodelik was teen vyandelike vaartuie.

Hulle spoed en mobiliteit was ook baie belangrik. Dit het hulle toegelaat om naby die meer omslagtige Spaanse vaartuie te vaar, dodelike kanonvlugte vuurvuur ​​af te vuur en dan weg te vaar voordat die Spanjaarde aan boord kon gaan.

Op 26 Februarie 2021 stort ongeveer 38 meter muur in duie by Hurst Castle, een van 'n reeks belangrike kusforte wat Henry VIII in die 16de eeu gebou het om Engeland te beskerm teen bedreiging van inval deur die Europese moondhede. Onlangs het Dan op sy kajak gegaan om die skade by die kasteel te beoordeel, terwyl hy ook 'n aantal ander versterkings langs die Solent langs die pad besoek het.

Luister nou

'N Gebrek aan vindingrykheid

Medina Sidonia het baie vroeg in die invalsveldtog 'n gulde geleentheid gehad om die Engelse vloot te verslaan. Terwyl die Armada langs die kus van Cornwall seil, het die Engelse vloot weer in die Plymouth-hawe voorsien, wat hulle vasgekeer en uiters kwesbaar vir aanvalle gelaat het.

Baie Spaanse offisiere het aangeraai om 'n aanval op die Engelse vaartuie te begin, maar Medina Sidonia was onder streng bevele van Philip om te verhoed dat die Engelse vloot ingeskakel word, tensy dit absoluut noodsaaklik is. Omdat hy die bevele van Philip tot op die punt wou volg, het die hertog dit vermy om die vloot te betrek. Baie historici voer aan dat dit 'n kritieke fout was.

Die weer

Die Engelse kon die Spanjaarde uit- en uitskiet tydens die Slag van Gravelines.

Na die Slag van Gravelines-waartydens die Engelse skepe hul beter kanon en behendigheid gebruik het om hul Spaanse eweknieë te seil en uit te skiet-het 'n sterk suidwestewind die Spaanse vloot gedwing om die Noordsee in te gaan. Alhoewel dit groot was, het die Spaanse galjoene nie buigsaamheid gehad nie en kon hulle net met die wind agterop vaar.

Dit was hul uiteindelike ongeduld, want die wind het die oorblywende vloot van Medina Sidonia se vloot weggejaag van die Spaanse leër in Vlaandere. As gevolg van die wind en die Engelse agtervolging kon hy nie omdraai nie, maar Medina Sidonia het noordwaarts voortgegaan en die invalplan is laat vaar.

Die Engelse noem hierdie suidwestewind later die "Protestantse wind"-deur God gestuur om hul land te red.

Die weer het steeds teen die Armada gewerk. Nadat die Engelse vloot sy strewe aan die ooskus van Skotland laat vaar het, het dit gelyk asof die meerderheid van die Spaanse skepe dit veilig sou kon tuisbring. Maar nadat die top van Skotland afgerond is, het die Armada erge storms beleef en byna 'n derde van sy skepe is aan die kus van Skotland en Ierland aan wal gery.


Spaanse Armada

As u 'n goeie geskiedenisopstel skryf, moet u twee dinge op die spyskaart hê:

'N Goeie geskiedenisopstel sal soos 'n hamburger opgestel word:

Elke paragraaf moet soos 'n PEA wees:

Punt: - Elke paragraaf moet begin met 'n punt:
bv. Die Spaanse Armada het misluk omdat dit deur die weer belemmer is.

Bewyse: - U moet dan bewyse hê wat u kan ondersteun. bv. 'In plaas daarvan vaar hulle om die noorde van Skotland, waar storms die meeste van hulle veroorsaak het.

Ontleding: - U koppel dan u punt terug aan die vraag wat u beantwoord. bv. Die weer het die mag swakker gemaak, met slegs 25 skepe wat terug is na Spanje. Dit het die Armada misluk omdat hulle teruggekeer het met die voltooiing van hul plan om Engeland binne te val en dit weer Katoliek te maak. WAAROM MISLUIT DIE SPANSE ARMADA?

Taak 1: Kleur-kodeer die volgende 3 voorbeelde hieronder. Onthou dat elke paragraaf 'n PEA moet bevat:

Eerstens het die Spaanse Armada weens die slegte weer misluk. Oorspronklik moes die Armada op pad na Engeland stop weens die weer. My bewyse hiervoor kom uit 'n brief van 'n Spaanse edelman wat gesê het: "Die seil van die Armada moet vertraag word sodat die weer milder kan word." Die Armada is egter nie vertraag deur koning Filips nie en is na Engeland gestuur.

Die Spaanse Armada het misluk omdat daar swakhede was in koning Philip se plan, byvoorbeeld, die Spaanse Armada -leier hou nie daarvan om op see te woon nie. 'N Aanhaling uit die bronne sê dat hy' geen gesondheid vir die see gehad het nie, want ek weet ... dat ek gou seesiek word '. Die Spaanse Armada sal nie alles wat die Engelse na hulle toe gooi effektief kan hanteer as hul leier nie op die dek kan staan ​​en bevel kan gee nie.

Die Spaanse Armada het misluk omdat daar swakhede in die plan van Philip was. Hy het byvoorbeeld geen hulp ontvang van die Engelse Katolieke, sy leier nie.


Die Spaanse Armada: almal op see

Die nederlaag van die Spaanse Armada word al lank gevier as een van Engeland se grootste vlootoorwinnings. Maar was die Spaanse veldtog van die begin af gedoem om te misluk? Charlotte Hodgman praat met Dan Snow, aanbieder van 'n driedelige BBC-reeks oor die poging tot inval, om meer uit te vind

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 23 April 2015 om 14:14

'N Gewilde opvatting is dat Engeland se oorwinning teen die Spaanse Armada teen al die kanse gewen is. Stem u saam met die siening?

Glad nie. Toe die Spaanse Armada op 28 Mei 1588 uit Lissabon vaar, was dit amper seker dat dit misluk. Philip II was 'n volledige beheer freak wat geweier het om sy bevelvoerders die outonomie toe te laat om hul eie besluite te neem. Dit was waarskynlik die strengste veldtogplan waarmee enige mag ooit see toe gegaan of opgeruk het.

Dit was die ergste van albei wêrelde vir Philip se bevelvoerders - veral die hertog van Medina Sidonia, wat in die eerste plek nie die bevel oor die vloot wou aanvaar nie. Een van die dokumente waarna ons in die nuwe reeks kyk, is 'n brief wat die hertog geskryf het, wat duidelik maak hoe traag hy was!

Benewens Philip se onwilligheid om bevel te delegeer, waarom was die Spaanse veldtog anders gedoem tot mislukking?

Daar was groot gebreke in die hele invalplan. Dit was eenvoudig onwerkbaar. Die vloot was bedoel om die hertog van Parma - wat aan die bevel was van die Spaanse magte in Nederland - te ontmoet voordat hy mans op die skepe laai en na Engeland gaan, waar die weermag wat onlangs opgestoot het, 'n inval sou begin. Maar om verskillende tegniese redes - getye, tydsberekeninge en die bote self - sou hierdie plan nooit kon werk nie. Die Spanjaarde vaar op die Kanaal met die grootste waarborg van mislukking, wat 'n vreemde idee is.

Wat nog vreemder is, is dat Philip blykbaar onverskrokke was oor die militêre kommer wat deur sy bevelvoerders geopper is. Hy was oortuig dat God 'n manier sou verseker dat sy leër in Nederland sy vloot ontmoet en dat hulle almal op een of ander manier oor die kanaal sou kom. Dit is 'n veldtogplan wat historici Sam Willis en Saul David in die reeks probeer regkry.

U noem dat die armada self 'n swakheid in die Spaanse invalplan was. 'N Vloot met ongeveer 130 groot oorlogskepe kan beslis nie as 'n probleem beskou word nie?

Die probleem was nie soseer met getalle nie - alhoewel die Spaanse magte uitgeput was as gevolg van hul mislukte ontmoeting met die hertog van Parma soos beplan. Die probleem was eerder die ontwerp van die skepe self.

Engeland se skepe is gebou om te veg. Hulle is ontwerp om vinnig te beweeg, om teen die wind op te vaar en 'n groot slag te pak, met baie kanonne aan boord.

Die Spanjaarde, aan die ander kant, het skepe gehad wat ontwerp was vir allerhande verskillende doeleindes, maar wat nie een hiervan besonder goed bereik het nie. Groot, omvangryk en ongemaklik, Philip se skepe is ontwerp om langs Engelse vaartuie op see op te trek en te veg asof in 'n landgeveg: soldate spring aan boord van die vyandelike skepe en veg hand aan hand. Daar was net nie dieselfde klem op artillerievuur as wat die Engelse gehad het nie. As die Spaanse genoeg mans aan boord gehad het, sou die vloot moontlik in Cornwall, Devon of Hampshire kon land en op Londen optrek, net soos William van Oranje 'n eeu later gedoen het. Die feit is egter dat hulle net nie daardie mannekrag gehad het nie. Die inval was regtig 'n waterskeidingsoomblik in die vlootgeskiedenis, aangesien artillerie-afgevuurde skepe die maritieme slagveld begin oorheers het.

Hoe bewus was Philip van Engeland se vlootsterkte? Hy was immers vier jaar getroud met Mary I van Engeland.

Tydens sy relatief kort verblyf in Engeland het Philip korrek geïdentifiseer dat die land se belangrikste verdedigingslinie op see lê. Ironies genoeg het hy eintlik aanbeveel om soveel moontlik skepe te bou vir die verdediging van die Engelse koninkryk. Min het hy geweet dat sommige van hierdie nuwe skepe later sy armada sou aanneem! Maar selfs Philip kon nie die buitengewone vermoë van die Tudor -staat verwag het om soveel manne en goeie skepe te mobiliseer as wat dit gedoen het nie.

Elizabeth se regime was ver van perfek, maar dit het wel toesig gehou oor die bou van 'n paar baie goeie sogenaamde rasgeboude galjoen. En dit kan matrose mobiliseer deur 'n byna unieke dienspligstelsel te gebruik. Ek het kontemporêre dokumente in die Britse biblioteek gesien wat 'n lys van elke veerbootman, rivier en visserman bevat wat vir vlootaktiwiteite gemobiliseer kan word.

Dit is dus regverdig om te sê dat Engeland voorbereid was op 'n inval?

Ja en nee. Die verhaal van die Spaanse Armada is een van Elizabeth se penne-knyp soveel as enigiets anders. Ammunisie opraak op haar skepe omdat sy nie die nodige fondse voorsien het nie, en die voorsiening was ook taamlik swak, in die mate dat baie matrose redelik siek geword het.

Engeland se landmagte was totaal nutteloos en kon in 'n japtrap verslaan gewees het, maar die vloot was voorbereid binne die finansiële beperkings waaronder Elizabeth haar bevind het.

Die vloot van Engeland was ontwerp vir kusverdediging, ideaal om uit die hawe te ruk, 'n indringermag te verslaan en dan weer in die hawe terug te jaag.

'N Ander gewilde verhaal is dat Engeland die oorwinning te danke het aan die weer ...

Kom ons kry een ding reg. Die Spaanse Armada is katastrofies verslaan tydens die slag van Gravelines. Na die geveg is die beskadigde Spaanse vloot na die vlak voor die kus van Nederland gery, maar 'n verandering in windrigting het hom eintlik in staat gestel om in die Noordsee te hink, weg van die Engelse vloot. Dit was eers toe die oorblyfsels van die armada om Noord -Skotland en verby die ooskus van Ierland gevaar het, dat dit deur die elemente geteister is. Enige strategiese bedreiging wat die Spaanse vloot vir die Engelse troon ingehou het, was reeds by Gravelines vernietig.

Dan Snow aangebied Armada: 12 dae om Engeland te red op BBC Two in 2015.


Waarom het die Spaanse Armada misluk? - Geskiedenis

Jordan Clark Brereton

In die laat 1500's het die Spaanse ryk die grootste supermoondheid ter wêreld geword. Hulle het begin om elke land rondom die Karibiese Eilande te oorheers, tot in Noord- en Suid -Amerika. Hulle het selfs die grootste konsentrasie vlootmag ooit bymekaargemaak. Baie Europese lande was baie bang vir die konstante groei en rykdom van Spanje. Met hierdie groei en mag is baie lande deur Spanje geïntimideer en het selfs beweer dat Spanje wreed was teenoor ander Europese inboorlinge, veral dié uit Engeland. Spanje was gedurende die 16de eeu 'n oorheersende nuwe wêreldmoondheid wat gebiede oor die hele wêreld uitbrei. Hulle verower gebiede in Afrika, Noord- en Suid -Amerika, die Karibiese Eilande en selfs in die Filippyne. Met hierdie groot uitbreiding van die ryk het koning Philip II sy oë op Europa, en veral Engeland, gerig. Spanje was Katoliek en wou 'n Katolieke Wêreld hê. Philip was 'n man wat gedryf is deur godsdienstige obsessie, hy het probeer om die Katolieke Kerk uit te brei en in sy pad was Protestantse Engeland.

In die vroeë 1500's het Spanje en Engeland van die begin af 'n baie goeie verhouding gehad, wat die vraag laat ontstaan: wat was die redes vir die Spaanse Armada? 'Waarom wou Spanje koningin Elizabeth van Engeland te veel gooi? As Spanje ook so 'n sterk en uitgestrekte ryk was, 'Waarom het die Spaanse Armada so jammerlik gefaal? Die redes wat in hierdie referaat bewys moet word, is dat die Spanjaarde te selfversekerd en onder voorbereid was. Daar was ook baie slegte besprekings oor koning Filips II se kant oor die voorbereiding van 'n aanval op Engeland.

Aan die begin het Spanje en Engeland twis gehad, maar meestal was hulle baie hartlik en vriendelik met mekaar op politieke vlak. Hulle het ook 'n gemeenskaplike vyand gehad, Frankryk. Met hierdie gemeenskaplike vyand het hulle natuurlike bondgenote gebly. [1] Dit sou egter binnekort verander toe die Engelse die Anglo-Spaans as 'n "ongewenste" ras begin beskou het, en gesoek het na die beste belange van hul soewereine, om hierdie rede, koningin Elizabeth I. [2]

Filips II was getroud met Maria I, Elizabeth se halfsuster, en gedurende daardie tyd was Engeland Katoliek. Dit het Philip II beheer oor die hele Engeland gegee, en maklike toegang vir sy Spaanse skepe om na die Spaanse Nederland te reis. Met die beheer van die Engelse kanale, kon Philip sy troepe stasioneer en voorsien wanneer hy wou. [3] Maar in 1558 sterf Maria I koningin van Engeland, en koningin Elizabeth I neem die troon in. Philip II wou nog steeds bande met Engeland hê, en daarom het hy Elizabeth I. voorgestel, maar dinge het nie verloop soos Philip dit voorgestel het nie. Elizabeth I was die dogter van Henry VIII, en hul gesin was uit 'n streng protestantse familie. Elizabeth Ek het nie op Philips se voorstel gereageer nie. Dit het Philip baie ontstel omdat hy geglo het dat Elizabeth nie eens 'n wettige troonopvolger was nie, en dat Mary Queen of Scots, die groot katolieke kleindogter van Henry VII, koningin moes gewees het. [4]

Die feit dat Philip II geen direkte verbinding met die Engelse troon gehad het nie, het hom nou bekommerd gemaak oor sy moontlike beheer oor Engeland. Om sake te vererger, het koning Filips II van Spanje vir Dom Troon, die koning van Portugal, die troon verslaan. Antonio vlug na Engeland, en toe hy daar aankom, ontvang koningin Elizabeth hom met ope arms en gee hom al die nodige benodigdhede, militêre en finansiële ondersteuning. Philip was woedend oor hierdie besluit van haar. Dit het die vriendskap tussen beide lande nou in gevaar gestel. Dit het Philip ook mal gemaak omdat daar nou 'n moontlike bedreiging vir die veiligheid van Spanje en die weerstand van die Spaanse oorheersing van Europa bestaan. [5]

Net 'n jaar nadat Antonio skuiling by koningin Elizabeth gevind het, was daar nog 'n man wat 'n doring in Philips se kant was, naamlik sir Frances Drake. Drake was 'n seekaptein en privaat in die Elizabethaanse tydperk. Drake het die Spaanse skeepsvaart van die Wes -Indiese Eilande aangeval. Spanje het baie skepe verloor aan hierdie aanvalle wat groot hoeveelhede silwer deur Drakes seerowers vervoer het. Vir die Engelse word Drake as 'n dapper held beskou, maar vir die Spanjaarde was hy niks anders as 'n seerower nie. Hierdie klopjagte is ook gedoen onder die bewussyn van koningin Elizabeth I. Nie net het sy die strooptogte goedgekeur nie, maar sy het Sir Francis Drake gereageer vir sy lojaliteit en dapperheid namens Engeland. Die Spaanse kon dit nie aanvaar nie, wat hulle nog meer woedend gemaak het. [6] Hierdie aanvalle het voortgeduur, selfs tot die teistering van die skepe wat die Nederlandse rebelle van Spanje in die Spaanse Nederland gehelp het deur ook op hul skepe te klim en te val. [7] Sir Frances Drake het 'n werklike probleem vir Spanje begin word, aangesien sy persoonlike vendetta teen die Spaanse ryk 'n deurlopende aggressie was.

In Julie 1581 het Philip nog meer probleme ondervind. Daar het meer spanning in die Lae Lande (Nederlanders) begin toeneem. Die staatsgeneraal van die Nederlandse Lae -lande het genoeg van die beheer en belasting wat Philip hulle opgelê het en besluit om 'n onafhanklikheidsverklaring te verklaar, genaamd die Act of Abjuration. As 'n ekstra belediging het koningin Elizabeth I begin om die hertog van Anjou, wat deur die Nederlanders soewereiniteit gebied is, te vergesel en wat ook saamgesweer het teen Spaanse troepe in Vlaandere. [8]

Dit was nou 'n groot probleem vir Philip, want Elizabeth I het nie net die hof na Anjou begin nie, maar sy het hom finansieel ondersteun deur hom 'dertigduisend pond' te gee, waarin hy besluit het om die stad Cambrai te beleër en te verower, wat hy suksesvol gedoen het. [9] As daar nog nie genoeg probleme vir Filips II was nie, sou Philip daarna oor die rand gooi. In 1587 word Mary, koningin van Skotte, wat vermoedelik die ware troonopvolger van Engeland sou wees, daarvan beskuldig dat sy die lewe van koningin Elizabeth bedreig het, sodat Elizabeth haar tereggestel het. [10]

Om alles te kroon, het Philip II nuus gekry dat koningin Elizabeth 'n verdrag met die Nederlanders onderteken het en dat Sir Frances Drake onderweg na Indië sou vaar om Spaanse gebiede soos Vigo en Bayona aan te val. Hy beroof ook plekke soos San Cristobal en vang Santo Domingo in die Karibiese Eilande. Sy onstuimigheid het ook nie daar gestop nie. Hy neem ook Cartagena en verbrand St. Augustinus vir die plesier. Dit was die breekpunt van koning Filips II, hy kon nie die feit hanteer dat hy sy uitgestrekte Katolieke ryk verloor het of meer Katolieke sien doodmaak nie, en daarom besluit hy om die saak in eie hande te neem.

Die eerste keer dat daar iets gesê is oor 'n moontlike vergelding teen Engeland, was in Desember 1581. Daar het onder vriende en bondgenote gepraat om 'n leër op te rig om teen Engeland te veg, maar niks was amptelik nie. Op die oomblik het Philip egter niks gedoen om so 'n armada teen Engeland voor te berei nie, maar na alles wat teen hom saamgesweer het, was dit beslis iets wat hy oorweeg het. [11] Koning Philip II se voorneme was om enige moontlike praatjies oor die aanval op Engeland stil te hou, maar die koning het 'n groot mond gehad as dit by skinderpraatjies kom, dit was sy eerste fout. Daar was reeds ander wat saamgesweer het teen Engeland, soos die Skotse Katolieke. Die woord van vyandigheid teenoor Engeland het vinnig versprei, en teen 1583 was daar sprake van 'n moontlike inval deur 'n 'Spaanse Armada' op Engeland. [12] Die probleem met praatjies oor 'n moontlike inval het die Engelse 'n rooi vlag gegee en is bewus gemaak van die moontlike inval van Spanje. Daar is jare lank gepraat oor die moontlike bedreiging van inval, maar niks het gebeur nie. In 1586 het Engeland egter die behandeling van 'n inval ernstiger begin neem. Koningin Elizabeth het baie geheime agente of spioene begin stuur om te ondersoek of die Spanjaarde hierdie voorbereidings tref of nie. Elizabeth het 'n idee dat hierdie inval met Skotland sou gebeur, en nie noodwendig op Engeland nie. In elk geval was die koningin nog glad nie bekommerd dat die Spanjaarde enige van die twee lande sou binnedring nie. [13] Terwyl koning Filips II aanvanklik sy vlootoffisier verwerp het, het Santa Cruz se idee om teen Engeland te gaan vir katolieke bevryding, maar uiteindelik het hy gedink dat dit beter sou wees dat "die oorlog geveg word as vermy". [14] In die oë van koning Filips II was Spanje God se land, en dit was deur God se ontwerp dat hulle Engeland verower. Met hierdie groot godsdienstige missie waarvoor Philip verplig was, het hy 'n sterk militêre bevelvoerder nodig gehad om sy magte in die stryd teen Engeland te lei. Hierdie man was Santa Cruz. [15]

Santa Cruz was 'n baie intelligente bevelvoerder en het goeie idees en planne gehad oor hoe om hierdie groot armada wat die Spanjaarde beplan het, te orkestreer. Dit was Santa Cruz se idee om honderd-en-vyftig skepe bymekaar te maak, insluitend al hul beskikbare gevegskepe, swaar gewapende handelaars, veertig groot vragvaartuie en nog driehonderd-en-twintig hulpvaartuie. Dit was altesaam vyfhonderd en tien skepe, met na raming dertigduisend seelui, en sestigduisend soldate. Dit is wat Santa Cruz beraam het dat dit sou neem as Philip Engeland wou inneem. Met 'n slegte rekord van skuld en bankrotskappe van King Philips, was dit egter byna onmoontlik vir hom om te bekostig. As gevolg van die onvermoë van die Kings om die politiek en sy finansies te beheer, het dit vertragings in die beplanning van die armada veroorsaak, en het Santa Cruz geen tyd gegee om op te tree nie. [16] Bo en behalwe hierdie finansiële probleme wat Philip gehad het, het dit die saak vererger toe sir Francis Drake die hawe van Cadiz in 1587 aanval, wat 'n aantal skepe wat vir die armada voorberei is, vernietig en beskadig. [17]

Santa Cruz was 'n baie onafhanklike man en het ondervinding in militêre aangeleenthede. Hy het geweet wat gedoen moes word om 'n suksesvolle vlootmissie uit te voer. Maar Philip sou soms deur Santa Cruz aanstoot neem, dan sou Philip Santa Cruz die skuld gee vir die vertragings en mislukkings, terwyl dit in werklikheid net 'n slegte oordeel van Philip was. Uiteindelik was Santa Cruz egter ongeveer twee en sestig jaar oud en was hy nie gesond nie. Hy is in 1588 in Lissabon oorlede, sommige sê dat dit as gevolg van ouderdom was, ander dat dit moontlik op bevel van die koning was. [18] Om hom te vervang, het Philip reeds iemand in gedagte gehad, 'n ryk edelman met die naam Medina Sedonia. Hierdie Medina -karakter is hoofsaaklik gekies vanweë sy rykdom en standbeelde. Hy was 'n onwaarskynlike kandidaat vir die pos. Medina Sidonia was 'n landman, "sonder vorige oorlogservaring." Dit beteken dat Medina geen vlootoorlogservaring gehad het nie en geen idee gehad het hoe om 'n vlootmag van duisende mans te beveel oor hoe om op die see te veg nie. Dit was 'n slegte besluit van Philip se kant af. [19] Daar is gesê dat dit miskien 'n 'Omen' was wat die Spaanse Armada van die begin af ondervind het, en dat Santa Cruz sterf een ding was, en om iemand anders in beheer te stel wat minder geskik was vir die werk, hertog van Medina Sidonia was 'n ander. [20] Hierdie generaal Medina Sidonia was nie net nooit aan boord van 'n skip nie, maar daar word gesê dat hy ook seesiek sou word. Waarom koning Philip ooit 'n man soos hierdie sou kies om die grootste vloot van alle tye te lei, is ondenkbaar. [21] Die enigste rede waarom die Medina Sidonia selfs die pos van bevelvoerder was, was dat hy almal in adel oortref het en 'n hoogs verhewe sosiale status het waarmee niemand kon meeding nie. Hierdie sosiale status was 'n baie belangrike ding vir die Spanjaard, maar hierdie besluit kan hulle uiteindelik die Spaanse lewens gekos het. [22]

Met hierdie sogenaamde burokratiese bevelvoerder wat nou in beheer was, was daar nog baie om te leer en voor te berei voordat ons hierdie seereis sou onderneem. Dit het baie vertragings veroorsaak en die Spaanse Armada het langer geneem om te vaar. Dit het Engeland 'n nog beter voordeel en tyd gegee om voor te berei om teen 'n aanval te verdedig. Alhoewel daar vir 'n paar maande nog niks gebeur het nie, het die Engelse spioen nog steeds geen woord gehad oor wanneer 'n Spaanse Armada mag begin nie. [23] Dit het die Engelse egter nie gekeer om die Engelse kanaal voortdurend dop te hou nie.

Dit het gelyk asof koning Philip II dit baie moeilik gehad het om besluite te neem, en goed daarmee. Hy was ook nie bereid om iemand vir hom te laat besluit nie. Dit lyk asof die koning in sy vroeëre jare 'n versigtige man was, traag en traag om op te tree. Maar toe hy by die Armada aangekom het, het hy baie impulsief, koppig en irrasioneel geword. Philip was so gefokus op sy godsdienstige pogings om 'n Katolieke wêreld te skep, dat hy sy oorlogsvoorbereiding op geloof in God begin plaas het. Hy het geglo dat God vir hom 'n manier sou berei om sy werk te volbring. [24]

Die Armada het op hierdie stadium lank genoeg vertraag. Ongeag al die terugslae van die burgemeester, was Philip II verplig om na die Engelse kanaal te vaar en na Engeland te gaan. Met die Spaanse Armadas honderd en dertig skepe, was die armada se plan om Vlaandere te vaar om die hertog van Parma te ontmoet, wat Philip se neef was. Dan sou hulle saam na Engeland vaar, wat hulle geglo het Engeland deur hul magte sou oorweldig, en uiteindelik die ketterske koningin sou vang. [25] Wat die Spaanse nie kon verstaan ​​nie, was dat daar eerstens geen geheim was dat die Engelse geen idee gehad het van die Spaanse Armada nie, wat hulle wel gehad het. Tweede Engeland het nie net Spy's nie, maar 'n wag op die kranse van Engeland en Wales. Derdens, hoe het hulle verwag om honderd-en-dertig skepe verby Engeland te vaar, deur die eng pas van Engeland en Frankryk na Vlaandere te reis en deur niemand gesien te word nie?

Terwyl die Spaanse Armada deur die Engelse Kanaal vaar, vaar die seil in 'n halfmaanformasie, byna 'n halfmaanvorm, en reis baie naby aan mekaar.

Terwyl die Engelse voortdurend na hul kus kyk, die tweede keer dat die Spaanse Armada deur die Engelse kanaal kom, word hulle opgemerk en bakens is langs die kus aangesteek en 'n boodskap deur die hele land gestuur. [26] Dit het veroorsaak dat Drake en sy magte voorberei het om teen die armada te vaar. Op daardie dag waai die gety van die rivier die Tamar egter noordoos na hulle in Plymouth, sodat hulle nie hul skepe uit Davenport kon kry nie. Daarom besluit hulle om die gety uit te wag en 'n bakkie te voltooi. [27] Dit sou die mees geskikte oomblik gewees het om op die Engelse skepe te slaan terwyl hulle eerbiedig was en vasgekeer was in die hawe van Plymouth, dit sou hulle selfs 'n oorwinning kon behaal, maar Philip II het sy magte aangesê om nie te probeer toeslaan nie, tensy dit absoluut noodsaaklik is . Boonop fokus Philip meer daarop om met sy ander magte in Vlaandere te vergader dat hy nie die geleentheid aangegryp het nie. Nog 'n belangrike besluit wat Philip geneem het, wat hom moontlik die oorlog gekos het, as hy die geleentheid sou aangryp.

Die gety het uiteindelik gedraai, en die Engelse skepe het uit Plymouth vertrek om die vyand die hoof te bied. Aangesien die gety nog teen hulle was, moes die Engelse in die wind waai en daarteen vaar; hulle het 'n tegniek gehad om te skei, drake -groepe het langs die kus gegaan terwyl die ander deel van die groep see toe vaar. Hulle tegniek was om om die Spaanse skepe te vaar en agter hulle aan te kom. Hulle het kleiner skepe en minder manne, sodat hulle vinnig om die Spaanse vyand sou vaar en hulle met hul gewere onderdanig sou maak. [28]

Hierdie twee magte het in verskillende formasies gereis en het verskillende vegtegnieke gehad. Die Spanjaarde het 'n halfmaanformasie gebruik wat styf aan mekaar was, wat dit moeilik gemaak het om te beweeg. Die Engelse gebruik egter 'n tegniek genaamd line -string formasie, wat beteken dat hulle mekaar die een na die ander volg, sodat die bevelvoerder die voortou kan neem. Spanje sou gryphake gebruik om aan die ander skepe vas te trek en die skepe bymekaar te trek om aan boord te kom. Die Engelse sou 'n afstand van die Spanjaarde hou en probeer om hulle met hul gewere aan te val. Dit lyk asof die Engelse beter vorming gehad het, maar nie een van die gevegstegnieke het van beide kante gewerk nie. Die Spanjaarde was te ver weg van die Engelse dat hulle hul worstelhake kon gebruik. Die Engelse was te ver van die Spanjaarde om hulle met hul gewere te slaan. Die Engelse skepe was meer gevorderd, kleiner en meer manoeuvreerbaar. Terwyl die Spaanse skepe baie swaar gebou was, uit die water, en baie omslagtig. Die Spaanse Armada was egter nog ongedeerd, ongeskonde en groter as ooit.

Daar was egter nog slegte nuus vir die Spanjaarde; hulle het nog niks van hul troepe in Vlaandere gehoor nie, en of hulle gereed was om teen Engeland te help veg. Na die eerste mislukte poging om die armada aan te heg, het die Engelse hergroepeer en die wind agter die armada in hul guns gekry. Drake het sy magte beveel om in vier groepe op te breek om sy magte maksimum vryheid te gee om onafhanklik te veg. Drake het sy groep suid geneem en die ander uit die noorde, en die ander twee groepe was daarop gemik om die sentrum aan te val. Drake had distracted the Spanish commander at a critical moment in the battle, and instead of turning into the sheltered waters of the Solent, now the Spanish looked to be heading toward the most fearsome waters of the English Channel and English sand banks which forced the Spanish to turn back towards the open sea. However the Spanish still headed toward flounders to meet up with Parma’s Army without the knowledge of their help or readiness. [29]

The Spanish Armada then found itself in a predicament. There was no place in the Low Countries were the ships could find shelter, so they were in open waters and the night fell. Then at midnight of July 28, with the Spanish formation still strong and numerous, Drake decided to attack the armada with a weapon that struck fear into every Spanish sailor on a wooden ship, “FIRE.” English sailors put together eight full-sized ships for sacrifice they loaded these ships with barrels of tar, gunpowder, and loaded two cannon balls in each canon so that when the flames reached the powder they would explode at random. That night there was a full moon which meant the tide would run strong. That night the English pushing these fire-breathing ships right in the middle of the closely-anchored Spanish Armada’s fleet. [30]

The Spanish started to sound the alarm. The Spanish were so fearful that they started turning into each other crashing ships together, sailors abandoning their ships. Even though only one Spanish ship even caught fire, that was all it took, and it was enough fear to scatter the Spanish formation by morning putting the armada into complete disarray. Eventually the English ships were amongst the armada firing back and forth this was the Battle of Gravelines. It was a complete massacre of the Spanish Armada. The English with their faster ships and extreme fire power caused extreme damage to many Spanish ships and caused many casualties.

In Conclusion, we can see that the Spanish Armada was more of an attempt to prove that Spain was a powerful country and that it was going to attempt to rule England, but the Spanish Rule Philip II got to impatient and greedy with his power to conquer, thus being overly confident with his ability to conquer, the unpreparedness, and the lack of naval preparation and coordination. Not to mention his lack in the ability to choose the right commander for the job. The Spanish not only underestimated England’s naval power, but also overestimated Spanish naval abilities to fight.


Why did the Spanish Armada sail?

Die Spanish monarch, Philip II, was angry that Queen Elizabeth gehad het not punished Sir Francis Drake and other English seadogs for plundering Spanish ships. He felt it was his duty to invade and conquer England in order to convert the country back to the Church of Rome.

Also, why did the Spanish Armada fail tactics? The most important reason the Spanish Armada failed was because the English gehad het better leadership than the Spanish. Moreover, when Medina Sidonia gehad het a chance to attack the trapped English fleet at Plymouth Harbour, he instead sailed past. As a result, he missed an opportunity to easily defeat the English fleet.

In this regard, why did the Spanish Armada set sail in 1588?

Die Spanish Armada set sail from Spain in July 1588, with the mission of overthrowing the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I and restoring Catholic rule over England. When Mary died childless in 1558, her very Protestant half-sister Elizabeth, daughter of Henry's second wife Anne Boleyn, came to the throne.

Why was the defeat of the Spanish Armada important?

Die defeat van die Armada was a major turning point in English history. It saved the throne of Elizabeth I and guaranteed English independence from Spain. Die Spanish saw the invasion as a crusade and one that would stamp out the heresy of Protestantism in England.


The reasons that led Philip II to the war were economic, political and religious: In the politically aspect, the growing power of the Spanish Monarchy (which in 1580 had annexed the Portuguese dominions , was constantly expanding in America , and had the support of the Habsburgs in Germany and the Italian princes) was …

Representatives of Spain and the United States signed a peace treaty in Paris on December 10, 1898, which established the independence of Cuba, ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States, and allowed the victorious power to purchase the Philippines Islands from Spain for $20 million.


Why Did The Spanish Armada Fail? (Essay Sample)

During the 16th century, both Spain and England were among the major colonial powers in the world they conquered many parts of the world to increase their wealth. However, religious differences became the major cause of conflicts between the two countries. In 1588, a war was declared by the Spanish King Philip II he sent his Armada to fight Elizabeth the I from the throne. The Spanish ruler was still hoping to defeat Elizabeth and restore England back to its Catholic origin.

One of the many reasons why King Philip started the war was because of religion. He was a strong Catholic and wanted to restore England back to his original state. When Mary the previous England queen who was a Catholic was killed, Elizabeth, who was a protestant ascended to the throne. Philip believed that he had the responsibility to return England to being a Catholic nation. The Spanish Armada was defeated for several reasons. First, the English used appropriate tactics. Even though the Spanish has more warships compared to English troops, the English ships moved faster and could be easily be navigated. The Spanish ships were not built for war, they were meant for transporting goods, this affected their plans.

On the other hand, the English had effective weapons that could fire at a long distance. The British troops could fire faster and accurately compared to the Spanish troops who could not use their guns in the channels as water entered in their ships. It meant that the English troops could fire against the opponent faster and could easily maneuver through the sea. English troops used adaptable tactics like the Hell Burner, a tactic consisting of setting ablaze some of their ships and pushing the ship towards the Spanish borders. The Spanish troops retreated for fear of their ships catching fire. The tactics used by British confused the Spanish Armada during the war, because the Spanish used outdated tactics.

During the war, the Spanish boarded the English ships to capture their opponents. The Spanish also run alongside the English ships pulling their ships before boarding the ships to fight. In addition, the English troops relied on long-range guns they avoided getting close to their opponents. Despite having superior weapons, the Spanish could not use them effectively because the English ships were far away. The other reason for Spanish Armada failing to win the battle against the British was the weather condition.

The weather had a negative impact on both sides, but it had a disastrous effect on the Spanish more than the English did. For instance, when the Spanish returned to the port for resupply, when they set to sail poor weather drifted their ships permitting the English troops to spot them easily and alerting their leaders of their arrival. The geography of the English Channel affected on Spanish when the Spanish stopped to pick up some of the troops, they discovered that there was no port to stop his fleet.

The only option was to harbor at the nearby port and wait for the troops. The wind affected their movement the Spanish ship could not come to the shallow water to take soldiers abroad. As they waited for the troops to board the ship, the English troops attacked the Spanish ships. Heavy storms affected their ships, causing major damages affecting their operations. Based on the above factors there are many reasons why the Spanish Armada failed even though they had sophisticated fleet ships, which are considered to be superior, compared to English fleets.


The Activity

1. Start by examining the Spanish plan and working out why the English force was divided. The focus is on the centrality of Parma&rsquos army to Spanish success. This is done through a series of guided questions:

a) to the Spanish &ndash you are going to invade England &ndash what difficulties will you have? Why are you going to collect the Duke of Parma's army? (obvious problem - English opposition less obvious - linking up with Parma - get students to think about how the Armada will communicate with Parma and why this would be difficult).

b) to the English - what are you trying to do? (stop the Armada, stop the Armada linking up with Parma), why are the English forces divided? ( Seymour's squadron is there to stop Parma's forces coming out to sea).

2. Now work though the events of July 1588. This is done by moving the students playing the Spanish Armada up the channel in stages, using the date sheets as markers, while explaining to them what is happening and asking them questions so they have to think about the developing situation.

Step: 20th July - The Armada comes into the Channel, so move the Spanish students up to Plymouth. They are sailing in a crescent formation with Medina Sedonia in the centre. Howard's squadron don't come out of Plymouth Harbour to meet the Spanish - why not? Any ideas? Answer - penned in by the wind. You could use a hairdryer to underline the direction of the wind! (Useful to have some bowls - golf balls? - for Drake and co to play with because they can't get out of harbour, a more prosaic explanation than the insouciant 'we've got time to finish our game then go and beat the Spanish' story) Therefore the Armada is able to sail past Plymouth without opposition.

Step: 21st - the English now sail out of Plymouth and attack the Armada - but what were their tactics? Ask English ships &ndash is it better tactics to stay distant from the Spanish and fire your cannon at them or get in close, grapple their ships and try to board them and fight on the decks?

Answer - the Spanish ships had more soldiers on board their ships and so their preferred tactic was to close with the English, grapple and board. There were also more of them. Therefore the English tactics avoided close warfare and fired from a distance. Howard's tactics described the English tactics as 'plucking their feathers little by little' - the English concentrated on the vulnerable tips of the Armada's crescent formation.

Step: 22nd - 26th - this period can be taken in one movement with the Armada moving slowly ahead, harassed by the English but taking very few casualties. On 25th the English began to run low on both food and ammunition - ask how this would affect their tactics. Answer - they concentrated on just shadowing the Armada and conserving ammunition for a later stage.

Ask each side how confident they feel at this stage and why they feel this.

3. Time to pause and look at the factors for the first time if you want to focus on explanation as well as the story.

Ask who is achieving their objectives? m.a.w.

- ask the English - do they look like stopping the Armada linking up with Parma? (No, no significant damage has been done to the Armada. Emphasise that it was extremely unusual to sink a ship with gunfire at this time so how could they stop 130 ships?)

- ask the Spanish &ndash are you on course to link up with Parma (yes, they don't need to defeat the English navy, they just need to sail on to their rendezvous).

So why are the Spanish successful so far? Which factors important? Ask the students acting as factors to comment on their importance so far:

  • Spanish plan is working so far
  • weather is helping the Spanish as wind is blowing them towards Parma
  • Spanish gunnery and tactics have been useful so far although largely passive
  • English gunnery and tactics have not made any impact.

Then create an &ldquoOlympic podium&rdquo to rank the factors in importance &ndash ask the class to decide which factors were the most significant at this stage. Ask the less important to kneel down while the most important stand up, thus creating a physical hierarchy.

4. Back to the Armada campaign.

Step: 27th - the Armada reached Calais and anchored. Ask Spanish why they have chosen to anchor? Answer - to link-up with Parma and therefore had to wait for definite news of Parma's plans.

Ask why Parma can&rsquot come out to meet the Armada in advance?

Answer - because his small boats would be attacked by the Dutch rebels and the Armada couldn't deal with the rebels because they operated in shallow waters.

At this stage Medina Sedonia sent the latest of many messages to Parma telling him of progress &ndash which creates the problem of how to simulate sending the messages. One way is to get Medina Sedonia to try lobbing paper balls at Parma which can be intercepted by the Dutch rebel ship &ndash or to send a Spanish messenger round a very long way to avoid the Dutch. Parma did finally receive a message on 29th but by then it was too late.

Step: 28th &ndash now you need to lead the English towards their chosen tactic. The English need to stop the Spanish but they have not been able to do so while the Armada stays in formation.

Ask the English what they need to do? (break up formation)

Maar hoe? What scares sailors, especially in wooden ships - fire?

How might you try to set Spanish ships on fire? What about sacrificing some of your own ships?

Step: Midnight - the English send fireships in amidst the anchored Spanish ships. Simulate this in slow motion, by getting students as fireships to curl up like bowling balls and move between the Spanish ships. The Spanish scatter and leave their anchors behind. Ask what's the significance of scattering and losing anchors &ndash bring out ends chances of linking with Parma.

5. Time to look at the factors for the second time.

Ask the students which of the factors has been the most important in the last two days. This time it is the Spanish plan (but now negatively as it required the Armada to stop, making itself vulnerable) and the English tactics. These are the key issues at this stage so they go to the top of the podium.

6. Now it&rsquos the 29th. The Armada has scattered.

Ask Medina Sedonia what he'd like to do and whether there&rsquod be any problems in achieving his objective?

Answer is to regroup - but without anchors this is virtually impossible. The wind and tide are against returning to their anchorage or meeting Parma so the Armada is now vulnerable to .

Answer - English guns because the formation is broken and also whatever the weather throws at them.

Step: Now you can tell the story of the battle of Gravelines on 29th, a gunnery battle in which the more manoeuvrable English ships were able to hit the Armada harder than before. The English gunnery was far more efficient - but even so only one Spanish ship was sunk and 3 ran aground - out of around 130! But the Armada could not get to Parma - who ironically began to embark his troops on 29th having received news from Medina Sedonia. The battle was ended as the English ran out of ammunition and a storm blew the Spanish north. The battle was a draw but that was good enough to give the English the advantage for the first time.

7. Time to look at the factors for the third time.

Which factor gets the credit for Gravelines? The key elements were the quality of English gunnery and seamanship but also the inadequacy of Spanish gunnery. You need to explain that Spanish naval tactics focussed on the soldiers on board firing a single salvo and then rushing off to board the enemy. They were not used to firing repeated shots and therefore the Spanish ships actually fired very few shots. Many of the ships which have been excavated still had much of their ammunition left, partly because of the nature of their tactics, partly because many cannon were unusable because their muzzles had been incorrectly bored. A lack of standardisation across Phillip's empire also meant that ships had the wrong size of shot for their cannon. Overall the Armada was not equipped for a sea battle but to act as a transport for Parma's force so it was unlikely to succeed at Gravelines.

8. Step: Now it&rsquos 30th and after - strong winds forced the Armada north.

Ask the Spanish ships what they will do?

Answer &ndash no choice - they had to run before the wind, making for the north of Scotland and then heading south round Ireland - a not unusual route. All hope of linking up with Parma had gone. Howard remained in pursuit as far north as Edinburgh.

Ask English why they pursued so far? - suggests continued anxiety.

Look at the factors for the final time - at this last stage the key factor has been the weather. All others are comparatively insignificant at this stage.


Why Did the Spanish Armada Fail

The Spanish armada started in 1588 and finished around a month later. The Spanish lost dramatically for several reasons. This essay will tell you why the Spanish failed so badly and why England won. Admirals

Vrywaring: Hierdie werk is deur 'n student ingedien. Dit is nie 'n voorbeeld van die werk wat deur professionele akademiese skrywers geskryf is nie. Hier kan u 'n professionele werk bestel. (Vind 'n prys wat by u behoeftes pas)

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Medina Sidonia the Spanish admiral was not as strong as the English admirals Drake and Howard for a lot of reasons. This will have caused the Spanish a major setback from winning the Spanish armada because they would not have been as strong as the English navy. Medina was not as strong as drake and Howard because he had never commanded a navy at sea before. If the Spanish had maybe chosen an admiral that had commanded at sea before they might have had a greater chance of winning. Also the Spanish admiral suffered from sea sickness.

I think that this is a reason why the Spanish armada failed because I am sure he would have lost his concentration when planning attacks and formations. Medina chose to put his ships in the formation of a crescent. This wasn’t a good choice because it would have been harder for the ships to move and react to the English ships however though it would have given them great protection. Drake and Howard however worked as a great team and both balanced each other out really well. They balanced each other out well because Howard wanted to move slowly and wouldn’t attach until he was sure he would win against the Spanish whereas drake wanted to attach as soon as he could. Tactics of the English

The Essay on Spanish Timline

Phoenicians began colonizing Spain. Modern cities such as Cdiz and Mlaga were founded by the Phoenicians around this time. The Carthaginians conquered much of Spain. Spain became an important part of the Roman Empire following the Punic Wars. The Visigoths completed their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. The Moors conquered most of Spain. Many Spaniards converted to Islam, and Moorish culture .

Overall I think that the English had much better tactics than the Spanish. Firstly the English decided that they didn’t want to fight at a close range they wanted to fight far away with the guns on their ships. They ‘snapped at the heels of the Spanish fleet and wore it down.’ Another reason why I think the Spanish armada failed is because they weren’t as used to the choppy English Channel as the English sailors. This was a good advantage to the English navy because not as many ships would have crashed as the Spanish. On the port of Calais drake damaged many Spanish ships and led them scattering. He did this by using explosive on the fire ships. The English also used all the time they had to put up with the Spanish attach. They did this by putting up signal beacons all along the south coast of England this warned off the armadas and set them back a little bit. Flaws of the Spanish

The Spanish had many flaws which helped them fail the Spanish armada. One of them was when the Spanish fleet got to Calais they had to wait a long time because the Spanish army had not yet arrived if they had planned it a little bit better and had got there at the same time this would have caused them not to lose so much precious time. Another flaw was that when the Spanish fleet got scattered because drake had used explosive on the fire ship they were forced to sail around the British Isles just to arrive back home safely. Through all this time many of the Spanish ships got lost because of the bad storms. Many sailors also died because they didn’t have enough food or water. If the Spanish had put enough food and water on their ships then this might not have happened. Weapons and ships

One of the main reasons I think that the Spanish armada failed was because there ships and weapons weren’t as good as ours. For example the English could use their guns much more quickly than the Spanish could this was a major advantage to the English. The Spanish ships also didn’t carry as many guns as the English ships they carried more solders to fight head on. This is one of the reasons why they failed because the English refused to fight at a close distant. The English ships were much lighter than the heavy Spanish ships this also was a disadvantage to the Spanish because the English ships could get to places quicker.

The Term Paper on Spanish English Superpowers Of America

Spanish & English Super Power's in America Ultimately, their stronger unified cultural need to establish their dominance in another land is the most important reasons for the foothold established by the English and the Spanish in the New World. It is true that a plethora of different races, ethnic groups, nationalities, and cultures arrived on the North American soil prior to 1776, the year .

Afsluiting

Overall the Spanish armada failed because the Spanish had many flaws, the English tactics were much better and the English admirals were much stronger than the Spanish admiral. But I think the main reason why they failed was because the English had much faster and lighter ships than the Spanish and the English weapons were faster than the Spanish and there were more of them.

Soortgelyke referate

Why Did the Spanish Armada Fail 2

. conclusion, The Spanish Armada failed in its attempt to defeat the English due . Sir Francis Drake and court favorite Admiral Howard. Moreover, the Spanish ships were large . on Spanish morale. This wasn’t, of course the only reason The Armada failed, .

Why did the Spanish Armada Fail ?

. English ship 1v1. Since the English had much better vessels, the English won the battle and that was the end of the great Spanish armada. . forces of darkness. ” English observers of the time described the Spanish Armada, or great fleet, as . did it fail?

Spanish English Superpowers Of America

. factor in the domination of the English and the Spanish, ultimately the reasons for British and Spanish were more cultural than purely . trade west and south into Mississippi Valley. By this time both Spain and France were unwilling to transport large .

The Spanish Armada 4

. They sent fire ships into the Spanish formations, thus scattering them. The next day the English attacked the confused armada. The Battle of . Parma failed to show up with his men. This was devastating to the Kings plan. At this time the English saw .


How the Spanish Armada Was Really Defeated

The Spanish Armada campaign of 1588 changed the course of European history. If the Duke of Parma’s 27,000 strong invasion force had safely crossed the narrow seas from Flanders, the survival of Elizabeth I’s government and Protestant England would have looked doubtful indeed. If those battle-hardened Spanish troops had landed, as planned, near Margate on the Kent coast, it is likely that they would have been in the poorly defended streets of London within a week and the queen and her ministers captured or killed. England would have reverted to the Catholic faith and there may have not been a British Empire to come.

It was bad luck, bad tactics and bad weather that defeated the Spanish Armada—not the derring-do displayed on the high seas by Elizabeth’s intrepid sea dogs.

But it was a near run thing.


The Spanish Armada off the English coast, historical painting by Cornelis Claesz. van Wieringen (1620-1625) via Wikimedia Commons.

Because of Elizabeth’s parsimony, driven by an embarrassingly empty exchequer, the English ships were starved of gunpowder and ammunition and so failed to land a killer blow on the ‘Great and Most Fortunate Navy’ during nine days of skirmishing up the English Channel in July–August 1588.

Only six Spanish ships out of the 129 that sailed against England were destroyed as a direct result of naval combat. A minimum of fifty Armada ships (probably as many as sixty-four) were lost through accident or during the Atlantic storms that scattered the fleet en route to England and as it limped, badly battered, back to northern Spain. More than 13,500 sailors and soldiers did not come home— the vast majority victims not of English cannon fire, but of lack of food and water, virulent disease and incompetent organisation.

Thirty years before, when Philip II of Spain had been such an unenthusiastic husband to Mary I, he had observed: “The kingdom of England is and must always remain strong at sea, since upon this the safety of the realm depends.”

Elizabeth knew this full well and gambled that her navy, reinforced by hired armed merchantmen and volunteer ships, could destroy the invasion force at sea. Her warships, she maintained, were the walls of her realm and they became the first, and arguably her last, line of defense. Decades of neglect had rendered most of England’s land defenses almost useless against an experienced and determined enemy. In March 1587, the counties along the English Channel had just six cannon each.

England had no standing army of fully armed and trained soldiers, other than small garrisons in Berwick on the Scottish borders, and in Dover Castle on the Channel coast. Moreover, Elizabeth’s nation was divided by religious dissent—almost half were still Catholic and fears of them rebelling in support of the Spanish haunted her government.

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, was appointed to command Elizabeth’s armies “in the south parts” to fight not only the invaders but any “rebels and traitors and other offenders and their adherents attempting anything against us, our crown and dignity.” and to “repress and subdue, slay or kill and put to death by all ways and means” any such insurgents “for the conservation of our person and peace.”

Some among Elizabeth’s subjects placed profit ahead of patriotism. In 1587, twelve English merchants—mostly from Bristol—were discovered supplying the Armada “to the hurt of her majesty and undoing of the realm, if not redressed.” Nine cargoes of contraband, valued between £300 and £2,000, were not just provisions but also ammunition, gunpowder, muskets, and ordnance. What happened to these traitors (were they Catholics?) is unknown, but in those edgy times, they would be unlikely to have enjoyed the queen’s mercy.

Elsewhere, Sir John Gilbert, half-brother to Sir Walter Raleigh, refused permission for his ships to join Drake’s western squadron and allowed them to sail on their planned voyage in March 1588 in defiance of naval orders.

Unaware that Parma planned to land on the Kent coast, Elizabeth’s military advisers decided on Essex as the most likely spot where the Spanish would storm ashore. The Thames estuary had a wide channel leading straight to the heart of the capital, bordered by mud flats that posed a major obstacle to a vessel of any draught. Therefore, defensive plans included the installation of an iron chain across the river’s fairway at Gravesend in Kent. This boom, supported by 120 ship’s masts (costing £6 each) driven into the riverbed and attached to anchored lighters, was intended to stop enemy ships penetrating upriver to London.

The first flood tide broke the barrier.

A detailed survey of potential invasion beaches along the English Channel produced an alarming catalogue of vulnerability. In Dorset alone, eleven bays were listed, with comments such as: “Chideock and Charmouth are two beaches to land boats but it must be very fair weather and the wind northerly.” Swanage Bay could “hold one hundred ships and [the anchorage is able] to land men with two hundred boats and to retire again without danger of low water at any time.”

Lacking time, money and resources, Elizabeth’s government could only defend the most dangerous beaches by ramming wooden stakes into the sand and shingle as boat obstacles, or by digging deep trenches above the high water mark. Mud ramparts were thrown up to protect the few cannon available or troops armed with arquebuses (an early type of musket) or bows and arrows. Fortifications on the strategically-vital Isle of Wight were to be at least four feet high and eight feet thick, with sharpened poles driven into their face and a wide ditch dug in front. But its governor, Sir George Carey had just four guns and gunpowder enough for only one day’s use.

Portsmouth’s freshly-built ramparts protecting its land approaches had been severely criticized by Raleigh and were demolished, much to Elizabeth’s chagrin. New earth walls were built in just four months, bolstered by five stone arrow-head shaped bastions behind a flooded ditch. Yet, more than half Portsmouth’s garrison were rated “by age and impotency by no way serviceable” and the Earl of Sussex escaped unhurt when an old iron gun (supposedly one of his best cannon), blew into smithereens.

The network of warning beacons located throughout southern England since at least the early fourteenth-century was overhauled. The iron fire baskets, mounted atop a tall wooden structure on earth mounds, were set around fifteen miles apart. Kent and Devon had forty-three beacon sites and there were twenty-four each in Sussex and Hampshire. These were normally manned during the kinder weather of March to October by two “wise, vigilant and discreet” men in twelve-hour shifts. Surprise inspections ensured their diligence, and they were prohibited from having dogs with them, for fear of distraction. Not everyone spent their time scanning the horizon for enemy ships: two watchers at Stanway beacon in Essex preferred catching partridges in a cornfield and were hauled up in court.

A census in 1588 revealed only one hundred experienced “martial men” were available for military service and, as some had fought in Henry VIII’s French and Scottish wars of forty years before, these old sweats were considered hors d’ combat. Infantry and cavalry were drawn from the trained bands and county militia. One thousand unpaid veterans from the English army in the Netherlands were hurriedly recalled but they soon deserted to hide in the tenements of Kent’s Cinque Ports.

Militia officers were noblemen and gentry whose motivation was not only defence of their country, but protection of their own property too. Many living near the coast believed it more prudent to move their households inland than stay and fight on the beaches but were ordered to return “on pain of her majesty’s indignation, besides forfeiture of [their] lands and goods.”

The main army was divided into two groups. The first, under Leicester, with 27,000 infantry and 2,418 cavalry, would engage the enemy once he had landed in force. The second and larger formation, commanded by the queen’s cousin, Lord Hunsdon, totalled 28,900 infantry and 4,400 cavalry. They were recruited solely to defend the sacred person of Elizabeth herself, who probably planned to remain in London, with Windsor Castle as a handy bolt hole if the capital fell.

Despite strenuous efforts to buy weapons in Germany and arquebuses from Holland, many militiamen were armed only with bows and arrows. A large proportion was unarmed and untrained.

To avoid the dangers of fifth-columnist recusants in the militia ranks, every man had to swear an oath of loyalty to Elizabeth in front of their muster-masters.

The county of Hampshire eventually raised 9,088 men but “many… [were] very poorly furnished some lack a head-piece [helmet], some a sword, some one thing or other that is evil, unfit or unseemly about him.”


The Spanish Armada portrait of Elizabeth I, painted in 1588 to commemorate their defeat, via Wikimedia Commons.

Discipline was also problematic: the commander of the 3,159-strong Dorset militia (1,800 totally untrained) firmly believed they would “sooner kill one another than annoy the enemy.”

When the Armada eventually cleared Cornwall, some of the Cornish militia, ordered to reinforce neighboring counties, thought they had done more than enough to serve Queen and country. Their minds were on the harvest and these reluctant soldiers decided to slink away from their commanders and their colors.

The Spanish were now someone else’s problem.

ROBERT HUTCHINSON has a doctorate in archaeology and spent his career as a journalist and publishing director before becoming a critically-acclaimed Tudor historian whose books have been translated into nine languages. His latest book is The Spanish Armada.


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