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Watter lande het spoorfietse in hul weermag gebruik?

Watter lande het spoorfietse in hul weermag gebruik?


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Ongeveer 15 jaar gelede lees ek 'n artikel oor "spoorfietsry", en as deel van die artikel verskyn foto's van soldate wat op spoorfietse ry! Ek glo die foto's was tussen 1850 en 1950.

Hierdie webwerf wys wat spoorfietsry gaan alles oor.

Vier mense spoorfietsry!

'N Treinfiets gereed om te begin!

Kan iemand 'n bron van inligting uitwys van 'n spesifieke land wat sulke fietse in hul weermag gebruik?


Uit die Military History Journal (Deel 4 No 1 - Junie 1977) is daar 'n artikel getiteld FIETSE IN DIE ANGLO-BOEROORLOG VAN 1899-1902, deur D.R. Maree, wat blykbaar by hierdie vraag pas.

Die 'oorlogsiklus' het, behalwe die agt ruiters, verskeie mans op die koppelingsraamwerk gedra, 'n Maxim-geweer en 'n snelheid van meer as 48 kmh. Foto: Africana Museum

'N Spesiale' oorlogsiklus 'is gebou vir gebruik op spoorlyne, en 'n prototipe van hierdie 8-man fiets kan in die Fort Klapperkop Museum gesien word. Dit is deur die Royal Australian Cycle Corps in Suid -Afrika ingevoer en het 'n afneembare velg wat op die lugbande aangebring is, sodat dit op rails gebruik kon word. Toe die rand verwyder is, kon die fiets op gewone paaie gebruik word. Hierdie siklusse is gebruik vir verkenning, vir die vervoer van versendings, die kontrolering van die spoorlyn vir sloopkoste, en ook om die gewondes te verwyder uit 'n skermutseling wat naby 'n spoorlyn plaasvind.


13 Militêre motorfietse van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

Alhoewel dit minder kragtig en beskermend was as die ander voertuie van die oorlog, is motorfietse wyd in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebruik. Dit was nuttig vir boodskappers en verkenningstroepe, veral in vinnig bewegende formasies. Baie van die nasies wat by die oorlog betrokke was, het hul eie weergawes vervaardig.

Puch 800

Baie van die motorfietse wat in die oorlog gebruik is, was burgerlike modelle wat deur die weermag aangeneem en geverf is. Die Oostenrykse Puch 800 was een voorbeeld van hierdie benadering, met baie eenhede wat die weermag direk uit die fabriek gekoop het. Die mees ongewone kenmerk daarvan was 'n vlak vee -enjin wat oor die raam van die fiets geplaas is. Dit was gewoonlik toegerus met 'n syspan.

Puch 800

FN M12

Die FN Company in Luik verkoop sedert die Eerste Wêreldoorlog burgerlike motorfietse sedert die Eerste Wêreldoorlog aan die Belgiese leër.

Die M12 was aansienlik beter as die M86. Aan die kant was 'n boks-syspan met masjiengeweer-voor- en agterkant. 'N Kragtiger enjin het beide die agterwiel en die wiel van die syspan aangedryf. Danksy 'n trurat kan dit in klein ruimtes goed beweeg.

FN M86 Super Sport 1937 Die burgerlike weergawe van die FN M12. Deur Lars-Göran, CC BY-SA 4.0

CZ 175

Een van die vele soortgelyke fietse wat in die dertigerjare vir die Tsjeggo-Slowaakse weermag geskep is, was die enkel sitplek CZ 175 nie 'n kragtige fiets nie. Dit is gebou as 'n ligte fiets, en dit kan maklik hanteer word om oor ruwe terreine te kom, maar het slegs beperkte krag. Slegs die voorwiel het vering gehad.

A 1939 ČZ 175. Deur Addvisor CC BY-SA 4.0

Gnome-Rhone 750 Armée

Die Armée, wat in 1938 vir die Franse leër gebou is, was 'n taaier, swaarder weergawe van heersende burgerlike ontwerpe. Dit was gewoonlik toegerus met 'n syspan en word meestal gebruik vir kommunikasie, met 'n passasier rond. Sy plat-tweeling-750cc-enjin het die agterwiel aangedryf, maar nie die syspan nie.

'N Verbeterde weergawe, die AX2, het 'n 804cc -enjin gekry wat uitstekende trekkrag bied en hom beter laat ry oor slegte terrein.

Gnome-Rhone 750 Armée. Deur AlfvanBeem CC0

BMW R75

Die R75, 'n groot, swaar fiets, was een van verskeie Duitse modelle wat spesifiek vir 'n syspan gebou is. Die syspan het rakke om 'n mortier of 'n masjiengeweer te dra, wat die hele voertuig in 'n mobiele wapenplatform verander het. Hierdie voertuie is hoofsaaklik gebruik in Kradschützen -eenhede - mobiele motorfietse binne die Panzer -afdelings. Dit is ook soms gebruik deur valskermsoldate wat dit in die ruimte van Junkers 52 vervoer vervoer het.

BMW R75 motorfiets met syspan. Deur Sean O ’Flaherty CC BY-SA 3.0

Zundapp KS750

Die antwoord van die Zundapp -onderneming op die R75, die KS750, was nog 'n Duitse swaar militêre motor. Met 'n soortgelyke uitleg en grootte van die enjin as die R75, sowel as 'n gestandaardiseerde syspan, was daar min om die KS750 van die BMW -model te onderskei. Dit het in dieselfde rolle gedien en het weer 'n mortier of 'n masjiengeweer op die syspan gedra.

Zundapp KS750. Deur Stefan Kühn, CC BY-SA 3.0

Tik 97

Die Type 97, wat in 1937 gebou is, was 'n Japannese nabootsing van die Amerikaanse Harley-Davidsons. Dit is hoofsaaklik op die Japannese tuiseilande gebruik, maar soms oorsee geneem terwyl Japannese magte oor Oos -Asië versprei het.

Die Type 97 word soms as 'n solo -fiets aangebied, soms met 'n ligte syspan. Dit het gewoonlik nie wapens gedra nie, alhoewel daar soms 'n masjiengeweer op die syspan aangebring is.

Troepe wat 'n motorfiets deur 'n rivier stoot. Deur Bundesarchiv, Bild CC-BY-SA

Excelsior Welbike

Die Welbike was 'n ongewone Britse ontwerp. Dit was bedoel om troepe in die lug meer beweeglik te maak, maar dit was klein genoeg om in 'n houer verpak te word en per valskerm neergesit te word. Die resultaat was 'n ongemaklike fiets met klein wiele en 'n ondermotor met slegs 98cc krag. Die saal en pilaar het weggevou vir vervoer.

Die Welbike kon geen toerusting dra nie, was byna nutteloos in die veld en was nie geskik vir lang ruiters nie. Dit is vinnig deur die weermag laat vaar, maar ná die oorlog herleef dit as 'n relatief goedkoop en draagbare burgerlike voertuig.

Excelsior Welbike

Norton 16H

Nog 'n Britse fiets, die robuustheid en betroubaarheid van die 16H, het dit gewild gemaak ondanks die beskeie prestasie. Die Britse leër het dit meestal as 'n solo -voertuig gebruik tydens die konvooi -marshall en om ruiters te stuur. Die Royal Air Force het dit standaard met 'n syspan toegerus. Die Kanadese weermag het, net soos sy Britse eweknie, die 16H gebruik vir gestuurwerk.

1942 Norton 16H motorfiets. Deur sv1ambo, CC BY 2.0

Norton 633

Die Norton 633 was 'n kragtiger weergawe van die 16H. Dit was die enigste Britse militêre fiets wat ontwerp is om van 'n syspan te voorsien, en dit het die sywiel aangedryf. Hierdie syspan was nie soos burgerlikes nie; dit was net 'n oop boks, sonder beskerming teen die weer. Dit het 'n rek vir 'n Bren -ligte masjiengeweer en is soms as 'n wapenplatform gebruik.

Norton 633. Deur AlfvanBeem CC0

Cushman motor -bromponie

Cushman -bromponies is vroeg in die oorlog aangeneem vir boodskappers en werknemers by groot Amerikaanse militêre basisse. Vanweë hul bruikbaarheid is 'n nuwe weergawe in 1944 gemaak vir gebruik deur troepe in die lug. Net soos die Excelsior Welbike, kan die Cushman Airborne in 'n valskerm oorgedra word en op die grond versamel word om valskermsoldate meer beweeglik te maak. Dit het beperkte toebehore - insluitend geen ligte nie - maar was meer effektief as die Welbike.

Cushman Model 53 -scooter in die lug. Deur Alf van Beem CC0

Harley-Davidson WLA

Die Harley-Davidson WLA, 'n geringe verandering van 'n bestaande burgervoertuig, was 'n gewilde fiets onder die Amerikaanse weermag wat dit gebruik het vir polisiewerk, verkenning en kommunikasie. Die ligte is verander van die burgerlike model om aan militêre standaarde te voldoen, en dit was toegerus met spesiale hakies om 'n masjiengeweer te dra. Met 'n snelheid van 65 km / h was dit een van die vinnigste fietse van die oorlog.

Harley Davidson WLA 45. Deur Joost J. Bakker CC BY 2.0

M1 ekstra ligte motorfiets

Die Amerikaanse M1 weeg minder as die helfte van 'n Harley-Davidson WLA en is oorspronklik ontwerp vir troepe in die lug. Vir hierdie doel is die komponente daarvan gebou om te laat val - indien nodig, kan die ontsteking selfs sonder die battery werk. Dit is robuust, betroubaar en uitstekend vir langreis, en is later deur ander diensvertakkinge vir boodskapperswerk aangeneem.


Britse veterane -treinkaarte - al die opgedateerde genl

Veterane Railcard: wat is die koste, wie kom in aanmerking, op watter datum word dit vrygestel?

'N Veteraanspoorkaart wat voormalige lede van die Britse weermag afslag per trein bied, is van stapel gestuur en sal binnekort beskikbaar wees vir gebruik - maar wat bied die kaart aan en wie kom in aanmerking?

Wat is die nuwe veterane -spoorkaart?

Die kaart werk op dieselfde manier as ander treinkaarte, insluitend twee nuwe kaarte wat verlede jaar bekend gestel is-een vir spoorreisigers tussen 26 en 30 jaar, en 'n ander vir tieners tussen 16 en 17 jaar wat 'n halwe prysverlaging bied.

Britse ID -kaarte vir veterane: alles oor hulle

Wie kom in aanmerking vir die nuwe veteraanspoorkaart?

Die nuwe treinkaart sal beskikbaar wees vir ongeveer 830,000 veterane en gee hulle 'n derde van die meeste treinreise. Dit strek afslag tot veterane wat nog nie deur bestaande afslag gedek word nie.

Elke veteraan, ongeag hul ouderdom, sal die kaart kan koop in teenstelling met ander treinkaarte wat normaalweg van toepassing is op spesifieke ouderdomsgroepe.

Daar word beraam dat tussen 1,6 en 1,7 miljoen veterane reeds kwalifiseer vir die Senior (ouer as 60) of gestremde persoon se spoorkaart.

Wanneer is die nuwe veterane -kaart beskikbaar?

Die Veterans Railcard is vanaf 5 November 2020 beskikbaar vir gebruik op reise.

Hoeveel kos die Veterans Railcard?

Transportsekretaris Grant Shapps het aangekondig dat 'n kaart vir een jaar £ 21 vir die eerste inleidingsperiode sal kos, maar die prys sal na 31 Maart 2021 tot £ 30 styg.

'N Trekkaartjie vir drie jaar sal tot einde Maart teen 'n prys van £ 61 beskikbaar wees.

Watter afslag bied die Veterans Railcard aan?

Dit bied die kaartehouer en hul metgesel 'n derde van die meeste treinreise en 60% afslag vir tot vier kinders tussen vyf en 15 jaar oud.

Daar is 'n keuse tussen 'n fisiese kaart en 'n digitale weergawe.

Op die oomblik is daar slegs planne vir afslag per trein oor Engeland, maar die regering hoop om 'n soortgelyke afslag in Skotland en Wallis in te stel.

Net so moet dit nog bevestig word of afslag op reis na sekere stadsvervoernetwerke soos Londen uitgebrei sal word.

10 ongewone militêre toelaes waarvan u moontlik nie gehoor het nie

Ander skema's met beperkte afslag bestaan ​​reeds in sommige dele van die land, soos die Manchester Metrolink, wat gratis reise bied op die wapenstilstanddag, die herdenkingsondag en die gewapende magte, aan voormalige lede van die weermag wat 'n veteraan -kenteken dra, en gratis reis na dienende lede van die weermag wat 'n MOD -kaart 90 het.

Finale besonderhede vir Londense reisafslag met die nuwe veteraan -spoorkaart word nog onderhandel met Transport for London.

Die veteraanspoorkaart is nie dieselfde as die Veterans Concessionary Travel Scheme (VCTS) -pas wat afslag of gratis reis vir sommige dienste in en om Londen bied aan enigiemand wat 'n deurlopende betaling ontvang volgens die oorlogspensioenskema of die weermagvergoedingskema nie, insluitend oorlogs weduwees/wewenaars en in aanmerking komende afhanklikes.

Die VCTS -pas bied konsessietariewe in Londen se tariefsones 1–6, plus afgeleë stasies, insluitend Rickmansworth na Amersham, inklusief, en stasies Carpenders Park na Watford Junction, insluitend, vir deelnemende treinondernemingsdienste, London Underground, DLR, London Trams en die meeste busse dienste in die Greater London -omgewing.

Daar is reeds 'n HM Forces -spoorkaart beskikbaar wat deur dienspersoneel vir £ 21 per jaar gekoop kan word.

Kan familielede ook die Veterans Railcard gebruik?

Die nuwe treinkaart bevat soortgelyke standaardbepalings en voorwaardes as bestaande treinkaarte, maar die veteraan -spoorkaart bied ook afslag aan 'n gade, mits hulle saam met die kaarthouer reis, en 60% afslag vir tot vier kinders tussen die ouderdomme van vyf en 15 jaar oud.

Waarom is die veteraanspoorkaart geskep?

Die nuwe kaart wat spoorvergoeding met afslag bied, is die eerste stap in die planne van die regering om meer te doen om diegene wat hul land gedien het, te ondersteun en kom nadat die regering 'n nuwe kantoor vir veterane -aangeleenthede (OVA) geskep het.

Die regering het belowe om lewenslange ondersteuning aan veterane te bied.

Daar word gehoop dat die nuwe treinkaartjie sal help om veterane se werkvooruitsigte te versterk en gesinsbande te versterk deur goedkoper reise.

Die afslag vorm deel van die regering se nuwe strategie vir veterane om alle voormalige soldate en vroue te ondersteun.

Die strategie bevat ondersteuning beskikbaar vir diegene wat hul land gedien het op gebiede soos werk en werksvaardighede, gesondheid en welstand, behuising en finansies.


Die Switserse verskil: 'n geweerkultuur wat werk

Die land het 'n massaskietery in 2001 gehad, maar die gevolglike referendum teen 'n geweer kon nie slaag nie. Die Switser sal nie die geweer prysgee nie. Kan hul stelsel in die VSA werk?

Switserse skerpskutters skiet op teikens wat meer as 300 m ver is tydens 'n jaarlikse skietoefening naby Bern

Selfs terwyl die wapenbeheer-debat weer in die VSA styg na die afskuwelike skoolskietery in Newtown, Conn., Is die wapenliefde Switserse nie op die punt om hul arms neer te lê nie. Gewere is oral in hierdie neutrale land, met skerpskiet as 'n prettige en gesonde ontspanningsaktiwiteit vir mense van alle ouderdomme.

Alhoewel Switserland nog nie in 'n gewapende konflik betrokke was sedert 'n onderonsie tussen Katolieke en Protestante in 1847 nie, is die Switsers baie ernstig, nie net oor hul reg om wapens te besit nie, maar ook om dit in die openbaar rond te dra. Vanweë hierdie algemene aanvaarding en selfs trots op die besit van wapens, slaan niemand die oog op die gesig van 'n burger wat met 'n bus, fiets of motorfiets na die skietbaan ry nie, met 'n geweer oor die skouer geslinger.

"Ons sal nooit ons houding oor die verantwoordelike gebruik van wapens deur wetsgehoorsame burgers verander nie," sê Hermann Suter, vise-president van Pro-Tell, die land se geweerlobby, vernoem na die legendariese appelskieter William Tell, wat 'n kruisboog gebruik het vyande lank voordat vuurwapens uitgevind is.

Switserland loop agter slegs die VSA, Jemen en Serwië in die aantal gewere per capita tussen 2,3 miljoen en 4,5 miljoen militêre en private vuurwapens sal na raming in 'n land met slegs 8 miljoen mense in omloop wees. Ten spyte van die voorkoms van gewere, is die geweldsmisdaadsyfer egter laag: regeringsyfers toon ongeveer 0,5 geweermoorde per 100 000 inwoners in 2010. Ter vergelyking was die Amerikaanse koers in dieselfde jaar ongeveer 5 vuurwapenmoorde per 100 000 mense, volgens 'n VN -verslag van 2011.

Anders as sommige ander swaar gewapende lande, is Switserland se besit van wapens diep gewortel in 'n gevoel van patriotiese plig en nasionale identiteit. Wapens word tuis gehou vanweë die langdurige oortuiging dat vyande die klein Switserland vinnig kan binnedring, sodat elke soldaat sy pad na sy byeenkoms by sy regiment moet kan beveg. (Switserland loop die gevaar om tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur Duitsland binnegeval te word, maar volgens historici is dit gespaar omdat elke Switserse man gewapen en opgelei is om te skiet.)

Maar die "geweer in elke kas" -tradisie is in 2001 uitgedaag, nadat 'n ontevrede burger met sy weermaggeweer in 'n plaaslike parlement losgebrand het, 14 mense doodgemaak het en 14 ander beseer is en die enigste massaskietery in die onlangse geskiedenis van Switserland. Die daaropvolgende opposisie teen wydverspreide besit van wapens het 'n aanduiding van strenger wapenwetgewing gelei. Die regering en wapengroepe het egter aangevoer dat die land se bestaande wette wat die verkoop, eienaarskap en lisensiëring van private gewere, wat 'n verbod op die vervoer van versteekte wapens insluit, streng genoeg is. Die wet stel burgers of wettige inwoners ouer as 18 jaar, wat 'n permit van die regering gekry het en wat geen kriminele rekord of geskiedenis van geestesongesteldheid het nie, in staat om tot drie wapens by 'n gemagtigde handelaar te koop, met die uitsondering van outomatiese vuurwapens en selektiewe vuurwapens wat verbied is. Semiautomatika, wat verwoesting in die VSA veroorsaak het, kan wettig gekoop word.

Die owerhede het egter een toegewing gemaak: sedert 2008 moet alle militêre - maar nie privaat - ammunisie in sentrale arsenale geberg word eerder as in soldate se huise. Die debat het 'n hoogtepunt bereik in 'n landwye referendum verlede jaar, toe 56% van die kiesers die voorstel van die geweerbestrydingsorganisasies verwerp het om weermaggewere heeltemal uit huise te verbied.

Alhoewel gewere verantwoordelik is vir tussen 200 en 300 selfmoorde elke jaar in Switserland, sê Pro-Tell se Suter dat hierdie statistieke in 'n groter perspektief geplaas moet word. Hy wys daarop dat die koeëls wat in selfmoorde gebruik word, slegs 'n klein deel van die 75 miljoen rondes ammunisie is wat elke jaar in Switserland tydens militêre en burgerlike teikenoefening afgevuur word.

Een van die redes waarom die misdaadsyfer in Switserland laag is ondanks die voorkoms van wapens en#8212 en ook waarom die Switserse mentaliteit nie na die huidige Amerikaanse werklikheid oorgedra kan word nie, is die kultuur van verantwoordelikheid en veiligheid wat in die samelewing veranker is en het van geslag tot geslag oorgedra. Kinders so jonk as 12 behoort tot geweergroepe in hul plaaslike gemeenskappe, waar hulle leer skerp skiet. Die Swiss Shooting Sports Association bestuur ongeveer 3000 klubs en het 150,000 lede, insluitend 'n jeugafdeling. Baie lede hou hul gewere en ammunisie tuis, terwyl ander kies om dit by die klub te laat. En tog, ondanks sulke maklike toegang tot pistole en gewere, "het geen lede hul gewere nog ooit vir kriminele doeleindes gebruik nie", sê Max Flueckiger, woordvoerder van die vereniging.

"Sosiale toestande is fundamenteel om misdaad af te weer," sê Peter Squires, professor in kriminologie en openbare beleid aan die Universiteit van Brighton in Groot -Brittanje, wat geweergeweld in verskillende lande bestudeer het en tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het dat 'n 'kultuur van ondersteuning' eerder as fokus op individualisme, kan massamoorde afskrik.

'As mense 'n verantwoordelike, gedissiplineerde en georganiseerde inleiding tot 'n aktiwiteit soos skietery het, is daar minder risiko vir geweergeweld,' sê hy aan TIME.

Die gevoel van sosiale en burgerlike verantwoordelikheid is een van die redes waarom die Switsers nooit toegelaat het dat hul gewere onder skoot kom nie.


19de eeu

1809
Napoleon Bonaparte het aangebied om 12 000 frank (die ekwivalent van vandag se $ 250 000) aan die persoon te betaal wat die beste manier kon vind om voedsel vir sy troepe in te haal en te bewaar. In 1809 wen die Franse sjef en banketbakker Nicolas Appert die kompetisie met 'n belangrike insig: as hy kos in 'n bottel plaas en al die lug verwyder voordat hy dit verseël, kan hy die bottel kook en die inhoud daarvan bewaar. Met behulp van glashouers wat met kurk en was verseël is, kon Appert nie net groente en vrugte nie, maar ook jellies, stroop, sop en suiwelprodukte bewaar.

1858
Vroeg in die 1850's het die Skotse chemikus James Young paraffienwas gepatenteer, wat 'n beter seël skep in potte wat gebruik word om voedsel te bewaar. Toe, in 1858, het John Mason van Philadelphia die eerste Mason -fles gepatenteer, gemaak van 'n swaar glas wat hoë temperature tydens die inmaakproses kon weerstaan. Die patent van Mason het in 1879 verval, maar vervaardigers van soortgelyke potte het steeds die Mason -naam gebruik.

1893
By die Chicago World ’s Fair in 1893 het “Pickle King ” HJ Heinz 'n paar plaaslike seuns gestuur om fairgoers te verlei met 'n 𠇏ree geskenk ” as hulle Heinz ’s buite die stalletjie besoek en sy smaak proe ware. Aan die einde van die beurs het Heinz ongeveer 1 miljoen “ickle -penne uitgegee, en#x201D het een van die suksesvolste bemarkingsgambits in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis bekendgestel. HJ Heinz Co. piekelpen.

Weet u? Henry Heinz het 'n beroep gedoen op nuwe voedselveiligheidsregulasies, sodat sy mededingers nie meer soortgelyke produkte met gevaarlike bymiddels kon verkoop nie, selfs om sy seun te stuur om wetgewers in Washington, DC te ontmoet. Wet op dwelms wat op 23 Junie 1906 aangeneem is en uiteindelik die stigting van die Food and Drug Administration.

Vroue bottel piekels by die fabriek van die H.J. Heinz Company in die 19de eeu.  

Transendentale grafika/Getty Images


Afro -Amerikaanse leiers het die druk laat toeneem

Op 22 Maart 1948 ontmoet Truman Swart leiers om segregasie te bespreek. “I kan jou vertel dat die stemming onder die negers van hierdie land is dat hulle nooit weer wapens sal dra totdat alle vorme van vooroordeel en diskriminasie afgeskaf is nie, en Phillip Randolph, die baanbrekende vakbondorganiseerder en burgerregte -leier, het aan president.

Tydens 'n verhoor nege dae later voor die Senaat se kommissie vir gewapende dienste, het Randolph gesê: 'Ek sal persoonlik die negers aanraai om te weier om as slawe te veg vir 'n demokrasie wat hulle nie kan besit nie en nie kan geniet nie. ”

In 'n gevierde saak wat deur die American Civil Liberties Union opgeneem is, het Winfrid Lynn, 'n swart tuinier uit New York, tronk toe gegaan nadat hy aan sy plaaslike konsepraad gesê het dat hy nie verplig sou word om te dien in 'n eenheid wat ondemokraties gekies is as 'n Neger. ”

In Junie het Randolph president Truman meegedeel dat Afro -Amerikaners die konsep sou weerstaan ​​as hy nie 'n uitvoerende bevel sou uitreik om die segregasie in die weermag te beëindig nie.

'N Maand later, met 'n dreigende verkiesing en onder intense druk van burgerregte -leiers, het Truman uitvoerende bevel 9981 onderteken en die presidentskomitee vir gelyke behandeling en geleenthede in die gewapende magte, in die volksmond bekend as die Fahy -komitee, gestig om toesig te hou die proses.


Cowboy -ontspannings- en natuurroete | Nebraska

Lengte: 195 myl
Met die noordelike dorpe Valentine en Norfolk verbind, kan die Cowboy Recreation and Nature Trail uiteindelik nog 126 myl strek en die langste spoorweg ter wêreld word. Ruiters wat hierdie voormalige landbou -spoorweg volg, kry 'n ware indruk van die platteland van Nebraskan, wat deur landbougrond, inheemse prairie en die grasagtige duine van Sandhill -land loop.


Hoogtepunte:
Die roete loop oor meer as 200 brûe, waaronder 'n skut 150 voet bo die Niobrara National Scenic River. As u tyd het, is die Niobrara 'n heerlike plek vir buise, kajak of kanovaart saam met een van die uitrusters in die omgewing.

7 / 21


Die 10 sterkste militêre magte in die Midde -Ooste

Die Midde -Ooste en Noord -Afrika word algemeen beskou as een van die minste stabiele dele van die wêreld. Die Instituut vir Ekonomie en Vrede beskou dit inderdaad as die gewelddadigste streek in sy jaarlikse Global Peace Index.

Dit is nie verbasend nie, gegewe die burgeroorloë in Irak, Libië, Sirië en Jemen, sowel as die opstand in die Egipte-Sinai-skiereiland, afwisselende geweld in Israel en die naburige Palestynse gebiede, plus af en toe opvlam in Iran en Saoedi-Arabië en elders .

Baie van die groter konflikte het plekke geword vir volmagoorloë waarin streeksmoondhede die vermoëns van hul mededingers toets. In Jemen, byvoorbeeld, veg 'n koalisie waarby Saoedi -Arabië, die VAE en ander betrokke is om die regering van president Abed Rabbou Mansour Hadi terug te sit terwyl Iran steun verleen aan die belangrikste opposisiegroep, bekend as die Houthi -rebelle. In Sirië was elemente van die weermag van Iran, Turkye en ander saam met talle rebellegroepe sterk betrokke.

Sulke betrokkenheid verg groot beleggings en regerings in die Midde -Ooste het groot bedrae bestee om hul gewapende magte te onderhou, veral die Golf -lande wat betrokke was by 'n duur wapenwedloop. Verreweg die grootste besteding is Saoedi -Arabië. Verlede jaar was die verdedigingsbegroting van Riyad meer as die volgende vyf grootste bestedingers in die streek saam (Irak, Israel, Iran, Algerië, Oman), volgens die International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS).

Geld is egter nie die enigste kriteria om die vermoëns van 'n land se militêre magte te beoordeel nie. Die kwaliteit en hoeveelheid wapens en opleiding is ook sleutelelemente, net soos die aantal soldate, matrose en vlieëniers wat in noodgevalle ontbied kan word. Die Global Firepower (GFP) -indeks weeg meer as 50 sulke faktore, insluitend die reeks wapens in die arsenaal, die hoeveelheid beskikbare mannekrag en die vermoëns van die plaaslike verdedigingsbedryf, om die posisie van die doeltreffendste vegmagte te bereik. wêreldwyd.

Laer tellings is die beste in die GFP -indeks. Daar is 'n teoretiese volmaakte telling van 0.0000, hoewel die Verenigde State die naaste aan 'n land kom, wat boaan die ranglys is met 'n telling van 0.0857. Binne die Midde -Ooste is daar 'n wye reeks resultate, met Mauritanië op 'n afstand die swakste presteerder, met 'n telling van 4.2664, wat die vierde swakste is van die 130 lande wat wêreldwyd ingedeel is. Verder op die ranglys, maar steeds nie hoog genoeg om die besnoeiing van die streeks -tien te behaal nie, ondanks groot beleggings die afgelope jare, is Qatar, met 'n telling van 1.8943. Jordaan, wie se gewapende magte dikwels as een van die bekwaamste in die streek beskou word, mis ook van die hoër klasse. Dit is op 13 in die MENA -streek, met 'n telling van 1.2024.

Hier is egter die lande wat in die omgekeerde volgorde die top -tien bereik.

10) Verenigde Arabiese Emirate

Met 'n GFP -telling van 0.9087, is die VAE ver bo die meeste van die bure van die Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), waaronder Bahrein, Koeweit, Oman en Katar. Die IISS reken die land se magte is "waarskynlik die bes opgeleide en bekwaamste onder die GCC -state". Hulle het die afgelope paar jaar waardevolle ervaring opgedoen in Afghanistan, Libië en Jemen en die spesiale magte van die land het baie waarnemers beïndruk met hul amfibiese aanval om die Jemenitiese hawestad Aden in Julie 2015 te verower. Die UAE se weermag bly egter relatief klein , met 63 000 aktiewe dienspersoneel.

'N Plaaslike man kyk hoe 'n vliegtuig van die UAE Air Force se Al Fursan aerobatics -vertoningspan optree. [+] by die Dubai Airshow, op 13 November 2017 (Foto: Marina LystsevaTASS via Getty Images)

Irak het die tweede hoogste begroting van enige land in die streek, hoewel dit nog 'n lang pad agter die bestedingsvlakke van Saoedi -Arabië is. Die land se weermag het die afgelope paar jaar aansienlike winste behaal in gevegte teen militante van die Islamitiese Staat, die stad Mosul in Oktober 2017 herower en sedertdien uit ander gebiede van die land verdryf. Hulle is in die taak gehelp deur hulp van die VSA en ander Westerse moondhede, sowel as militêre advies van die Al Quds -brigade van Iran. Vrae bestaan ​​nog oor die langtermynvorm van die Irak se weermag na konflik, veral die Shia-gedomineerde gewilde mobilisasie-eenhede (Al Hashd al Shaabi) en die rol van Koerdiese magte. Onder die GFP -indeks behaal Irak se weermag 0,8961.

Lede van die Irakse weermag, polisiemag en Al Hashd al Shaabi -milisie hou 'n militêre parade as. [+] deel van die oorwinning oor terroriste van die Islamitiese Staat, in Bagdad, Irak, op 10 Desember 2017. (Foto: Murtadha Sudani/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)

Marokko het die vyfde grootste gewapende magte in die streek, met 175 000 weermagpersoneel en nog 13 000 in die lugmag en 7 800 in die vloot. Dit het egter ook een van die laagste begrotings, met slegs $ 3,5 miljard in 2017. Ten spyte daarvan behaal dit 'n GFP -telling van 0,8702. Die magte van die land het nuttige ervaring opgedoen as gevolg van politieke onstabiliteit in sy omgewing, veral die betwiste gebied van Wes-Sahara in die suide, sowel as meer beperkte ervaring verder, insluitend as deel van die Saoedi-geleide koalisiegevegte in Jemen . Groter belegging in sy militêre magte word in die komende jare verwag, ondersteun deur ondersteuning van Saoedi -Arabië.

Meer as ses jaar se geveg het die militêre masjien van Sirië erg beskadig, maar ook gehard gelaat. Die IISS sê dat die weermag tans ongeveer 105 000 dienende lede het, maar daar is min personeel, wat lei tot toenemende pogings tot diensplig, wat baie doen om hulself te vermy. Geallieerde milisies wat saam met konvensionele magte veg, het 'n belangrike rol gespeel om die regime van Bashir al Assad te laat val. Die GFP -indeks gee die weermag van Sirië 'n telling van 0,7603.

Met die beste toegeruste magte in Noord -Afrika - waarvan baie afkomstig is uit Rusland en, in mindere mate, China - het die weermag van Algerië 'n telling van 0.4366 in die GFP -indeks. Die land moes al jare lank die binnelandse islamistiese ekstremiste beveg en staar lastige grensgebiede in die gesig met bure, waaronder Libië en Mali, om nie te praat van 'n rol in die ondersteuning van die onafhanklikheidsbeweging van die Wes -Sahara, die Polisario Front nie.

5) Saoedi -Arabië

Die streeksreus, ten minste in terme van sy militêre begroting wat maklik enige ander mededinger oortref, plaas die Saoedi -Arabië se GFP -telling van 0.4302 in die algehele vyfde plek in die streek. Die groot hoeveelheid geld wat elke jaar deur Riyad bestee word, beteken dat die land die beste toegeruste weermag in die streek het, met die uitsondering van Israel. Sy betrokkenheid by die Jemen -burgeroorlog die afgelope drie jaar het sy magte waardevolle ervaring op die front gebied, maar sy versuim om sy Houthi -teenstanders daar te verslaan, het ook vrae laat ontstaan ​​oor hoe effektief 'n vegmag die Saoedi -weermag werklik is.

'N Saoedi-F-15-vegvliegtuig wat op die militêre vliegbasis Khamis Mushayt land, as deel van die voortgesette. [+] operasies in Jemen, op 16 November 2015. (Foto: FAYEZ NURELDINE/AFP/Getty Images)

Iran het meer mans onder die wapen as enige ander land in die streek, met 350,000 in die weermag, 18,000 in die vloot, 30,000 in die lugmag en nog 125,000 in die Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corp (IRGC). Jare se internasionale sanksies het beteken dat dit nie in staat was om baie wapensisteme uit die buiteland te kry nie, wat dit genoop het om 'n aansienlike tuisgemaakte verdedigingsbedryf te improviseer en te ontwikkel. Sy weermag word ook as besonder sterk beskou in asimmetriese oorlogvoering. Iraanse magte, veral die elite Al Quds -eenheid van die IRGC, het 'n sleutelrol gespeel in die gevegte in sowel Sirië as Irak en Teheran het ook Houthi -rebelle in Jemen ondersteun. Iran se GFP -telling van 0.3933 plaas dit bo enige van sy onmiddellike bure.

Met talle vyandige bure om mee te worstel, het Israel nog altyd die behoefte gevoel om te verseker dat sy gewapende magte duidelik beter is as alles wat hulle in die geveg in die gesig staar. Die Israeliese weermag is volgens die IISS die bes toegeruste, bes opgeleide en bekwaamste in die streek, nie die minste nie as gevolg van volgehoue ​​massiewe steun van die VSA. Die land se GFP -indeks telling van 0.3476 plaas dit egter steeds agter twee ander in die streek.

Met 'n voormalige generaal wat nou in beheer van die land is - Abdel el Sisi - is dit nie verbasend dat die Egipte se leër 'n kragtige posisie in die binnelandse politieke arena het nie. Die weermag is tans besig met 'n herkapitaliseringsprogram vir toerusting, met nuwe vegvliegtuie, aanvalshelikopters en grond-tot-lug-missiele wat ingekoop word. die afgelope paar jaar in die noordelike Sinai -skiereiland. With a GFP score of 0.2676, Egypt is seen as having the second strongest armed forces in the region and the tenth strongest in the world overall, ahead of the likes of Italy and Pakistan.

Viewed by the GFP as the most powerful in the MENA region with a score of 0.2491, Turkey’s armed forces have faced a turbulent few years, with many officers purged from the services following a failed coup in July 2016. Since then the country has become ever more heavily involved in the war in neighbouring Syria, culminating in the Afrin campaign launched in January 2018. The country also has important overseas military ties with Qatar and Somalia, basing troops in both countries. Not only is it seen as the strongest military force in the MENA region, it is ranked in eighth place globally, just ahead of Germany and one place below Japan.

Turkish soldiers parade during the celebrations for the 94th anniversary of Republic Day in . [+] Istanbul, Turkey, on October 29, 2017. (Photo: Salih Zeki Fazlioglu/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images)


A new way to travel across the US

Stretching an extraordinary 3,700 miles from Washington DC to the Pacific Ocean, an ambitious new bike trail is aiming to be “America’s Main Street”.

Ryan Gardill used to love backpacking. Getting into the outdoors and covering ground was one of the Lancaster, Pennsylvania, native&rsquos favourite things to do. But as the 29-year-old former US Marine&rsquos joints and back began struggling to carry the weight of a backpack, he decided it was time to get on a bike.

That opened up a whole new world.

&ldquoI&rsquod always dreamed of doing a thru-hike or bike,&rdquo he said. &ldquoA guy from work talked about a trail going from Pittsburgh to DC. I said: &lsquoThat sounds awesome!&rsquo.&rdquo

So, in August, Gardill and his colleague embarked on a 350-mile journey, pedalling across converted railroad trails from western Pennsylvania to Washington DC.

The Great American Rail-Trail is the most ambitious biking initiative the country has ever seen

Passing through Pennsylvania, Maryland and DC, Gardill&rsquos trip may seem like a major undertaking. Yet it&rsquos just a small fraction of an unprecedented new scenic pathway aiming to traverse the United States from coast to coast.

The Great American Rail-Trail is the most ambitious biking initiative the country has ever seen. Stretching an extraordinary 3,700 miles from the nation&rsquos capital across 12 states to the Pacific Ocean, west of Seattle, it&rsquos an idea that&rsquos been ruminating for 50 years. The Rail-Trail will connect more than 125 existing multi-use paths, greenways, trails and towpaths. An official route was announced to the public in May 2019 by the Rails-to-Trails Conservancy (RTC), the Washington DC-based non-profit leading the effort, when the trail was already more than half completed.

&ldquoDetermining the route was a 30-year journey,&rdquo said Brandi Horton, vice-president of communications at the RTC.

The trail is largely built atop or next to abandoned railway lines (hence the name) with surfaces ranging from crushed stone to smooth asphalt. These railbanks &ndash abandoned railway corridors converted into trails &ndash account for more than 24,000 miles of multi-use trails crisscrossing the US.

Once it is fully completed &ndash estimated to be before 2040 &ndash almost one in six Americans will live within 50 miles of the route, and it will offer an unparalleled experience of the country people can&rsquot see from 36,000ft or through a car window.

The timing couldn&rsquot be better. According to an RTC study, in spring, trail use across the US spiked by 200%, in large part due to the coronavirus pandemic. With team sports and gyms mostly off people&rsquos minds now and for the foreseeable future, the boom in outdoor, physically distanced activities such as cycling and hiking is expected to last for years.

I want rail-trails to be America&rsquos Main Street

&ldquoI think [the pandemic] demonstrated to a lot of officials that access to the outdoors actually is key. Creating these connections is really critical,&rdquo said Horton.

Yet, the vision for the coast-to-coast trail isn&rsquot just utilitarian it&rsquos a way to reveal how the US&rsquo diverse tapestry of communities fit together, and how the country&rsquos past connects to its present.

&ldquoI want rail-trails to be America&rsquos Main Street,&rdquo the RTC&rsquos co-founder David Burwell said back in 2006. Biking or hiking slowly across cities, towns and rural landscapes not only gives travellers a deeper understanding of local communities and cultures, but it also helps reveal the little-known histories that have contributed to the country&rsquos identity.

On the East Coast, the trail starts in downtown DC, passing a stone&rsquos throw from the Smithsonian Museums and the National Mall before heading north-west across Maryland. There, hikers and cyclists can overnight at a series of 19th-Century lockhouses along the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, an Industrial Revolution marvel that played a pivotal role in providing troops&rsquo supplies during the US Civil War. In the 1800s, these buildings were home to lockkeepers who collected canal tolls on the Appalachian lumber and coal that helped fuel the US&rsquo westward expansion.

Most of the towns on the trail were once important areas to the future of America, only to be forgotten in time

According to Gardill, there are also dozens of open-ground camping &ldquocut-outs&rdquo that have water wells and toilets along the rural sections of the C&O Canal&rsquos Towpath, which runs 184.5 miles between DC&rsquos Georgetown neighbourhood and Cumberland, Maryland.

For Gardill and his cycling buddy, a day on the trail would start at around 07:00 with coffee and breakfast. They&rsquod then ride until 11:00, pedal into a local town and get some lunch. &ldquoWe&rsquod never pass up an opportunity for a beer, so we ended up stopping at five breweries,&rdquo he said. They&rsquod get back on the trail and cycle until four in the afternoon before stopping, setting up camp and settling in for a night under the stars.

Gardill&rsquos expedition saw him cross the Eastern Continental Divide close to the 3,118ft-long Paw Paw Canal Tunnel in Allegany County, Maryland. Eighty miles west, on the banks of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers that cut through the Blue Ridge Mountains, is the steep, cobblestoned town of Harper&rsquos Ferry, West Virginia, where abolitionist John Brown famously attempted to start a slave revolt in 1859. &ldquoIt&rsquos absolutely beautiful. It&rsquos like time has not touched the town since the 1700s,&rdquo he said.

&ldquoThe trail connected me to [the US&rsquo] revolutionary and industrial history, as every town is filled with historical areas,&rdquo Gardill added. &ldquoMost of the towns on the trail were once important areas to the future of America, only to be forgotten in time.&rdquo

For him, part of the attraction of thru-biking is its simplicity. As well as a tent and sleeping bag, Gardill packed a portable burner to cook dehydrated meals, water bottles and water purifiers. &ldquoIf you have a tent and a sleeping bag and a bike, you&rsquore really set,&rdquo he said. He also recommends bringing along spare bike tubes, patch kits and a bike tool kit.

For those heading west, the trail passes through the heart of Ohio&rsquos Swartzentruber Amish country, a community that completely eschews modern technology and continues to speak Pennsylvania German as their first language. In hollowed-out Rust Belt towns fighting to get back on their feet, the echoes of thriving manufacturing communities once linked by rail in south-west Pennsylvania and Indiana tell the story of boom-and-bust capitalism. Further west, the trail crosses the Mississippi River that famously inspired Mark Twain and has long shaped the US&rsquo history and culture at Moline, Illinois, before spanning the Continental Divide in Montana. In Idaho, encounters with moose and other wildlife aren&rsquot uncommon along the historic Coeur d&rsquoAlene trail that was carved out of mountainous rock by gold prospectors seeking their fortune in the mid-19th Century.

Nearing the route&rsquos end, the ferry trip crossing the Puget Sound in Seattle is another highlight, as travellers pass through a region once home to thriving Suquamish, Duwamish, Nisqually, Snoqualmie and Muckleshoot Native American settlements before skirting the northern fringes of Olympic National Park, one of the largest temperate rainforests in the country. The lapping waters of the Pacific Ocean greet you at La Push, Washington.

While the broader health benefits of spending time outdoors are well-documented, trails along the &ldquoGreat American&rdquo, as it&rsquos known, are already playing a key role in helping revitalise economies in dozens of post-industrial towns across the US Heartland: Steubenville and Dayton in Ohio Muncie, Indiana and Joliet, Illinois, all have burgeoning brewery scenes situated close to the trail. The Rails-to-Trails Conservancy estimates the trail could generate as much as $138bn for communities that build campsites, eateries and water and other adventure companies along the route.

Perry, Iowa, population 7,676, is one such place. Built around a rail route that opened in 1869 and closed less than a century later, its railway line has since been repurposed for recreational hiking and biking. With the Great American now passing through the heart of town and future sections connecting it with neighbouring Illinois and Nebraska, locals are hoping it can contribute to a revival.

&ldquoIt is a huge thing and will bring many more people to Perry,&rdquo said Betsy Peterson, who runs an art and pottery business a five-minute walk from the trail.

Down the street, the historical Hotel Pattee, Perry&rsquos landmark building, offers an indoor bike storage area as well as a repair station out front. &ldquoWhen people are out on a bike trip, it&rsquos important they have some down time. I think Perry is a great place to stop and have a beer or a meal and relax,&rdquo added Peterson.

Embarking on such a major undertaking, however, hasn&rsquot been easy. Large sections of the trail, particularly across Wyoming, where only 2% is currently completed, are yet to be built or mapped out. The Rails-to-Trails Conservancy has taken on the mammoth task of working with trail planners, local and state agencies, elected officials and governors&rsquo offices along the route that has involved 250 meetings held over 18 months in 2018 and 2019. About 300 trail plans were studied to determine the route.

&ldquoWe wanted to be sure that the route would meet local and state needs, but that it would actually connect,&rdquo said Horton. &ldquoIt was definitely a labour of love.&rdquo

Still, while some western states have work to do, in places such as DC, Maryland, Illinois and Pennsylvania, more than 86% of the route is already open.

It was on these quiet, forested trails where Gardill averaged 60 miles a day on his bike. Five days and two hours after setting off, he reached the National Mall in downtown DC.

&ldquoRiding this trail has shown me that America is filled with the kindest people you can hope to meet,&rdquo he said. &ldquoYou are always only a few miles from a good meal and a conversation.&rdquo

His next step? Doing it all over again.

After all, he said, &ldquoI couldn&rsquot just do it once.&rdquo

CORRECTION: A previous version of this story stated that Harper&rsquos Ferry was the furthest point north reached by Confederate forces during the Civil War. This has now been amended.

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When the slave power extended its tentacles into the North with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Tubman relocated to Canada along with thousands of other black refugees. Tubman risked her freedom again and again, not just by returning to the North, but also with missions into the Slave South. Her activities became even more notorious when Tubman became a staunch supporter of John Brown, who called her “General Tubman” long before Lincoln began handing out commissions.

Early in the war, Tubman informally attached herself to the military. Benjamin Butler, a Democrat, had been a member of the Massachusetts delegation to Congress and made a name for himself in the Union Army. A tough opportunist, Butler was often underestimated until his bully tactics began to pay off. Commissioned a brigadier general, Butler led his men into Maryland, where he threatened to arrest any legislator who attempted to vote for secession.

Trailing along with Butler’s all-white troops in May 1861, Tubman arrived at the camps near Fort Monroe, Va. The large fort and the nearby tent city of troops soon became a major magnet for escaped slaves. Tubman found herself in familiar territory.

How Harriet Tubman's military service added up to $20 — a month

Her experience during the Civil War is a bona fide part of her legacy.

By March 1862, the Union had conquered enough territory that Secretary of War Edwin Stanton designated Georgia, Florida and South Carolina as the Department of the South. Massachusetts Governor John Andrew, a staunch abolitionist, asked Tubman to join the contingent of his state’s volunteers heading for South Carolina, and promised his sponsorship. Andrew also obtained military passage for Tubman on USS Atlantic.

The Union troops along the coast of South Carolina were in a precarious position. They were essentially encircled, with Confederates on three sides and the ocean on the fourth. Nevertheless, Maj. Gen. David Hunter, the newly appointed Union commander of the region, had ambitious ideas about how to expand Northern control.

In November 1862, Colonel Thomas Wentworth Higginson arrived with the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, and Colonel James Montgomery and the 2nd South Carolina were in the area by early 1863. Escaped slaves filled both regiments, and Higginson and Montgomery both knew Tubman from before the war. In those men, both abolitionists, Tubman had gained influential friends and advocates, and they suggested that a spy network be established in the region.

Tubman had spent 10 months as a nurse ministering to the sick of those regiments, and by early 1863 she was ready for a more active role. She was given the authority to line up a roster of scouts, to infiltrate and map out the interior. Several were trusted boat pilots, like Solomon Gregory, who knew the local waterways very well and could travel on them undetected. Her closely knit band included men named Mott Blake, Peter Burns, Gabriel Cahern, George Chisholm, Isaac Hayward, Walter Plowden, Charles Simmons and Sandy Suffum, and they became an official scouting service for the Department of the South.

/>Harriet Tubman launched an illustrious career as a member of the Underground Railroad. Tubman was the “Great Emancipator,” leading scores of escaping African Americans to freedom, often all the way to Canada. She built up a network of supporters and admirers, including William Lloyd Garrison and William Seward, to name but two who lauded her efforts. (Library of Congress)

Tubman’s espionage operation was under the direction of Stanton, who considered her the commander of her men. Tubman passed along information directly to either Hunter or Brig. Gen. Rufus Saxton. In March 1863, Saxton wrote confidently to Stanton concerning a planned assault on Jacksonville, Fla.: “I have reliable information that there are large numbers of able bodied Negroes in that vicinity who are watching for an opportunity to join us.”

Based on the information procured by Tubman’s agents, Colonel Montgomery led a successful expedition to capture the town. Tubman’s crucial intelligence and Montgomery’s bravado convinced commanders that other extensive guerrilla operations were feasible.

Their confidence led to the Combahee River Raid in June 1863 — a military operation that marked a turning point in Tubman’s career. Until then, all of her attacks upon the Confederacy had been purposefully clandestine. But she did not remain anonymous with her prominent role in that military operation.

South Carolina’s lowcountry rice plantations sat alongside tidal rivers that fanned inland from the Atlantic and that had some of the South’s richest land and largest slave populations. Federal commanders wanted to move up the rivers to destroy plantations and liberate slaves in order to recruit more black regiments.

The raid up the Combahee River, a twisting waterway approximately 10 miles north of Beaufort where Tubman and her comrades were stationed, commenced when the Federal gunboats Harriet A. Weed and John Adams steamed into the river shortly before midnight on the evening of June 2, 1863. Tubman accompanied 150 African-American troops from the 2nd South Carolina Infantry and their white officers aboard John Adams. The black soldiers were particularly relieved that their lives had been entrusted not only to Colonel Montgomery but also to the famed “Moses.”

Tubman had been informed of the location of Rebel torpedoes — floating mines planted below the surface of the water — in the river and served as a lookout for the Union pilots, allowing them to guide their boats around the explosives unharmed. By 3 a.m., the expedition had reached Fields Point, and Montgomery sent a squad ashore to drive off Confederate pickets, who withdrew but sent comrades to warn fellow troops at Chisholmville, 10 miles upriver.

Meanwhile, a company of the 2nd South Carolina under Captain Carver landed and deployed at Tar Bluff, two miles north of Fields Point. The two ships steamed upriver to the Nichols Plantation, where Harriet A. Weed anchored. She also guided the boats and men to designated shoreline spots where scores of fugitive slaves were hiding out. Once the “all clear” was given, the slaves scrambled onto the vessels.

“I never saw such a sight,” Tubman described of the scene. “Sometimes the women would come with twins hanging around their necks it appears I never saw so many twins in my life bags on their shoulders, baskets on their heads, and young ones tagging along behind, all loaded pigs squealing, chickens screaming, young ones squealing.”

According to one Confederate onlooker, “[Tubman] passed safely the point where the torpedoes were placed and finally reached the … ferry, which they immediately commenced cutting way, landed to all appearances a group at Mr. Middleton’s and in a few minutes his buildings were in flames.”

Robbing warehouses and torching planter homes was an added bonus for the black troops, striking hard and deep at the proud master class. The horror of this attack on the prestigious Middleton estate drove the point home. Dixie might fall at the hands of their former slaves. The Confederates reportedly stopped only one lone slave from escaping — shooting her in flight.

Hard charging to the water’s edge, the Confederate commander could catch only a glimpse of escaping gunboats, pale in the morning light. In a fury, Confederate Major William P. Emmanuel pushed his men into pursuit — and got trapped between the riverbank and Union snipers.

In the heat of skirmish, Emmanuel’s gunners were able to fire off only four rounds, booming shots that plunked harmlessly into the water. Frustrated, the Confederate commander cut his losses after one of his men was wounded and ordered his troops to pull back. More than 750 slaves would be freed in the overnight operation on the Combahee.

The Union invaders had despoiled the estates of the Heywards, the Middletons, the Lowndes, and other South Carolina dynasties. Tubman’s plan was successful. The official Confederate report concluded: “The enemy seems to have been well posted as to the character and capacity of our troops and their small chance of encountering opposition, and to have been well guided by persons thoroughly acquainted with the river and country.”

Federal commanders came to depend on her, but kept her name out of official military documents. As a black and a woman she became doubly invisible. This invisibility aided her when Union commanders sent her as far south as Fernandina, Fla., to assist Union soldiers dropping like flies from fevers and fatigue.

Robbing the “Cradle of Secession” was a grand theatrical gesture, a headline-grabbing strategy that won plaudits from government, military and civilian leaders throughout the North. After the Combahee River Raid, critics North and South could no longer pretend that blacks were unfit for military service, as this was a well-executed, spectacularly successful operation.

Flushed with triumph, Hunter wrote jubilantly to Secretary of War Stanton on June 3, boasting that Combahee was only the beginning. He also wrote to Governor Andrew, promising that Union operations would “desolate” Confederate slaveholders “by carrying away their slaves, thus rapidly filling up the South Carolina regiments of which there are now four.” Andrew had been a champion of black soldiers, a steadfast supporter of Hunter’s campaign to put ex-slaves in uniform.

The Confederacy discovered overnight what it took the Union’s Department of the South over a year to find out — Harriet Tubman was a formidable secret weapon whose gifts should never be underestimated. Federal commanders came to depend on her, but kept her name out of official military documents. As a black and a woman she became doubly invisible. This invisibility aided her when Union commanders sent her as far south as Fernandina, Fla., to assist Union soldiers dropping like flies from fevers and fatigue.

Tubman’s own health faltered during the summer of 1864, and she returned north for a furlough. She was making her way back South in early 1865 when peace intervened, so she returned to Auburn, where she had settled her parents, and made a home. Postwar, Tubman often lived hand to mouth, doing odd jobs and domestic service to earn her living, but she also collected money for charity. She sought patrons to realize her dream of establishing a home for blacks in her hometown—for the indigent, the disabled, the veteran and the homeless.

“It seems strange that one who has done so much for her country and been in the thick of the battles with shots falling all about her, should never have had recognition from the Government in a substantial way,” chided the writers of a July 1896 article in The Chautauquan. Tubman echoed that lament: “You wouldn’t think that after I served the flag so faithfully I should come to want under its folds.”

In 1897 a petition requesting that Congressman Sereno E. Payne of New York “bring up the matter [of Tubman’s military pension] again and press it to a final and successful termination” was circulated and endorsed by Auburn’s most influential citizens. Payne’s new bill proposed that Congress grant Tubman a “military pension” of $25 per month — the exact amount received by surviving soldiers.

A National Archives staffer who later conducted research on this claim suggested there was no extant evidence in government records to support Tubman’s claim that she had been working under the direction of the secretary of war. Some on the committee believed that Tubman’s service as a spy and scout, supported by valid documentation, justified such a pension. Others suggested that the matter of a soldier’s pension should be dropped, as she could more legitimately be pensioned as a nurse.

One member of the committee, W. Jasper Talbert of South Carolina, possibly blocked Tubman’s pension vindictively — it was a point of honor to this white Southern statesman that a black woman not be given her due.

Regardless, a compromise was finally achieved, decades after she had first applied for a pension based on her service. In 1888, Tubman had been granted a widow’s pension of $8 a month, based on the death of her second husband, USCT veteran Nelson Davis. The compromise granted an increase “on account of special circumstances.” The House authorized raising the amount to $25 (the exact amount for surviving soldiers), while the Senate amended with an increase to only $20 — which was finally passed by both houses.

President William McKinley signed the pension into law in February 1899. After 30 years of struggle, Tubman’s sense of victory was tremendous. Not only would the money secure her an income and allow her to continue her philanthropic activities, her military role was finally validated. Details of Tubman’s wartime service became part of the Congressional Record, with the recognition that “in view of her personal services to the Government, Congress is amply justified in increasing that pension.”

Tubman’s heroic role in the Civil War is finally being highlighted and appreciated for what it was, part of a long life of struggling for freedom, risking personal liberty for patriotic sacrifice.


NATO Military Map Symbols

All armies use a system of codified symbols to enable command staffs to mark paper maps, sand tray mock-ups and computer displays to be marked in such a way as to show what military forces are doing at the moment, what has been planned for them to do or if a particular event has happened, such as a nuclear explosion or a unit's movement (1).


Move of Fourteenth Mechanised Infantry Brigade to a new location

They can also show some basic information about the forces themselves, such as a unit's location, ID, role, type and size (2) or a weapon's type, caliber and location (3, 4).


Location of the main HQ for the Third Infantry Division


Heavy Mortar (140mm caliber)


An armoured car with cross-country capability

The most common system is that developed by the NATO alliance, and used by its member states, the states that have joined the Partnership for Peace and an increasing number of non-member states, such as Australia and New Zealand. The second most widely used system is that of the Russian Army, employed by a number of the former Soviet states and Warsaw Pact countries. Most other countries use nationally-developed systems. Many of these share symbols that are quite close, while others are completely different (5). In addition, by using the same system of tactical symbols, the hierarchical organisation of a particular unit can be shown, in a sort of family tree style (6).


In NATO, friendly forces are in BLUE or BLACK, while enemy forces are in RED. In Russia, friendly forces are in RED, while enemy forces are in BLUE.


Depicts a mechanised infantry brigade with three mechanised infantry battalions (far left), one take battalion (second from left), a mechanised artillery battalion (second from right) and an engineer company (far right)

As such, displays that include a great deal of information can be built up using this relatively simple method. While this sort of symbology is obviously used a great deal in today's armed forces, it can also be seen in the wargaming and simulation arena, not so much in the traditional miniatures wargames, which represent military units by actual figures (if infantry of cavalry) or models (if artillery or AFVs), but in board and computer wargames. Board wargames, from companies such as SPI, Avalon Hill, Decision Games, Victory Games and 3W, represent a particular conflict, campaign or battle on a 2D representation of the battlefield that shows important terrain details such as topography, the road and rail infrastructure, built-up areas, rivers, swamps and marshland and are vaguely similar to an Ordnance Survey map, but usually stylised and incorporate a hex grid to regulate movement and combat. The military units are represented by cardboard counters that often have the NATO symbols on them to let the player know what the unit is, as well as having numeric qualities, such as 'attack strength', 'defence strength' and 'movement allowance' in order to govern how the unit performs in the game. The same is true for slightly older computer wargames (and true military simulations), but the more modern computer wargames such as Blitzkrieg, Codename Panzers, Combat Mission and Soldiers: Heroes of World War II follow the 'Command and Conquer' pattern of having 3D battlefields and units represented by 3D figures, being almost a computer miniatures wargame.

The basic unit symbol is a rectangle, with the lengths of the horizontal and vertical lines having a ratio of approximately 3:2 (7). A variation on this is the symbol for a headquarters unit (8) that has a vertical line dropping down from the left corner (so it looks a bit like a flag). Other basic symbols include an equilateral triangle with the point upwards for an observation post (9), an equilateral triangle with the point downwards for an electronic unit (10) and a circle for a logistics / administrative unit (11).

Unit size details are usually placed on top of the rectangle and are represented by a series of dots and vertical lines (12) for units that are of regimental-size or below, or crosses (13) for units that are of brigade-size or above.

For certain arms of service, the particular term for the size of unit differs from that used in the infantry, such as armoured or cavalry units, where a platoon-sized unit is often referred to as a troop and a company-sized unit is often referred to as a squadron. Also, the term 'regiment' can refer to three different types of unit. It can refer to what used to be horse-equipped (i.e. non-infantry) battalion-sized units, such as an armoured, cavalry or artillery unit, for example, 40th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery or 35e Regiment Artillerie Parachutiste. Alternatively, it can refer to a tactical infantry unit made up of between two and five battalions but without the same level of supporting arms as is usually associated with a brigade. An example of this is a US Marine Corps Infantry Regiment that contains three Marine Infantry Battalions but becomes a Marine Amphibious Brigade when it is allocated supporting assets. Both the brigade and regiment can be used to form a division, for example, through much of the Cold War, countries within the NATO Alliance tended to use brigades as sub-components of their divisions, whereas members of the Warsaw Pact tended to use regiments. Lastly, some armies have the regiment as an administrative organisation, which is responsible for organisation, manning, personnel matters, welfare and traditions (such as the British Army), but which does not itself go to war - the individual battalions go into the field. A brigade is usually a direct sub-unit of a division that is self-sufficient unit with infantry, armour, artillery, engineers and army aviation (obviously one arm will dominate depending on the exact type of brigade it is) with its own logistics and administrative units. In some armies however, a brigade is a temporary unit, formed from divisional assets to perform a specific mission.

Within the rectangle, is shown the unit (14a) or weapon (14b) type, the three basic symbols being the infantry (a diagonal cross representing their webbing cross-straps), tank or armoured (a stretched circle representing the caterpillar tread) and artillery (a circle representing a cannon ball). Many of the unit symbols available are variants of these, although a number of additional symbols are used as well. For example, mechanised infantry is represented by a combination of the infantry and armour symbols, whereas parachute infantry often have the infantry symbol with an additional 'bird' symbol underneath.

A unit's location is usually assumed to be at the centre of the lower edge of the symbol, or sometimes a line can be drawn from the centre of the lower edge to where the unit is if its necessary to offset the symbol (15).


The location of the HQ, 5th Infantry Division, and the 1st Infantry Division in Bremen

Also, if a unit is spread out and covering a larger area than normal, its area can be indicated by drawing a 'blob' with the unit symbol at the centre (16).

In NATO, the designation of friendly units is indicated by them being blue (17), while enemy forces are red (18).

If its on a monochrome display, friendly forces are indicated by a single-lined symbol (19) and enemy forces by a double-lined symbol (20).

If indicating a unit in its current position, the unit is shown with solid lines, if it is showing a future position, the lines are broken (21).

The unit title is usually placed on the left-hand side, either in the centre or at the bottom corner and must agree with the unit type and size symbols (22).


The Fifth Infantry Division

In addition, the identification of higher formations can also be placed on the symbol, on the right-hand side, either in the centre or at the bottom corner (23).


This is the 3rd Infantry Battalion, from the 4th Brigade of the 5th Division. '0' indicates that there is no regimental-level (as in the British Army, for example).

The higher formations are listed in the order of battalion, brigade, regiment, division, corps and army, separated by a '/'. If it is necessary to show the time, a date / time group (DTG) is placed at the top left-hand corner of the symbol and consists of up to six figures and three or four letters (24).


Indicates the location of the 4th Infantry Brigade as of 13.20 on 5th June

The first two numbers show the date (prefixed with a 0 if between 1 and 9), the next four numbers show the time (using the 24-hour clock), this is then followed (if necessary) by a letter denoting the time zone and finally, three letters indicating the month. The DTG on its own is used to denote the time and date that the unit was known to be at that location. It may also be prefixed by the letters 'NMB' (No Move Before), or possibly the length of stay by having 'From (DTG)' on one line, followed by 'To (DTG)' on a second line. If necessary, a mobility indicator can be placed beneath a unit to show the the type of mobility the unit has i.e. wheeled, tracked or ski.

In some instances, a boundary can be shown between units, for example, if units are tightly packed covering a common frontage (25). This is more common for maps and diagrams covering higher-level formations, such as one depicting corps and army level formations on the Eastern Front during the Second World War or in Germany on NATO's Central Front during the Cold War. Where a boundary separates two units of different size, the symbol for the larger unit will ordinarily be shown. The exception is where a unit rear boundary is shown that will show the size symbol of the unit concerned and not the symbol of the larger unit.

In drawing such maps, left and right are always defined when facing the enemy, boundaries are referred to by the senior unit to which they apply, for example, the boundary between the divisions in two separate corps is referred to as the inter-corps boundary. Finally, the nationalities of NATO countries is designated by a two-letter group and many non-NATO countries are designated using a three-letter group. For example, United Kingdom - UK, United States - US, Turkey - TU, Greece - GR, Spain - SP, Portugal - PO, Norway - NO, Netherlands - NL, Luxembourg - LU, Italy - IT, Germany - GE, France - FR, Denmark - DK, Canada - CA and Belgium - BE.

Bibliografie

'Basic Military Map Symbols' in Lee, U. The Employment of Negro Troops, Center of Military History, US Army, Washington DC, 1966, CMH Pub 11-4, p. 715. Also available at http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/11-4/symbols.htm as of 17 May 2006.

Military Map Symbols Webpage, part of the HyperWar Website, currently located at http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/maps/MapSym.html as of 17 May 2006.

Miller, D. NATO Military Map Symbols Handbook, International Defence Review Quarterly Report, Number 1, Jane's Information Group, 1996.


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