Terence

Terence is in ongeveer 190 vC in Kartago (Afrika) gebore. Hy is as 'n slaaf na Rome vervoer. Sy meester, Terentius Lucanus, was so beïndruk deur die intelligensie van sy nuwe slaaf dat hy hom opleiding gegee het en hom daarna vrygelaat het.

Terence het ses toneelstukke geskryf: Adelphoe (die broers), Andria (The Girl from Andros), Eunuchus, Heauton Timorumenos (The Self-Tormentor), Hecyra (Skoonma) en Phormio.

Alhoewel hulle destyds nie baie gewild was nie, word Terence nou beskou as een van die belangrikste skrywers van die Romeinse Ryk. Sy werk is geprys deur Scipio Aemilianus Africanus en Laelius Gaius, maar slegs een van sy toneelstukke, Eunuchus, gedurende sy leeftyd enige sukses geniet.

Volgens Diana Bowder: "Sy (Terence) hoogs komplekse intriges, subtiele studies van emosionele, familiale en selfs opvoedkundige aangeleenthede, uiters elegante verbale karakterisering, jaagtog en sobere taalgebruik, polemiese en selfregverdigende prololoë, toewyding aan komiese ironie as sy belangrikste vorm van humor en die versaking van 'n groot deel van die musiek- en sangelement wat vir Plautus so belangrik was, sal hom waarskynlik 'n gewilde guns kos. "

Terence se werk weerspieël die humanitas lewensbeskouing ('n oortuiging dat alle mense, ongeag hul ras of nasionaliteit, vriende moet wees).

Terence sterf in 159 vC.

Die man wat uit vrees vir straf die plig volg, sal eerlik wees net so lank as wat hy dink dat hy uitgevind sal word. As hy dink dat hy iets kan opspoor wat ongemerk is, sal hy terugkeer na sy truuks. Maar die man wat aan jou geheg is deur liefde, is angstig om jou te behandel soos jy hom behandel, of jy daar is of nie ... 'n Man wat dit nie kan doen nie, moet erken dat hy nie kinders kan beheer nie.


Terence V. McIntosh

Terence McIntosh is 'n spesialis in die vroeë moderne Duitsland, veral sy sosiale, politieke, godsdienstige en ekonomiese geskiedenis in die sewentiende en agtiende eeu. Sy huidige boekprojek, "Disciplining the Parish: Godly Order, Enlightenment, and the Lutheran Clergy in Germany, 1517–1806," ondersoek die dinamika waardeur 'n verskuiwende verskeidenheid sosiale, teologiese en intellektuele kragte prominente kerkmanne, heersers en sekulêre denkers om krities te ondersoek en die doel, omvang en aard van die Lutherse kerklike dissipline op belangrike oomblikke in die vroeë moderne tydperk krities te hersien.

Enkele noemenswaardige publikasies

Kursusse aangebied (volgens skedule)

Klik hier vir huidige inligting oor kursusaanbiedings.

  • HIST 251-Die dertigjarige oorlog (1618-48): Europa in 'n krisistyd
  • HIST 254-Oorlog en samelewing in die vroeë moderne Europa
  • HIST 255-Manor to Machine: The Economic Shaping of Europe
  • HIST 460-Prinses en Reformasies in Duitsland, 1400-1600
  • HIST 461-Oorlog en Verligting in Duitsland, 1600-1815

Mense


554A Pauli Murray Hall*
102 Emerson Dr., CB #3195
Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3195

*Alhoewel die geskiedenisgeskiedenis die naam Pauli Murray Hall vir ons gebou gebruik, sal u dit op amptelike kaarte as Hamilton Hall vind. Joseph Grégoire de Roulhac Hamilton se intellektueel oneerlike historiese en argiefwerk bevorder wit oppergesag. Daarteenoor het Pauli Murray ontoeganklike bewyse en ontledings in diens van rasse- en geslagsgelykheid ingehaal. In Julie 2020 het al die departemente in die gebou ingestem om die naam Pauli Murray Hall in die plek van Hamilton Hall aan te neem. 'N Amptelike versoek by die kanselier hangende. Vir meer inligting, sien hier.


Poeierig, Terence

Inleiding: Terence V. Powderly was 'n man wat aan die begin van die 20ste eeu die openbare oog getrek het as politikus en arbeidsorganiseerder, veral as burgemeester van drie dae van Scranton, PA en lid van die

Ridders van Arbeidsleierskap. Gedurende sy loopbaan het hy gehuiwer om te vra vir stakings en meer dramatiese arbeidsaktiwiteite, en het gevoel dat dit onproduktief was en vyande gemaak het met die wet, polisie en media. In plaas daarvan beskou Powderly die arbeidersbeweging nie as 'n revolusie nie, maar as 'n samewerkende broederskap van werkers. As 'n Katoliek het sy idees op baie maniere gepaard gegaan met die onderrig van die tyd, maar tog het baie geestelikes die Knights of Labour, die arbeidsorganisasie waarmee hy die meeste gekoppel is, verwerp.

Onderwys en loopbaan: Terence V. Powderly het 'n rudimentêre opleiding van ongeveer ses jaar gehad en het op die ouderdom van 13 begin werk. Op 17 -jarige ouderdom het hy 'n vakleerling -masjinis geword en uiteindelik werk gekry in Scranton, PA, en vyf jaar later in 1871 by die International Union of Machinists and Blacksmiths aangesluit. Selfs op sy jong ouderdom word hy erken vir sy skryf- en praatvermoëns, en word 'n jaar later plaaslike grootmeester -werksman en ooreenstemmende sekretaris van die vakbond. In 1873 verloor hy sy werk en kon hy eers weer in 1875 werk kry as 'n masjinis, wat die veld in 1877 vir altyd verlaat.

Na hierdie vroeë werkervaring, fokus sy loopbaan hoofsaaklik op die politiek van Pennsylvania en die Knights of Labor. Hy beklee die pos as burgemeester in Scranton, PA, van 1878-1884. Poeierlik vorder hy van lid tot meesterwerkman van Scranton, destyds ooreenstemmende sekretaris van die distriksvergadering, en uiteindelik grootmeester werksman in die ridders van arbeid van 1874-1893. Hy was altyd een wat uiteenlopende belange gehad het, en studeer ook regte en word praktiserende advokaat, dien as 'n provinsiale gesondheidsbeampte en word mede -eienaar en bestuurder van 'n kruidenierswinkel. Uiteindelik beëindig hy sy loopbaan by die federale regering in immigrasiebeleid, handhawing en inspeksie.

Terence V. Powderly is gebore uit Terence en Madge (Walsh) Powderly in die industriële gemeenskap van Carbondale, PA, waar sy pa sy eie steenkoolmyn gestig het. Young Terry was 'n bysiende kind wat gereeld siek geword het en doof in sy een oor was weens geelkoors. Die jong Powderly was onbekwaam in sport en het dikwels hand-down gedra, maar moes vir homself regkom teen plaaslike boelies. Hy is van mening dat sy deelname aan 'n groot Ierse gesin, sewe broers en vier susters, gehelp het om sy kinderprobleme sowel as sy ywerige leesgewoontes te verlig. Alhoewel dit onduidelik is hoe Powderly se Katolieke geloof sy vroeë lewe beïnvloed het, het hy na bewering verdraagsaamheid en simpatie vir behoeftiges geleer uit sy noue verhouding met sy ma, 'n afskaffer.

Gedurende sy vroeë werksjare het Terence V. Powderly baie selfvertroue ontwikkel en sy intelligensie en sjarme in sosiale kringe geneem. Terwyl hy dit geniet om kaarte te speel en salonne by te woon, het Powderly hom beperk tot onskadelike onheil, vermy slegte geselskap en was nie geïnteresseerd in alkohol nie.1 Dit was hier in Scranton dat hy Hannah Dever, dogter van 'n Scranton -mynwerker, en haar broers Johnny en Ed ontmoet het. Hannah en Terence trou op 19 September 1872 en sou saam wees tot haar dood in 1907, terwyl Johnny en Ed vriende van Powderly sou word gedurende hierdie tydperk van jong volwassenheid en daarna.

Die depressie van 1873 het die Amerikaanse ekonomie baie getref, en Powderly was een van die talle werkers wat daardie jaar ontslaan is. Hy besluit om te reis en werk te kry, maar Powderly het president geword van die plaaslike Machinists and Blacksmiths International Union kort nadat hy in 1871 aangesluit het. lang periodes van skeiding en 'n verhuising van hul eie woonstel na haar ma se plek. Sy gedemoraliseerde terugkeer na Scranton is gevolg deur 'n persoonlike tragedie wat Hannah byna oorlede het toe sy die enigste kind was, 'n babadogtertjie wat 'n paar dae later oorlede is.

In 1876 het Terence V. Powderly by die Knights of Labor in Scranton aangesluit. Net soos met sy vorige vakbondervaring, het Powderly vinnig in die geledere van die plaaslike meester Workman gestyg en was hy in noue samewerking met die Philadelphia Knights. Baie van sy medewerkers het die gedesentraliseerde aard van die organisasie as 'n aanwins beskou in vergelyking met die faksionele en afnemende Machinists and Blacksmiths International Union, wat Powderly uiteindelik in 1877 verlaat het. Heilige Orde van die Ridders van Arbeid moeilik. Boonop is die broederskap uitgedaag deur interne godsdienstige en etniese vooroordeel. Trouens, hierdie verdeeldheid het Powderly daartoe gelei om kortliks uit sy pos as meester Workman te bedank totdat sy leierskap as lid die dwaasheid blootgelê het deur herhaalde oproepe tot eenheid, waarna hy heringestel is.

Net 'n jaar nadat hy aangesluit het, het Powderly sy werk as 'n masjinis gestaak en 'n voltydse organiseerder vir die Knights geword, 'n verlaging van $ 110 per maand. Sy toewyding aan die organisasie word gekombineer met 'n visie om werkerkollektiewe te vestig wat bereik word deur stakings te vermy wanneer moontlik en gewelddadige optrede te alle tye. Toe 'n aantal beduidende stakings in Pennsylvania in die somer van 1877 plaasvind, Powderly het hom meer konstruktiewe take aangepak, soos om geld in te samel vir die gesinne van die dooie mans, boikotte van handelaars wat die voortgesette staking van die mynwerkers teenstaan, 'n koöperatiewe kruidenierswinkel stig om die stakers te help, organisasie van die woedendes in plaaslike byeenkomste en veral deur die wiele aan die gang te sit om werkgewers en hul politieke handlangers tydens die volgende verkiesings te verslaan.1 Sulke taktiek, veral die boikot, was sy hoop op die toekomstige rol van Knights regoor die land.

As gevolg van die voorvalle van 1877 het baie mense die diepte van die alliansie tussen staats-korporasies besef en 'n nuutgevonde entoesiasme vir 'n derde party in die politiek gehad. Die Knights het hul verbod op politieke bespreking opgehef deur 'n komitee oor vordering te skep wat onmiddellik na die vergadering van die vergadering gehou sal word. Koördineer die eerste vergadering van die 'Greenback-Labour Party' poeierlik kort nadat politieke bespreking deur die Knights begin het. Hy het elke plaaslike hoofstuk van die Knights of Labour uitgenooi om 'n verteenwoordiger van die Committee on Progress te stuur. Die byeenkoms het 'n platform geskep wie se boodskap die twee oorheersende partye as betreurenswaardig beskou het om loonwerkers te ondersteun, en hulle het ook besluit oor kandidate vir die party.

Powderly het verskeie pogings tot uitreiking na kiesers gelei en 'n meningspeiling gehou om die akkuraatheid van die verkiesing te verseker, en die party het die oorwinning behaal in al vyf ampte waarvoor hulle deelgeneem het aan die provinsiale verkiesing. In reaksie op sy pogings en sy plaaslike invloed, is Powderly deur die party gekies as Scranton se burgemeesterskandidaat vir die Greenback-Labour-party. Met 'n veldtog wat skuldvermindering en doeltreffendheid van die regering beloof, word Powderly terselfdertyd as 'n uitdager van die werkersklas beskou. Sy teenstanders het hul kragte saamgesnoer en deelgeneem aan laakbare pogings om sy geloofwaardigheid te ondermyn. Sommige het sy katolisisme as 'n bedreiging beklemtoon, terwyl ander beklemtoon het hoe die Katolieke Kerk die Knights of Labour nie goedkeur nie. Hulle negatiewe veldtogpogings was onsuksesvol, en Terence V. Powderly is in Februarie 1878 tot burgemeester van Scranton verkies, saam met 'n aansienlike teenwoordigheid van Greenback-Labour in die stadsraad en ander kantore.

By die aanstelling het burgemeester Powderly onmiddellik sy plan uiteengesit om 'n moderne stad te skep: 'n raad van gesondheid, 'n ondersoek na bedrog, die bou van 'n voldoende rioolstelsel en geplaveide paaie. Ondanks die feit dat hy nooit 'n meerderheid in die stadsraad gehad het nie, is baie van sy inisiatiewe aan die einde van sy drie termyne deur die stadsrade goedgekeur. Binne 6 maande nadat hy sy amp aangeneem het, het hy die wetstoepassing opgeknap en manne van integriteit gekies om te dien, meestal uit die Greenback-Labour-party of die Knights of Labour. Die Scranton -koerant, Daily Times, later na die stad verwys as die model van orde.2 Sy laaste daad in 1878 was om 'n stelsel vir die inspeksie van voedsel in te stel, wat streng handhawing en strawwe boetes insluit.

In 1879 het Powderly 'n behoorlike brandbestrydingsmag op die agenda geplaas, terwyl sy steeds toenemende erkenning as 'n arbeidspoliticus buite Scranton hom uiteindelik ingehaal het. Die suksesvolle bekendstelling van die politiek in die Ridders het op verskeie plekke plaasgevind, maar Powderly was die duidelikste voorbeeld. Toe besluit is om 'n nasionale organisasie vir die vakbond te stig, is Powderly eers verkies tot Grand Worthy Foreman, tweede in bevel, en beklee daarna die topposisie van grootmeester Workman na die uittrede van Uriah Stephens. Hy is herkies tot hierdie hoogste posisie van vakbondleierskap vir tien opeenvolgende termyne, en die meeste waarnemers het sy uitspraak oor die probleme van die dag as die amptelike standpunt van arbeid geïnterpreteer, terwyl hulle sy artikels lees en na sy toesprake luister.2

Na 'n geringe verkiesingsoorwinning van nege en negentig stemme oor sy Republikeinse uitdager, het Powderly se werk as burgemeester in die vroeë 1880's voortgegaan met drie belangrike wetgewing. Eerstens is 'n appèlraad ingestel vir diegene wat nie saamstem met belastingaanslag nie. Die tweede wetgewing het sy werk aan die rioolstelsel voortgesit, en die derde het lisensies vir handelaars en besighede in Scranton gevestig, wat beskou word as 'n klein stap in die rigting van 'n meer billike verdeling van welvaart. Toe die herverkiesingsseisoen aanbreek, was sy grootste voordeel die krediet wat hy vir sy gesondheidshervormings gekry het. Plaaslike koerante het berigte gedoen oor hoe maatreëls wat hy ingestel het, die uitbreek van siektes soos pokke beperk, maar die Demokratiese Party het die grootste deel van die Greenback-Labour-party teen 1882 geabsorbeer of verslaan.

Powderly het 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan om die Demokratiese benoeming te aanvaar uit politieke doelmatigheid wat suksesvol was in die verkiesing, ondanks teenstanders se groot kritiek op die stap. In sy laaste termyn het hy aan die doeltreffendheid van die regering gewerk, veral met betrekking tot belastingaanslag, en het hy konstruktiewe voorstelle gemaak, soos die bou van 'n hospitaal en 'n openbare gebou vir die toekoms. Hy bestee 'n aansienlike hoeveelheid energie aan 'n verlore poging vir die Demokratiese benoeming in 1884 teen 'n loopbaanpoliticus, wat kritiese historici vinnig kan uitwys in plaas van sy verantwoordelikhede as leier van die Knights of Labour.

Kritiek en ondersteuners van Powderly se leiersrol in die Knights of Labor het hom gebel idealis, hervormer, humanitêr, windtas, afvallige, skelm, bedrieër, agitator, introvert, selfversoeker, charlatan, goedkoop politikus, draagjas, raserige opwekker en sentimentele sentiment.3 Ander het gesê dat die eienskappe wat van hom 'n groot burgemeester gemaak het, dieselfde was wat hom 'n onbekwame vakbondleier gemaak het, hoofsaaklik sy onwilligheid om verantwoordelikheid te delegeer. Terence V. Powderly is in elk geval nasionaal deur baie erken as die stem van arbeid gedurende sy tyd, soos voorheen genoem. Boonop het die Knights of Labour die eerste vakbond geword gedurende sy tydperk, wat in 1886 tot 700 000 lede geword het van slegs 9 300 lede toe Powderly die leisels in 1879 neem.

Ander faktore as Powderly is belangrik om in ag te neem by die beoordeling van die sukses van die Knights of Labor, veral die einde van die depressie en 'n plaaslike Knights of Labour -oorwinning teen die berugte rowerbaron Jay Gould. Tog het Powderly as leier noukeurige administratiewe aandag aan detail gegee. Hy het ook voortgegaan om die Knights of Labour te ontmoedig van onnodige betrokkenheid by stakings of gewelddadige optrede en om 'n dominante denkrigting in die vakbond te vermy, wat die skadelike opvatting van die vakbond as anargistiese, sosialistiese en radikale groep gedurende die tydperk met 'n mate beperk het. toe dit die meeste gegroei het. Op sy beste tyd het werkers hul kinders na Terence V. vernoem Powderly en sy aankoms juig.

Alhoewel hy negatiewe persepsies beperk het, het Powderly terselfdertyd hard daaraan gewerk werkende mense uit bykans elke denkbare agtergrond hy was 'n charismatiese ondersteuner van solidariteit.1 Hy het vergaderings tussen rasse en tussen geslagte aangemoedig terwyl hy afsonderlike vergaderings voorgestel het as die struikelblokke te groot was om verskillende groepe te integreer. Powderly se benadering om die Knights of Labour met 'n hoë mate van plaaslike outonomie te behou, is nog 'n gunstige element van sy leierskap, 'n struktuur wat sedert die dertigerjare selde in vakbonde gebruik is.

Die jaar 1886, veral na die Haymarket Affair -voorval in Chicago, was 'n keerpunt vir die Knights of Labor en Powderly se leierskap. Anargiste is onregverdig skuldig bevind in verband met 'n ontploffing wat tydens die Haymarket -demonstrasie plaasgevind het, maar Powderly huiwer om die organisasie tot meer stakings te roep of vurig teen hierdie onreg uit te spreek. Met die koms van die Groot Upheaval in 1886 en erger ekonomiese toestande, het die nuwer lede van die Knights aksies onderneem wat swak beplan en befonds is, veral grootskaalse stakings. Die Grootmeester Werkman het gehoop om groter toesig te vestig om te voorkom dat die Ridders te veel uitgebrei word, maar werkgewers het voordeel getrek uit hierdie konflikte en die Ridders uit hul bedrywe uitgeroei voordat sulke veranderinge aangebring kon word.

Die solidariteit wat Terence V. Powderly jare lank opgebou het, was nou besig om uitmekaar te val en na ander organisasies, veral geskoolde werkers van die American Federation of Labor, oor te gaan. Geskiedkundiges stel 'n aantal verduidelikings voor. Die een is dat die plaaslike struktuur en gedesentraliseerde besluitneming te veel vertroue in die werkers gelê het om te bepaal of daar geen ander opsie was nie, maar 'n staking is beskikbaar; hierdie struktuur werk nie in tye van ekonomiese krisis nie, terwyl daar altyd skynbaar geen 'n ander opsie as 'n staking.

Binne 'n dekade na die Groot Upheaval het die Knights of Labour se ledetal tot 20,000 gedaal. Interne en eksterne mededingers tot Powderly se leierskap in die arbeidersbeweging het die ergste en verdagste neigings in hom na vore gebring, en die vorige demokratiese en verdraagsame ondertone van die beweging was toenemend afwesig in Powderly se leierskap. Hierdie tweede periode van diens as grootmeester, wat in 1893 geëindig het met die opeenvolging van die interne teenstander John Hayes, was slegs met 'n ligpunt gemerk. In 1888 werk Powderly saam met kardinaal Gibbons om die spanning tussen die Katolieke Kerk en die Ridders van die Arbeid te verlig, insluitend pouslike goedkeuring van Katolieke om by die vakbond aan te sluit.

Een skrywer het vier spesifieke kenmerke van die Ridders geïdentifiseer wat die Katolieke hiërargie agterdogtig gemaak het en selfs die organisasie in sekere streke voor 1888 formeel aan die kaak gestel het: die eedgebonde geheimhouding daarvan, vrymesselaarsaspekte, die ooreenkoms met die Molly Maguires en die skynbare sosialistiese of radikale karakter daarvan. Die kerk erken werkers se regte om hulself te organiseer, maar die eed tot absolute geheimhouding en ritualistiese aard van die Ridders van Arbeid kon nie aanvaar word nie en het blykbaar 'n kwasi-godsdienstige verbintenis tot die vakbond vereis. Die Molly Maguires en radikale elemente van die groep wat Powderly voorgestel het, was as gevolg van sy gedesentraliseerde aard, maar die meeste geestelikes het die organisasie verkeerd verstaan, sommige tot die uiteindelike ineenstorting daarvan.

Toe Terence V. Powderly sy posisie in die Knights verloor het, het hy na die regte studeer en is in 1894 in die Pennsylvania -balie toegelaat, wat later betoog het voor die Hooggeregshof van Pennsylvania en die Verenigde State. Hy het sterk gevoel dat die regstelsel vooroordeel en te tegnies is. In 1896 het hy teruggekeer na die politiek en is hy aangestel as kommissaris -generaal van immigrasie deur president William McKinley, vir wie hy gehelp het. Powderly het Ellis Island ondersoek wat tot talle afleggings gelei het, maar hierdie voormalige werknemers het laster gebruik om hom afgedank te kry toe Theodore Roosevelt in 1902 die presidentskap binnegekom het. Binne 'n paar jaar is Powderly weer aangestel as spesiale immigrasie -inspekteur, destyds hoof van die immigrasieburo se afdeling inligting van 1907-1921, en uiteindelik kommissaris van versoening van die Amerikaanse departement van arbeid. Hy sterf op 24 Junie 1924 in Washington, DC

Terence V. Powderly se laaste jare is saam met vriende deurgebring, soos die gereelde huisgas Mary Harris "Mother" Jones en John B. White. By baie van hierdie vriende sou hy by die Hall of Fame van die Departement van Arbeid van die Verenigde State aansluit, waaraan hy in 1999 die eer van lidmaatskap ontvang het. Sy outobiografie is postuum vrygestel, Die pad I Trod. Alhoewel 'n aantal kritiek oor Powderly al genoem is, is sy mening dat immigrasie vir Chinese individue en ander Asiërs gesluit moet word, wat algemeen aanvaar word vir sy tyd. Alhoewel daar amptelik 'n verbod was op diskriminasie volgens kleur, stel sommige geleerdes voor dat die Knights of Labour nie so interras-progressief was as wat dit blyk te wees nie en vermomde diskriminasie en/of gewenste sosiale beheer van potensiële swart stakingsbrekers beoefen het.

Terwyl dit deur baie historici hard behandel en as onbeduidend afgemaak is, het Terence V. Powderly meer onlangs meer aandag geniet, selfs deur diegene wat die Knights of Labour as 'n mislukte eksperiment of 'n gemiste geleentheid van die arbeidersbeweging beskou. As Grand Workman het hy getoon hoe solidariteit en 'n gedesentraliseerde benadering in 'n vakbond kan werk, gegewe die regte omstandighede. Hy het saad geplant vir 'n groter aanvaarding van die arbeidersbeweging deur die Katolieke Kerk, wat die weg gebaan het vir ander Katolieke soos Dorothy Day. Ten slotte het Terence V. Powderly 'n voorbeeld gegee van hoe 'n politikus 'n wye aantrekkingskrag kan verkry deur 'n kombinasie van arbeid en ander beleidsposisies, soos fiskale verantwoordelikheid, te beywer. Terence V. Powderly was 'n talentvolle en charismatiese man wat die nasionale kollig in die Amerikaanse arbeidersbeweging van die laat 19de eeu verdien het en 'n nalatenskap vir historici gelaat het.


Departement Geskiedenis

Terence Keel is 'n medeprofessor aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Santa Barbara, waar hy as ondervoorsitter van die Departement Geskiedenis dien en 'n afspraak beklee in die Departement Swart Studies en die Departement Godsdiensstudies. Hy behaal 'n PhD aan die Harvard Universiteit. Dr Keel is 'n interdissiplinêre geleerde met opleiding in godsdienswetenskap, die geskiedenis van wetenskap, Afro -Amerikaanse geskiedenis, sowel as wetenskap- en tegnologie -studies. Hy het wyd geskryf oor die geskiedenis van rassisme en die verband daarmee met die moderne biologiese wetenskappe, godsdienstige intellektuele geskiedenis, regte, medisyne en openbare gesondheid. Sy navorsing het hierdie kwessies in die Verenigde State, Europa en Mexiko ondersoek. Sy eerste boek, Goddelike variasies (Stanford University Press, Januarie 2018) is 'n studie van hoe Christelike denke die ontwikkeling van wetenskaplike rassisme vergemaklik het en die epistemiese verbintenisse van die moderne studie van menslike biodiversiteit gevorm het. Hy het toekennings ontvang vir sy navorsing van die National Science Foundation, die Social Science Research Council, die Charles Warren Center for American Studies aan die Harvard Universiteit en die Universiteit van Kalifornië se kantoor van die president. Onlangs was hy die 2017 -ontvanger van die Harold J. Plous -toekenning aan UC Santa Barbara, die hoogste eer wat die fakulteits senaat aan 'n junior professor gegee het vir uitnemendheid in onderrig, studie en diens.

Hy werk tans aan 'n boekprojek wat die verhouding tussen wetenskap en samelewing ondersoek deur te ondersoek hoe wetenskapopvoeders en gesondheidswerkers wat in histories swart instellings werk, idees uit evolusionêre biologie en die eugenetiese beweging in die openbare verbeelding versprei. Die boek sal fokus op die werk van die dokter dr. Charles V. Roman van Meharry Medical College, die embrioloog dr. Ernest Everett Just van die Howard -universiteit, die bioloog en die katolieke burgerregte -aktivis dr. Thomas Wyatt Turner van Howard en die Hampton Universiteit , en Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, professor in medisyne aan die Howard -universiteit en advokate vir gesondheidsorg vir arm huurders en deelnemers in die Mississippi -delta. Dr Keel het 'n navorsingsbeurs ontvang van die UC Consortium for Black Studies wat deur die Departement Afro -Amerikaanse Studies aan UCLA aangebied is om aan hierdie projek te werk.

Hy werk ook aan 'n addisionele projek wat ondersoek hoe genetici ou DNA gebruik om verhale oor die gesondheid en gedrag van die hedendaagse bevolking te maak. Hierdie werk kombineer historiese geleerdheid en etnografiese navorsingsmetodes om kontemporêre wetenskaplike idees oor mens-Neanderthaler-mengsel te plaas binne 'n groter historiese trajek van wetenskaplike debat en teoretisering oor die onderskeid tussen mens en nie-mens, die voorvaderlike oorsprong van bevolkingsgroepe en idees. van siekterisiko en rassegeskiktheid. Hierdie projek ondersoek die bewerings wat genetici sedert 2014 maak oor die verband tussen Neanderdal-DNA en 'n verhoogde risiko vir tipe 2-diabetes in Mexikaanse bevolkings.

Dr Keel is 'n vennoot van die nuutgestigte Sentrum vir die Studie van Rassisme, Sosiale Geregtigheid en Gesondheid onder leiding van dr. Chandra Ford van UCLA Fielding School of Public Health. Hy is ook 'n mederedakteur van 'n spesiale uitgawe van die American Journal of Law and Medicine (Herfs 2017) wat ondersoek het hoe kritieke rasteorie die studie van gesondheidsongelykhede in die gesondheidswetenskappe kan verander.

Benewens sy vakkundige werk, is hy ook 'n senior adviseur van die Goldin Institute, 'n organisasie sonder winsbejag in Chicago wat wêreldwyd pleit vir voetsoolvlakleierskap, konflikoplossing, armoedeverligting en omgewingsgeregtigheid.

Kontak Ons

Departement Geskiedenis
Universiteit van Kalifornië, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, Kalifornië 93106-9410


Terence Mckenna en Psychedelics

Terence McKenna is waarskynlik die persoon wat die meeste bewustheid oor psigedelika, en meer spesifiek, DMT verhoog het. In werklikheid was McKenna een van die vurige ondersteuners van die bekendstelling van DMT in die samelewing.

Saam met psilocybin -sampioene en ayahuasca, het McKenna geglo dat DMT die uiteindelike vergoddeliking van bestaan ​​is.

Gedurende 1967 tot 1994 rook McKenna dikwels DMT. Gedurende hierdie jare sou hy baie onthullings opdoen. Een van hulle het ontstaan ​​uit 'n hallusinasie waarin hy besef het die entiteit wat baie sielkundiges -entoesiaste later vertroud sou raak met: “machine elves “. McKenna beskryf hierdie intelligente entiteite as self-transformerende masjienelwe.

Die magiese sampioen -advokaat kon deur sy eie persoonlike psigedeliese ervarings tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat hierdie entiteite die doel was om mense te wys hoe om met taal te skep. Masjienelwe word nou gereeld gerapporteer deur individue wat DMT gebruik.

Psychedelics het McKenna toegelaat om sy spiritualiteit van sjamanisme met sy begrip van die wêreld te meng. McKenna het sy veelvuldige ervarings met psigedelika gebruik om ander op te voed en het gereeld openbare gesprekke opgeteken.

Sy laaste gepubliseerde toespraak was getiteld Psychedelics in die era van intelligente masjiene, en kenmerk 'n band tussen psigedelika, tegnologie en mense.


Polisieman wat geskiet het Terence Crutcher het 'n geskiedenis van dwelmgebruik, huishoudelike versteurings

'N Federale ondersoek ondersoek die polisie se skietery op Terence Crutcher in Tulsa, Oklahoma, wat ook 'n diepgaande ondersoek na die geskiedenis en vorige gedrag van die polisieman by sy dood veroorsaak het.

Beampte Betty Shelby, 'n wit vrou, het die 40-jarige Crutcher, 'n swart man, Vrydag doodgeskiet nadat sy op sy voertuig afgekom het, wat in die middel van die pad vasgekeer was, terwyl sy gereageer het op 'n onverwante oproep. Crutcher is later deur 'n ander beampte getas, net 'n paar sekondes voordat Shelby haar wapen afgevuur het. Crutcher se familie vra strafregtelike klagte teen sy moordenaar. Maar Shelby se prokureur het gesê dat sy haar wapen afgevuur het omdat sy vir haar lewe gevrees het, ondanks die feit dat Crutcher ongewapen was en sy hande net 'n paar oomblikke voor hy geskiet was, soos in videomateriaal, opgehef het.

Die skietery, wat een van die jongste in 'n reeks polisiemoorde op swart mans en vroue is, het landwyd aandag geniet. Dit het die werkgeskiedenis van Shelby onder die loep geneem. Meer inligting wat hierdie week bekend gemaak is oor haar professionele agtergrond en persoonlike lewe, wat deur haar advokaat Scott Wood bekendgemaak is, kan help om 'n meer volledige prentjie van haar te kry. Sulke inligting word gereeld deur wetstoepassers aangebied en deur die media herhaal, dikwels met die gevolg dat verdagtes onregverdig beskryf word as 'boewe' wat geneig is om misdade te pleeg. Hier word berig oor die agtergrond van Shelby om hierdie dubbele standaard uit te lig in hoe ons praat oor die karakter van polisiemanne in teenstelling met burgerlike verdagtes van kleur.

Shelby het in 2011 by die Tulsa -polisiemag aangesluit nadat hy sedert 2007 as 'n adjunk in die Tulsa County Sheriff's Office gedien het, volgens NBC News. Haar man is ook 'n polisiebeampte en was aan diens die aand toe Crutcher geskiet is. Trouens, Dave Shelby was in die helikopter wat bo -oor gevlieg het en die oomblikke wat voor die skietery was, aangeteken. In die video, wat Maandag deur die Tulsa -polisiekantoor uitgereik is, word 'n beampte gehoor wat Crutcher as 'n 'slegte ou' beskryf. 'N Polisiewoordvoerder van die Tulsa het egter gesê dat Dave Shelby nie die kommentaar lewer nie.

Betty Shelby het minstens een keer geskei en hertrou. Volgens die werksaansoek wat sy in 2007 by die balju ingedien het, het die nuwe vrou van haar eksman in 2002 'n beskermingsbevel teen haar ingedien om 'n einde te maak aan die teistering van telefoonoproepe wat die nuwe vrou beweer dat Shelby gemaak het. Die bevel is uiteindelik geweier en Shelby het haar onskuld gehandhaaf.

Byna 'n dekade vroeër het Shelby op dieselfde aansoek opgemerk dat 'n breuk met haar destydse kêrel daartoe gelei het dat die twee mekaar se motors beskadig het. Tydelike beperkingsbevele is ingedien en uiteindelik weggegooi.

Shelby is nou 'n kenner van dwelmherkenning, waarvoor Wood gesê het dat sy opleiding ontvang het. Sy het gesê dat sy geglo het dat Crutcher onder die invloed was toe sy hom teëkom. Die polisie het gesê dat hulle later PCP in Crutcher se motor gevind het, maar hy is nie die enigste in die saak wat na bewering 'n geskiedenis van dwelmgebruik het nie. In dieselfde werksaansoek waar Shelby verskeie huishoudelike versteurings opgemerk het, het sy 'ja' gemerk onder 'n opdrag wat gevra het of sy in die verlede 'onwettige dwelms besit en gebruik het'. Shelby het gesê dat sy twee keer dagga gebruik het toe sy 18 was.

Volgens KJRH het Shelby ook twee klagtes oor buitensporige geweld. Beide sake is as ongegrond beskou. KJRH berig ook dat Shelby vier lofbriewe het, sowel as 'n verdienstelike diensprys in Oklahoma.

Meer inligting oor die skietery sal na verwagting bekend gemaak word namate die ondersoek voortgaan.

Shelby, wat tans met administratiewe verlof is, is nou 'n regmatige doelwit van dieselfde ondersoek en ondersoek wat baie minderheidslagoffers van polisie -skietvoorvalle ondervind het. Sekerlik, Shelby se vorige toelating tot dwelmgebruik as 'n tiener is waarskynlik nie relevant vir hierdie saak nie, maar geringe oortredings - soos dagga -gebruik - word nooit uit die verhaal van 'n swart slagoffer gelaat nie, ongeag hoe irrelevant dit is. Laat ons duidelik wees: Voorvalle soos hierdie het geen invloed op die skuld of onskuld van 'n spesifieke voorval nie, maar as ons die agtergrond en geskiedenis van slagoffers van polisie -skietery wil beklemtoon, is dit net billik om die van die beamptes wat vermoor is, uit te lig hulle.

Wat Crutcher betref, diegene wat hom die beste geken het, kan werklik die verhaal vertel van wie hy was en waarvoor hy staan.

'Julle wil almal weet wie die groot slegte ou was? Die groot slegte ou was my tweelingbroer, ”het Crutcher se suster Tiffany gesê op 'n perskonferensie ná sy dood. 'Die groot slegte ou was 'n pa. That big bad dude was a son. That big bad dude was enrolled at Tulsa Community College… That big bad dude loved God. That big bad dude was at church singing with all his flaws every week. That big bad dude, that’s who he was.”

Correction: An earlier version of this story incorrectly described the position of Crutcher’s hands during the encounter and when he was Tasered. His hands were raised in the moments before he was shot. Another officer deployed his Taser before the shot was fired.


Duren, Terence

Terence Duren (1907-1968) was a leading Nebraska artist from the post-World War II period. Duren, who lived most of his life in Shelby, is most widely known for his regionalist works, which drew on his rural Nebraska upbringing. He is one of a group of Nebraska artists, including John Falter and Grant Reynard, whose illustrations were a significant portion of their output.

Duren began to paint when he was stricken with polio at age six. To occupy their bedridden son, his parents gave him crayons and a tablet. In an interview shortly before his death, Duren said he realized then that he would be an artist.

Duren graduated from the Art Institute of Chicago in 1929 and studied at the Fontainebleau School of Art in France and the Kunstgewerbe Schule in Vienna. The European schools specialized in mural painting, and in the 1930s Duren was best known as a muralist. Duren served as an instructor at the Cleveland Institute of Art from 1930 to 1941 and taught at the Art Institute of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. Duren's career and reputation reached a zenith in 1944 when one of his paintings was chosen for Portrait of America, an exhibition which opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and then toured to eight museums across the country.

Among his other projects, Duren designed sets for an opera company in Cleveland, as well as the sets and costumes for a marionette production of Pyr Gynt at the New York World's Fair (1939-40). He was later an ardent supporter of the Brownville Historical Society and its effort to restore Brownville.


Terence Blanchard

Grammy Award-winning jazz trumpeter Terence Blanchard is one of the most prominent brass players, bandleaders, and recording artists of his generation. Blessed with a warm yet often fiery trumpet sound and an ear for deep harmonic sophistication, Blanchard is a standard-bearer for the searching post-bop style of his predecessors, including Miles Davis, Woody Shaw, and Booker Little. An impressive "Young Lion" in his early days with Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, he developed over time into a mature bandleader and a highly regarded film composer.

Born on March 13, 1962 in New Orleans, Louisiana, Terence Oliver Blanchard was an only child to parents Wilhelmina and Joseph Oliver Blanchard. He began playing piano by the age of five, switched to trumpet three years later, and played alongside childhood friend and fellow New Orleans native Wynton Marsalis in summer band camps. While in high school, he took extracurricular classes at the New Orleans Center for Creative Arts with Roger Dickerson and Ellis Marsalis. From 1980 to 1982, Blanchard studied under Paul Jeffrey and Bill Fielder at Rutgers University in New Jersey while touring with Lionel Hampton's orchestra. In 1982 Blanchard replaced Wynton Marsalis (under his recommendation) in Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, working in that band until 1986 as lead soloist and musical director. He then co-led a prominent quintet with saxophonist Donald Harrison, recording a handful of albums for the Concord, Columbia, and Evidence record labels in five years, including 1983's New York Second Line, 1984's Discernment, and 1988's Black Pearl.

In the '90s, Blanchard became a leader in his own right, recording for the Columbia label and issuing albums like 1992's Terence Blanchard and 1993's Simply Stated. These albums found him balancing his love of the New Orleans jazz and bop traditions with his own increasingly distinctive and progressive compositional voice. Other albums, like 1994's minor-tinged The Billie Holiday Songbook, 1996's The Heart Speaks with singer/composer Ivan Lins, and 1999's orchestral-leaning Jazz in Film, also showcased his broad stylistic palette.

Also during this period, he developed a fruitful working relationship with director Spike Lee. Having first played on the soundtracks to several of Lee's films, including Mo' Better Blues and Do the Right Thing, Blanchard then composed the music for many of Lee's subsequent films, including Jungle Fever, Malcom X, Clockers, Summer of Sam, 25th Hour, Inside Man, and the Hurricane Katrina documentary When the Levees Broke for HBO. With over 40 scores to his credit, Blanchard is one of the most sought-after jazz musicians to ever compose for film.

In the fall of 2000, Blanchard was named artistic director of the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Keeping up with his love of live performance and touring, Blanchard also maintained a regular studio presence, delivering albums like 2000's Wandering Moon, 2001's Let's Get Lost, and 2003's Bounce. Produced by pianist Herbie Hancock, 2005's Flow received two Grammy nominations. Also in 2005, Blanchard was part of pianist McCoy Tyner's ensemble that won the Grammy in the Best Jazz Instrumental Album category for Illuminations. The trumpeter also took home the Grammy Award for Best Large Jazz Ensemble Album for 2007's A Tale of God's Will (A Requiem for Katrina). By April of 2007, the Monk Institute announced its Commitment to New Orleans initiative, which included the relocation of the program to the campus of Loyola University in New Orleans, spearheaded by Blanchard.

Signing with Concord Jazz in 2009, he released Choices -- recorded at the Ogden Museum of Art in Blanchard's hometown -- at the end of that summer. Two years later, he paid tribute to the innovative Afro-Cuban recordings of Dizzy Gillespie and Chano Pozo by teaming up with Latin jazz percussionist Poncho Sanchez for the studio album Chano y Dizzy! The following year, Blanchard returned to his film work by scoring the soundtrack to director George Lucas' WWII action drama Red Tails. Also that year, music business legend Don Was brought the trumpeter back to Blue Note Records. Blanchard's first offering for the label was 2013's Magnetic, an album that showcased a new quintet and guest appearances by Ron Carter and labelmates Lionel Loueke and Ravi Coltrane.

In 2015, Blanchard followed up once again on Blue Note with the electric fusion and R&B-infused Breathless. Featuring backing from Blanchard's band the E-Collective, the album also included contributions from vocalist PJ Morton. Returning to film work, he supplied the original score for director Taylor Hackford's 2017 film Comedian. Joining Blanchard on the soundtrack were pianist Kenny Barron, tenor saxophonist Ravi Coltrane, alto saxophonist Khari Allen Lee, bassist David Pulphus, and drummer Carl Allen. In 2018, Blanchard was named a USA Fellow, and composed the score to Spike Lee's film BlacKkKlansman, which won him a Grammy Award. He also released the concert album Live with his E-Collective. Returning to film work, Blanchard scored the 2019 Harriet Tubman biopic, Harriet, along with another Lee film, Da 5 Bloods, in 2020. Other soundtracks from that year included One Night in Miami and the first season of HBO's Perry Mason series.


Terence Powderly

Terence Powderly was born in 1849, in Carbondale, Pennsylvania. While still a teenager, Powderly became an apprentice in a machine shop. Unhappy with working conditions in his chosen industry, Powderly joined the Machinists and Blacksmiths National Union in 1871. Within one year, Powderly had become this union's president.

During the late nineteenth century, Powderly emerged as one of the leading advocates for better working conditions for American workers. He joined the Knights of Labor, another union, in 1874. In 1879, Powderly attained the highest leadership office, Grand Master Workman, in the Knights of Labor. Under Powderly's leadership, the Knights of Labor's membership rose to 700,000 laborers. Powderly generally opposed strikes, preferring boycotts and peaceful negotiations to attain an eight-hour work day, better wages, and improved working conditions in general. Other leaders within the Knights of Labor preferred utilizing strikes. After the Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago, Illinois, in 1886, the Knights of Labor declined as an effective organization. Powderly resigned as grand master workman in 1893.

Powderly's leadership style caused much dissatisfaction among the Knights of Labor's members, especially among those members who favored strikes. In 1886, Samuel Gompers broke with the Knights of Labor. He called for an organization meeting to occur in Columbus, Ohio in December 1886. At this meeting, Gompers and his supporters created a new union, the American Federation of Labor. This organization quickly emerged as one of the United States' most powerful unions during the 1890s.


Terence - History

Classical Drama and Theatre

Chapter 14: Roman Comedy, Part 2 (Terence)


I. Introduction: Roman Comedy after Plautus

Following Plautus' death in the mid-180's BCE, Caecilius Statius emerged as the pre-eminent playwright of Roman Comedy. Though much admired in his day and long after, not even one work of his survives whole and intact. Yet even so, it's evident from the surviving fragments of his plays and other data that his comedy was less boisterous than Plautus'. That Caecilius Statius stayed closer to the tone and structure of his Hellenistic models is clear not only from the fragments of his plays but also the fact that their titles are mostly in Greek, not Latin, in some cases corresponding directly with the titles of the Menandrean originals he was adapting.

This does not mean, of course, that Caecilius Statius wrote in Greek rather, it suggests that he inclined away from the Romanizing tendencies of his immediate predecessors Naevius and Plautus whose plays almost invariably have Latin titles, often not even translations of the original Greek title. (note) In other words, Roman Hellenism was clearly on the rise in the 170's BCE, and undoubtedly that was in no small part because of Caecilius' efforts. But his death in 168 BCE opened the door for new voices to enter the Roman stage, and onto these boards trod one of the greatest the Romans would ever produce, Publius Terentius Afer, known today as Terence.

Little is known about Terence's life, not even the years of his birth and death. Still, we can make good guesses at both. Ancient sources report he died young and, since his last play was produced in 160 BCE, he was probably born at some point between 195 and 185. Thus, he died most likely soon after his final drama debuted, probably in the early 150's. (note)

With that, he would never have known Plautus, though there are other reasons these two are not likely to have met—they traveled in very different social circles—however, if the story is not a fiction, Terence as a young man Terence met Caecilius Statius. (note) Other data, however, which are often cited in textbooks as facts about Terence's life, such as that he was originally a slave from North Africa and later freed, seem on closer inspection suspect, at best "secondary" evidence." About his drama and career as a playwright, on the other hand, we are much better informed.

Several remarkable things stand out about Terence's work. First and foremost, all the plays he ever wrote survive complete. Along with that have come significant details about them: the years in which they premiered and thus the order in which he composed them, who produced them and at what festival, from which Greek originals Terence worked, and even the musician who arranged the music. So, for instance, we know that Terence's consummate masterpiece, Adelphoe ("The Brothers"), was staged at the celebrations surrounding the funeral of Aemilius Paullus in 160 BCE. All this information makes it possible to track Terence's career as we can no other ancient playwright's, even a celebrity on the order of Sophocles.

Nor does any other ancient dramatist's entire corpus survive. Indeed, few other classical authors writing in any genre have their entire body of work preserved, and then only luminaries like Vergil. (note) Thus, in many ways Terence stands alone among ancient dramatists. His work is uniquely well-documented, and the reason must be, at least in part, the high regard in which he was held from his own time on.

So, for instance, the Romans living in the next century (100-1 BCE) saw Terence's writing style as the model of their own—Julius Caesar himself composed a treatise on Terence's sermo purus ("clean dialogue" note)—and well over a millennium later professors in the Renaissance used his drama as a teaching tool. Even a tenth-century nun named Hrotswitha (of Hrotsvit), a canoness living in a cloister in northern Germany just after the Viking invasions, read Terence's dramas with a pleasure that made her uneasy, and so she remodeled them to suit the ethic of the chaste Christian life and glorious virginity she and her sisters in their abbey exemplified.

As a result, we have over six-hundred Terence manuskripte, some of great antiquity and accuracy, dating from many different periods of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Compared to Plautus whose plays survived medieval times on the slenderest of threads, the existence of so many copies of Terence's work is a remarkable tribute to his endurance as an artist. (note) All in all, it is hard to find any age in which Terence's work has not been praised and imitated and his name not widely known, except our own, of course. On whom that will reflect more—Terence or us?—only the future can say.

As another item of note, scholia accompany all Terence's plays. Like those appended to Aristophanes' work, these critical commentaries explicate a wide range of subjects, everything from Terence's meter to his word choice to the original Greek underlying the Latin. Harboring many valuable, albeit not always accurate, morsels of data, the Terence scholia date back to the time of—and, no doubt, the hand of, as well—Aelius Donatus, one of St. Jerome's teachers. Though living in the 300's CE, as far from Terence as we are from da Vinci, Donatus clearly had access to sources of data now lost about this early Roman playwright and, more important, sound judgment in analyzing literature. Hierdie scholia attest to a widespread and enduring interest in Terence's work, a general admiration lasting well beyond his lifetime.


III. The Prologues of Terence's Plays

But most remarkable of all—and, without doubt, the best evidence for Terence's drama and its theatrical context—is information which comes from his own hand, the prologues appended to the front of his dramas. Except for Aristophanes' parabases, the text of every ancient play extant is expressed not with its author himself as the spokesman outright but through the persona of a stage character. This makes it hard, often impossible, to unravel the dramatist from the drama. So, for instance, as strong and clear as Euripides' personal opinions may seem after one reads his plays, not one syllable of any script he wrote is preserved as his own words. Instead, everything we know about the man named Euripides must be deduced through the veil of his drama, or from what others had to say about him.

Terence's prologues, however, address the audience directly and discuss, not the plot of the upcoming play the way Greek dramatists often did, but details of the play's production and the workings of Roman theatre. Thus, unique documents attesting to the nature of Roman Comedy—and Republican drama and society in general—these prologues open our eyes to the world beyond, behind and beneath the play, hinting, for instance, at what rehearsals were like, how productions were funded and the jealousy that could rage between rival playwrights. But, best of all, we hear what Terence has to say about his work and his life in his own words.

And as expected, syne truth is clearly not die truth, the whole truth, that is. Like any public figure who feels compelled to defend his actions and choices, Terence dodges questions, skirts issues, flatters his producers, kisses up to the public, points to his own genius and, generally, acts like a politician at a press conference, not a patient on truth serum. But like so many invented histories, his catty retorts hint at larger realities and, as it turns out, speak volumes about the artist and his age. Also, because there is no known precedent for these prologues, they may even have been a feature of playwriting Terence himself invented. If so, it is one of the few aspects of drama the Romans may claim as their own, and claim proudly.

As such, the prologues are worth a closer look. Here is the prologue to Terence's Andria ("The Woman from Andros") notable, if for nothing else, as the first words he ever wrote for public performance, since Andria was his first play to be produced on stage:

Our poet, when first he set his mind to writing,
Thought he was doing only one job:
Pleasing the people with the plays he wrote.
But, no! He found out quite differently
That he'd have to spend his time writing prologues
That don't discuss the plot but answer
The abuses of a malevolent decrepit poet.
As to what they cite as his crime, listen to this!
Menander wrote an Andria en a Perinthia.
If you've seen one, you've seen them both—
They're not at all dissimilar in plot in fact,
They differ only in words and style.
What fits into Andria van Perinthia
Our poet admits he "translated" for his own purposes.
And this is what some people call a crime, and furthermore
Add it isn't right to "contaminate" a play. Maar
They show by this thinking they aren't thinking.
When they accuse him, they accuse Naevius, Plautus,
Ennius, too, whom our poet considers his guardians
And whose "carelessness" he'd rather imitate
Than those people's murky punctiliousness.
And so I warn them to quiet down and stop
Their slander, or they'll taste their own medicine!
So, you, be good, judge fairly and listen to the case,
So you can see whether there's any hope left
That the comedies he will re-master after this
You ought to sit and watch, or drive off stage before ever seeing them.

This prologue reveals that Terence felt for some reason compelled to justify the freedoms he had taken in rendering into Latin Menander's original, also entitled Andria. Though the young playwright leaves his accuser unnamed—for rhetorical purposes, it is often wise not to name your detractor but call him something like "that man"—Donatus tells us that it was Luscius Lanuvinus, a second-rate comic dramatist. In some public way, this "malevolent decrepit poet" had taken exception to Terence's practice of combining two Greek plays and making one Roman one. The reason this constitutes malfeasance is not clear—the plays were, after all, written by the same author which begs the question: what sort of criminal abuse is it to mix Menander with himself?—but then we must remember that we are hearing only Terence's side of the case.

To judge from the plaintiff's language, Luscius Lanuvinus has contemptuously referred to this process as contaminatio ("pollution," literally "a touching together"), a charge that has sparked Terence's defensive response. But why does Lanuvinus decry contaminatio? Did the Romans generally recognize, as some scholars have suggested, that there were a limited number of originals on which to base Roman plays? Did this lead to a rule of some sort about not using more than one Greek play in constructing a Roman copy?

If so, there is little other evidence to this effect, or that Lanuvinus' charges stuck. Terence went on producing plays and, so far as we can tell, "contaminated" everyone of them. Perhaps, then, it was just a matter of good taste, an area of life in which the young rarely listen to their elders.

Nevertheless, the charge of contaminatio did not go away quickly. Terence had to address this issue again in later prologues, such as that appended to Adelphoe ("The Brothers"), the last play he wrote and, without doubt, his consummate masterwork:

After our poet discerned his efforts
Were being criticized by bigots, and rivals
Were carping at the play we're about to perform,
. . . <a line or two is missing here> . . .
As witness for himself he will appear. You will be the judges,
Whether this ought to called a fair play, or foul.
They Died As One is a comedy by Diphilus.
Plautus turned it into Till Death Us Part! (note)
In the Greek play there's a youth who steals a pimp's
Girl in the first scene—this, Plautus omitted entirely—
And this, our poet has now borrowed for himself
In sy Adelphoe, translated word for word and now relayed to you.
It's the play we're going to play, all brand new! Consider, then,
If you think this is burglary, or a scene that's been
Rescued, one that was just overlooked accidently.
And as to what those malefactors say, that well-born men
Assist our poet and write with him continually,
He accepts the compliment—and no small compliment it is!—since he pleases
Those who please everyone of you and the Roman people,
For every man in his time has enjoyed a bit of their favor
In war, in peace, in prosperity, without incurring envy.
So, don't expect to hear the plot of the play here.
The old men who come on first will reveal it, some of it,
The action will unveil the rest. So, see to it now that
Your fairness enhances the writer's will to write.

Terence's final play production—that is, the last to have been staged during his lifetime as far as we know—was not Adelphoe, however, but a revival of an earlier flop, Hecyra ("The Mother-in-law"). No fewer than two previous attempts to stage this play had, in fact, failed before the production to which the prologue below was added. The reason for this drama's earlier failures, as explained below, was that noisy and bored spectators had disrupted the theatre so badly the actors could not continue performing—it is a very "talky" play!—so Terence and his producer, the famous actor Lucius Ambivius Turpio, tried a third time to stage the drama. Note that Turpio himself served as the speaker of the prologue, though presumably Terence wrote the words:

As advocate I come before you, in the guise of a prologue.
Allow me to convince you that an old man may have
The same right I once had as a younger man.
In those days I gave old age to new plays, ones driven from the boards,
Making sure the drama did not disappear with the poet.
I produced new plays by Caecilius Statius—
In some of them was booed, in others stood my ground—
For I knew that fortune in the theatre is especially fickle,
So I held on uncertainly to a certain task:
I began to repeat the same plays and help this same man produce
New plays. I worked hard so he wouldn't be discouraged.
I made sure they were seen, and when they were well-known,
They became a success. Thus, I gave this poet back his place
Almost cut off because of his enemies' libel
From his genius, his work and his own theatrical talents.
But if I had scorned his writings at that time
And had chosen to spend my energy disparaging him
So he'd end up with more time for playing than play-making,
I could have dissuaded him easily. He'd have written no more.
Now, as to what I seek, listen and for my sake be fair!
I bring before you Hecyra, again! I have never gotten through
This play in peace. Some misfortune looms over it.
And that misfortune your perspicacity
Will finally put to rest, if you agree to, of course.
When I first tried to put this play on, news of a boxing match,
A gathering of friends, some shouting, women's voices
Made me exit from the stage before my cue.
I decided to try my old habits on a new play,
Make another go of it. I put it on again.
Act One goes well. But in the meantime a rumor circulates
That gladiators will be fighting. A mob flocks in.
There's pushing and shoving, screaming and fights over seats.
In the meantime I could hardly keep my place.
But today there is no mob, only peace and quiet.
The time for me to act has finally come, for you to take
The opportunity to dignify this dramatic festival with us.
Don't let your name be used to give a chance for stardom
To only a few. See that your influence
Fosters and furthers my own influence.
Allow me to beg of you: this man who has entrusted
His genius to my tutelage, his person to your good faith,
Let him not be sieged by detractors who demean him derisively.
For my sake, hear his case and lend him silence,
So others may write and I can bring to the stage
New plays henceforth, what I've paid good money for.

From these prologues it is clear that in Terence's mind the foremost issues concerning Roman drama circulate around the production of the play and the nature of adapting Greek drama into Latin. Also evident here is the hierarchy of Roman theatre, where a dominus like Turpio truly dominates and playwrights-in-need like Terence and Caecilius must enlist his aid in a crisis.

But from our remove, what looms larger is the issue of the Romans' cultural appropriation of Greek drama, and there one thing stands out: Menander in the long run won the battle among Greek comic playwrights and finally emerged "the star of New Comedy." To wit, four of Terence's comedies (Andria, Heautontimoroumenos, Eunuchus, Adelphoe) are adaptations of Menander's work, and the remaining two (Hecyra, Phormio) come from Greek originals written by a later Menandrean imitator, Apollodorus of Carystus.

As the dust kicked up by Alexander and his cronies slowly settled, one thing at least began clear: Philemon, Diphilus and Menander's other rivals and predecessors were left sitting off stage for the most part. That is, when all the politics and pomp of the Dionysia finally died away and Greek culture became the world's possession, that quiet type of comedy championed by the master of character depiction took home the award for best drama of all time, leaving his rowdier and, to be frank, often funnier compatriots off stage. Humor, or so it seems history is telling us, is in the long run not the point of comedy ironically, it's irony.

And indeed irony lies at the heart of Terence's drama. His focus, like Menander's, rests mainly on drawing realistic and gently humorous—often hardly comical at all—portraits of stereotypical characters deployed in flexible and deceptively simple-sounding language. Throughout his scant six comedies are found many excellent examples of the subtle personality types Terence favored, "subtle" meaning "Menandrean." Indeed, there is reason to suppose they are actually Menander's own creations, copied faithfully out of the Greek.

Among the more memorable is the lovesick braggart soldier Thraso ("Bold") of The Eunuch, a man hopelessly smitten with affection for the beautiful prostitute Thais. Though he tries to stick up for himself, and at one point even attacks her house with an army—granted, a corps of cooks, the only force he could serve up in short order!—at the conclusion of the play Thraso capitulates to her completely and, just to be in her ravishing presence, agrees to pay handsomely for the privilege of watching her lie in the arms of his rival. A soldier maybe, a braggart definitely, but mostly just a man, this bold loser is, in fact, a sad weakling far more controlled than controlling. Though there is an actual eunuch in the play—and, of course, a false one since this is a comedy—the werklike eunuch in Terence's Eunuch is the pitiful warrior Thraso, the quintessential symbol of a capon's bravado.

An even more pitiful creation is the kind and indulgent father Micio of Terence's Adelphoe ("The Brothers"). Actually the uncle of his stepson Aeschinus, Micio has served as the boy's "father" for nearly all his young nephew's life. Micio and his brother Demea, Aeschinus' genetic father, have had a running battle for many years about the right way to bring up children, with leniency or strictness. Gentle Micio, the champion of tender love, has taken many blows to the ego—and the wallet!—because of Aeschinus' outrageous behavior ever since the boy embarked upon puberty, but his adoptive father's abiding love has always found a way to bring them back together.

In the course of the play, however, Aeschinus challenges his stepfather's patience to the very limit of endurance—he roughs up a pimp, steals a prostitute, and fathers a child by the poor girl next-door—yet in the end Micio, as always, capitulates and repairs the damage incurred through his beloved child's indiscretions. Finally, at the conclusion of the play, this fool for the love of his son has served up not only patience and money but his house and home and, though he balks at first when Aeschinus pleads with him to marry, is persuaded to give up even his prized bachelorhood, too. The thought underlying this play—what indeed runs beneath all of Terence's drama—seems to be that the love of whatever and in whatever form is, at the same time, the finest attribute of humanity and also what makes utter idiots of us all. It is hard to imagine a more Menandrean sentiment.


IV. Conclusion: What's So Roman about Roman Comedy?

In fact, there is little in Terence that does not scream Menander. But if there is anything substantively new in the Roman playwright's work—besides the forensic prologue which is really more innovative for what it omits (exposition of the plot) than what it includes—it is dramatic suspense. By not revealing the general parameters of the story to follow, Terence creates tension among his viewers who are now on an intellectual par with the characters. This is contrary to every Menander play known, indeed all of Greek drama since the Classical Age, and sets Terence's art in a new mode characteristic of virtually all stage works written after antiquity. In this essential respect, modern theatre begins with him.

To understand how and why Terence did this requires that one look back at Menander and the reasons his plays always reveal the outcome of the plot to the audience. While giving away the end at the very outset of a play may seem to us today like spoiling the story because we are acculturated to anticipate surprises and unforeseen plot twists, to the ancient Greeks the converse was true. Suckled as Menander's audience was on classical tragedy where the outcome of a dramatic plot is almost always a foregone conclusion—in Euripides, admittedly, it is sometimes the enigste foregone conclusion—the Hellenistic crowd had come to expect to know right from the outset how a play would turn out. That made watching a tragedy more like being a god than a human, an Olympian sitting above the turmoil of mortal life or a scientist observing an experimental animal pinned and squirming in the laboratory dish below. All in all, Greek tragedy is clearly designed to make the viewer feel superior to the hero on stage, in the same way that the majority of the audience loomed over the stage action physically.

Given an audience inured to being seated well above the characters on stage, post-classical comic poets in Greece had little choice but to dispose their drama from this same vantage point. So in telling his viewers the end of the story, often through a philosophical abstraction such as Luck or Ignorance—gods that looked to post-classical Greece more divine, or at least more immediate, than Homer's all-powerful humanoids—Menander put those watching his plays in the flattering position of feeling like divinities gazing down upon the tragi-comedy of human life unfolding below. It's important to remember, also, that Menander's audience in Hellenistic Athens may well have needed this sort of boost to the ego. The world outside their theatre was doing a very poor job of making them feel divine.

But unlike Menander, Terence had no such history or pressure weighing down on him and his society. The Romans were booming in his day and therefore needed a pat on the back far less than their Hellenic counterparts. If the theatre in Rome did not make the viewers feel divine, so what? His strong and confident audience could take it—even tolerate being fooled by a plot twist or two—without feeling their intelligence slighted. It was only a play, after all, just some Greek riddle not worth too much time or mental exertion, certainly nothing to hang your ego on.

It was part and parcel of the Romans' general attitude toward drama, that theatre was not a refuge from anything but a day's work. To seek complexity in the arts at all was, to many of them, wasted effort where amusement and diversion should rule. Thus, no complex "three-actor rule" for the Romans, no stereotypical characters whose behavior is subtly predictable, no long, philosophical heart-to-hearts between fathers and sons—the Roman stage was a place for boisterous joy, for singing loud and long that life is good. And so it was!

And so irony reigns again, but in this case the irony that the Romans' "Aristophanic" zest is what sets their drama apart from the Greeks'. Whether or not the idea originated with them, it is now the heritage of Rome that plays ought at heart be just plain fun: no serious contemplation of life, no subtle analysis of character, no big political message, just a day at a festival—even if it's a funeral! And if amidst all the jokes and physical humor Terence or Plautus happened to inject some serious art and education into their drama, it seems unlikely any Romans minded, as long as the players primarily played. After all, in Latin ludus means both "play" and "a play."

Terms, Places, People and Things to Know
Caecilius Statius
Terence
Adelphoe
Sermo Purus
Hrotswitha (Hrotsvit)
Manuscripts
Aelius Donatus
Prologues
Andria
Luscius Lanuvinus
Contaminatio
Hecyra
Apollodorus of Carystus
Thraso
Micio
Dramatic Suspense

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