Geskiedenis Podcasts

Grand Canyon word 'n nasionale monument

Grand Canyon word 'n nasionale monument


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Op 11 Januarie 1908 verklaar die Amerikaanse president Theodore Roosevelt die massiewe Grand Canyon in die noordweste van Arizona as 'n nasionale monument.

Hoewel inheemse Amerikaners reeds in die 13de eeu in die gebied gewoon het, was die eerste Europese waarneming van die canyon eers in 1540 deur lede van 'n ekspedisie onder leiding van die Spaanse ontdekkingsreisiger Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. Vanweë die afgeleë en ontoeganklike ligging daarvan, het etlike eeue verloop voordat Noord -Amerikaanse setlaars die canyon regtig verken het. In 1869 het die geoloog John Wesley Powell 'n groep van 10 mans gelei tydens die eerste moeilike reis langs die stroomversnelling van die Colorado-rivier en langs die kloof van 277 myl in vier roeibote.

Teen die einde van die 19de eeu lok die Grand Canyon jaarliks ​​duisende toeriste. 'N Bekende besoeker was president Theodore Roosevelt, 'n New Yorker met 'n besondere liefde vir die Amerikaanse Weste. Nadat Roosevelt die National Wildlife Refuge gestig het om die diere, visse en voëls van die land te beskerm, het hy sy aandag gevestig op federale regulering van openbare lande. Alhoewel 'n streek 'n status van 'n nasionale park kan kry - wat aandui dat alle private ontwikkeling op die grond onwettig was - slegs deur 'n kongresdaad, het Roosevelt die rompslomp verminder deur 'n nuwe presidensiële praktyk te begin om 'n soortgelyke 'nasionale monument' aan te gee sommige van die Weste se grootste skatte.

LEES MEER: 7 Min bekende erfenisse van Teddy Roosevelt

In Januarie 1908 het Roosevelt hierdie reg uitgeoefen om meer as 800 000 hektaar van die Grand Canyon -gebied tot 'n nasionale monument te maak. 'Laat hierdie wonderlike natuurwonder bly soos dit nou is,' verklaar hy. 'U kan dit nie verbeter nie. Maar wat u kan doen, is om dit vir u kinders, u kinders se kinders en almal wat u volg, te bewaar as die wonderlike gesig wat elke Amerikaner moet sien. ”

Die kongres het die private ontwikkeling in die Grand Canyon eers amptelik verbied tot in 1919, toe president Woodrow Wilson die Grand Canyon National Park Act onderteken het. Vandag besoek meer as 5 miljoen mense elke jaar die canyon. Die canyonvloer is te voet, muil of boot bereikbaar, en rafting, stap en hardloop in die omgewing is veral gewild. Baie kies om hul energie te bespaar en geniet eenvoudig die asemrowende uitsig vanaf die suidrand van die canyon - ongeveer 7000 voet bo seespieël - en verwonder hulle oor 'n uitsig wat feitlik onveranderd is vir meer as 400 jaar.

LEES MEER: Hoe oud is die Grand Canyon?


Geskiedenis en kultuur

Alhoewel die Grand Canyon wêreldwyd bekend is vir sy groot uitsigte, pragtige kleure en ongelooflike geologie, is dit veel meer as net 'n groot gat in die grond! Mense woon al duisende jare in en verken Grand Canyon en verbind menslike verbindings met hierdie ongelooflike landskap.

As deel van die missie van die National Park Service, beskerm en bewaar die Grand Canyon National Park ook al die menslike geskiedenis en kultuur wat in die park voorkom. Van argeologiese terreine wat ou inheemse Amerikaanse strukture en artefakte bewaar, tot verhale oor verkenning en die vestiging van hierdie streek deur Europese Amerikaanse ontdekkingsreisigers, mynwerkers en pioniers, tot meer onlangse verhale oor die bewaring en beskerming van Grand Canyon as 'n nasionale park.

Hierdie ongelooflike plek vertel ontelbare verhale deur die vele mense wat in die verlede hier gestap het.

Interpretatiewe temas

Interpretatiewe temas is die belangrikste verhale of konsepte wat besoekers moet verstaan ​​nadat hulle die Grand Canyon besoek het.

Mense

Baie mense het die ontwikkeling en beskerming van die Grand Canyon deur die canyon gehuisves of die tuiste genoem.

Plekke

Baie plekke in Grand Canyon het behoue ​​gebly omdat dit die verhale van die verlede en hede van Grand Canyon vertel.

Versamelings

Museumversameling bevat meer as 900 000 voorwerpe wat help om die unieke kulturele en natuurlike geskiedenis van Grand Canyon te vertel.

Bewaring

Grand Canyon National Park werk om die menslike geskiedenis van die streek te bewaar, te beskerm en te interpreteer.

Die & quotNature, Culture and History at Grand Canyon & quot -webwerf is die park se belangrikste bron van historiese en kulturele inligting; klik op die foto hierbo om die webwerf te besoek.

Inhoud

Die Grand Canyon het in die 1880's aan Amerikaners bekend geword nadat spoorweë gebou is en baanbrekers infrastruktuur en vroeë toerisme ontwikkel het. [7] In 1903 besoek president Theodore Roosevelt die perseel en sê:

"Die Grand Canyon vervul my met ontsag. Dit kan nie vergelyk word nie-sonder omskrywing absoluut ongeëwenaard deur die wye wêreld. Laat hierdie wonder van die natuur bly soos dit nou is. Moenie iets doen om sy grootsheid, verheweheid en lieflikheid te bederf nie. Jy kan nie Verbeter dit. Maar wat u kan doen, is om dit vir u kinders, u kinders se kinders en almal wat u volg, te bewaar, as die enigste wonderlike gesig wat elke Amerikaner moet sien. " [8]

Ondanks Roosevelt se entoesiasme en groot belangstelling in die behoud van grond vir openbare gebruik, is die Grand Canyon nie onmiddellik as 'n nasionale park aangewys nie. Die eerste wetsontwerp om die Grand Canyon National Park te vestig, is in 1882 deur die destydse senator Benjamin Harrison ingedien, wat Grand Canyon as Yellowstone en Mackinac as die derde nasionale park in die Verenigde State sou gevestig het. Harrison het sy wetsontwerp sonder sukses weer in 1883 en 1886 na sy verkiesing tot die presidentskap weer ingestel, hy het die Grand Canyon Forest Reserve in 1893 gestig. Theodore Roosevelt het die Grand Canyon Game Preserve opgestel deur proklamasie op 28 November 1906, [9] en die Grand Canyon National Monument op 11 Januarie 1908. [10] Verdere wetsontwerpe van die Senaat om die terrein as 'n nasionale park te vestig, is in 1910 en 1911 ingestel en verslaan, voordat die Grand Canyon National Park Act uiteindelik op 26 Februarie 1919 deur president Woodrow Wilson onderteken is. [ 11] Die National Park Service, wat in 1916 gestig is, het die administrasie van die park aanvaar.

Die oprigting van die park was 'n vroeë sukses van die bewaringsbeweging. Die status van die nasionale park het moontlik gehelp om voorstelle om die Colorado -rivier binne sy grense te stuit, te stuit. (Later sou die Glen Canyon -dam teen die rivier gebou word.) 'N Tweede Grand Canyon National Monument in die weste word in 1932 uitgeroep. Rivier noordoos van die Grand Canyon na Lees Ferry, is deel van die Grand Canyon National Park gemaak. In 1979 het UNESCO die park tot 'n wêrelderfenisgebied verklaar. Die 1987 National National Parks Overflights Act [13] het bevind dat "geraas wat met vliegtuigoorvloei in die Grand Canyon National Park gepaard gaan, 'n beduidende nadelige uitwerking op die natuurlike stilte en ervaring van die park en die huidige vliegtuigbedrywighede in die Grand Canyon National Park kan hê. het ernstige kommer uitgespreek oor openbare veiligheid, insluitend kommer oor die veiligheid van parkgebruikers. " In 2010 is die Grand Canyon National Park met sy eie munt vereer onder die America the Beautiful Quarters -program. [14] Op 26 Februarie 2019 herdenk die Grand Canyon National Park 100 jaar sedert die aanwysing daarvan as 'n nasionale park. [15]

Die Grand Canyon, insluitend sy uitgebreide stelsel van sytakke, word gewaardeer vir sy kombinasie van grootte, diepte en blootgestelde lae kleurvolle gesteentes wat dateer uit die Prekambrium. Die canyon self is geskep deur die insnyding van die Colorado -rivier en sy sytakke nadat die Colorado -plato opgehef is, wat veroorsaak het dat die Colorado -rivierstelsel op sy huidige pad ontwikkel het.

Die primêre openbare gebiede van die park is die Suid- en Noordrand, en aangrensende gebiede van die canyon self. Die res van die park is uiters robuus en afgeleë, alhoewel baie plekke toeganklik is met pakpaaie en paaie in die platteland. Die South Rim is meer toeganklik as die North Rim en is verantwoordelik vir 90% van die besoek aan die park. [16]

Die hoofkwartier van die park is in Grand Canyon Village, nie ver van die suidelike ingang van die park nie, naby een van die gewildste uitkykpunte.

South Rim Edit

Die meeste besoekers aan die park kom na die South Rim en kom op Arizona State Route 64. Die snelweg kom die park binne deur die suidelike ingang, naby Tusayan, Arizona, en gaan ooswaarts en verlaat die park deur die East Entrance. [17] Interstate 40 bied toegang tot die gebied vanuit die suide. Vanuit die noorde verbind die Amerikaanse roete 89 Utah, Colorado en die noordelike rand met die suidelike rand. [18] Oor die algemeen is ongeveer 30 myl van die Suidrand langs die pad bereikbaar. [19] [ aanhaling nodig ]

North Rim Edit

Die North Rim -gebied van die park is geleë op die Kaibab -plato en Walhalla -plato, oorkant die Grand Canyon van die belangrikste besoekersgebiede aan die Suidrand. Die belangrikste besoekersgebiede van die Noordrand is rondom Bright Angel Point gesentreer. Die noordelike rand is hoër as die suidelike rand, met 'n hoogte van meer as 2400 m. Omdat dit soveel hoër is as die South Rim, is dit elke jaar gesluit van 1 Desember tot 15 Mei weens die groter sneeuval op hoogte. Besoekersdienste is na 15 Oktober gesluit of beperk. Die tydsduur van die Suidrand na die Noordrand is ongeveer 4,5 uur, meer as 350 kilometer. [16]

Dienste Redigeer

Grand Canyon Village is die belangrikste besoekersdienste in die park. Dit is 'n volledige diensgemeenskap, insluitend verblyf, brandstof, kos, aandenkings, 'n hospitaal, kerke en toegang tot roetes en begeleide wandelinge en praatjies. [20]

Akkommodasie Redigeer

Verskeie verblyfgeriewe is beskikbaar langs die Suidrand. Hotelle en ander verblyf sluit in El Tovar, Bright Angel Lodge, Kachina Lodge, Thunderbird Lodge en Maswik Lodge, wat almal in die dorpsgebied geleë is, en Phantom Ranch, wat op die canyonvloer geleë is. Daar is ook 'n RV -park met die naam Trailer Village. Al hierdie fasiliteite word bestuur deur Xanterra Parks & amp Resorts, terwyl die Yavapai Lodge (ook in die dorpsgebied) deur Delaware North bestuur word. [21]

Aan die noordelike rand is die historiese Grand Canyon Lodge [21] wat deur Forever Resorts bestuur word en 'n kampeerplek naby die lodge, bestuur deur die personeel van die nasionale park. [22]

Volgens die Köppen-klimaatklassifikasiestelsel het die Grand Canyon National Park vyf klimaatstreke Cold Semi-Arid (BSk), Vogtige kontinentale droë koel somer (Dsb), Vogtige kontinentale droë warm somer (Dsa), Warm somer Middellandse See (Csb) en warm somermediterrane (Csa). Die planthardheidsone by die Grand Canyon -besoekersentrum is 7a met 'n gemiddelde jaarlikse uiterste minimum temperatuur van 3,3 ° F (−15,9 ° C). [23]

Klimaatdata vir Grand Canyon NP 2, Arizona, norme van 1991-2020, uiterstes 1976-2012
Maand Jan Feb Mrt Apr Mei Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Des Jaar
Rekord hoë ° F (° C) 64
(18)
69
(21)
77
(25)
82
(28)
92
(33)
101
(38)
97
(36)
97
(36)
93
(34)
89
(32)
74
(23)
65
(18)
101
(38)
Gemiddelde hoë ° F (° C) 44.3
(6.8)
46.3
(7.9)
53.6
(12.0)
60.9
(16.1)
69.9
(21.1)
82.0
(27.8)
84.9
(29.4)
82.1
(27.8)
75.8
(24.3)
64.6
(18.1)
53.2
(11.8)
43.0
(6.1)
63.4
(17.4)
Daaglikse gemiddelde ° F (° C) 31.7
(−0.2)
33.7
(0.9)
39.3
(4.1)
44.9
(7.2)
52.8
(11.6)
62.5
(16.9)
67.7
(19.8)
65.9
(18.8)
59.8
(15.4)
49.0
(9.4)
39.0
(3.9)
30.6
(−0.8)
48.1
(8.9)
Gemiddelde lae ° F (° C) 19.2
(−7.1)
21.1
(−6.1)
25.0
(−3.9)
28.8
(−1.8)
35.6
(2.0)
43.0
(6.1)
50.4
(10.2)
49.8
(9.9)
43.7
(6.5)
33.3
(0.7)
24.7
(−4.1)
18.2
(−7.7)
32.7
(0.4)
Rekord lae ° F (° C) −17
(−27)
−20
(−29)
−1
(−18)
8
(−13)
17
(−8)
25
(−4)
35
(2)
35
(2)
24
(−4)
8
(−13)
−6
(−21)
−20
(−29)
−20
(−29)
Gemiddelde neerslag duim (mm) 1.76
(45)
1.23
(31)
1.85
(47)
0.64
(16)
0.40
(10)
0.22
(5.6)
2.33
(59)
2.19
(56)
1.50
(38)
1.23
(31)
0.77
(20)
1.25
(32)
15.37
(390)
Gemiddelde sneeuval duim (cm) 12.9
(33)
7.8
(20)
8.1
(21)
2.8
(7.1)
0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.1
(2.8)
2.2
(5.6)
8.0
(20)
43.0
(109)
Gemiddelde neerslagdae (≥ 0,01 in) 6.4 6.1 5.9 3.5 2.6 1.7 7.0 10.1 5.7 5.1 4.0 6.0 64.1
Gemiddelde sneeu dae (≥ 0,1 in) 4.0 3.3 2.9 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.3 3.5 17.0
Bron: NOAA [24] [25]

North Rim Edit

Daar is min paaie aan die noordelike rand, maar daar is opmerklike uitkykpunte vir voertuie, waaronder Point Imperial, Roosevelt Point en Cape Royal. Muilritte is ook op verskillende plekke beskikbaar, insluitend 'n paar duisend voet in die canyon.

Baie besoekers aan die North Rim kies om van die verskillende staproetes gebruik te maak, waaronder die Widforss -roete, oom Jim's -roete, die Transept -roete en die Noord -Kaibab -roete. Die Noord -Kaibab -roete kan tot by die Colorado -rivier gevolg word, wat oor die rivier aansluit met die South Kaibab -roete en die Bright Angel -roete, wat tot by die suidrand van die Grand Canyon loop.

Die Toroweap Overlook is in die westelike deel van die park aan die noordelike rand geleë. Toegang is via onverharde paaie langs Roete 389 wes van Fredonia, Arizona. Die paaie loop deur die Grand Canyon - Parashant National Monument en kyk uit.

South Rim Edit

'N Verskeidenheid doendinge by die South Rim maak voorsiening vir besoekers aan die park. 'N Rittoer (56 myl) langs die South Rim word in twee dele verdeel. Die westelike rit na Hermit's Point is 13 km met verskeie uitsigte langs die pad, insluitend Mohave Point, Hopi Point en die Powell Memorial. [20] Van Maart tot Desember is toegang tot Hermit's Rest beperk tot die gratis pendeldiens wat die Park Service bied. Die oostelike deel van Desert View is 40 km en is die hele jaar deur oop vir privaat voertuie.

Staptoere sluit in die Rim -roete, wat weswaarts loop van die uitkykpunt van die Pipe Creek vir ongeveer 13 km verharde pad, gevolg deur 11 km onverhard na Hermit's Rest. Staptogte kan byna oral op hierdie roete begin, en 'n pendelbus kan stappers na hul oorsprong terugbring. Mather Point, die eerste uitsig wat die meeste mense bereik as hulle vanaf die suidelike ingang kom, is 'n gewilde plek om te begin.

Privaat canyon flyovers word verskaf deur helikopters en klein vliegtuie uit Las Vegas, Phoenix en Grand Canyon National Park Airport. As gevolg van 'n ongeluk in die negentigerjare, mag skilderagtige vlugte nie meer binne 460 m van die rand in die Grand Canyon National Park vlieg nie. [26] Vlugte binne die canyon is steeds beskikbaar buite die parkgrense. [27]

Die Amerikaanse regering het die ontwikkeling van 'n oppervlakte van 1,6 miljoen hektaar, insluitend die nasionale park, van 1966 tot 2009 gestaak, bekend as die Bennett Freeze, as gevolg van 'n eienaarsgeskil tussen Hopi en Navajo. [28]

Die Grand Canyon Association (GCA) is die amptelike nie -winsgewende vennoot van die National Park Service. Dit samel privaat fondse in om die Grand Canyon National Park te bevoordeel deur kleinhandelwinkels en besoekersentrums in die park te bedryf, en bied opvoedkundige geleenthede oor die natuurlike en kulturele geskiedenis van die streek.


26 Februarie 1919: Die Grand Canyon word 'n nasionale park

Die Grand Canyon vier Dinsdag 'n belangrike mylpaal: 100 jaar as 'n nasionale park.

Die Grand Canyon vul my met ontsag. Dit kan nie vergelyk word nie - bo beskrywing absoluut ongeëwenaard in die wye wêreld. ” - Theodore Roosevelt

100 jaar gelede, op 26 Februarie 1919, is @GrandCanyonNPS aangewys as 'n nasionale park. #FindYourPark #GrandCanyon100 pic.twitter.com/IJ945LKAcc

& mdash NationalParkService (@NatlParkService) 26 Februarie 2019

By 'n besoek aan die canyon in 1903 het Roosevelt hom verbaas oor die grootsheid en beklemtoon dat dit nodig is om dit te bewaar.

"Die Grand Canyon vervul my met ontsag. Dit kan nie vergelyk word nie, en dit is absoluut ongeëwenaard in die wye wêreld," het hy gesê. "Laat hierdie wonder van die natuur bly soos dit nou is. Doen niks om die grootsheid, verheweheid en lieflikheid daarvan te bederf nie."


26 Februarie 1919: Die Grand Canyon word 'n nasionale park

Die Grand Canyon vier Dinsdag 'n belangrike mylpaal: 100 jaar as 'n nasionale park.

Die Grand Canyon vul my met ontsag. Dit kan nie vergelyk word nie - bo beskrywing absoluut ongeëwenaard in die wye wêreld. ” - Theodore Roosevelt

100 jaar gelede, op 26 Februarie 1919, is @GrandCanyonNPS aangewys as 'n nasionale park. #FindYourPark #GrandCanyon100 pic.twitter.com/IJ945LKAcc

& mdash NationalParkService (@NatlParkService) 26 Februarie 2019

By 'n besoek aan die canyon in 1903 het Roosevelt hom verbaas oor die grootsheid en beklemtoon die noodsaaklikheid om dit te bewaar.

"Die Grand Canyon vervul my met ontsag. Dit kan nie vergelyk word nie, en dit is absoluut ongeëwenaard in die wye wêreld," het hy gesê. "Laat hierdie wonder van die natuur bly soos dit nou is. Doen niks om die grootsheid, verheweheid en lieflikheid daarvan te bederf nie."


Inheemse geskiedenis: Roosevelt verklaar Grand Canyon tot 'n nasionale monument

Hierdie datum in inheemse geskiedenis: Op 11 Januarie 1908 het president Theodore Roosevelt die Grand Canyon tot 'n nasionale monument verklaar en onder federale beskerming die canyon van 10 myl breed, 277 myl lank en een myl diep geplaas wat vir duisende jare deur die inheemse volke heilig gehou is.

Roosevelt, bekend as die ȁ Conservationist president, ” het in die Weste aangekom in 'n tyd toe nywerheid en ondernemings die natuurskoon vernietig, het Janet Balsom, adjunkhoof van wetenskap en hulpbronbestuur by Grand Canyon National Park, gesê. Bewaring het vinnig een van die bekommernisse van Roosevelt geword, en tydens sy presidentskap het hy vier nasionale wildreservate, vyf nasionale parke en 150 nasionale woude gevestig in dade wat ongeveer 230 miljoen hektaar openbare grond beskerm het.

President Theodore Roosevelt

Alhoewel hy nie daarin kon slaag om die Grand Canyon 'n nasionale park te maak nie, het Roosevelt die American Antiquities Act van 1906 gebruik om die canyon en 17 ander plekke as nasionale monument te verklaar.

As u dink oor dinge soos Westward Expansion en die verkenning van die vasteland, was dit regtig die Indiese lande wat ontdek is, het Balsom gesê. Die spoorlyn het in 1901 na die Grand Canyon gekom en daar was verskeie pogings om dit as beskermde grond opsy te sit, omdat dit alreeds deur ondernemings en hotelle, kersdorpe, oor die weg geruim is. ”

Roosevelt erken in 1903 die Grand Canyon as iets wat beskerming teen houtkap, mynbou en ander skadelike ondernemings nodig het. In 'n verklaring wat hy gemaak het tydens 'n besoek aan die canyon daardie jaar, het Roosevelt 'n beroep op Amerikaners gedoen om die unieke kloof wat tydens ses miljoen jaar van erosie ontstaan ​​het, te help bewaar.

“ Laat hierdie wonder van die natuur bly soos dit nou is, ” het hy gesê. “Maak niks om sy grootsheid, verheweheid en liefde te benadeel nie. U kan dit nie verbeter nie. Maar wat u kan doen, is om dit te bewaar vir u kinders, u kinders en almal wat u volg, as die wonderlike gesig wat elke Amerikaner moet sien. ”

Deur dit 'n nasionale monument te verklaar, het Roosevelt die eerste stappe gedoen om die canyon uit die openbare arena te verwyder en dit teen ontwikkeling te beskerm, het Balsom gesê. Hy het ook die weg gebaan om 'n nasionale park te word in 1919, drie jaar na die oprigting van die National Park Service, en vir die federale regering om te help met die beskerming van stamgebiede in en langs die park.

“ Bruidsluier val Havasupai ry 20 ” op 'n 𠇏.H. Maude, Los Angeles ” etiket. � ” is op 'n ronde plakker in die linker linkerhoek geskryf. Swart mat met swart vasgemaakte rande. (Historiese foto uit Grand Canyon National Park en#x2019s Museumversameling)

Die Grand Canyon is vir altyd beskerm, so die stamgrond word op 'n manier beskerm, het Balsom gesê. Ons het 'n verantwoordelikheid om hierdie plek te bewaar, en stamme kyk op sommige maniere na ons om ons werk te verrig. Ons het 'n taak om die Grand Canyon vir ewig te beskerm. ”

Elf stamme, waaronder die Havasupai, het geografiese of kulturele aansprake op die canyon. Die stam Hopi, Hualapai, Navajo, Paiute en Zuni het kulturele aansprake op die nasionale park van 1,2 miljoen akker, terwyl die Havasupai-stam eintlik in die canyon-stelsel woon.

In 'n onderhoud van 2007 het Roland Manakaja, 'n inwoner van die Havasupai -dorpie Supai, onder in die Havasu Canyon, gepraat oor grootword sonder kennis van die buitewêreld. Hoewel deel van die Grand Canyon -stelsel, is Havasu Canyon buite die grens en jurisdiksie van die National Park Service.

In die 1950's en 202060's het inwoners van Supai selde besoekers gesien, het Manakaja gesê. As jeug was hy onbekend met buitestaanders of hul maniere. Selfs naburige stamme het geen idee gehad dat daar 'n stam in die canyon woon nie, het hy gesê.

Met verwysing na 'n Havasupai -profesie, het Manakaja gesê dat sy mense en die canyon bestem was om van die openbare oog af te bly. ”

Die profesie lui dat as die canyon openbaar gemaak sou word, die omgewing verswak, verwoes, besmet en besoedel sou word vir een wins, het Manakaja gesê. Wie ook al daardie persoon gehad het, het baie krag gehad. Dit is nie die manier waarop dit moet werk nie. Dit is veronderstel om op 'n manier te werk waar die wins na alle kinders, ouderlinge, ten opsigte van die verlede, die hede en die toekoms gaan. ”

Historiese foto uit Grand Canyon National Park en#x2019s Museumversameling

Chavasupai Indiese huisraamwerk. Raamwerk van hawe ” en het 'n ‘ Grand Canyon National Park ’ stempel op 'n “Maude & Bartoo, Los Angeles, Cal. ” etiket. � ” is op 'n ovaal plakker in die linker onderste hoek geskryf. Swart mat met swart vasgemaakte rande.

Ongeveer 5 miljoen mense besoek die Grand Canyon op 'n jaarlikse basis, met meer as 20,000 van hulle wat die laaste agt kilometer na die canyon waar die Havasupai woon, ry. Supai is slegs te voet, perd of helikopter toeganklik.

Die National Park Service poog om samewerkingsverhoudinge met alle stamme te handhaaf en Roosevelt se pleidooi te handhaaf dat mense nie die groot eensaamheid en skoonheid van die canyon kan nakom nie. ”

Alhoewel die parkdiens en die Havasupai -stam besoekersentrums, museums en ander dienste vir toeriste bedryf, word pogings aangewend om die heilige kulturele geskiedenis van die canyon te bewaar, het Balsom gesê. 'N Medalje op die vloer van die besoekersentrum bevat die name van alle stamme verbonde aan die Grand Canyon, het sy gesê.

Die stamme het gehelp om dit te ontwerp, en almal wat na die besoekersentrum kom, moet daaroor loop om die canyon te sien, en sy het gesê. Die medaljon verteenwoordig die kontinuïteit van ons verhouding met stamme en dit eer die feit dat Indiërs die hede en die toekoms van hierdie land is, nie net die verlede nie. ”


'N Nasionale park is 'n gebied wat deur 'n daad van die president of kongres vir bewaring en openbare gebruik opsy gesit is. Die belangrikste is dat dit gesluit is vir die nywerheid en private ontwikkeling. Die verhaal van die nasionale parke begin egter, net soos baie verhale in die ontwikkeling van die Wes -Verenigde State. Pioniers, prospekteerders en die spoorlyn was die dryfveer.

Die aankoop van grond deur die Amerikaanse regering in die vroeë 1800's het die grond oopgemaak. In hierdie wyd oop ruimtes is plekke ontdek, anders as op aarde. Stygende berge, diep canyons, aktiewe vulkane en buitengewone landskappe was die norm. Die ontdekking van goud in Kalifornië het in 1849 tot 'n massiewe westelike uitbreiding gelei en die wilde lande met pioniers en kansvatters oorstroom. Baie van diegene wat dit nie ryk gemaak het nie, besef die potensiaal om hierdie pragtige plekke te bewaar.

Politieke beweging en bewaring

In die 1870's het 'n politieke beweging, bekend as 'demokratiese liberalisme' die land oorstroom. Amerikaners was bekommerd oor die vermeende verwoesting van ongemerkte kapitalisme, en die kongres het geantwoord. Die kongres het die Forest Service Act uitgevaardig, een van die vele nuwe wette wat op sosiale hervorming aangeneem is. Die nuwe wet het die federale regering toegelaat om gebiede soos Yellowstone, Yosemite en Sequoia National Forest opsy te sit vir beskerming.

Yellowstone het in 1872 die eerste nasionale park geword, en die partytjie het pas begin. Deur die Forest Service Act te gebruik, is die Yellowstone National Park Act in Maart daardie jaar in werking getree en 'n generasie bewaring begin wat baie van ons bekendste nasionale parke geskep het.

Die eerste nasionale parke

Yellowstone was natuurlik die eerste nasionale park wat in 1872 geskep is. Baie ander parke het egter voor Grand Canyon gekom. Sequoia is in 1890 saam met Yosemite opsy gesit vir beskerming. Die Grand Canyon National Park is in 1919 geskep, maar toe was Rocky Mountain, Crater Lake en Hawaii -vulkane reeds gevestig.

Die Wet op Oudhede

In 1906 het die Kongres die Wet op Oudhede geskep. Die wet het die president die mag gegee om nasionale monumente op te rig deur grond te gebruik wat reeds deur die federale regering besit is. Dit het die weg gebaan vir die oprigting van die National Park Service in 1916, en die NPS bestuur nou 61 nasionale parke en nog vele meer nasionale monumente.


VANDAG IN DIE GESKIEDENIS: Die Grand Canyon word 'n nasionale park (26 Februarie 1919)

Na aanleiding van die wetgewing van 1908 wat president Theodore Roosevelt onderteken het om die status van die Grand Canyon as 'n nasionale monument te gee, het die Amerikaanse kongres op 26 Februarie 1919 'n wet onderteken wat die Grand Canyon National Monument 'n nasionale park gemaak het.

Die Grand Canyon Nasionale Park huisves jaarliks ​​meer as 4 miljoen besoekers wat gedeeltes van die 1,2 miljoen hektaar verken. Vandag word die Grand Canyon National Park ook erken as 'n UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied. Die grootte van die nasionale park is groot en is gelyk aan die landmassa van die deelstaat Delaware. Die diepte en breedte daarvan is inspirerend en op 'n paar kilometer meer as 'n kwartmyl tot 18 myl breed op sekere plekke.

By Point Imperial strek die hoogte van die Grand Canyon op 'n hoogte van 9.000 voet, wat blootgestel word aan rotslae wat uitkyk twee miljard jare se geologiese geskiedenis. Die verskillende hoogtes bied 'n verskeidenheid temperature. Gedurende die somermaande is die Noordrand oor die algemeen 30 ° F koeler as op riviervlak. Alhoewel 'n handjievol besoekers na die rivier loop, ry die reis nog minder van rand tot rand.

Parkwagters en besoekers vind egter elke jaar beginner stappers in nood langs die canyonroetes. Soms is sterftes die gevolg van dehidrasie en ander staptoestande. Die beste manier om die besoeker van die Grand Canyon te beleef, is met 'n georganiseerde trek langs die rivier, 'n vliegtuigvlug oor die Canyon, amptelike programme, interpretatiewe gesprekke, museums en Junior Ranger -programme wat die National Park Service bied.


Hierdie dag in die geskiedenis: Die Grand Canyon word 'n nasionale monument

Op 11 Januarie 1908 het president Theodore Roosevelt die Grand Canyon tot 'n nasionale monument verklaar.

Jennifer Aniston onthou Rude Friends se gasster wat opgetree het & quotAbove & quot the Show

Al die jare later, staan ​​een man nog steeds op Jennifer Aniston as dit kom by slegte Friends -sterre. Hoekom? U hoef net aan te hou lees.

Video vind die oomblik vas toe 'n hoë woonstelgebou gedeeltelik in Surfside, Florida, ineengestort het

Beeldmateriaal wat op Twitter gedeel is deur Andy Slater, 'n Fox Sports 640 -radiogasheer, toon 'n gedeelte van die gebou wat verkrummel te midde van 'n pluim as en puin.

AdvertensieSit 'n sak op u motorspieël as u op reis is

Briljante motorreinigingshacks Plaaslike handelaars wens u het nie geweet nie

Michael Cohen onthul dat die familielid Trump op die punt is om 'onder die bus te gooi'

& quot; Familievuurwerke is op die punt om aan die brand gesteek te word vir ons kykvermaak, & quot, skryf die jarelange Trump -fixer.

Dit is 'n heel ander gesig ': Kylie Jenner -aanhangers reageer nadat virale TikTok ou foto's van die ster vergelyk het

"Sy is letterlik nie dieselfde persoon nie."

Ineengestorte Miami -woonstel het al in die 1990's in die aarde gesink, sê navorsers

Volgens 'n studie in 2020 het die gebou teen 'n onrusbarende tempo - ongeveer 2 millimeter per jaar - gesink.

6 Sielkundig skadelike dinge wat ouers vir hul kinders sê sonder om dit te besef

Vee hierdie algemene frases uit u ouerskapwoordeskat uit.

'N Amerikaanse lugmag Ghostrider-skutbemanning het toekennings ontvang vir die redding van 88 lewens met byna 2 uur se ononderbroke vuur

Die swaar gewapende vuurwapen het op die vyand geskiet en helikopters die pad geberg om gewonde troepe te red.

Pittsburgh Steelers stel die sesmalige Pro Bowl-aanvallige wag David DeCastro vry

David DeCastro is gekies vir die Pro Bowl in elk van sy laaste ses seisoene saam met die Steelers, wat voorheen deur 'n groot skommeling gegaan het.

Republikeinse kongreslid waarsku ' meer mense sal sterf weens valse bewerings van verkiesingsbedrog in 2020 na oproep om teregstellings op pro-Trump media

Rep. Peter Meijer, 'n Republikein uit Michigan, het 'n onlangse afdeling van One America News veroordeel, waar 'n gasheer 'n beroep op teregstelling en kwotraiteurs gedoen het. & Quot

Kyk hoe die 33-jarige nuweling Mickey Jannis 'n goddelose knokkelbal in slow motion gooi

Die Orioles -swerwer het in sy MLB -debuut sy & quotfilthy & quot knuckler gewys.

Heidi Klum kanaliseer haar modelleringsdae vir swembroeke in brutale, toplose bikini -foto's

Feit: Ma-vriendelike swemdrag beteken vir 'n voormalige supermodel iets anders as vir die res van ons. Ma van vier, Heidi Klum, het ons gewys hoe anders in 'n reeks sexy bikini -foto's op Instagram, alles geneem deur haar manlike rockster -man van twee jaar, Tom Kaulitz. Met 'n […]


Inhoud

Huidige argeologiese bewyse dui daarop dat mense die Grand Canyon-gebied tot 4000 jaar gelede [1] bewoon het en dat hulle minstens 6500 jaar lank voorby was. [2] Radiokoolstofdatering van artefakte wat in kalksteengrotte in die binnekant gevind is, dui op ouderdomme van 3 000 tot 4 000 jaar. [1] In die vyftigerjare is dierebeeldjies met gesnyde takkies gevind in die Redwall-kalksteenklippe van die binnekloof wat in hierdie reeks gedateer is. Hierdie dierlike beeldjies is 'n paar sentimeter (7 tot 8 cm) hoog en word hoofsaaklik gemaak van takkies wilg of katoenhout. [1] Hierdie en ander bewyse dui daarop dat hierdie innerlike canyonbewoners deel was van Desert Culture, 'n groep semi-nomadiese jagter-versamelaar inheemse Amerikaners. Die Ancestral Pueblo van die Basketmaker III Era (ook die Histatsinom genoem, wat beteken "mense wat lank gelede gelewe het") het ongeveer 500 vC uit die woestynkultuur ontwikkel. [1] Hierdie groep het die rand en die binnekant bewoon en het oorleef deur te jag en te versamel saam met 'n beperkte landbou. Hulle was bekend vir hul mandjievervaardigingsvaardighede (vandaar hul naam) en het in klein gemeenskaplike groepe in grotte en sirkelvormige modderstrukture genaamd pithouses gewoon. Verdere verfyning van landbou en tegnologie het gelei tot 'n meer sedentêre en stabiele leefstyl vir die Ancestral Pueblo vanaf ongeveer 500 nC. [1] 'n Ander groep, genaamd die Cohonina, was wes van die huidige terrein van die Grand Canyon Village en het 'n tydperk met die opbloei van die Ancestral Pueblo -kultuur. [1]

Ancestral Pueblo in die Grand Canyon-omgewing het klip, benewens modder en pale, begin gebruik om bo-grond huise iewers omstreeks 800 nC op te rig. [1] So is die Pueblo -tydperk van die Ancestral Pueblo -kultuur begin. In die somer migreer die Puebloans van die warm binnekloof na die koeler hoogvlaktes en keer die reis vir die winter om. [1] Groot graanskure en pueblos met meer kamers oorleef uit hierdie tydperk. Daar is ongeveer 2 000 bekende Ancestral Pueblo -argeologiese terreine in parkgrense. Die mees toeganklike webwerf is Tusayan Pueblo, wat iewers omstreeks 1185 gebou is en ongeveer 30 mense huisves. [3]

Groot getalle gedateerde argeologiese terreine dui aan dat die Ancestral Pueblo en die Cohonina tot ongeveer 1200 nC floreer het. [1] Maar honderd jaar later het iets gebeur wat albei hierdie kulture gedwing het om weg te beweeg. Verskeie bewyse het gelei tot 'n teorie dat klimaatsverandering 'n ernstige droogte in die streek van 1276 tot 1299 veroorsaak het, wat hierdie landbouafhanklike kulture genoop het. [4] Baie Ancestral Pueblo verhuis na die Rio Grande en die Little Colorado River -afvoer, waar hul afstammelinge, die Hopi en die 19 Pueblos van New Mexico, nou woon. [3]

Die canyon -gebied was ongeveer honderd jaar lank onbewoon deur mense. [1] Paiute uit die ooste en Cerbat uit die weste was die eerste mense wat nedersettings in en om die Grand Canyon herstel het. [1] Die Paiute vestig die plato's noord van die Colorado -rivier en die Cerbat het hul gemeenskappe suid van die rivier op die Coconino -plato gebou. The Navajo, or the Diné, arrived in the area later.

All three cultures were stable until the United States Army moved them to Indian reservations in 1882 as part of the removal efforts that ended the Indian Wars. [1] The Havasupai and Hualapai are descended from the Cerbat and still live in the immediate area. The village of Supai in the western part of the current park has been occupied for centuries. Adjacent to the eastern part of the park is the Navajo Nation, the largest reservation in the United States.

Spanish Edit

The first Europeans reached the Grand Canyon in September 1540. [1] It was a group of about 13 Spanish soldiers led by García López de Cárdenas, dispatched from the army of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado on its quest to find the fabulous Seven Cities of Gold. [2] [5] [6] The group was led by Hopi guides and, assuming they took the most likely route, must have reached the canyon at the South Rim, probably between today's Desert View and Moran Point. According to Castañeda, he and his company came to a point "from whose brink it looked as if the opposite side must be more than three or four leagues by air line.” [7]

The report indicates that they greatly misjudged the proportions of the gorge. On the one hand, they estimated that the canyon was about three to four leagues wide (13–16 km, 8–10 mi), which is quite accurate. [5] At the same time, however, they believed that the river, which they could see from above, was only 2 m (6 ft) wide (in reality it is about a hundred times wider). [5] Being in dire need of water, and wanting to cross the giant obstacle, the soldiers started searching for a way down to the canyon floor that would be passable for them along with their horses. After three full days, they still had not been successful, and it is speculated that the Hopi, who probably knew a way down to the canyon floor, were reluctant to lead them there. [5]

As a last resort, Cárdenas finally commanded the three lightest and most agile men of his group to climb down by themselves (their names are given as Pablo de Melgosa, Juan Galeras, and an unknown, third soldier). [5] After several hours, the men returned, reporting that they had only made one third of the distance down to the river, and that "what seemed easy from above was not so". [5] Furthermore, they claimed that some of the boulders which they had seen from the rim, and estimated to be about as tall as a man, were in fact bigger than the Great Tower of Seville, at 104.1 m (342 ft). Cárdenas finally had to give up and returned to the main army. His report of an impassable barrier forestalled further visitation to the area for two hundred years.

Only in 1776 did two Spanish Priests, Fathers Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante travel along the North Rim again, together with a group of Spanish soldiers, exploring southern Utah in search of a route from Santa Fe, New Mexico to Monterey, California. [1] Also in 1776, Fray Francisco Garces, a Franciscan missionary, spent a week near Havasupai, unsuccessfully attempting to convert a band of Native Americans. He described the canyon as "profound". [8]

Amerikaners Edit

James Ohio Pattie and a group of American trappers and mountain men were probably the next Europeans to reach the canyon in 1826, [9] although there is little supporting documentation.

The signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ceded the Grand Canyon region to the United States. Jules Marcou of the Pacific Railroad Survey made the first geologic observations of the canyon and surrounding area in 1856. [2]

Jacob Hamblin (a Mormon missionary) was sent by Brigham Young in the 1850s to locate easy river crossing sites in the canyon. [10] Building good relations with local Native Americans and white settlers, he discovered Lee's Ferry in 1858 and Pierce Ferry (later operated by, and named for, Harrison Pierce)—the only two sites suitable for ferry operation. [11]

In 1857 Edward Fitzgerald Beale led an expedition to survey a wagon road from Fort Defiance, Arizona to the Colorado River. [12] On September 19 near present-day National Canyon they came upon what May Humphreys Stacey described in his journal as "a wonderful canyon four thousand feet deep. Everyone (in the party) admitted that he never before saw anything to match or equal this astonishing natural curiosity." [13]

A U.S. War Department expedition led by Lt. Joseph Ives was launched in 1857 to investigate the area's potential for natural resources, to find railroad routes to the west coast, and assess the feasibility of an up-river navigation route from the Gulf of California. [2] The group traveled in a stern wheeler steamboat named Verkenner. After two months and 350 miles (560 km) of difficult navigation, his party reached Black Canyon some two months after George Johnson. [14] In the process, the Verkenner struck a rock and was abandoned. The group later traveled eastwards along the South Rim of the Grand Canyon.

A man of his time, Ives discounted his own impressions on the beauty of the canyon and declared it and the surrounding area as "altogether valueless", remarking that his expedition would be "the last party of whites to visit this profitless locality". [15] Attached to Ives' expedition was geologist John Strong Newberry who had a very different impression of the canyon. [2] After returning, Newberry convinced fellow geologist John Wesley Powell that a boat run through the Grand Canyon to complete the survey would be worth the risk. [16] [a] Powell was a major in the United States Army and was a veteran of the American Civil War, a conflict that cost him his right forearm in the Battle of Shiloh. [2]

More than a decade after the Ives Expedition and with help from the Smithsonian Institution, Powell led the first of the Powell Expeditions to explore the region and document its scientific offerings. [6] On May 24, 1869, the group of nine men set out from Green River Station in Wyoming down the Colorado River and through the Grand Canyon. [2] This first expedition was poorly funded and consequently no photographer or graphic artist was included. While in the Canyon of Lodore one of the group's four boats capsized, spilling most of their food and much of their scientific equipment into the river. This shortened the expedition to one hundred days. Tired of being constantly cold, wet and hungry and not knowing they had already passed the worst rapids, three of Powell's men climbed out of the canyon in what is now called Separation Canyon. [18] Once out of the canyon, all three were reportedly killed by Shivwits band Paiutes who thought they were miners that recently molested and killed a female Shivwit. [18] All those who stayed with Powell survived and that group successfully ran most of the canyon.

Two years later a much better-funded Powell-led party returned with redesigned boats and a chain of several supply stations along their route. This time, photographer E.O. Beaman and 17-year-old artist Frederick Dellenbaugh were included. [18] Beaman left the group in January 1872 over a dispute with Powell and his replacement, James Fennemore, quit August that same year due to poor health, leaving boatman John K. Hillers as the official photographer (nearly one ton of photographic equipment was needed on site to process each shot). [19] Famed painter Thomas Moran joined the expedition in the summer of 1873, after the river voyage and thus only viewed the canyon from the rim. His 1873 painting "Chasm of the Colorado" was bought by the United States Congress in 1874 and hung in the lobby of the Senate. [20]

The Powell expeditions systematically cataloged rock formations, plants, animals, and archaeological sites. Photographs and illustrations from the Powell expeditions greatly popularized the canyonland region of the southwest United States, especially the Grand Canyon (appreciating this, Powell added increasing resources to that aspect of his expeditions). Powell later used these photographs and illustrations in his lecture tours, making him a national figure. Rights to reproduce 650 of the expeditions' 1,400 stereographs were sold to help fund future Powell projects. [21] In 1881 he became the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Geologist Clarence Dutton followed up on Powell's work in 1880–1881 with the first in-depth geological survey of the newly formed U.S. Geological Survey. [22] Painters Thomas Moran and William Henry Holmes accompanied Dutton, who was busy drafting detailed descriptions of the area's geology. The report that resulted from the team's effort was titled A Tertiary History of The Grand Canyon District, with Atlas and was published in 1882. [22] This and later study by geologists uncovered the geology of the Grand Canyon area and helped to advance that science. Both the Powell and Dutton expeditions helped to increase interest in the canyon and surrounding region.

The Brown-Stanton expedition was started in 1889 to survey the route for a "water-level" railroad line through the canyons of the Colorado River to the Gulf of California. [23] The proposed Denver, Colorado Canyon, and Pacific Railway was to carry coal from mines in Colorado. Expedition leader Frank M. Brown, his chief engineer Robert Brewster Stanton, and 14 other men set out in six boats from Green River, Utah, on May 25, 1889. [23] Brown and two others drowned near the head of Marble Canyon. The expedition was restarted by Stanton from Dirty Devil River (a tributary of Glen Canyon) on November 25 and traveled through the Grand Canyon. [23] The expedition reached the Gulf of California on April 26, 1890 but the railroad was never built.

Prospectors in the 1870s and 1880s staked mining claims in the canyon. [22] They hoped that previously discovered deposits of asbestos, copper, lead, and zinc would be profitable to mine. Access to and from this remote region and problems getting ore out of the canyon and its rock made the whole exercise not worth the effort. Most moved on, but some stayed to seek profit in the tourist trade. Their activities did improve pre-existing Indian trails, such as Bright Angel Trail. [3]

Vervoer Redigeer

A rail line to the largest city in the area, Flagstaff, was completed in 1882 by the Santa Fe Railroad. [24] Stage coaches started to bring tourists from Flagstaff to the Grand Canyon the next year—an eleven-hour greatly increased in 1901 when a spur of the Santa Fe Railroad to Grand Canyon Village was completed. [22] The first scheduled train with paying passengers of the Grand Canyon Railway arrived from Williams, Arizona, on September 17 that year. [24] The 64-mile (103 km) long trip cost $3.95 ($105.93 as of 2021), and naturalist John Muir later commended the railroad for its limited environmental impact. [24]

The first automobile was driven to the Grand Canyon in January 1902. Oliver Lippincott from Los Angeles, drove his American Bicycle Company built Toledo steam car to the South Rim from Flagstaff. Lippincott, Al Doyle a guide from Flagstaff and two writers set out on the afternoon of January 2, anticipating a seven-hour journey. Two days later, the hungry and dehydrated party arrived at their destination the countryside was just too rough for the ten-horsepower (7 kW) auto. Winfield Hoggaboon, one of the writers on the trip, wrote an amusing and detailed three page article in the Los Angeles Herald Illustrated Magazine on February 2, 1902, "To the Grand Canyon by Automobile". A three-day drive from Utah in 1907 was required to reach the North Rim for the first time. [24]

Competition with the automobile forced the Santa Fe Railroad to cease operation of the Grand Canyon Railway in 1968 (only three passengers were on the last run). The railway was restored and service reintroduced in 1989, and it has since carried hundreds of passengers a day. Trains remained the preferred way to travel to the canyon until they were surpassed by the auto in the 1930s. By the early 1990s more than a million automobiles per year visited the park.

West Rim Drive was completed in 1912. In the late 1920s the first rim-to-rim access was established by the North Kaibab suspension bridge over the Colorado River. [22] Paved roads did not reach the less popular and more remote North Rim until 1926, and that area, being higher in elevation, is closed due to winter weather from November to April. Construction of a road along part of the South Rim was completed in 1935. [22]

Air pollution Edit

The primary mobile source of Grand Canyon haze, the automobile, is currently regulated under a series of federal, state and local initiatives. The Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission cites U.S. government laws regulating automobile emissions and gasoline standards, often slow to change because of the automobile industry's planning schedule, as a primary contributor to air quality issues in the area. [25] They advocate policies leaning toward stricter emission standards via cleaner burning fuel and improved automobile emissions technology.

Air pollution from those vehicles and wind-blown pollution from Las Vegas, Nevada area has reduced visibility in the Grand Canyon and vicinity. During the past decade, various regional coal-fired electric utilities having little or no pollution control equipment were targeted as the primary stationary sources of Grand Canyon air pollution. [26] In the 1980s the Navajo Generating Station at Page, Arizona, (15 miles away) was identified as the primary source for anywhere from fifty percent to ninety percent of the Grand Canyon's air quality problems. [25] In 1999, the Mohave Generating Station in Laughlin, Nevada, (75) miles away settled a long-standing lawsuit and agreed to install end-of-point sulfur scrubbers on its smoke stacks.

Closer to home, there is little disagreement that the most visible of the park's visibility problems stems from the park's popularity. On any given summer day the park is filled to capacity, or over-capacity. Basically the problem boils down to too many private automobiles vying for too few parking spaces. Emissions from all those automobiles and tour buses contributes greatly to air pollution problems.

Accommodations Edit

John D. Lee was the first person who catered to travelers to the canyon. In 1872 he established a ferry service at the confluence of the Colorado and Paria rivers. Lee was in hiding, having been accused of leading the Mountain Meadows massacre in 1857. He was tried and executed for this crime in 1877. During his trial he played host to members of the Powell Expedition who were waiting for their photographer, Major James Fennemore, to arrive (Fennemore took the last photo of Lee sitting on his own coffin). Emma, one of Lee's nineteen wives, continued the ferry business after her husband's death. In 1876 a man named Harrison Pierce established another ferry service at the western end of the canyon. [24]

The two-room Farlee Hotel opened in 1884 near Diamond Creek and was in operation until 1889. That year Louis Boucher opened a larger hotel at Dripping Springs. John Hance opened his ranch near Grandview to tourists in 1886 only to sell it nine years later in order to start a long career as a Grand Canyon guide (in 1896 he also became local postmaster).

William Wallace Bass opened a tent house campground in 1890. Bass Camp had a small central building with common facilities such as a kitchen, dining room, and sitting room inside. Rates were $2.50 a day ($72.01 as of 2021), and the complex was 20 miles (30 km) west of the Grand Canyon Railway's Bass Station (Ash Fort). Bass also built the stage coach road that he used to carry his patrons from the train station to his hotel. A second Bass Camp was built along the Shinumo Creek drainage. [24]

The Grand Canyon Hotel Company was incorporated in 1892 and charged with building services along the stage route to the canyon. [27] In 1896 the same man who bought Hance's Grandview ranch opened Bright Angel Hotel in Grand Canyon Village. [27] The Cameron Hotel opened in 1903, and its owner started to charge a toll to use the Bright Angel Trail. [27]

Things changed in 1905 when the luxury El Tovar Hotel opened within steps of the Grand Canyon Railway's terminus. [22] El Tovar was named for Don Pedro de Tovar who tradition says is the Spaniard who learned about the canyon from Hopis and told Coronado. Charles Whittlesey designed the arts and crafts-styled rustic hotel complex, which was built with logs from Oregon and local stone at a cost of $250,000 for the hotel ($7,200,000 as of 2021) and another $50,000 for the stables ($1,440,000 as of 2021). [27] El Tovar was owned by Santa Fe Railroad and operated by its chief concessionaire, the Fred Harvey Company.

Fred Harvey hired Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter in 1902 as company architect. She was responsible for five buildings at the Grand Canyon: Hopi House (1905), Lookout Studio (1914), Hermit's Rest (1914), Desert View Watchtower (1932), and Bright Angel Lodge (1935). [3] She stayed with the company until her retirement in 1948.

A cable car system spanning the Colorado went into operation at Rust's Camp, located near the mouth of Bright Angel Creek, in 1907. Former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt stayed at the camp in 1913. That, along with the fact that while president he declared Grand Canyon a U.S. National Monument in 1908, led to the camp being renamed Roosevelt's Camp. In 1922 the National Park Service gave the facility its current name, Phantom Ranch. [27]

In 1917 on the North Rim, W.W. Wylie built accommodations at Bright Angel Point. [22] The Grand Canyon Lodge opened on the North Rim in 1928. Built by a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Railroad called the Utah Parks Company, the lodge was designed by Gilbert Stanley Underwood who was also the architect for the Ahwahnee Hotel in California's Yosemite Valley. Much of the lodge was destroyed by fire in the winter of 1932, and a rebuilt lodge did not open until 1937. The facility is managed by TW Recreation Services. [24] Bright Angel Lodge and the Auto Camp Lodge opened in 1935 on the South Rim.

Activities Edit

New hiking trails, along old Indian trails, were established during this time as well. The world-famous mule rides down Bright Angel Trail were mass-marketed by the El Tovar Hotel. By the early 1990s, 20,000 people per year made the journey into the canyon by mule, 800,000 by hiking, 22,000 passed through the canyon by raft, and another 700,000 tourists fly over it in air tours (fixed-wing aircraft and helicopter). Overflights were limited to a narrow corridor in 1956 after two planes crashed, killing all on board. In 1991 nearly 400 search and rescues were performed, mostly for unprepared hikers who suffered from heat exhaustion and dehydration while ascending from the canyon (normal exhaustion and injured ankles are also common in rescuees). [28] An IMAX theater just outside the park shows a reenactment of the Powell Expedition.

The Kolb Brothers, Emery and Ellsworth, built a photographic studio on the South Rim at the trailhead of Bright Angel Trail in 1904. Hikers and mule caravans intent on descending down the canyon would stop at the Kolb Studio to have their photos taken. The Kolb Brothers processed the prints before their customers returned to the rim. Using the newly invented Pathé Bray camera in 1911–12, they became the first to make a motion picture of a river trip through the canyon that itself was only the eighth such successful journey. From 1915 to 1975 the film they produced was shown twice a day to tourists with Emery Kolb at first narrating in person and later through tape (a feud with Fred Harvey prevented pre-1915 showings). [29]

By the late 19th century, the conservation movement was increasing national interest in preserving natural wonders like the Grand Canyon. National Parks in Yellowstone and around Yosemite Valley were established by the early 1890s. U.S. Senator Benjamin Harrison introduced a bill in 1887 to establish a national park at the Grand Canyon. [18] The bill died in committee, but on February 20, 1893, Harrison (then President of the United States) declared the Grand Canyon to be a National Forest Preserve. [30] Mining and logging were allowed, but the designation did offer some protection. [18]

President Theodore Roosevelt visited the Grand Canyon in 1903. [22] An avid outdoorsman and staunch conservationist, he established the Grand Canyon Game Preserve on November 28, 1906. [30] Livestock grazing was reduced, but predators such as mountain lions, eagles, and wolves were eradicated. Roosevelt added adjacent national forest lands and re-designated the preserve a U.S. National Monument on January 11, 1908. [30] Opponents, such as holders of land and mining claims, blocked efforts to reclassify the monument as a National Park for 11 years. Grand Canyon National Park was finally established as the 17th U.S. National Park by an Act of Congress signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on February 26, 1919. [30] The National Park Service declared the Fred Harvey Company to the official park concessionaire in 1920 and bought William Wallace Bass out of business.

An area of almost 310 square miles (800 km²) adjacent to the park was designated as a second Grand Canyon National Monument on December 22, 1932. [31] Marble Canyon National Monument was established on January 20, 1969, and covered about 41 square miles (105 km²). [31] An act signed by President Gerald Ford on January 3, 1975, doubled the size of Grand Canyon National Park by merging these adjacent national monuments and other federal land into it. That same act gave Havasu Canyon back to the Havasupai tribe. [22] From that point, the park stretched along a 278-mile (447 km) segment of the Colorado River from the southern border of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area to the eastern boundary of Lake Mead National Recreation Area. [31] Grand Canyon National Park was designated a World Heritage Site on October 24, 1979. [32]

In 1935, Hoover Dam started to impound Lake Mead south of the canyon. [16] Conservationists lost a battle to save upstream Glen Canyon from becoming a reservoir. The Glen Canyon Dam was completed in 1966 to control flooding and to provide water and hydroelectric power. [33] Seasonal variations of high flow and flooding in the spring and low flow in summer have been replaced by a much more regulated system. The much more controlled Colorado has a dramatically reduced sediment load, which starves beaches and sand bars. In addition, clearer water allows significant algae growth to occur on the riverbed, giving the river a green color.

With the advent of commercial flights, the Grand Canyon has been a popular site for aircraft overflights. However, a series of accidents resulted in the Overflights Act of 1987 by the United States Congress, which banned flights below the rim and created flight-free zones. [34] The tourist flights over the canyon have also created a noise problem, so the number of flights over the park has been restricted.

In 2008, the Grand Canyon Railway [35] and their parent company, Xanterra, decided to use only EMD f40ph diesel locomotives as their main motive power for their trackage, since they felt that their steam locomotives, as well as their Alco fa units, gave the environment more visible smoke. Not only that, but the steamers burn more oil than an average diesel unit, hence they can also be more pricey to operate and maintain. However, after a variety of formers protested to the GCR to bring back steam operations, [36] the GCR decided to bring back steam operations, as they converted both of their operational steamers, 29 and 4960, to burn recycled waste vegetable oil collected from nearby restaurants by third-party suppliers. [37]


Pipe Spring National Monument

Photo by: Ken Lund

Pipe Spring National Monument documents a storied human history of the Arizona Strip, including conflicts between the Kaibab Paiutes, Mormon settlers, and the U.S. government.

The 40-acre national monument on the Arizona/Utah border revolves around Pipe Spring, an invaluable perennial water source in the arid Arizona Strip. Kaibab Paiutes lived in the area and used the water until Mormon pioneers displaced them. The Mormons built a rock fort called Winsor Castle and two cabins, and had a ranching operation in the mid 1800s. Visitors can tour the fort and surrounding orchards, corral, and spring, and visit the Pipe Spring National Monument-Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians Visitor Center and Museum with historical and cultural exhibits.

Amper daar

From Fredonia, Arizona, turn west onto AZ 389 and continue for 14 miles. The monument is on your right. From the junction of UT 9 and UT 59 in Hurricane, UT, drive south on UT 59 for 22 miles. Continue onto AZ 389 as you cross into Arizona Pipe Spring National Monument is on your left in another 20 miles.

Visiting the monument

The Arizona Strip, isolated from the rest of the state by the geologic barrier of the Grand Canyon, has come to represent the Wild West with its dry, rugged lands. Pipe Spring National Monument sits amid this big empty country as a commemoration of the people who lived there and an embodiment of the American Frontier. Today, stories of conflict lie in the sagebrush badlands, open range, and precious springs. This little-visited monument tells a complex history of cultural, political, and religious tensions over the past few centuries.

Long before Anglos came to the Arizona Strip, Ancestral Puebloans, followed by the Kaibab Paiutes, settled here around one of the few perennial water sources in the area (Matungwa’vu to the Kaibab Paiute, now called Pipe Spring). The Kaibab Band of Paiutes, whose reservation now surrounds the monument, have partnered with the National Park Service to create a visitor center and museum with interpretive exhibits detailing their traditions and ways of life.

In the mid 1800s, Mormon explorers pushed down through southern Utah across the state border to escape escalating hostility by the U.S. government towards their polygamist practices. The Church built a settlement and cattle ranch around Pipe Spring, which marginalized the Kaibab Paiutes by cutting off their water use. Overgrazing, along with increased drought, destroyed the grasslands. Now, sagebrush grows in its place creating a landscape of sandy badlands.

At the monument, you can explore remnants of the late 19th century fortified Mormon ranch. The park service offers guided tours of Winsor Castle (the Fort), and a short trail goes to the West and East Cabins which house cowboy displays. Other trails highlight the enclosed spring, historic orchards, and corrals.

When the park service acquired Pipe Spring in 1923, they granted the Kaibab Paiute water rights. Today, the tribe shares their culture with tourists through tours, hikes, and cultural events. They also operate a campground a ¼ mile from the monument. If you’re roadtripping to nearby national parks like Zion, Bryce Canyon, or the Grand Canyon, be sure to leave time in your itinerary to stop at Pipe Spring National Monument—a small place rich in history.



Kommentaar:

  1. Adiv

    Dit is interessant. Waar kan ek meer hieroor uitvind?

  2. Vozshura

    dat nie meer as die konvensie nie

  3. Sciymgeour

    Maak foute. Skryf vir my in PM, dit praat met jou.



Skryf 'n boodskap