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Antieke Sicilië

Antieke Sicilië


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Die Mediterreense eiland Sicilië, met sy natuurlike hulpbronne en strategiese ligging op ou handelsroetes, het die intense belangstelling van opeenvolgende ryke van Kartago tot Athene tot Rome gewek. Gevolglik was die eiland nooit ver van die middelpunt van die plaaslike politiek nie en was dit dikwels 'n oorlogsteater gedurende die klassieke tydperk. Invalle, tiranne en gevegte het egter uiteindelik plek gemaak vir eeue van relatiewe vrede en voorspoed as 'n Romeinse provinsie. Die historiese erfenis van Sicilië bevat vandag 'n paar van die indrukwekkendste en bes bewaarde antieke monumente in die Middellandse See, 'n getuienis van die ryk kulturele geskiedenis van die eiland.

Vroeë geskiedenis

Daar was drie inheemse groepe op antieke Sicilië: die Elymi in die westelike deel van die eiland, die Sicani in die middel en die Sicels in die ooste - laasgenoemde is die wortel van die naam van die eiland. Volgens Thucydides kan die oorsprong van hierdie groepe teruggevoer word na onderskeidelik Troje, Iberia en die vasteland van Italië. Bevindinge van aardewerk en koperblokke dui aan dat die eiland handel gedryf het met mense uit die Laat Bronstydperk, soos die Mykeense en Cyprioten. Alhoewel tradisionele verslae die Fenisiërs as die eerste koloniseerders het, is daar geen bewyse dat hulle Griekse koloniste vooraf gedateer het nie. Motya, Panormus en Soloeis was die belangrikste Feniciese nedersettings, terwyl Segesta, Eryx en Entella die belangrikste Elymi -plekke was, wat almal aan Kartago verbonde was. Griekse kolonisasie begin c. 735 vC en het 'n sterk politieke en kulturele invloed op plaaslike gemeenskappe uitgeoefen, hetsy direk of via handel. Hierdie hellenisering was die duidelikste in argitektuur, met groot Doriese tempels wat oor die hele eiland gebou is. Die verspreiding van stedelike nedersettings en die eerste uitgawes van Siciliaanse muntstukke in die laat 6de eeu vC getuig van die welvaart wat baie van die stadstate of poleis. Die Fenisiese nedersettings het die Griekse vooruitgang op hul gebied streng afgeweer, veral in c. 580 vC teen Pentathlus en weer in c. 510 vC teen Dorieus.

Tiranne, Kartago en Athene

Die regeringsvorm van die verskillende poleis het die verskillende Griekse modelle gevolg, maar tiranne was algemeen. Acragas (Agrigento) en Gela was een van die vroegste poleis wat deur tiranne regeer is, en Hippokrates van Gela was die eerste van 'n lang reeks beroemde Siciliaanse tiranne (daar moet op gelet word dat die Griekse term 'tiran' 'n enkele heerser beteken het en hy was nie altyd 'n tiran in die moderne, negatiewe sin van die term nie). Die opvolger van Hippokrates was Gelon (r. 491-478 vC), en hy het sy hoofstad na Syracuse verskuif, wat oorspronklik gestig is as 'n kolonie Korinte in 734 vC. Syracuse sou, na die nederlaag van Kartago en haar Siciliaanse bondgenote in die slag van Himera in 480 v.C. polis op die eiland en slegs die tweede na Athene as die grootste in die Griekse wêreld, wat dit uiteindelik in vergelyking met die bevolking oorgeneem het.

Een van die grootste heersers van Sicilië was die begaafde generaal, politikus en beskermheer van die kunste, die tiran Dionysius I.

Vanaf die 5de eeu v.G.J. het demokrasie die dominante regeringsvorm geword, maar steeds onderling onafhanklik poleis het nou die belangstelling van die groot maritieme mag van die tyd begin trek: Athene. 'N Eerste onsuksesvolle poging om die Atheense invloed in die streek tussen 427 en 424 vC te verhoog, is gevolg deur die skouspelagtige flop, bekend as die Siciliaanse ekspedisie tussen 415 en 413 vC. Die Atheense plan, wat Syracuse aanval, is deur Alcibiades aangevoer, maar uiteindelik het die Atheners losgekom en hul hele invalmag verloor. Athene het enige plaaslike steun wat hulle van ontevrede Siciliaan sou ontvang, oorskat poleis en die versterkings en vasberadenheid van die Syracusane onderskat. Toe Gylippus met 'n hulpmag uit Korinthe aankom, is die lot van die Atheners verseël en hul twee bevelvoerders in 'n skokkende slag vir die Atheense militêre trots tereggestel.

Syracuse word toe 'n aktiewe bondgenoot van Sparta, terwyl die Peloponnesiese oorlog teen Athene en haar bondgenote voortbeweeg. Carthago het intussen die geleentheid aangegryp om haar invloed te vergroot deur Selinus en Himera in 409 vC vas te vang en daarna Acragas en Gela drie jaar later. Syracuse het die inisiatief egter herwin onder die bewind van een van die grootste leiers in die geskiedenis van die eiland: Dionysius I, begaafde generaal, politikus en beskermheer van die kunste. Toe die mag in 405 vC oorgeneem is en 'n groot huursoldaat gebruik is, het Syracusan se oorheersing van die eiland gevolg, en die Kartagoërs kon slegs 'n vashou in die weste handhaaf, 'n situasie wat onveranderd gebly het tot die dood van Dionysius in 367 VHJ. Dionysius het ook 'n bruikbare bondgenoot vir Sparta geword tydens die Korintiese oorloë tussen 395 en 386 vC, en hy het die Syracusan -ryk uitgebrei tot groot dele van die suidelike Italiaanse vasteland. Hy was 'n innoverende militêre leier en word daarvoor toegeskryf dat hy belegstorings en artillerie vir grotte vir die eerste keer in Griekse oorlogvoering gebruik het.

Hellenistiese en Romeinse Sicilië

In die Hellenistiese tydperk, en na die einde van Dionysius I se bewind, was Syracuse verplig om Korinthe te beroep om die bedreiging van Kartago te help hanteer. Timoleon het behoorlik die oorwinning behaal tydens die slag van Crimisius c. 341 vC, en hy hervat Syracusan-beheer oor haar koninkryk, het tirannieë uitgeskakel en 'n herstelprogram begin en 'n nuwe instroming van koloniste uit Griekeland en Italië aangemoedig. Baie Siciliaanse state het weer floreer, maar na die dood van Timoleon het politieke chaos ontstaan. Na 'n onstuimige tydperk van oligargiese heerskappy het 'n magtige tiran egter weer die lotgevalle van Syracuse laat herleef. Agathocles neem die bewind in 317 VHJ en verklaar homself as koning van Sicilië in c. 305 vC, nadat hy die grootste deel van die eiland ingeneem het. Maar toe weer 'n sterk individuele heerser sterf, het onrus en agteruitgang vinnig gevolg. Die lot van die stad het herleef onder die heersers Pyrrhus en Hieron II in die 3de eeu vC, maar Sicilië as geheel sou in die komende dekades sy onafhanklikheid verloor.

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Kartago was steeds 'n steeds bedreiging vir Siciliaanse stede, maar teen die middel van die 3de eeu vC het 'n nuwe speler op die toneel verskyn: Rome. Die twee groot moondhede sou in die Puniese oorloë bots en Sisilië het die slagveld geword. Rome het uiteindelik die dag gewen en Sicilië het 'n Romeinse provinsie geword, wat die eerste van baie sou wees. Hieron II van Sirakuse het van kant verander om by Kartago aan te sluit, maar met die val van die stad in 211 v.G.H., is die eiland uiteindelik verenig tot 'n enkele regeerbare eenheid wat deur 'n vreemde mag beheer is.

Die Romeine het onderskei tussen sekere stede in hul nuwe provinsie, afhangende van hul vorige getrouheid, en sommige het meer politieke vryheid en minder belastinglas as ander, maar oor die algemeen het die eiland met die Romeinse besorgdheid om 'n betroubare graanvoorraad te waarborg, gedy. keiserlike tydperk en Griekse en Latynse kulture bestaan ​​saam. Augustus het verskeie kolonies vir veterane op die eiland geskep en die landbou het floreer met die oprigting van baie groot, keiserlike landgoedere, sodat Sicilië 'n belangrike produsent van wyn, wol en hout geword het. Met verloop van tyd het die belangrikheid van Sicilië vir Rome afgeneem, maar Syracuse het wel 'n belangrike Christelike sentrum geword en het dit tot in die 7de eeu nC gebly.


Antieke Sicilië - Geskiedenis

The Peoples of Sicily: A Multi & shycultural Legacy. Vol Grieke, Arabiere, Normandiërs, Duitsers en Jode, gaan die belangrikste en mees skaamte algemene geskiedenis van Sicilië ooit oor en oor 'n eiland in die son. Kan die eklektiese middeleeuse ervaring van die mees verowerde eiland ter wêreld 'n les wees vir ons tyd? Ontdek dit terwyl u die mense ontmoet! (368 bladsye op suurvrye papier, e-boek beskikbaar) Lees meer.

Vroue van Sicilië: Saints, Queens en amp Rebels. Ontmoet 'n tydlose, skaamtelose suster en skaamheid van vrome Romeinse meisies, vaste en skaam Siciliaanse koninginne en 'n Joodse moeder wat die gruwels van die Inquisi & shytion in die gesig gestaar het. Vind die vroulike siel van 'n eiland in die eerste boek oor die historiese vroue van Sicilië wat in Engels geskryf is deur 'n Siciliaanse vrou in Sicilië. (224 bladsye op suurvrye papier, e-boek beskikbaar) Lees meer.

Sommige nie-Siciliaanse gebeurtenisse word gelys om parallelle geskiedenis aan te dui of om historiese konteks te vestig.

& raquo 85 000 v.C. (v.C.) - Homo Sapiens Sapiens (geneties moderne mense) migreer uit Afrika via die suidelike Arabiese skiereiland. Genetiese differensiasie (insluitend oppervlakkige & quotracial & quot variasie) begin.

& raquo 45 000 v.C. - & quotModerne & quot; mense begin Europa bevolk en weswaarts migreer. Antropologiese variasies ontwikkel tussen geïsoleerde gemeenskappe. Die artistieke kultuur begin ontwikkel. Genetiese haplotipes M173 en M343 het waarskynlik ongeveer 30 000 vC in Sicilië ingevoer.

& raquo 10 000 v.C. - Neolitiese mense is teenwoordig in die vasteland van Europa en op Sicilië. Indo-Europese kulture kom met daaropvolgende migrasiegolwe. Die Proto-Kelte se kultuur was waarskynlik Indo-Europees, maar die Proto-Sicaniaanse taal van Sicilië het moontlik minder Proto-Indo-Europese invloede gehad. Addaura grottekeninge (buite Palermo) gedateer tot 8000 vC of vroeër. Pleistoseen -tydperk eindig, gevolg deur Holoseen (huidige tydperk).

& raquo 8000 vC - Waarskynlike bekendstelling van landbou (aanvanklik koring en ander korrels) in Sicilië deur oostelike mediterrane neolitiese boere (moontlik voorgangers van die vroegste Indo -Europeërs) waarskynlike aanvanklike instroming van M172 -haplogroep in die Siciliaanse genepoel.

& raquo 7000 vC - Neolitiese juwele vervaardig in Sicilië.

& raquo 4000 vC - "Proto -Sicanians" teenwoordig in neolitiese Sicilië en Malta, waar hulle die oudste strukture ter wêreld bou en die wiel uitvind. Die vroegste Siciliaanse godsdiens is beoefen. Ewe gevorderde Minoïese (Kretenzer en Egeïese) beskawing floreer in die oostelike Middellandse See.

& bull Vroeë inheemse geskiedenis: Sicanians, Elymians, Sikels

& raquo 2800 vC - Stonehenge (in Engeland) en die vroegste piramides (in Egipte) wat duisend jaar na die bou van die eerste Maltese tempels gebou is.

& raquo 2000 vC-Nie-Indo-Europese Sicaniaanse kultuur oorheersend op Sicilië. Gebruik van koperwerktuie ('vroeë Bronstydperk'), wat moontlik dui op nie-Sisiliaanse invloede, wat teen 2500 vC voorgekom het.

& raquo 1800 vC - Kenmerkende & quotnative & quot; Sicanian -kultuur wat in Sicilië herken kan word. Mycenese en laat Minoïese kulture teenwoordig in geïsoleerde oostelike plekke.

& raquo 1700 vC - Hetiete in Anatolië moontlike verbinding met Sicilië se Elymians. (Anatoliese oorsprong word ook voorgestel vir Trojane en Etruske.)

& raquo 1500 v.C. - handel in Mykene met Sicanians of Sicels van Eoliese (Lipari) eilande en dele van die Ioniese kus (by Thapsos). Ausoniërs, 'n Italiaanse volk, handel ook met die eilandbewoners van Lipari.

& raquo 1300 vC - Ramses II farao in Egipte, maar verwysings in Bybelse Exodusboek kan na 'n ander persoon verwys. Waarskynlike tydperk vir die bekendstelling van olyfbome in Sicilië deur mense uit die Egeïese kulture.

& raquo 1200 vC - Aankoms van Sicels (Sikels), 'n kursief volk, in die ooste van Sicilië, omstreeks hierdie tyd. Ystertydperk begin in Griekeland.

& raquo 1100 vC - Elymians (moontlik uit Anatolië in Klein -Asië), kom in die weste van Sicilië aan (Erice en Segesta).

& raquo 1000 vC - Indo -Europese tale en samelewings geïdentifiseer op grond van taalkundige ooreenkomste.

& bul Fenisiërs, Kartagoërs en Grieke

& raquo 735 vC - Naxos gestig as eerste permanente Griekse kolonie op Sicilië.

& raquo 733 vC - Syracuse (Siracusa) gestig as Griekse kolonie.

& raquo 705 vC - Grieke assimileer die stad Enna van Sicels, waarmee die mite van Persephone geïdentifiseer word.

& raquo 700 vC - Fenisiërs vestig die Puniese stad Zis (Palermo) en ander handelsposte (insluitend Motya en Kfra of Solunto) in die weste van Sicilië. Feniciese alfabet (basis vir Romeinse en Griekse letters regs getoon) bekendgestel.

& raquo 729 vC - Katane (Catania) gevestig deur Chalcidians uit Naxos.

& raquo 650 vC - Himera (Termini Imerese) gestig.

& raquo 630 vC - Selinus (Selinunte) gestig.

& raquo 580 vC - Akragas (Agrigento) gestig.

& raquo 504-466 vC - Hippokrates en Gelon (vanaf 478), as tiranne van Syracuse, regeer die grootste deel van die oostelike Sicilië.

& raquo 490 vC - Atheners verslaan Perse in die Slag van Marathon. Persoorloë begin en duur tot 479.

& raquo 480 vC - Kartagers onder Hamilcar (aangemoedig deur Xerxes van Persië wat oorwinnings in Griekeland behaal het) verslaan deur Gelon van Siracuse in die Slag van Himera. Perse het uiteindelik verslaan in die Slag van Salamis.

& raquo 452 vC - Sicel -leier Ducetius (oorlede 440) lei opstand.

& raquo 431-404 vC - Peloponnesiese oorlog.

& raquo 415-413 vC - Atheners val die ooste van Sicilië binne, verslaan in 413.

& raquo 410-405 vC - Kartagoërs val Wes -Sicilië binne, en vernietig Himera in 409.

& raquo 409 vC - Geboorte van Dion, later tiran van Syracuse.

& raquo 405-367 - Dionysius I regeer as & quottyrant & quot (leier) van Syracuse

& raquo 400 vC - Kartagoërs, oorblywende Fenisiese beskawing in Noord -Afrika, vestig permanente teenwoordigheid in Palermo. Oorloë tussen Kartagoë en Grieke (en daarna met Romeine) duur voort. Grieke hernoem Zis Panormos (& quotall port & quot).

& raquo 398-396 vC - Nog 'n oorlog in sommige Griekse stede teen Kartagoërs.

& raquo 398 vC - Plato in Syracuse stel Sicilië voor as 'n model van die utopiese samelewing. Syracuse het na vore gekom as die belangrikste stad van Sicilië en sal dit bly tot in die 10de eeu wanneer Arabiere Panormos (Palermo) herbevolk het.

& raquo 367-344 vC - Dionysius II is leier van Sirakuse. Philip II regeer Masedonië 359-336.

& raquo 346-345 vC - Nog 'n Kartago -oorlog in Sicilië. Alexander die Grote regeer Masedonië 336-323.

& raquo 339 vC - Timoleon herstel die demokratiese wet in Syracuse.

& raquo 330 vC - Alexander die Grote verower Persië.

& raquo 317-289 vC - Agathocles, inheems in Himera, tiran van Syracuse en toe (304) koning.

& raquo 311 & amp 280 vC - Kartago -invalle van Wes -Sisilië.

& raquo 310 vC - Grieke onder Agathocles val Kartago -gebiede aan die Afrikaanse kus binne. Verdrag onderteken in 306.

& raquo 278 vC - Pyrrhus of Epirus veg "Siciliaanse veldtog" teen Syracuse ondersteun deur Taormina.

& raquo 265-215 vC - Hieron II koning van Sirakuse. Sy dood dui op die begin van die Romeinse beheer van Sicilië.

& raquo 264 vC - Eerste Puniese Oorlog (Romeine teen Kartagoërs), eindigend in 241. Tweede Puniese Oorlog in 218, eindigend in 201.

& raquo 227 vC - Sicilië word die eerste Romeinse provinsie, maar Syracuse weerstaan.

& raquo 212 vC - Syracuse val uiteindelik op Romeine. Archimedes vermoor.

& raquo 208 vC - Qin -dinastie begin met die bou van die Groot Muur in China.

& raquo 146 vC - Romeine verslaan Kartagoë in die Derde Puniese Oorlog. Romeine noem Palermo Panormus. Vroegste Joodse gemeenskappe in Oos -Sisilië.

& raquo 136-132 vC - Slaweopstand onder leiding van Eunus met die basis by Enna. Slawe verower groot gebied voordat hulle deur die Romeinse leër verslaan is.

& raquo 104-100 vC - Slawe -opstand onder leiding van Salvius.

& raquo 70 vC - Cicero vervolg Verres, korrupte goewerneur van Sicilië.

& raquo 55 vC - Eerste invalle van Brittanje deur Julius Caesar.

& raquo 29 vC - Virgil begin met die skryf van Aeneïs.

& raquo AD 59? - Saint Paul preek in Syracuse op pad na Rome.

& raquo 117 nC - Onder Trajan bereik die Romeinse Ryk sy grootste geografiese omvang rondom hierdie tyd.

& raquo 122 nC - Romeinse keiser Hadrianus beveel die bou van 'n muur in die huidige Skotland.

& raquo 251 nC - Saint Agatha martelaar wat later vereer word as beskermvrou van Catania.

& raquo 303-306 AD - Diocletianus se vervolging van Christene. Saint Lucy (van Syracuse) gemartel.

& raquo 306 nC - Konstantyn die Grote reëls tot 337. Laat oop praktyk van Christelike godsdiens toe.

& raquo 324 nC - Konstantinopel (Bisantium) gestig.

& raquo 325 - Council of Nicea definieer die Christelike leer en bepaal die aanvaarde Nuwe -Testamentiese skrif. Teen hierdie tyd word Syracuse gekersten.

& raquo 330 - Hoofstad van die Romeinse Ryk oorgeplaas na Bisantium (Konstantinopel).

& raquo 380 AD - Christelike amptelike godsdiens van die Romeinse Ryk.

& raquo 378 nC - Romeinse leër verslaan tydens die Slag van Adrianopel tydens die Gotiese Oorlog. (Gote is deur die indringende Huns na die Romeinse gebied gedwing.)

& raquo 395 - Romeinse Ryk verdeel in Westerse en Oosterse (of "Bisantynse").

& bull & quotBarbarian & quot Periode: Vandale en Gote

& raquo 410 - Visigotiese sak van Rome begin onder Alariese politieke val van Wes -Romeinse Ryk.

& raquo 440 - Eerste vandallandings op Sicilië onder Genseric.

& raquo 468 - Volledige vandaliese besetting van Sicilië, duur tot 476.

& raquo 476 - Ostrogote -bewind tot 535 Odoacer sit die laaste (westelike) Romeinse keiser neer. Die begin van die Middeleeue dateer gewoonlik uit hierdie tyd.

& raquo 491 - Ostrogote neem volledige beheer oor Sicilië uit die Vandale. Hul leier, Theodoric, seun van Alaric, vermoor Odoacer in 493.

& raquo 535 - Ostrogote in die sentrale Middellandse See word aangeval deur die Bisantynse Gotiese bewind van Sicilië, eindig in 535, behalwe vir 'n kort inval en besetting van sommige streke in 550.

& raquo 527-565 - Reël van Justinianus I as Oos -Romeinse (& quotByzantynse & quot) keiser. Stel 'n blywende regskode op.

& raquo 529 - Saint Benedict stig godsdiensorde.

& raquo 533-535 - Bisantyne onder Belisarius verslaan Vandale (in Tunisië) en Gote (in Sicilië) en annekseer Sisilië by die Bisantynse Ryk.

& raquo 537 - Hagia Sophia -basiliek gebou in Konstantinopel, die grootste kerk ter wêreld, toon 'n voorbeeld van die Bisantynse kultuur.

& raquo 550 - Totila, Ostrogoth -leier, val Sicilië binne, maar Bisantyne herwin beheer ná sy nederlaag in Taginae in 552.

& raquo 568 - Longobards val Italië binne en betwis die Byzantynse beheer oor baie streke.

& raquo 590 - Gregorius die Grote word biskop van Rome (pous).

& raquo 652 - Klein Arabiese mag land op Sicilië, maar vertrek binnekort.

& raquo 655 - Jode van Syracuse begin met die bou van die mikveh.

& raquo 660-668 - Constans regeer die Bisantynse Ryk uit Syracuse.

& raquo 711 - Arabiere val Spanje binne.

& raquo 726-787 - Kontroversie oor ikonoklast.

& raquo 732 - Charles Martel verslaan Arabiere by Tours.

& raquo 771 - Karel die Grote word koning van Franken.

& raquo 827 - Eerste groot Arabiese inval (meer as 10 000 mans wat uit Tunisië vaar) onder Asad ibn al -Furat, generaal van emir Ziyadat Allah I ibn Ibrahim van Ifriqiya.

& raquo 831 - Bal'harm (Palermo) beset deur Aghlabid dinastie van Tunisië. Uiteindelik het Emirate van Sicilië gestig, maar eiland word dikwels deur goewerneurs bestuur.

& raquo 831-838-Voortgesette bewind van 'n groot deel van Sicilië deur Ziyadat Allah I, wat die inval van al-Furat in 827 geborg het.

& raquo 838-841-Reël van al-Aghlab Abu Affan ibn Ibrahim (& quotAbu Iqal & quot), broer van Ziyadat Allah I.

& raquo 841-856-Heerskappy van Mohammed I Abul-Abbas ibn al-Aghlab Abi Affan.

& raquo 851 - Dood van goewerneur (en generaal) Al -Aghlab Abu Ibrahim, wat die grootste deel van Sicilië vanuit Bal'harm toegedien het

& raquo 856-863 - Reël van Ahmad ibn Muhammad. Af en toe Viking -landings of -aanvalle op die Siciliaanse kus.

& raquo 859 - Enna (Kasr'Jannis) gevang deur Abbas ibn Fadhl, goewerneur van Sicilië.

& raquo 863 - Heerskappy van Ziyadat Allah II ibn Abil -Abbas. Gedurende die 9de eeu stel Arabiere moerbeie (vir symaak), lemoene en suikerriet voor.

& raquo 863-875 - Reël van Mohammed II ibn Ahmad.

& raquo 875-902 - Reël van Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad.

& raquo 878 - Jafar ibn -Muhammad verower Syracuse, die Bisantynse hoofstad van Sicilië.

& raquo 902-903 - Reël van Abdullah II ibn Ibrahim. Teen hierdie tyd het Arab Bal'harm (Palermo) die Bisantynse-Griekse Sirakuse vervang as die grootste en belangrikste stad van Sicilië, en die hele Sisilië is onder Arabiese administrasie.

& raquo 903-909 - Heerskappy van Ziyadat Allah III ibn Abdillah.

& raquo 910 - Fatimiede regeer nou Sicilië. Cluniacs gestig, volg die Benediktynse reël.

& raquo 913-Emir Ahmed ibn-Kohrob verklaar die onafhanklikheid van Sicilië, en gooi die goewerneur van die Fatimid uit Bal'harm, maar troepe van die Fatimid-heerser, Abdul'Allah al-Mahdi Billah (Said ibn Husayn), herstel die eiland tot hul heerskappy.

& raquo 934 - Die dood van Abdul'Allah al -Mahdi Billah (Said ibn Husayn).

& raquo 948 - Fatimiede (wat besluit om hul hoofstad in Egipte te verhuis) vertrou Sicilië toe aan die plaaslike bevolking Kalbids. Konflik tussen die emirate van Sicilië.

& raquo 948-954-Reël van Emir Hassan al-Kalbi. Eerste kanate wat onder Palermo gebou is.

& raquo 954-969-Heerskappy van Ahmad ibn al-Hassan.

& raquo 967-Siciliaans gebore Jawhar as-Siqilli stig Al-Qahira (Kaïro) in die naam van die Fatimiede.

& raquo 969-982-Reël van Abu al-Qasim.

& raquo 982-983 - Reël van Jabir al-Kalbi.

& raquo 983-985-Reël van Jafar al-Kalbi.

& raquo 985-990-Reël van Abd-Allah al-Kalbi.

& raquo 990-998-Reël van Yusuf al-Kalbi.

& raquo 998-1019-Reël van Ja'far al-Kalbi.

& raquo 1000 - Geskatte tyd van Viking -landings in Noord -Amerika, moontlik met die gekerstende leier Leif Ericsson. L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland is 'n Noorse nedersetting en beide die Groenlendinga Saga (die Greenlanders 'Saga) en Eiriks Saga (Erik's Story) noem sulke seereise. Normane is 'n oorblywende Noorse beskawing in die noordweste van Frankryk.

& raquo 1016 - Normandiese ridders neem eers deel aan gevegte in Italië.

& raquo 1019-1037-Reël van al-Akhal.

& raquo 1038-1042 - Bisantynse magte van George Maniakes beslaan kortliks dele van die oostelike Sicilië -weermag, insluitend Grieke, Normandiërs, Lombarde en Noorse Varangiaanse wagte met Harald Hardrada.

& raquo 1040-1053-Reël van Hasan as-Samsam. Na sy dood en uitwissing van die Kalbid -dinastie, verdeel drie hoofemirs die beheer oor Sicilië: Ibn al Hawas by Kasr'Jannis (Enna), Ibn by Timnah by Siracuse en Catania, Abdullah ibn Haukal by Trapani en Mazara.

& raquo 1054 - Groot skeuring tussen die oostelike en westelike Christendom. Baie Siciliaanse Christene bly tot by 1200 ongeveer "oosters" (Ortodoks).

& raquo 1056 - Arabiese digter Ibn Hamdis gebore in Syracuse.

& raquo 1060 - Onsuksesvolle Normandiese inval in die noordoostelike kus van Sicilië, permanent na die Slag van Messina (1061).

& raquo 1066 - Slag van Hastings lei tot 'n volledige Normandiese verowering van Saksiese Engeland. Slag van Messina was 'n gedeeltelike patroon van hierdie inval op 'n eiland van 'n kontinent wat sommige Normandiese ridders in albei gevegte veg. Normandiese kultuur beïnvloed die Engelse regering, reg, argitektuur en taal.

& raquo 1072 - Slag van Palermo eindig vroeg in Januarie met die Normandiese besetting onder Roger I en Robert de Hauteville. Nikodemus verwyder uit die gesag oor die Christelike gemeenskap. 'Latynse' Benediktyne word spoedig in Sicilië bekendgestel, waar voorheen kloosters Ortodoks was.

& raquo 1081 - Onderdrukking van opstand onder leiding van afvallige 'emir' Bernavert (Bin al Wardi) by Catania, nog een van sy opstande is in 1085 in Syracuse onderdruk.

& raquo 1083 - Roger I stel Latynse (eerder as Ortodokse) biskop van Palermo aan en Gallican Rite word in nuwe kerke bekendgestel.

& raquo 1084 - Bruno stig Kartusiese Orde in Duitsland.

& raquo 1087-Ibn Hammud, emir van Kasr'Janni (Enna), laaste groot Arabiese vesting, gee hom oor aan Normandië in 1087 Noto val in 1091. Tientalle versterkte Arabies gestigte (of herbevolkte) dorpe lê op die eiland: Calascibetta, Caltanissetta , Caltagirone, Mussomeli, Marsala (Mars'Allah), Misilmeri, Cammarata.

& raquo 1095 - Roger II, toekomstige koning van Sicilië, word gebore.

& raquo 1096 - Eerste kruistog begin 'n paar Normandiese ridders neem deel onder Bohemund de Hauteville (later prins van Antiochië), broer van Roger I.

& raquo 1097 - Odo van Bayeux, graaf van Kent, jonger broer van William the Conqueror, koning van Engeland, sterf in Palermo op pad na die kruistog terwyl hy Roger I. besoek. Sy neef, William se seun Robert & quotCurthose, & quot gaan voort na Palestina.

& raquo 1098 - Roger I word, as groot graaf van Sicilië, pouslike apostoliese legaat, met die regte om die Katolieke biskoppe van die eiland goed te keur. Cisterciënzer gestig as die uitloop van die Benediktyne. Vestig later kloosters op Sicilië.

& raquo 1099 - Kruisvaarders verower Jerusalem.

& raquo 1101 - Roger I sterf, opgevolg deur Simon, sy oudste lewende, wettige seun, wat nog steeds minderjarig is. Roger se gemaal, Adelaide del Vasto van Savona, is regent.

& raquo 1105 - Roger II volg sy ouer broer Simon (1093-1105) op as heerser van Sicilië onder Adelaide se regentskap.

& raquo 1112 - Roger word tot ridder geslaan (hierdie seremonie dui op sy ouderdom van meerderheid en soewereine gesag na 'regentskap' onder sy moeder).

& raquo 1113 - Orde van Saint John (Knights Hospitaller) in Palestina, geoktrooieerd door Pous Paschal II. Vestig bevelvoerders op Sicilië en ontvang later (in 1530) Malta van Karel V, koning van Sicilië en die Heilige Romeinse keiser. (Hulle bly daar as Ridders van Malta tot 1798.)

& raquo 1119 - Tempeliers in Palestina gestig. Voorskrifte op Sicilië in beslag geneem deur Frederick II na die sesde kruistog. (Orde definitief onderdruk deur pousorde in 1312.)

& raquo 1123 - Ridders van Saint Lazarus wat in hierdie tyd in Palestina gestig is, help melaatses en bedryf uiteindelik Saint John of the Lepers, Palermo, as 'n lazar -huis.

& raquo 1130 - Roger het die eerste koning van Sicilië gekroon (voortaan bekend as "Roger II"). Op sy bevel word Saint John of the Hermits, 'n Ortodokse klooster in Palermo, beveel om in die Normandies-Arabiese styl herbou te word as die Benediktynse abdij, voltooi in 1148. (Die terrein het moontlik al 'n paar dekades voor 1072 'n moskee gehuisves). hierdie tydperk.

& raquo 1139 - Tweede Lateraanse Raad maak selibaatskap verpligtend vir Rooms -Katolieke priesters tot nou toe is Katolieke priesters toegelaat om te trou voor ordening.

& raquo 1140 - Roger kondig Assizes of Ariano aan, belangrike wetlike kode wat koninklike gesag bevestig. Gotiese beweging begin in Frankryk, maar Romaanse styl oorheers op Sicilië.

& raquo 1143 - Martorana -kerk (Palermo) gebou in Normandies -Arabiese styl vir die Grieks -Ortodokse gemeenskap deur George van Antiochië. In hierdie jaar skryf Nilos Doxopatrios, 'n Ortodokse geestelikes van Palermo, teologiese verhandeling wat die Oosterse (Ortodokse) kerk ondersteun oor die Latynse (Rooms -Katolieke) invloede wat deur die Normanders ingestel is.

& raquo 1154 - & quotBook of Roger & quot voltooi deur Abdullah al -Idrisi. Roger sterf en die bewind van koning William I & quotthe Bad & quot begin.

& raquo 1158 - Quaid Le Brun (Thomas Brown), tesourier aan die hof van William, keer terug na Engeland om die staatskas van Henry II te hervorm, wat die Europese rekeningkundige beginsels beïnvloed. Brun gebruik Hindoe-Arabiese syfers, wat later in Europa gewild gemaak is deur Leonardo Fibonacci van Pisa (kortliks 'n gas van Frederick II op Sicilië) in 1202

& raquo 1160 - Die dood van die kluisenaarsheilige, Rosalie (moontlik 'n Siciliaan van Normandiese afkoms), later 'n hemelse beskermheer van Palermo.

& raquo 1161 - Matthew Bonellus van Caccamo lei opstand van Normandiese baronne.

& raquo 1166 - Die bewind van die jong koning William II "die goeie" begin onder die regentskap van sy moeder. Koningin Margaret bied gasvryheid aan die ballingskap van Thomas Becket. Geleidelik latinisering van die Siciliaanse taal sit die Rooms -Katolieke invloed op godsdiens voort.

& raquo 1170 - Benjamin van Tudela besoek Sicilië. Peter Waldo stig die evangeliese Waldensiese kerk, voorloper van die hervorming (protestantse) beweging.

& raquo 1171 - Saladin verslaan Fatimiede in die Midde -Ooste.

& raquo 1174 - Werk begin aan Monreale Abbey in die Arabiese dorpie Bal'at met uitsig op Palermo. Styl is Normandies-Arabies op Romaanse plan met Bisantynse mosaïekikone, insluitend die vroegste heilige beeld van Thomas Becket (heilig verklaar in 1173).

& raquo 1177 - William II trou met Joan, dogter van Henry II van Engeland (suster van Richard Lionheart).

& raquo 1184 - Ibn Jubayr besoek Sicilië en teken sy indrukke op.

& raquo 1190 - Richard Lionheart, broer van koningin Joan van Sicilië, neem Messina etlike maande lank saam met Philip II van Frankryk op pad na die kruistog.

& raquo 1194 - Heilige Romeinse keiser Henry VI von Hohenstaufen arriveer. Die Duitse Orde van ridders kom aan, die vestiging van die heilige Maria van die Duitsers (Messina) en die verkryging van Cisterciënzer eiendomme (Magione in Palermo).

& raquo 1198 - Frederik II koning tot 1250, trou met Constance van Aragon. Swabiese Duitse invloede op Sicilië. Islam en Griekse Ortodoksie word deur steeds kleiner minderhede geduld, maar beoefen. Sisiliaanse taal is kursief met vreemde invloede.

& raquo 1204 - Kruisvaarders ontslaan Konstantinopel tydens die vierde kruistog.

& raquo 1206 - Mongole verenig onder Genghis Khan (Temujin), wat groot dele van Eurasië verower. Kom later ooreen met Frederik II.

& raquo 1210 - Frans van Assisi ontmoet Pous Innocentius III stig die Orde van Klein Broeders (Franciskane).

& raquo 1215 - Magna Carta in Engeland. Dominicus van Osma (van Caleruega, Spanje) stig die Orde van Predikers (Dominikane of "Blackfriars"). Teen 1500 is dit die toonaangewende monnik- en onderrigorde op Sicilië, wat die Inkwisisie ondersteun.

& raquo 1217 - Predikant, vertaler en wetenskaplike Michael Scot (gebore 1175) vertaal & quotOn the Sphere & quot deur die Arabiese sterrekundige Al -Bitruji (of Alpetragius, wat omstreeks 1204 gesterf het).

& raquo 1221 - Universiteit van Napels gestig deur Frederick II.

& raquo 1223 - Na die teregstelling van die Arabiese rebelleleier Morabit (in 1222), word duisende Arabiere uit die Iato -gebied, wat saam met hul leier Ibn Abbad (of Benaveth) in opstand gekom het, na Lucera in Apulië gedeporteer. Baie Moslems het hulle al tot die Christendom bekeer, gewoonlik as Katoliek eerder as Ortodoks. Jode uit die besette Jerba (in Tunisië) is na Sicilië genooi.

& raquo 1229 - Frederik II, vergesel van Saracen -wagte en Siciliaanse en Duitse ridders, gaan op die sesde kruistog as koning van Jerusalem. Teken vrede met Moslems sonder oorlog.

& raquo 1230 - By sy terugkeer uit Jerusalem onderdruk Frederick die meeste Templar -voorskrifte en hospitaalkommandante in Sicilië ten gunste van Teutonic Knights.

& raquo 1231 - Grondwette van Melfi word wettige kode vir die Koninkryk Italië onder Frederik II.

& raquo 1233 - Katare van Frankryk vervolg as ketters deur die eerste inkwisisie.

& raquo 1240 - Ciullo van Alcamo komponeer poësie in Siciliaanse taal. Eerste uit 'n reeks opstande deur Siciliaanse Arabiere, waaronder 'n paar Christen -bekeerlinge, maar Frederick behou betroubare Saracen -wagte en hofbeamptes.

& raquo 1244 - Val van Jerusalem vir Moslems.

& raquo 1266 - Karel van Anjou (broer van Louis IX van Frankryk) word koning van Napels en Sicilië na die nederlaag van Manfred Hohenstaufen, natuurlike seun van Frederik II, in die Slag van Benevento. Young Conradin, 'n (wettige) kleinseun van Frederick II en laaste Swabiese eiser, word in 1268 tereggestel na die Slag van Tagliocozzo. Hohenstaufen keiserlyn het nou uitgesterf. Angevin tydperk begin. Teen hierdie tyd het die oorblywende Moslems van Sicilië hulle tot Katolisisme bekeer.

& raquo 1282 - Vespers -opstand verdryf Angevin Frans en maak Petrus van Aragon koning van Sicilië. Charles "Lame", seun en erfgenaam van Charles I, wat in 1284 as gyselaar in die vesting Cefal & ugrave opgesluit is.

& raquo 1285 - Die dood van Charles I. Charles & quotthe Lame & quot slaag as Charles II van Napels, maar regeer nie Sicilië nie.

& raquo 1302 - Vrede van Caltabellotta -verdrag wat onderteken is tussen Aragonese en Angevins.

& raquo 1321 - Dante Aligheri se Inferno (deel van sy Divine Comedy) noem verskeie pouse, Frederick II en Frederick se kanselier Pietro della Vigna (1190-1249).

& raquo 1353 - Giovanni Bocaccio's Decameron noem Palermo se Kuba -paleis en koning Willem II van Sicilië.

& raquo 1337 - Honderdjarige Oorlog het formeel tussen Engeland en Frankryk verklaar dat Engelse Frankryk in 1346 binneval.

& raquo 1347 - Skepe wat uit die oostelike Middellandse See na Messina aankom, bring builepes (Swart Dood) na Europa. Teen 1400 is meer as 20 miljoen Europeërs dood aan hierdie siekte.

& raquo 1377 - Chaos na die dood van koning Frederik IV tot die aankoms van sy dinastiese opvolger, koning Martin, duur voort tot in 1392. Chiaramonte-, Alagona-, Peralta- en Ventimiglia -gesinne (die & quotFour Vicars & quot) verower koninklike gesag. Andrea Chiaramonte het uiteindelik onthoof.

& raquo 1380 - Tatare verslaan in Kulikovo deur Russe onder bevel van Dimitri Donskoy (wat die bou van die Kremlin in 1367 voltooi het).

& raquo 1415 - Slag van Agincourt.

& raquo 1420 - Vroeë Renaissance (weerspieël in die bou van die katedraal van Florence) dui op veranderinge in kuns, argitektuur, letterkunde, musiek en filosofie.

& raquo 1428 - Francesco Laurana, beeldhouer van die vroeë Renaissance, vestig werkswinkel in Palermo.

& raquo 1442 - Siciliaanse en Napolitaanse krone verenig onder Alfonso V as "Twee Sicilië", hoewel Sicilië wettiglik 'n koninkryk is. Die koninkryk Sisilië is voortaan polities gekoppel aan die skiereiland Italië.

& raquo 1447 - Johannes Gutenberg bedink drukpers met behulp van roerende drukafdrukke in 1455. (Rudimentêre drukplate is vroeër in China ontwikkel, maar hierdie publikasie is die begin van massapublikasie.)

& raquo 1453 - Einde van die honderdjarige oorlog. Konstantinopel val op die Ottomane. Die einde van die Middeleeue dateer gewoonlik uit hierdie jaar, maar soms tot 1492 of 1500. Renaissance het begin. Die Siciliaans gebore Antonello da Messina is deel van hierdie nuwe beweging.

& raquo 1492 - Edik teen Jode dwing wydverspreide bekerings en emigrasies in 1493. Albanese vlugtelinge kom na Turkse invalle van die Balkan. Die Spaanse tydperk begin met die eenwording van die Spaanse Iberiese lande en duur tot 1700 in Sicilië. Inkwisisie is wyd bekendgestel in Spaanse beheerde lande, insluitend Sicilië. Columbus land in Amerika en begin massale Europese kolonisasie.

& raquo 1516 - Heilige Romeinse keiser Karel V, koning van Spanje en heerser in groot dele van Wes -Europa, word koning van Sicilië. Om hom te beskerm teen seeroweraanvalle en Ottomaanse aanvalle, verleen hy administrasie en bestuur van Malta aan die Orde van Sint Johannes in 1530 sonder om die soewereiniteitsbevel af te staan, jaarlikse feodale huldeblyk van 'n valk as vasaal tot uitsetting in 1798. Charles (1500-1558) is deur historici figuurlik gesê dat dit die laaste 'middeleeuse' koning van Europa is.


Die glorie van die Doriese tempel

Die Doriese struktuur is geleë op Monte Bàrbaro en kyk uit oor die skouspelagtige Golf van Castellammare. Slegs die omtrek van die tempel is ooit gebou, maar dit is selfs na 2500 jaar 'n baie indrukwekkende openbare monument.

Hierdie tempel is 'n klassieke voorbeeld van Doriese argitektuur en is 200 voet lank en 85 voet breed (61 x 26 m). Elke lengte van die tempel het veertien kolomme, wat in 'n uitstekende staat van bewaring is en die hele tempel bestaan ​​uit 'n totaal van 36 kolomme. Al die kolomme is groot en afneembaar en bedek met 'n konvekse hoofstad wat die gewig daarop gedra het. The frieze resting on the capitals was decorated with panels of vertical lines and geometric designs. The temple was once brightly painted and would have been seen for miles around.

The sacred building was never roofed and had no altar, elements one would expect in a classic Doric design. Archaeologists, however, have unearthed a 4 th century Punic tomb in the temple.


DNA Study Pinpoints When The Ancient Greeks Colonized Sicily And Italy

Priestesses follow the flame during the lighting ceremony for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Games at the . [+] temple of Hera in Ancient Olympia, western Greece, on Thursday, Oct. 22, 2009. (AP Photo/Thanassis Stavrakis)

Archaeologists have long known of Greek colonization of Magna Graecia, the name given to the coastal areas of Southern Italy and Sicily, thanks to artifacts and historical records. Somewhere around the 8th century BC, Greeks came in droves to settle Magna Graecia, bringing with them traces of a civilization that heavily influenced ancient Rome. While the cultural contribution of these Greeks to southern Italy is clear, researchers have argued for years about their biological contribution. New DNA research, though, purports to have solved the mystery: an influx of a few thousand men and a few hundred women in the Archaic period may have been enough to effect Hellenic colonization of Magna Graecia.

Writing in the European Journal of Human Genetics this week, an international team of scientists laid out their case for the origins of people in Magna Graecia. The hypotheses about colonization in this area are drawn from archaeological, historical, and demographic data, but they hardly agree. Lead author Sergio Tofanelli and colleagues explain that there are "scenarios ranging from a colonization process based on small groups of males moderately admixing with autochthonous [indigenous] groups. to substantial migrations from Greece and a Hellenic origin for a significant part of the pre-Roman Italian population."

Ancient Greek colonies in Magna Graecia and their dialect groupings. (Image in the public domain, . [+] via wikimedia commons.)

Previous DNA analyses have been interpreted to bolster various hypotheses as well. Tofanelli and colleagues find fault with these studies of Greek colonization primarily because those studies used specific lineages or haplotypes as markers of colonization, and these contemporary genomes may not accurately reflect the genes that were present in ancient populations. To counter this, Tofanelli and colleagues used both Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analysis and created demographic models to simulate genetic change over time. In particular, they looked for robust gene signatures for Greek contributions to Italy and Sicily, they tested alternative models, and they looked at the relative contributions of males versus females to find out more about the colonizing population.

Over 800 people native to the areas of Euboea and Corinth, where archaeologists and historians think the first wave of colonizers came from, along with people whose families were native to Sicily and southern Italy, had their DNA sequenced. When the researchers analyzed the Y chromosome data and modeled the typical mutation rate over the centuries, they "recovered a signature of the Greek Contribution to Sicily during the Archaic Period" or between the 8th and 5th centuries BC. More specifically, this wave of colonists likely arrived in East Sicily first and then dispersed into West Sicily and South Italy. "Despite the multiple alternative explanations for historical gene flow," they write, "it is relevant to stress here that a signature specifically related to the Euboea island in East Sicily was consistently found at different levels of analysis, in line with the historical and archaeological evidence, attesting to an extended and numerically important Greek presence in this region."

AGRIGENTO, ITALY - OCTOBER 20: A general view of Temple of Hera in the Valle dei Templi Park of . [+] Agrigento on October 20, 2013. Agrigento (Akragas in Greek) was a rich Greek colony, founded in western Sicily in the 6th century BC. (Photo by Tullio M. Puglia/Getty Images)

Historians and demographers have also debated just how large the migration population was when they arrived in Magna Graecia. Walter Scheidel, professor of classics and ancient history at Stanford University, has estimated from a demographic perspective that the founding population was likely around 20,000 to 60,000 males. But if Tofanelli and colleagues' supposition that East Sicily was colonized first is correct, this "points to the lower end of the size spectrum proposed by historical demographers, with values in the order of thousands [of] breeding men and [a] few hundred breeding women," they write.

"A settler population of 5,000 males, mating with local women, would have had to grow by more than 1% per year for several centuries," Scheidel says in response to Tofanelli and colleagues' conclusions. This is substantial and out of character for the ancient world, particularly considering the ancient Greeks were not polygamous. "Maybe growth rates were higher than we think," Scheidel suggests, "but their settler numbers seem very small. This would translate to just a few dozen ships full of Greeks, over a considerable period of time, which is problematic. It's hard for me to see how a few thousand settlers could have produced the large Greek population we see in Sicily a few centuries later."

5th century BC Greek coins from Tarentum, an ancient Greek colony in the Magna Graecia area of . [+] Italy. (Image from the Classical Numismatic Group, used under a CC-BY-SA 3.0 unported license via wikimedia commons.)

The lopsided population that Tofanelli and colleagues reconstruct could also mean that "the migration and settlement process was driven by males," which is interesting because "this is one of the few cases of sex-biased gene flow skewed towards an increased male instead of female contribution," the authors conclude. However, the different male and female contributions to the DNA of East Sicilians could instead be related to patrilocality, or the cultural phenomenon where men stay near their birthplace while women leave the group to find spouses elsewhere.

This study is the first to use a full set of haplotypes and therefore provides better coverage of possible DNA links than previous studies. The authors caution, though, against accepting this study at face value, because more DNA studies would be needed to develop stronger conclusions about ancestry. As a study of modern DNA, this paper provides a strong research design, but testing ancient DNA would be even more helpful. Whether or not skeletal collections exist and whether or not those Archaic-period bones would produce collagen of high enough quality to be DNA sequenced, however, are questions that still need to be answered. Tofanelli and colleagues have credibly shown that modern DNA evidence backs up historical and archaeological information about the Greek colonization of Magna Graecia. Ancient DNA work may settle the question once and for all.


Ancient Sicily - History

The symbol of Trinacria is now known because in the flag of Sicily and that of the Island of Man. Its history is complex and in some ways still shrouded in mystery, or at least in indeterminacy, as it relates to mythology. The Trinacria, symbol of Sicily, is composed of the head of the Gorgon, whose hair is entwined serpents with ears of corn, from which radiate the three legs bent at the knee. The Gorgon is a mythological figure who, according to the Greek poet Hesiod (VIII - early VII century B.C.), was each of the three daughters of Ceto and Phorcys, two gods of the sea: Medusa (the Gorgon for excellence), Stheno ("strong"), Euryale ("the large").

They had boar tusks, hands of bronze, golden wings, snakes on the head and in waist, lived at the Hesperides (daughters of Atlas, they lived in the Isle of the Blessed, in the westernmost part of the world) and were able, with a glance, to petrify men. The ears of wheat are the symbol of the fertility of the land. The three legs represent the three promontories of Sicily - cape Pelorus (or tip of Faro, Messina: North-East), cape Passero (Syracuse: South), cape Lilibeo (Marsala: West) - whose arrangement is made explicit in the Greek word triskeles and is linked to the geographic meaning: treis (three) and akra (capes): from which, also in Latin, triquetra (three peaks).

The arrangement of the three legs, suggesting a rotation, led the researchers to go back to the Eastern religious symbols, in particular that of Baal, god of Time (in whose monument at Vaga (Beja, Tunisia), over the bull, there is a trinacria) - or that of the Moon, where the three legs are replaced by scythes. In the Asia Minor, between the sixth and fourth centuries BC, the Trinacria was engraved on the coins of various cities, in ancient regions such as: Aspendo (in Panfilia, on the eastern Mediterranean), Berrito and Tebe (in Troade: territory around the city of Troy, between the Scamander and the Hellespont), Olba (in Cilicia, between Armenia and Syria) and in some cities of Lycia (South-West, close to the sea).

The symbol of Trinacria was also used in Crete, Macedonia, and in Celtiberian Spain (area north-central), despite the lack of references to the local geographical situation. Homer, in the Odyssey , alluding to the shape of Sicily, uses the term Thrinakie , which comes from thrinax (three peaks). The thesis on the origins of trinacria has a substantial reference in the history of ancient Greece. The Spartan fighters carving in their shields a white leg bent at the knee: a symbol of strength. This image is in the paintings of ancient vases and is also in a monograph on the subject written in 1863 by the German philosopher KW Goettling.

The Normans, arrived in Sicily in 1072, exported the Trinacria in the Isle of Man, who chose it as a symbol to replace the previous one - a vessel - of Scandinavian origin. An example of the symbolic importance of the Trinacria in the history of Sicily has had on August 30th of 1302 with the establishment of the Island in the Kingdom of Trinacria, following the Peace Treaty of Caltabellotta, at the conclusion of the War of the Sicilian Vespers, that saw the conflict between the Angevins and the Sicilian allies with the Aragonese. The sovereignty of the Kingdom of Trinacria was formally assigned to Frederick II of Aragon (1227-1337), in fact, however, was independent from the rest of the Aragonese dominions in southern Italy.

The Trinacria is also present in the coats of arms of several noble dynasties the Stuarts of Albany in England (perhaps from their dominion over the islands in the Irish Sea, including the Isle of Man), the Rabensteiner (France), the Schanke (Denmark), the Drocomir (Poland) and that of Joachim Murat, King of Naples and Sicily, at the beginning of the Nineteenth century. The Trinacria is at the center of the flag of Sicily, red and yellow diagonally, officially approved in January 2000. The law states that the Sicilian flag is exposed to the outside of the Sicilian Parliament, Regional Government, Provincial Councils and Municipal Councils, Educational institutions of each levels, and the buildings used as polling stations on the occasion of the elections for the Sicilian Parliament.


Flag of Sicily

Flag of Isle of Man


* Ninni Radicini has written and published articles on Greece and Germany (political-electoral-historical area). Articles on other topics have been published on various periodicals. He has written and published reviews and prefaces to books. Co-author of the book La Grecia contemporanea (1974-2006) .

The Viceroys (novel by Federico De Roberto)
Federico De Roberto's choice to write the The Viceroys (it. I Vicer ) is the demonstration of the notable importance of Sicily in the Italian post-unification historical whole. Developed on a plot of relationships in the noble Uzeda dynasty. The title of the novel refers to the denomination attributed to the regents of the Spanish government in the Kingdom of Sicily from 1412 to 1759. With the institution of the Viceroy of Sicily (Virrey de Sicilia) a special union was established between the Kingdom of Sicily and the King of Aragon - in an individual sense - without the Kingdom of Sicily becoming part of the Aragonese domains.
Review by Ninni Radicini

Planet of the Apes 1968 | 2018
In 1968, in cinemas arrives Planet of the Apes, whose narrative development is such as to rise above the science fiction genre to which it is ascribed. It is derived from the novel La Plan te des singes, by the French writer Pierre Boulle, published in 1963.
Review by Ninni Radicini

Maria Callas: From the stage of the Opera, a modern legend
In the recurrence of forty years after the death of Maria Callas (Maria Anna Sofia Cecilia Kalogeropoulos, New York City, 02 December 1923 - Paris, 16 September 1977), An exhibition in Greece, in Athens, at the B&M Theocharakis Foundation, celebrates her relevance as a personality in the history and culture of the Twentieth century.
Article by Ninni Radicini

From the loser's side. Eine Geschichte im Flu der Erinnerungen (Novel by Nidia Robba)
Wirtschaftswunder , the economic miracle that has characterized the contemporary history of Germany and in general of the German area (including Austria) starts from the early 50s, having its prodrome at the end of the previous decade when, immediately after the conclusion of the Second World War, the German people had to start reconstruction.
The road to infinity (Preface by Ninni Radicini)


Syracuse / Siracusa

The Greek theatre in the Archeological Park, one of the most celebrated of all the ruins of Syracuse. With its 138 metre in diameter, it is the largest Greek theatre in Sicily. To the right you see preparations for the evening's performance of Verdi's Aida.

Photo: Per-Erik Skramstad / Wonders of Sicily

Beskrywing: Sicily, Syracuse AV Dilitron. Emergency issue of the Second Democracy, winter 406/5 BC. Obverse die signed by 'IM. '. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with serpent, palmette and elaborate spiral tendrils, [ΣΥΡΑΚΟΣΙΩΝ before, IM below truncation of neck] / Aegis with gorgoneion at centre. Boehringer, Essays Thompson, pl. 38, 12 = Hess Leu Sale (27 March 1956), lot 210 (same obverse die) Manhattan Sale I, 28 (same dies). 1.76g, 10mm, 7h. Near Mint State. Extremely Rare one of very few known specimens - only one other on CoinArchives. Ex Roma Numismatics XI, 7 April 2016, lot 114.

The year 406 marked a desperate time for the Greeks in Sicily. A great Carthaginian invasion of Sicily had commenced in the Spring to punish the Greeks for having raided the Punic territories of Motya and Panormos. 60,000 soldiers under Hannibal Mago in 1,000 transports along with 120 triremes sailed for Sicily, where despite a plague that ravaged the ranks of the Carthaginian army and felled its commander, they successfully besieged and sacked Akragas, the wealthiest of all the cities of Sicily. After razing the city to the ground, the Carthaginians under their new commander Himilco marched east to Gela. Despite a spirited defence of the city by the defenders and the arrival of a relief force of 34,000 men and 50 triremes under Dionysios of Syracuse, the city fell after a poorly coordinated and unsuccessful attack launched by the Greeks. As Dionysios retreated from Gela first to Kamarina and then back to Syracuse, both of these now indefensible cities were sacked and levelled by Himilco's forces. It was against this backdrop of a desperate fight for survival that many emergency coinages were issued in Sicily. Gold was scarce in the Greek world and tended to be used only for emergency coinages, as in that famous instance when Athens in the last decade of the fifth century resorted to melting the gold from the statues of Nike on the Akropolis when cut off from their silver mines at Laurion. Gela, Akragas, Kamarina and Syracuse all issued emergency gold coinage in 406/5 BC, without doubt to pay the mercenaries they had hired in their doomed resistance to Himilco. The master engraver 'IM. ' responsible for this coin is also known to have engraved Syracusan tetradrachms around this period (see Tudeer 67). Thanks a lot to Roma Numismatics!

Beskrywing: Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 480/78-475 BC. Charioteer driving walking quadriga right, holding kentron and reins Nike above, flying right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring and necklace, hair tied with pearl headband ΣVRΑΚΟΣΙΟΝ and four dolphins around. Boehringer 330 (V163/R229). 16.83g, 24mm, 11h. Goed. Very Fine. Thanks a lot to Roma Numismatics!

Silver tetradrachm coin, Siracusa, about 470 BC. Britse museum.

Photo: Per-Erik Skramstad / Wonders of Sicily

Coin from Syracuse, circa 305-289 BC.
Description: Sicily, Syracuse AV 40 Litrai. Circa 305-289 BC. Head of Apollo left, wearing laurel wreath / Charioteer, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left, driving galloping biga right triskeles below horses, monogram in exergue. Jameson 859 var. (Q in exergue) Bérend, l’or pl. 9, 11 BAR Issue 30 SNG ANS 706 var. (Q in exergue) SNG Lloyd 1474 var. (T in exergue) Gulbenkian 337 cf. Triton VII, January 2004, lot 110. 2.83g, 12mm, 1h. Very Rare. Extremely Fine.
Source: Roma Numismatics Ltd (with permission)

Coin from Syracuse from the time of Hieron I, circa 485-480 BC
Description: Sicily, Syracuse AR Tetradrachm. Deinomenid Tyranny. Time of Hieron I, circa 485-480 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron and reins, driving walking quadriga right above, Nike flying to right, crowning horses / Head of Arethusa right, wearing earring, necklace and headband, her hair tied in a krobylos ?VR?K. and four dolphins around. Boehringer 69 (V33/R45) Randazzo 244 SNG ANS -. 17.36g, 25mm, 5h. Near Very Fine.
Source: Roma Numismatics Ltd (with permission)

The Italian chef Giorgio Locatelli tells of his soft spot for Sicily: "The island has so many magical places: the ancient amphitheatres of Syracuse the little town of Erice, where there are more churches than houses the Norman cathedral of Monreale. Die Villa Romana del Casale, just outside the town of Piazza Armerina, has an incredible collection of Roman mosaics. They include beautiful mosaics of girls in bikinis. Romans! In bikinis! My kids thought that was so funny they loved it."
Read more in The Guardian

The Latomie of Syracuse is the limestone quarries later used for prisons. Now it is a tropical garden full of local and exotic plant species. The main attractions are the grottos Ear of Dionysos (Orecchio di Dionisio) and Grotta dei Cordari (now closed for security reasons).

Fonte Aretusa

Fonte Aretusa, one of the most famous fresh-water sources of the Greek world. The pond was built in 1843.

Photo: Per-Erik Skramstad / Wonders of Sicily

The story of Arethusa (Ovid: The Metamorphoses V:572-641

Calliope sings: Arethusa’s story “Ceres, kindly now, happy in the return of her daughter, asks what the cause of your flight was, Arethusa, and why you are now a sacred fountain. The waters fall silent while their goddess lifts her head from the deep pool, and wringing the water from her sea-green tresses, she tells of the former love of that river of Elis. ‘I was one of the nymphs, that lived in Achaia,’ she said ‘none of them keener to travel the woodland, none of them keener to set out the nets. But, though I never sought fame for my beauty, though I was wiry, my name was, the beautiful. Nor did my looks, praised too often, give me delight. I blushed like a simpleton at the gifts of my body, those things that other girls used to rejoice in. I thought it was sinful to please. Tired (I remember), I was returning, from the Stymphalian woods. It was hot, and my efforts had doubled the heat. I came to a river, without a ripple, hurrying on without a murmur, clear to its bed, in whose depths you could count every pebble: you would scarce think it moving. Silvery willows and poplars, fed by the waters, gave a natural shade to the sloping banks. Approaching I dipped my toes in, then as far as my knees, and not content with that I undressed, and draped my light clothes on a hanging willow, and plunged, naked, into the stream. While I gathered the water to me and splashed, gliding around in a thousand ways, and stretching out my arms to shake the water from them, I thought I heard a murmur under the surface, and, in fear, I leapt for the nearest bank of the flood. ‘What are you rushing for, Arethusa?’ Alpheus called from the waves. ‘Why are you rushing?’ He called again to me, in a strident voice. Just as I was, I fled, without my clothes (I had left my clothes on the other bank): so much the more fiercely he pursued and burned, and being naked, I seemed readier for him. So I ran, and so he wildly followed, as doves fly from a hawk on flickering wings, as a hawk is used to chasing frightened doves. Even beyond Orchemenus, I still ran, by Psophis, and Cyllene, and the ridges of Maenalus, by chill Erymanthus, Elis, he no quicker than I. But I could not stay the course, being unequal in strength: he was fitted for unremitting effort. Still, across the plains, over tree-covered mountains, through rocks and crags, and where there was no path, I ran. The sun was at my back. I saw a long shadow stretching before my feet, unless it was my fear that saw it, but certainly I feared the sound of feet, and the deep breaths from his mouth stirred the ribbons in my hair. Weary with the effort to escape him, I cried out ‘Help me: I will be taken. Diana, help the one who bore your weapons for you, whom you often gave your bow to carry, and your quiver with all its arrows!’ The goddess was moved, and raising an impenetrable cloud, threw it over me. The river-god circled the concealing fog, and in ignorance searched about the hollow mist. Twice, without understanding, he rounded the place, where the goddess had concealed me, and twice called out ‘Arethusa, O Arethusa!’ What wretched feelings were mine, then? Perhaps those the lamb has when it hears the wolves, howling round the high fold, or the hare, that, hidden in the briars, sees the dogs hostile muzzles, and does not dare to make a movement of its body? He did not go far: he could see no signs of my tracks further on: he observed the cloud and the place. Cold sweat poured down my imprisoned limbs, and dark drops trickled from my whole body. Wherever I moved my foot, a pool gathered, and moisture dripped from my hair, and faster than I can now tell the tale I turned to liquid. And indeed the river-god saw his love in the water, and putting off the shape of a man he had assumed, he changed back to his own watery form, and mingled with mine. The Delian goddess split the earth, and plunging down into secret caverns, I was brought here to Ortygia, dear to me, because it has the same name as my goddess, the ancient name, for Delos, where she was born, and this was the first place to receive me, into the clear air.’ ” (Translated by A. S. Kline © 2000 All Rights Reserved This work may be freely reproduced, stored, and transmitted, electronically or otherwise, for any non-commercial purpose.)


Early days and Greek rule

Die island of Ortygia, where the old town of Syracuse is located, was the nucleus of ancient Syracuse. Siculi and Phoenicians had settled here from the 10 th Century B.C. before being expelled by Greek colonists from Corinth in 734 B.C.. The Greeks turned the city in the next two centuries into the largest city in the Greek world. According to ancient reports, half a million people lived in Syracuse in the 5 th Century B.C. In 485 B.C. Gelon from Gela conquered the city and made Syracuse the capital of an Eastern Sicilian state. Syracuse was the dominant power in Sicily and, controlled by tyrants, scored important victories against the Carthaginians and even Athens.


Lots of ethnic groups have influenced the history of Sicily. External authorities such as Greek, Ostrogoth, Islamic, Byzantine Greek, Norman, Spanish, Carthaginian, Phoenician, and Aragones have ruled Sicily from history. Several times of independence were documented, e.g., under the Elymians, Sicels, and Sicanians, later as the Kingdom of Sicily and County of Sicily.

Who Founded the Sicilian Kingdom?

Roger II, a member of the Hauteville family (Siculo-Norman), founded this Kingdom in 1130. At this time, there was evident prosperity and political authority for the Kingdom, becoming one of Europe’s richest states. The Kingdom later passed on to Hohenstaufen due to dynastic succession.

The Island also passed to Aragon in the thirteenth century, during the Sicilian Vespers’ war (Aragon and Anjou). The Kingdom kept its independence in 1816, after making a treaty with the Bourbon and Spaniard crowns. It has its own unique culture today, even as it stands as an Autonomous region of Italy’s republic.

Sicily is the biggest region of present-day Italy and the biggest Island in the Mediterranean Sea. It stands worthy of note that Its position and endowment make it crucial as a trade hub. For instance, Palermo and Syracuse were described by al-Idrisi and Cicero as the greatest cities of the Hellenistic World in the Middle ages.

Geography and trade practices have greatly influenced the economy of Sicily. For instance, its estates were used to cultivate cereal, the practice of animal husbandry, etc. All these were built in the fourteenth century and continued until the second world war.

The Island has always been fluctuating between being the centre of notable civilizations and subjected to colonial forces. There were crest and trough periods for this Kingdom due to circumstances beyond her control throughout history.

At the onset of the Kingdom, it was highly attractive to immigrants, but it was nothing but a land of emigrants towards its end.

Prehistory of Sicily

The Greek writers of old described Sicily’s people as the Sicani, the Sicels (the origin of the Island’s name), the Elymians, or the Siculi. There is a high possibility that the Sicani tribe was initially Iberian. The Elymi might also have distant beginnings from the outskirts of Italy, in the Aegean Sea region.

The recent discovery of dolmens brought about a greater view and perspective of Sicily’s people. These dolmens were discovered in the second half of the millennium (BC), giving a rich peek into the primitive tribe’s rich culture.

Good prehistory has been a part of this tribe, and it is hard to flow within the cluster of peoples that have been in succession. Two influences have made the greatest impact on this tribe – The Mediterranean and the Europeans from the North-West.

One of the major European players was the Beaker culture they were Pro-Celtic people. They are the bearers of the dolmens’ culture and were recently discovered to date as far back as the Neolithic Bronze Age. From the 1300BC, highly-organized urban settlements became evident.

Having begun colonies in the North African parts close by, the Phoenicians started to dwell in western Sicily in the 11th century BC. Certain settlements of Phoenicia were discovered at Soloeis (Solunto) after the dawn of a century. These settlements automatically came under the influence of the Phoenician Carthage as it rose in power.

The Classical Age

Grieke

In the 8 th century BC, the Greeks colonized Sicily. It was limited initially to the southern and easter sides of the Island. In 734 BC, at Syracuse, the most important colony was established. Himera, Selinunte, Akragas, Kamarina, Gela, Zancle, and Messina were the other important Greek colonies.

These Greek colonies were a crucial part of Greek civilization (classical), having Sicily as a part of Magna Grecia. It is good to note that Archimedes and Empedocles were citizens of Sicily.

Democratic rule flourished in Sicily, but the narrative changed due to their constant war against Carthage and social stress. In these periods, many tyrants took over leadership, including Dionysius the elder, Hiero, Dionysius the Younger, and Gelo.

Sicanian and Sicels were forced to move to the Island centre due to the growing Phoenician and Greek communities’ encroachment. Syracuse became the most populated city in the world by the 3 rd century BC. Sicilian politics was blended into Greece, leading Athens, e.g., to embark on the Sicilian expedition during the Peloponnesian War in 415 BC.

The Greeks had a clash with the Punic trading communities, which were now a protectorate of Carthage. These people’s capital was on the African mainland, not too distant from the southwest region of the Island. In the 8 th century BC, Palermo was a Carthaginian city, with its name being Sis or Zis (“Panormos” to the people of Greece).

The far west city of Lilybaeum, now called Marsala, was not properly Hellenized. In the first and second wars of Sicily, Carthage has had authority over Sicily’s eastern regions governed by Syracuse. Until the centuries that ensued, the dichotomy between the Greek east and the Carthaginian west remained unstable.

Punic Wars

Regular clashes and warfare between the city-states of the Greeks and the Carthage led ultimately to the intrusion of a third power. The first Punic war that ensued between Carthage and Rome came about due to Roman intervention of Sicilian affairs after the Messinian crisis. In this war of the 3rd century, dispatched forces to Hiero II, which was the military leader of the city-states of Greek.

In other to control Sicily, the Romans and the Carthage declared war against each other Rome also fought for the people of Messina. This war was mainly water-based, in which the people of Carthage were at a greater advantage. The Carthage people leader was a general named Hamilcar, fondly called Barca (lightning) as a result of his swift attacks on the Romans’ supply lines.

The Romans used moveable planks to hide their naval weakness, invade enemy ships, and force the hand to hand combat. Even with this strategy, they still struggled because they lacked a talented general. Being greedy, the Carthaginian government believed that Hamilcar could win on his own and hoarded wealth, war supplies, and reinforcements.

The limited supplies from the Carthaginian government made things tough for Hamilcar and his mercenaries. It forced Hamilcar to withdraw after his victory at Drepana in 249 BC. After the Romans had mastered how to fight on the water in 241 BC, the Carthaginians surrendered.

The End of The War

When the war ended in 242 BC, following the death of Hiero II, the whole of Sicily, excluding Syracuse, was under Roman control. It became the first province of Rome away from the Italian peninsula.

In 228 BC, during combat, Hamilcar died Hannibal, his third son, led the military after Hamilcar’s son Hasdrubal’s death. Hannibal was more aggressive in his battle style, as seen when he laid siege to Saguntum, a city in alliance with Rome. It began the second war, where Hannibal had many victories in the early days.

His father’s same limitation regarding battle supplies and reinforcements was a similar limitation for him and his mercenaries.

Also, Scipio, the Roman general discovered that launching an attack on Carthage itself would make Hannibal drawback is troops. Hannibal convinced the Senate to surrender after the loss at the Zama battle in 202. Most of the Sicilian cities revolted against Rome after the success of the Carthaginians in the Second Punic war.

The Rebellion

During the rebellion, Rome deployed troops to settle the situation, during which Archimedes was killed. After that, Carthage regained control over regions of Sicily but was driven off at the end. M. Valerius, the Roman consul, instructed the Roman Senate not to spare the lives of any Sicilian in the city.

The third war, which was the final one, was the shortest of all three, it was also the most sided as well. Carthage had to pay additional debts after losing the battle against Numidia, located in modern-day Algeria. The Roman Senate concluded that Carthage posed a great threat as their permission was not sought.

The third Punic war started in 149BC when the Carthaginians did not destroy the city. This conflict only remained for three years with the city being besieged by Romans and fell. These conflicts help to spread Roman rule and potentiate their authority over Sicily.

Romeinse tydperk

Sicily for 6oo years became a province of the Republic of Rome and afterwards became an Empire. The city served as the chief supplier of grains and other foods for the city of Rome until after the battle of Actinum. Little efforts were made to Romanize this region, but it remained largely Greek.

A memorable event of this time was the misgovernment of Verres which was recorded by Cicero in 70BC during his oration in Verrem. One other notable event was the Sicilian revolt which relieved the Island from the rule of Rome transiently under Sextus Pompeius.

A major impact of the occupation of Rome on the Island was in the economic and agricultural sectors, where landed estates were established. These landed estates were a usual property of the Roman nobles.

Through the poet Calpurnius Siculus and the historian Didorus Siculus, Sicily made a great contribution to the culture of Rome. In Piazza Armerina today lies the mosaics of the villa of a nobleman, which was is the most popular archaeological remains. There is an inscription from the reign of Hadrian which praises the emperor as the Restorer of Sicily.

One of the first Christian communities in Sicily was found during this period. Saint Lucy of Syracuse and Saint Agatha of Catania were among the first Christian martyrs recorded.

Vroeë Middeleeue

Germanic and Byzantine Period

The Franks tribe conquered Syracuse in 280AD while the Empire of Roman was falling. After that, a Germanic tribe known as the Vandals captured Sicily in 440-AD under the reign of Genseric, their king. These vandals entered the Empire, crossing the Rhine the final night of 406 accompanied by the other three tribes.

They stayed put in Gaul up until October 409 when they went into Spain and stayed there till 429, crossing to North Africa. Since the Romans were not able to defeat them, they ceded two provinces of Mauretania and the western part of Numidia in 435. They, however, seized the rest of the provinces of Rome in October 439, integrating themselves as a relevant western European power.

These vandals laid hold on Corsica and Sardina in 455 after sacking Rome and kept this authority till 533. Odoacer, so as to pay tribute to the Vandals, gained most regions of Sicily. After repelling a Vandal invasion in 491, Theodoric took control of the whole Island.

Theodoric also seized the remaining Lilybaeum outpost, found on the western side of the Island.

The war between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire), was called the Gothic war. The first region of Italy to be conquered was Sicily by general Belisarius who was installed by Justinian the Eastern Emperor. The Byzantines used Sicily as the base to conquer Rome, Milan, Naples, remainder parts of Italy, and Ravenna the Ostrogoth capital.

Totila, the newly installed Ostrogoth King, driving down the peninsula of Italy, conquered and plundered Sicily in 550. In 552, Narses the Byzantine general defeated and put Totila to death in the Taginae Battle.

Syracuse emerged as the Byzantium’s major western outpost after the fall of Ravenna to the Lombards during the sixth century. The Greek rites of the church of the east were adopted, and Latin was slowly exchanged for Greek to be the national language.

The year after he launched an attack on against the Lomabard Dutchy of Benevento from Sicily, Constans II the Byzantine Emperor moved the capital to Syracuse in 663. This capital (formerly Constantinople), occupied the greater part of Southern Italy. Constans was murdered in 668 probably due to the rumours of moving the capital and the small raids that ensued. Constantine IV, his son, was his successor, who suppressed the short usurpation of power in Sicily by Mizizios.

History of Sicily joined with Calabria to create the Byzantine Theme of Sicily.


4. The Maya Civilization

Civilization Name: Maya civilization
Period: 2600 BC–900 AD
Original Location: Around present-day Yucatan
Current Location: Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas in Mexico and south through Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras
Major Highlights: Complex understanding of astronomy

The ancient Maya civilization flourished in Central America from about 2600 BC and has been much talked about because of the calendar it introduced. Once established, the Mayan civilization went on to prosper and become highly sophisticated with a booming population of about 19 million at its peak. By 700 BC, the Mayans had already devised their own system of writing which they used to create solar calendars carved in stone. According to them, the world was created on August 11, 3114 BC, which is the date from which their calendar begins. The supposed end date was December 21, 2012.

The ancient Mayans were culturally rich compared to many of their contemporary civilizations, and the Mayans and Aztecs both built pyramids, many of which are larger than those in Egypt. But the sudden decline and abrupt end of the Mayans has long been one of ancient history’s most intriguing mysteries: Why did the Mayans, a remarkably sophisticated civilization made up of more than 19 million people, suddenly collapse sometime during the eighth or ninth century? The Maya people did not disappear completely however their descendants still live in parts of Central America.


Sicily: Culture and Conquest

Great Russell Street, London WC1B 3DG

In collaboration with Regione Siciliana, Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell’Identità Siciliana

Tickets £10.00, children under 16 free

Booking fees apply online and by phone

Besigheidstye

Saturday –Thursday 10.00–17.30

Last entry 80 minutes before closing time.

The British Museum is also running a series of lectures and public events throughout the duration of the exhibition. More information is available from their Press Office or via:


Kyk die video: Сирийская цивилизация. Древняя история Сирии. Кто создал Сирию? (Julie 2022).


Kommentaar:

  1. Fath

    Wen opsie :)

  2. Nodens

    Ek wens geluk, die uitstekende gedagte

  3. Jedaiah

    Ek is eindig, ek vra om verskoning, maar dit is heeltemal anders en nie dat ek dit nodig het nie.

  4. Kigajar

    Is dit ongeëwenaard?

  5. Shaaban

    Dankie vir die hulp met hierdie vraag.



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