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James IV van Skotland: verhale uit die verlede van Skotland

James IV van Skotland: verhale uit die verlede van Skotland

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James IV van Skotland Stories uit Skotland se verlede. Koning James IV van Skotland was die laaste koning wat op die slagveld in Brittanje gesterf het. Hy was die laaste in 'n lang ry regeerders, veral uit Skotland, wat op so 'n manier hul einde bereik het. Jakobus IV word algemeen beskou as die suksesvolste van die Stewart -monarge van Skotland, maar sy bewind het geëindig in 'n rampspoedige nederlaag tydens die Slag van Flodden. James IV is in 1503 getroud met Margaret Tudor wat die koningshuise van Skotland en Engeland verbind het. Dit het gelei tot die Unie van die Krone in 1603. James IV het 'n hartseer en skandelike einde gehad, want hy was een van Skotland se mees charismatiese krygskonings.


Die koning van Skotland se eienaardige taaleksperiment

Die klein eiland Inchkeith, ongeveer 5 kilometer noord van Edinburgh in die middel van Scotland's Firth of Forth, het 'n lang en onstuimige geskiedenis gehad. In die 12de eeu is die eiland die eerste keer gebruik as 'n stop vir bote en veerbote wat van Edinburgh na Fife vaar. Twee eeue later het Inchkeith se posisie dit strategies nuttig gemaak tydens die Skotse onafhanklikheidsoorloë, en dit is herhaaldelik aangeval deur indringende Engelse troepe tydens die lang Anglo-Skotse oorloë. In die 15de eeu is dit gebruik om siekes in kwarantyn te plaas tydens 'n uitbraak van die "aansteeklike siekte callit the grandgor" (sifilis) in die nabygeleë Edinburgh, en weer tydens 'n uitbraak van die pes 100 jaar later. Maar die mees ongewone gebeurtenis in die geskiedenis van die eiland het moontlik in 1493 plaasgevind toe die Skotse koning James IV besluit het om die eiland te gebruik as die plek van 'n bisarre en wrede taalontnemingseksperiment.

Van al die konings van Skotland word James IV onthou as 'n ware Renaissance-man: goed opgelei en natuurlik nuuskierig, hy was dol oor geskiedenis, kuns, poësie en letterkunde, en was geïnteresseerd in mediese vooruitgang en wetenskaplike verligting. Tydens sy bewind het hy beskermheer geword vir 'n aantal noemenswaardige Skotse skrywers en makars (bards), studeer tandheelkunde en chirurgie, het 'n lisensie vir die eerste drukwerke in Skotland ontvang en het verskeie hofalkemiste en apteke befonds om hul eksperimente onder sy toesig uit te voer. Een van James se bekendste alchemiste, John Damian, sou selfs die geld van die koning gebruik het om 'n stel hoenderveervlerke in die grootte van die mens te bou, waarmee hy homself van die parapars van Stirling Castle af gelanseer het en beweer dat hy hy kon natuurlik nie na Frankryk vlieg nie, maar hy het misluk en hy het na bewering 'n gebreekte been gelaat nadat hy 'n paar verdiepings lank in 'n mishoop geval het.

Van al die intellektuele belange van die koning was sy liefde vir taal egter miskien die belangrikste. Daar word beweer dat James die laaste Skotse monarg was wat sowel Skots -Gaelies as Engels gepraat het, maar hy was ook magtig Latyn, Frans, Duits, Italiaans, Vlaams en Spaans, wat die Spaanse gesant vir Groot -Brittanje, Pedro de Ayala, , het koning Ferdinand van Spanje in kennis gestel dat hy 'sowel as die markies' gepraat het, hoewel hy dit duideliker uitspreek.

Dit was James se liefde vir tale, gekombineer met sy natuurlike nuuskierigheid en empirisme, wat hom skynbaar daartoe gelei het om sy eienaardige eksperiment te bedink: In 1493 het die koning beveel dat twee pasgebore babas gestuur word om op die geïsoleerde eiland Inchkeith te gaan grootmaak. 'n dowe stomme vrou. Sy doel was om te sien watter taal (indien enige) die kinders aanleer, want sonder enige ander taalkundige insette het hy geglo dat hierdie taal, wat dit ook al mag wees, sekerlik die aangebore, godgegewe taal van die mensdom moet wees.

Eksperimente met taalontneming presies soos hierdie het 'n lang geskiedenis - een van die vroegste is opgeteken in die werke van die Griekse historikus Herodotus, wat geskryf het dat die Egiptiese farao Psamtik in die 7de eeu vC twee babas gestuur het om by 'n herder te woon in een van die mees geïsoleerde dele van sy koninkryk, op voorwaarde dat daar nooit met hulle gepraat word nie. Volgens Herodotus het die kinders die woord herhaaldelik gebabbel bekòs, 'n antieke Frygiese woord wat 'brood' beteken, wat Psamtik laat glo het (al was dit verkeerdelik) dat Frygië eerder as Egipte die oudste beskawing van die mensdom was.

Na bewering is soortgelyke eksperimente uitgevoer deur die Heilige Romeinse keiser Frederik II ("Maar hy het tevergeefs gewerk, want die kinders kon nie sonder handeklap en gebare en blydskap van aangesig en gemoedelikhede lewe nie", volgens een verslag) , en die Mughal Indiese keiser Akbar uit die 16de eeu, wat bevind het dat kinders wat in isolasie grootgemaak is, stom bly, selfs as hulle ouer word.

Maar of koning James IV werklik sy eie ontnemingseksperiment op Inchkeith uitgevoer het of nie, kan bespiegel word, en dit is beslis moontlik dat sy liefde vir tale - saam met verhale van soortgelyke eksperimente elders - bloot 'n lang verhaal veroorsaak het geweier om te sterf. Die 16de -eeuse Skotse historikus Robert Lindsay van Pitscottie het egter die eksperiment van James in sy Historie en kronieke van Skotland, byna 100 jaar later saamgestel. Soos hy verduidelik:

Die koning het ook een dowe vrou laat neem en haar in Inchkeith gesit en haar twee baars saam met haar gegee en haar voorsien in alle nodige dinge rakende hul voeding, en wou hiermee weet watter tale hulle het wanneer hulle by die huis kom. die tydperk van volmaakte spraak. Sommige sê dat hulle Hebreeus kon praat, maar ek ken dit vir my nie, maar uit [ander mense se] verslae.

Het die kinders werklik geleer om vlot Hebreeus te praat? U kan hieroor besluit, maar soos die skrywer sir Walter Scott later gesê het: 'Dit is meer waarskynlik dat hulle soos hul stomme verpleegster sal skree, of soos die bokke en skape op die eiland sal blêr.'


James ‘the Black ’ Douglas: The Most Feared Knight in Scottish History

Volgens my beskeie en heeltemal professionele mening kan James Douglas William Wallace in 'n geveg verslaan. Voordat jy skree ‘ kettery! ’, laat ek die weliswaar buitengewone bewering met ewe buitengewone bewyse versterk.

James Douglas, die onwankelbare kaptein van Robert Bruce tydens die onafhanklikheidsoorloë, word slegs deur Bruce self as die mees oortuigende van Skotland se veertiende -eeuse persoonlikhede oorskadu. Douglas is iets van 'n Janus -figuur in die geskiedenis van die Britse Eilande. Terwyl baie Skotte hom leer ken het as 'die Goeie' Sir James omdat hy die saak van Bruce beywer het, was dit sy beheersing van vrees as 'n oorlogsinstrument, sy persoonlike wreedheid in die geveg en sy wreed effektiewe aanvalstyl wat mense in die noord van Engeland, dikwels onderworpe aan genoemde aanvalle, om hom sy bestendige naam te gee - 'die Swart' Douglas. Sy reputasie onder die Engelse was so dat moeders in Northumbria en Cumbria vermoedelik vir hul kinders gesing het terwyl hy nog baie lewendig en aktief was:

Stil, stil, klein troeteldier,

Stil, stil, moenie bekommerd wees nie,

Die Black Douglas kry jou nie …

'N Koue volksverhaal het hierdie refrein, gevolg deur 'n gevoelloosde hand wat die skouer van die moeder gryp en 'n grommende stem wat uitspreek: "moenie daaroor seker wees nie …"

James Douglas doen sy swart werk by die Douglas Larder. Illustrasie deur Andrew Hillhouse (andrewhillhouseprints.co.uk)

En ek doen my beste indruk van Black Douglas!

Douglas het gelei en deelgeneem aan baie dramatiese episodes in die tydperk tussen die aansluiting by Bruce in 1306 en sy dood in 1330, insluitend die listige en wrede herhaling van sy voorvader, Douglas Castle, in die voorval, bekend as die 'Douglas Larder' in 1307, en die verowering van die naby-onneembare Roxburgh-kasteel in die grense deur 'n verrassingsaanval in Februarie 1314. Douglas het by Bannockburn geveg, hoewel hy nie 'n bevelvoerder van sy eie spitsvorming was nie, soos uitgebeeld in John Barbour se Die Bruce, maar het eerder opgetree as 'n sub-bevelvoerder wat verband hou met koning Robert se eie mag.

In die nasleep van die geveg het Douglas die verslane Edward II na Dunbar agternagesit, met Barbour wat suggereer dat hy dit doen met 'n mag in die getal van die koning se vyf tot een en so naby volg dat die Engelse koning se geselskap dit nie eers wou stop nie. 8216 maak water ’. Hierdie en ander optrede het James die reputasie gegee dat hy “mair geval [kwaai] was as wat slegs [slegs] in die hel was”. Sy strydrekord spreek vanself: volgens Barbour het Douglas sewe en vyftig oorwinnings behaal tot dertien verliese, en die verliese was meer taktiese onttrekkings as ware roetes.

Threave Castle, gebou deur Douglas ’ seun Archibald ‘the Grim ’ Bothwell Castle, 'n vesting van Murray en destyds Douglas Verwoeste Douglas -arms by die Bothwell -kasteel

Die laaste en miskien beroemdste episode van almal het gekom met die dood van koning Robert Bruce op 7 Junie 1329. By sy dood vergader Bruce sy kapteins en gee Douglas die opdrag om sy hart op kruistog te dra na die Kerk van die Heilige Graf in Jerusalem, moontlik as postume berou vir Bruce se moord op sy mededinger vir die kroon, John Comyn, in 1306 by die High Kirk in Dumfries en die lyding wat hy sy eie mense toegedien het met sy 'verskroeide aarde' -taktiek. Jerusalem was egter stewig in die hande van die Mameloekse Sultanaat, maar 'n alternatiewe oorsaak was geredelik beskikbaar in die vorm van koning Alfonso XI van die kruistog van Castilië teen die Moors in Andalusië, Spanje. Douglas en 'n handgeplukte groep Skotte-ridders neem afskeid van hul vaderland en beloof om Bruce se hart na Melrose Abbey terug te keer na hul oorwinning en met Douglas wat die hart in 'n vat om sy nek dra.

'N Slag volg in die skaduwee van die Castillo de la Estrella, die' Kasteel van die Sterre ', naby die dorpie Teba tussen Sevilla en die Moorse magsbasis in Granada. Iewers is 'n bevel verkeerd geïnterpreteer, wat veroorsaak het dat die Skotte sonder hulp die Moorse lyne aankla. Hulle was noodwendig omring. Sy einde is duidelik op hom, die verhaal soos vertel deur sir Walter Scott lui dat Douglas die vat om sy nek verwyder het, hardop verklaar: "Gaan eers in die stryd deur en soos jy gewoonlik sou doen, en Douglas sal jou volg, of sterf", laai die vyand toe nog 'n laaste keer.

Toe die oorlewende Skotte die veld deursoek na die oorwinning van die kruisvaarder, vind hulle Douglas dood, gekap met "vyf diep wonde" en met die vat ongedeerd onder sy gebreekte liggaam. Die vlees van Douglas is uit sy bene gekook volgens die gewone gebruik vir die vervoer van edele oorskot oor 'n lang afstand en sy hart is verwyder, nou 'n metgesel van dié van Bruce, terwyl sy skelet begrawe was in St Bride Kirk in sy tuisdorp Douglas . Dit is hierdie episode wat ons die term ‘Brave heart ’ gee, wat deur Scott gebruik word, maar nooit met verwysing na Wallace nie, die ware Braveheart is Robert Bruce, en sy standvastige vriend, die Black Douglas.

Die Castillo de la Estrella (Kasteel van die Sterre), die toneel van die epiese laaste stand van Douglas ’ Monument ter herdenking van James Douglas en die Andalusiese kruistog

Die besonderhede wissel afhangende van wie u vra. Van sulke laaste woorde word geen melding gemaak nie Die Bruce, die hoofbron vir latere skrywers, en dit lyk dus asof dit, soos soveel anders, 'n produk was van Scott se verbeelding in Verhale van 'n Oupa. Immers, as daar ooit die romantiese ekwivalent van 'n 'Midas -aanraking' was, het Scott dit besit. Wat ons weet, is dat Douglas in Teba geveg en gesterf het. Met die hart van Bruce, soos met alle wonderlike verhale, is dit moontlik die beste aan die verbeelding oorgelaat.

As u nog steeds nie daarvan oortuig is nie, blyk dit dat Douglas nie net 'n meester in die kunste van oorlog was nie, maar ook die kuns van 'n eenmalige terugkeer. Tydens die Andalusiese kruistog het 'n Engelse ridder Douglas genader toe die Skot die eerste keer by die kruisvaardershof aangekom het. Teen daardie tyd het die reputasie van Douglas spook by die verbeelding van krygers in Europa, en niemand kon glo dat hierdie terreurmeester die man voor hulle was nie, en dat hy nie eens letsels op die gesig gehad het nie, en almal weet dat 'n ware ridder syne dra letsels soos 'n erekenteken. Die Engelse ridder het as sodanig opgemerk, en Douglas behou totale sterkte, en ek verbeel my dat ek 'n bietjie uit 'n appel haal soos 'n spotprent -skurk, en#8220Prys God, ek het altyd sterk hande gehad om te beskerm my kop. ” Eintlik het iemand wat naby genoeg was om hom 'n litteken te gee, nie oorleef om die verhaal te vertel nie.

'N Ander een was 'n terugslag by die pous self. Terwyl Douglas Berwick, toe 'n deel van Skotland, maar beset deur 'n Engelse garnisoen, beleër, ontvang Douglas 'n brief van die pous. Dit eis dat hy ophou om die bloed van mede -Christene te vergiet en dadelik die beleg te laat vaar weens pyn van ekskommunikasie en ewige verdoemenis. Douglas, nie een vir halwe maatreëls of hemelse ideale nie, het sy bedoeling duidelik gemaak. Sy antwoord was so eenvoudig as uitdagend: “Ik sou eerder Berwick binnegaan as die paradys. ”

Baie van my tyd by die National Trust for Scotland ’s Bannockburn Heritage Centre is bestee aan die verhaal van James Douglas en die helde van die Onafhanklikheidsoorloë. Foto deur Lenny Warren/Warren Media www.warrenmedia.co.uk

Ongeag of u nou saamstem met die gewaagde bewering waarmee ek hierdie artikel begin het, is onbetwisbaar dat James Douglas een van die beste soldate, taktici en individuele krygers is wat Skotland ooit opgelewer het. Sy naam word moontlik verduister deur die van Wallace en Bruce, maar in sy eie tyd het hy op die panteon gestaan ​​reg langs die reuse van die geskiedenis. Sommiges maak hul aanspraak op die geskiedenis deur roem en fortuin, maar James Douglas gee nie om vir hierdie vullis nie; dit was die weg van die swaard, altyd gerig op die skrikwekkende harte van sy mense se vyande.


Huwelik van James IV van Skotte en Margaret Tudor

Richard Cavendish beskryf James IV van Skotte en Margaret Tudor se troue op 8 Augustus 1503.

Jaagliks, volhardend, hoogs intelligent en geïnteresseerd in alles, geniet James IV van Skotte saam met minnares terwyl hy manoeuvreer om 'n polities bruide te bekom. Hy was dertig toe 'n klein, dowwe dertienjarige uit Engeland, dogter van Henry VII, Skotland bereik vir 'n troue wat honderd jaar later 'n Skotse koning op die Engelse troon sou plaas. Dié vooruitsig was voorsien in die lang onderhandelinge wat voorafgegaan het vir die ondertekening van die huweliksooreenkoms in 1502. Henry VII het na bewering aan sy adviseurs gesê dat 'n Skotse koning eendag Engeland sou kon erf, maar Engeland die wins sou word as die dominante vennoot in 'n vergrote koninkryk : 'die toetreding sal wees van Skotland tot Engeland, nie van Engeland tot Skotland nie.'

Margaret se trein op die reis noordwaarts deur York, Durham, Newcastle en Berwick was onder leiding van die graaf van Surrey, met sy gravin as die prinses. John Young, Somerset Herald, is saamgestuur om 'n amptelike rekord te maak. Die dames het op palfreys gery of was getrek op werpsels, begelei deur here, eekhorings en blaaie, met trompette, tromspelers en klinkers. Die party het op 1 Augustus 1503 die grens na Skotland oorgesteek om deur die aartsbiskop van Glasgow en duisend Skotse here en here 'in ryk juwele en massiewe kettings' begroet te word. By die Dalkeith Castle op 3 Augustus het King James self, in 'n bloedrooi fluweelbaadjie, met 'n trein ruiters ingery. Margaret het diep gevrees en hy buk laag en hulle soen mekaar groetend. Hulle praat privaat en sit saam by die aandete en daarna speel hy met haar op die clavichord en die luit. Twee aande later speel sy vir hom.

Op Maandag 7 Augustus het hulle 'n staatsingang in Edinburgh gemaak, albei met 'n doek van goud afgewerk met swart fluweel of swart pels. Tot groot gejuig en die geklank van klokkies waarop hulle op een perd gery het, met Margaret agter die koning aan, wat deur tweehonderd ridders begelei word en onderbreek om talle byeenkomste te sien. Die vereniging van die distel en die roos is die volgende oggend gevier in die kapel van Holyrood-huis. Margaret het 'n rok gedraai en die gravin van Surrey het haar trein gedra, terwyl James pragtig was in 'n wit damast met karmozynrooi satynmoue. Na die huwelikseremonie wat deur die aartsbiskoppe van Glasgow en York gehou is, was daar 'n huweliksmis en 'n kort kroningsritueel, met die koning se arm om die middel van sy nuwe koningin. Daarna volg 'n wonderlike feesmaal van vyftig of sestig geregte, insluitend gebraaide hyskraan en gebakte swaan, en dan dans en aandete tot uiteindelik 'die koning het die koningin uitmekaar en hulle het saamgegaan'. Edinburgh het daardie aand met vreugdevure gebrand.

Dit lyk asof James stilweg die voleinding vertraag het in ag genome sy vrou se ouderdom, maar daar was dae van feestelikhede ten koste van die koste, alhoewel die Engelse gaste nie beïndruk was nie. Die nuwe koningin het 'n heimwee -brief aan haar pa geskryf ('Ek sou nou by u genade gewees het en nog baie meer') voordat haar man haar op 'n toer deur sy koninkryk geneem het. Op die Stirling -kasteel was sy verbaas toe sy 'n hele kwekery met koninklike bastards bymekaar kry, en James 'n liefdevolle vader. Margaret het haar nooit aan die vrye weë van die Skotse hof en die vrymoedigheid van die vroue gewoond nie. Sy het James ses kinders gebaar, maar slegs een het oorleef, die toekomstige James V, wat in 1513 sewentien maande oud was toe sy pa op Flodden vermoor is, en veg teen 'n Engelse leër onder bevel van dieselfde graaf van Surrey. Margaret was toe drie en twintig. Die res van haar lewe is deurgebring in intriges en magstryd, met nog twee huwelike voordat sy in 1541 twee-en-vyftig sterf. Dit was haar agterkleinseun, James VI, wat in 1603 die Engelse troon opgevolg het.


Whiskey geskiedenis

Die term & lsquowhisky & rsquo is oorspronklik afkomstig van die Gaelic & lsquouisge beatha & rsquo, of & lsquousquebaugh & rsquo, wat beteken & lsquowater van lewe & rsquo. Gaelies is die tak van die Kelties wat in die Hoogland van Skotland gepraat word.


Wanneer is Scotch Whiskey die eerste keer gedistilleer?

Whisky word al honderde jare in Skotland gedistilleer. Daar is bewyse dat die distilleerkuns deur Christelike sendingmonnike na die land gebring kon word, maar dit is nog nooit bewys dat hooglandboere nie self ontdek het hoe om geeste uit hul oortollige gars te distilleer nie.

Die vroegste historiese verwysing na whisky kom baie later, mnr J Marshall Robb, in sy boek & lsquoScotch Whiskey & rsquo, sê: & lsquo Die oudste verwysing na whisky kom voor in die Scottish Exchequer Rolls vir 1494, waar daar 'n ingang van & lsquoeight bolletjies mout na Friar John is Cor waarmee aquavitae & rsquo. 'N Bol was 'n ou Skotse maat van hoogstens ses skepels. (Een skepel is gelykstaande aan 25,4 kilogram)

Toe King James IV gedurende September 1506 in Inverness was, het sy Tesourier & rsquos Accounts inskrywings vir onderskeidelik die 15de en 17de van die maand: & lsquoFor aqua vite to the King. . . & rsquo en & lsquo Vir 'n anne flacat van aqua vite aan die Koning. . . & rsquo. Dit is waarskynlik dat die aquavitae in hierdie geval gees was om te drink.

Die vroegste verwysing na 'n distilleerdery in die Handelinge van die Skotse parlement blyk te wees in 1690, wanneer die beroemde Ferintosh -distilleerdery in besit van Duncan Forbes van Culloden genoem word.

Daar word ook verwys na distillering in 'n privaat huis in die gemeente Gamrie in Banffshire in 1614. Dit kom voor in die Register van die Privy Council, waar 'n man wat beskuldig word van die misdaad van inbraak in 'n privaat huis, gekombineer met aanranding, plaasgevind het. het gesê dat sommige & lsquoaquavitie & rsquo omgeslaan het.

Een van die vroegste verwysings na & lsquouiskie & rsquo kom voor in die begrafnisverslag van 'n Highland laird omstreeks 1618.

'N Ongepubliseerde brief van Februarie 1622, geskryf deur sir Duncan Campbell van Glenorchy aan die graaf van Mar, berig dat sekere offisiere wat die koning na Glenorchy gestuur het, die beste vermaak ontvang het wat die seisoen en die land toegelaat het. Dit het gesê: 'Want hulle wil nie wyn of aquavite hê nie. & Rsquo Hierdie & lsquoaquavite & rsquo was ongetwyfeld plaaslik gedistilleerde whisky.

'N Ander skrywer bevestig dat aquavitae af en toe deel uitmaak van die huur wat vir Highland -plase betaal is, in elk geval in Perthshire, maar daar word geen werklike datum gegee vir hierdie praktyk nie.


Wat is die geskiedenis van die heffing van belasting op Scotch Whiskey?

Die Skotse parlement het in 1644 'n aksynswet aangeneem wat die belasting bepaal op 2/8d (13p) per liter aquavitae of ander sterk drank - die Skotse pint is ongeveer 'n derde van 'n liter. Gedurende die res van die 17de eeu is die tipe en bedrae wat ingevorder is, verander.

Na die Unie van die Parlemente in 1707, het Engelse inkomstepersoneel die grens oorgesteek om hul lang pogings te begin om die produksie van whisky onder beheer te bring. Negentig jaar later was die aksynswette in so 'n hopelose verwarring dat geen twee distilleerderye teen dieselfde koers belas is nie. Onwettige distilleerdery floreer, die smokkelaars sien geen goeie rede om te betaal vir die voorreg om hul inheemse drank te laat drink nie.

Na 'n lang koninklike kommissie het die Wet van 1823 wetlike distillasie goedgekeur teen 'n plig van 2/3d (12p) per liter vir stilstaande foto's met 'n kapasiteit van meer as 40 liter. Daar was jaarliks ​​'n lisensiegeld van & pond10 en geen foto's onder die wettige perk is toegelaat nie. Die eerste distilleerdery het in die daaropvolgende jaar tot stand gekom en daarna het baie van die meer versiende distilleerders aan die kant van die wet gekom.

In 1840 was die belasting 5d (2,5p) per bottel en teen die begin van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het dit gestyg tot 1/81/2d (9p). In 1939 kos 'n tipiese bottel Skotse whisky 14/3d (72p), waarvan 9/71/2d (48p) diens was. Teen 1992, na 'n opeenvolging van diensverhogings, kos dieselfde bottel ongeveer £ 10,80. Die belasting daarop was £ 5.55, gelykstaande aan £ 19.81 per liter suiwer alkohol.

In 1995, vir die eerste keer in honderd jaar, is die belasting op Skotse whisky verlaag. Belasting het gedaal van & pond5.77 tot & pond5.54 'n bottel (70cl). In 1996 is die belasting op Skotse whisky weer verlaag.

Sedert 1973 is die prys van 'n bottel whisky, insluitend die aksynsbelasting, onderhewig aan belasting op toegevoegde waarde.


James VI & I

GEBOORTE
Op die Stirling -kasteel, tussen 9 uur en 10 uur die oggend van 19 Junie 1566, het Mary Queen of Scots die lewe geskenk aan haar seun James.
Met James in haar arms het sy hom aan Darnley voorgelê met die volgende woorde: “My Here, hier protesteer ek voor God, en soos ek hom sal antwoord op die groot oordeelsdag, is dit u seun en geen ander man nie seun en ek wil hê dat almal hier, beide dames en ander, moet getuig, want hy is soveel u eie seun dat ek vrees dat dit vir hom die erger kan wees. ”
Vir William Standon, een van haar soldate, het sy gesê: "Dit is die prins wat ek hoop om eers die twee koninkryke van Engeland en Skotland te verenig. ” 'n Wens wat waar geword het.
Met hierdie toespraak het sy duidelik haar hoop opgegee om op die troon van haar oupagrootjie, Henry VII, te slaag.
Sodra James gebore is, is Melville (die sekretaris van die koningin) na Engeland gestuur om Elizabeth van die geboorte in kennis te stel. Melville het ook die opdrag gekry om Elizabeth te vra om peetma te word. Melville het by Greenwich aangekom net toe Elizabeth 'n bal gee. Toe Cecil, Elizabeth se minister van buitelandse sake en Melville die nuus oor die geboorte aan Elizabeth gee, was sy met skielike weemoed vervul en het die dans onderbreek, sak sy moedeloos in 'n leunstoel neer en sê vir die dames wat haar omring het, dat die Skotskoningin die moeder van 'n regverdige seun was, terwyl sy nog maar 'n onvrugbare dier was. ’ ”
Sy het wel die uitnodiging aanvaar om James Godmother te word, maar het nie die doop in die koninklike kapel by Stirling Castle bygewoon nie. In plaas daarvan het sy die gravin van Argyle gestuur om haar by die seremonie te verteenwoordig. Die verteenwoordigers van die Franse koning en die hertog van Savoye, die Godfathers, was ook by die doop. Darnley was veral afwesig van hierdie gunstige geleentheid, alhoewel hy destyds in die kasteel was.
JEUG
In Junie 1567 het die Protestantse here in opstand gekom. Hulle het toenemend ongelukkig geraak met Mary (James ’ ma) na haar huwelik met Bothwell. Hulle het Mary in Lochleven -kasteel gearresteer en in die gevangenis gesit, waar sy gedwing is om die troon van Skotland te abdikeer. James, was slegs 'n jaar oud toe hy James VI, koning van Skotland geword het.
Vanweë sy jong ouderdom is 'n regent aangestel om as staatshoof op te tree. Trouens, tydens sy minderheid is 'n opeenvolging van regente gekies om in sy plek te regeer. Die eerste regent was Mary ’ se halfbroer, James Stuart, graaf van Moray, by die dood van die Earl in 1570, word Matthew Stewart, graaf van Lennox, wat James se oupa was, die tweede regent. Sy regentskap duur nie lank nie, want hy sterf in 1571. Die derde regent was James ’s se voog, John Erskine, die eerste graaf van Mar wie se regentskap ook nie lank duur nie, hy sterf in 1572. Die vierde en laaste van die regente was die baie magtige James Douglas, graaf van Morton.
Ten spyte van sy ma se katolieke geloof, is James grootgemaak in die Protestantse godsdiens. Hy is opgevoed deur mans wat empatie vir die Presbiteriaanse kerk gehad het. Sy huwelik met Anne van Denemarke ('n protestantse land) het ongetwyfeld sy Protestantse onderdane bevredig.
LITERARYRE PRESTASIES
James word beskou as 'n intellektueel en het verskeie boeke geskryf.
'N Interessante boek oor heksery het ontstaan ​​na sy terugkeer uit Krondborg waar sy huwelik met Anne plaasgevind het. Hierdie boek was die gevolg van sy bywoning van die North Berwick Heksieverhoor. Blykbaar is verskeie mense daarvan beskuldig dat hulle die swart kunste gebruik het om 'n storm te veroorsaak in die hoop dat dit die skip met James en Anne na Skotland sou laat sak. Hy het baie bekommerd geraak oor hierdie bedreiging deur heksery en het sy boek oor demonologie geskryf. As gevolg hiervan is honderde vroue doodgemaak omdat hulle vermoedelik hekse was.
“ 'n Pasgemaakte walglike vir die oog, haatlik vir die neus, skadelik vir die brein, gevaarlik vir die longe en in die swart, stinkende rook daarvan, wat die naaste lyk na die aaklige Stygian -rook van die put wat bodemloos is. ” James het hierdie woorde in sy publikasie “A Counterblaste to Tobacco (1604) geskryf. ” Sonder twyfel het James nie daarvan gehou om te rook nie en het hy baie duidelik gemaak wat hy dink oor die '#walglike ” gewoonte!
'N Ander interessante skrywe was The True Law of Free Monarchies waarin hy verklaar dat die soewerein sy koninkryk regeer deur reg van God af. beperk. Alhoewel hy in die goddelike reg van konings geglo het, het sy parlement dit beslis nie gedoen nie.
Hy het 'n vertaling van die bybel goedgekeur wat nou bekend staan ​​as die King James Version.
HUWELIK
James trou op 23 November 1589 met Anne Oldenburg van Denemarke. Anne was die dogter van Frederik II, koning van Denemarke en Sophia von Mecklenburg-Gustrow. Daar word gesê dat Anne en James aanvanklik baie na aan mekaar was, maar na 'n paar jaar se huwelik het hulle uitmekaar gedryf. Hulle het 'n redelik groot gesin gehad, altesaam agt kinders, waarvan slegs drie oorleef het. Na die dood van hul dogter Sophia, woon Anne en James eintlik uitmekaar. Anne, uiteindelik tot Katolisisme bekeer.
TWEE KONINKRYKE VERENIG
Op 25 Julie 1603 in die Westminster Abbey is James en Anne gekroon. Die twee koninkryke is nou onder een kroon verenig. Dit was egter eintlik twee afsonderlike koninkryke, elk met hul eie wetgewers en eie administratiewe liggame. Omdat hulle onder een kroon was, kon hulle nie met mekaar oorlog voer nie, en kon hulle nie teenstanders in buitelandse oorloë kies nie. Hulle kon ook geen vyandige ooreenkomste maak nie.
James het die verskillende magte van die twee parlemente verkeerd verstaan ​​en konflik het veral ontstaan ​​op die gebied van belasting en godsdiens. Daar was ook teenoorgestelde menings oor Spanje. Engeland het vasberade geglo dat Spanje sy vyand is en dus 'n land wat verslaan moet word. Aan die ander kant het James daarin geglo om die verskille met Spanje op te los.
'N Lys van probleme vir James bevat:

Die woede van Rooms -Katolieke, wat lei tot komplotte om die koning te verwyder. Een so 'n plot was die kruitplot, 'n ander was die bye -plot.
'N Katolieke opstand in 1588 en 'n sameswering in 1600 onder leiding van John Ruthven, graaf van Gowrie.
Sy plan vir vrye handel tussen Skotland en Engeland is ontken.
Sy verkoop van eerbewyse en titels om die skuldkis te versterk.
Sy ontbinding van die tweede parlement het die Addled Parlement geroep, wie se doel was om nuwe belasting te bekom. Uiteindelik het hierdie parlement geen wetgewing aanvaar nie en belasting opgelê. Na die ontbinding regeer hy sewe jaar lank sonder 'n parlement.
Reël die huwelik van sy oudste seun met die dogter van die koning van Spanje in die hoop op 'n alliansie met Spanje. Die huwelik het die bevolking baie kwaad gemaak.
Sy teregstelling van die geliefde en bewonderde sir Walter Raleigh het sy gewildheid verder benadeel.
Die Five Articles of Perth het hom ook nie geliefd nie, aangesien dit geïnterpreteer is as te katoliek en anglikaanagtig, daarom 'n bedreiging vir Skotse presbiteriane. (The Five Articles of Perth: (1) kniel tydens die nagmaal, (2) privaat doop, (3) privaat nagmaal vir siekes of siekes, (4) bevestiging deur 'n biskop en (5) die viering van heilige dae.)


Hoe die Dunoon -slagting 'n Skotse familievete te ver gevoer het

Geërfde folklore leef en is goed in Skotland. Baie gevoer deur die glansryke prag van sy kronkelende hange en mistige heuwels, het baie die verhale van rondtrekkende clans gehoor om die telling van antieke vete te vergemaklik en hul eer te herwin op enige moontlike manier. Trouens, gedurende die 17de en 18de eeu het dit nooit gelyk asof Skotland sy lang woord lank neergesit het nie. Die geskiedenis wemel van verhale van moord en onrus, wat 'n paar skokkende persoonlike gruweldade teenoor bure uitbeeld en 'n nuwe definisie gee aan die term "Clan." so bekend is dat een van die oudste gesinne van Skotland, die Lamonts, binne een nag verskeie takke van hul ou stamboom sou verloor-'n skrikwekkende gebeurtenis wat nou bekend staan ​​as die Dunoon-bloedbad.

Daar word gesê dat Clan Lamont afstam van die Ierse monargie, en as gevolg van hierdie afstamming was hulle een van die oudste en magtigste gesinne in Skotland. Gedurende die 11de eeu het die Lamont -opperhoof gesit in 'n stad met die naam Dunoon, tot 1371 toe Robert II van Skotland, met sy hemelvaart na die troon, Sir Colin Campbell in plaas daarvan die erflike bewaarder van Dunoon Castle aangestel het. Dit was die begin van 'n toenemend bittere vete tussen die twee stamme, aangesien die Lamonts die toenemende invloed van Campbells probeer weerstaan ​​het.

Die gevolg van hierdie slegte bloed was nie net 'n paar goed geplaasde woorde of selfs 'n handjievol skadelike konfrontasies nie, maar in plaas daarvan die wrede slagting van die Lamont-stam, 'n gebeurtenis wat 'n verpletterende slag vir een van die trotsste families in Skotland sou slaan.

Not only would the Campbells break an age-old code of honor between chiefs, but they would slaughter over 200 Lamont men, women, and children, hanging them from trees and even burying them alive.

The historical Lamont castles would be decimated and Sir James Lamont, the chief at the time, would be thrown into a dungeon for five years. Many say there’s nothing like Highland revenge, but this was excessive, even for the Scots. And that fateful day in 1646 would forever be known as the Dunoon Massacre.

To really understand the tension, rage, and need for vicious revenge that led up to the Massacre, it’s important to see how the Campbells and the Lamonts were pitted against each other from the start, leading to centuries of tit for tat and endless years of targeted violence.

Sir James Lamont who had been knighted by King Charles was given his land around the Cowal Peninsula in Western Scotland in 1472, and there his clan erected a homestead known as Toward Castle. He purchased further lands in 1535 from James V and made significant improvements to the keep when Mary, Queen of Scots visited in 1563. The castle was rumored to be grand and well-appointed however, no one really knows what it looked like. It only existed for 200 years before being destroyed by the Campbells, and its image was never captured during that time.

Rothesay Castle

Although the Lamonts and Campbells shared a relationship as tense neighbors for centuries, it was around 1400 when things really began to heat up. While the king was staying at nearby Rothesay Castle, a few of his courtiers crossed into Lamont territory on a hunting trip one spring afternoon where they encountered three damsels in the countryside. The Lamont women, alone and unprotected, were attacked and ravished by the king’s men and sent running home to report the appalling incident.

Furious at the news, the Lamonts caught up with the king’s men and killed them before they reached the castle. But once the king caught wind of what happened, he was furious with the Lamonts for daring to touch his courtiers and passed some eight square miles of Lamont territory over to their enemy, the Campbells, as punishment. This decision threw considerably more fuel on the smoldering feud between the two clans until they were eventually forced to join forces in 1544 to defend Dunoon and its castle against the invading English. They lost the battle and parted ways with increased anger and frustration.

Around the year 1639, seven years before the Massacre, the Wars of the Three Kingdoms broke out and exacerbated a series of conflicts between England, Ireland, and Scotland. English rule was invading the independence of the highlanders, beginning a larger conflict that would eventually end their autonomy for good. Scotland and Ireland were tired of England telling them how to pray and where to pay, and so it seemed the Lamonts would be forced to fight alongside their bitter enemies, the Campbells.

Chief Lamont may have fought with the Campbells against England, but that did not mean all was forgotten. The hatred was still running hot in his veins, and so when the war ended, Sir Lamont quickly seized the opportunity to make trouble for the Campbell clan by siding with their bitter enemies, the MacDonalds, and some Irish mercenaries who were up for anything, just as long as it involved fighting.

Sir James Lamont

The Lamont group mustered their strength at Toward Castle and then descended on the Campbell lands, laying waste to the territory, in particular, a town called Dunoon, and taking prisoners from the Tower of Kilmun who begged for their lives. Instead of receiving mercy, however, the prisoners were taken three miles from the tower where they were cruelly put to death. Sir Lamont went on to destroy the grain house drive off 340 cattle and horses and kill 33 men, women, and children of the Campbell clan.

The Campbell clan took a few months to recover themselves from this tragedy, although it’s safe to say they were also methodically plotting their own version of holy terror to rain down on the heads of their Lamont enemies. In May of 1646, while the Lamonts were at home in their castles Toward and Ascog, they were besieged by Campbell forces. Given the sheer size of the territory, this did not happen quickly, and it was June when the Campbells began to shell the Lamont strongholds with cannon fire. Realizing they had no recourse from the invasion, Sir Lamont negotiated the terms of surrender for his clan and gave up his beloved castles.

Even though the two chiefs had agreed to a peaceful surrender, the bloodlust was too great for the Campbells who immediately relinquished on the pact. The now submissive Lamonts were put on boats and taken to Dunoon where the symbolic start of their age-old feud would serve as the backdrop for their destruction. Once in the churchyard at Dunoon, the remaining 100 members of the Lamont family were brutally executed. The Lamont strongholds were then looted and burned to the ground while Sir Lamont himself was thrown in a dungeon where he was forced to sign away his lands to the Campbells and mourn for his family in misery.

In 1661, the ringleader of the Campbell clan, the Earl of Argyll, was eventually held accountable for his treasonous behavior against the king and heinous massacre of the Lamont clan. He was beheaded soon thereafter, and his head was placed on a spike for all to see until it was buried with his body in the Cowal Peninsula, Scotland.

In classic Medieval form, what resulted from all this pointless bloodshed was one exceptionally haunted castle. By the end of the Dunoon Massacre, the Lamont’s ancestral home, Toward Castle, was left in ashes on its site near the Cowal peninsula of Argyll. There has since been a great house erected on the grounds however, the ruins of Toward remain mostly unchanged, marking a time of prosperity long past and a bright future dashed upon the craggy Scottish landscape.

To this day, the remains of Toward sit in the shadow of the 19th century Lamont home, hidden away in a small forest just a few miles from Dunoon. Most visitors report the grounds do, in fact, have an eerie feeling about them, echoing the brutal deaths of so many, and the family has since put up a memorial marking the spot where the massacre took place. It is a site steeped in dark Gaelic history, the very soil stained by the blood of the worst family feud in Scotland.


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Countess Kathrine Beaumont

Following the death of the Earl of Atholl at Culbean (see above) it turned to his wife Kathrine Beaumont to defend the campaign to put Balliol on the throne

It is said she “stoutly defended” Lochindorb Castle, the family seat which sits in a freshwater loch near Grantown-on Spey, for some eight months before her rescue by Edward III’s forces.

Lady Agnes Randolph - Black Agnes

On 13 January 1338, English forces arrived at the gates of Dunbar Castle near the fallen town of Berwick but could not have forseen an encounter with Lady Agnes Randolp, also known as Black Agnes. A five-month stand off at the East Lothian pile was to follow.

Lady Agnes Randolph, whose father was a nephew of Robert the Bruce, was in charge of the caste while her husband Patrick Dunbar, Earl of Dunbar and March, was fighting English forces in the north.

On a request to surrender, it is claimed Black Agnes, so-called due to her hair colour, said: ‘Of Scotland’s King I haud my house, He pays me meat and fee, And I will keep my gude auld house, While my house will keep me.’

The Earl of Salisbury, the English commander, is said to have opened the siege by lobbing rocks at the castle walls using catapults.

The story goes that Lady Agnes sent out her maids in full view of the English to dust the walls with laced handkerchiefs.

Salisbury is said to have then deployed a huge battering ram or ‘sow’ but Agnes responded by dispatching boulders onto the weapon’s wooden cover, threatening the soldiers underneath.

AS the siege got underway, John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray, and Agnes’ brother, was captured and brought to Dunbar.

Salisbury threatened to hang him if there was no surrender. Lady Agnes called his bluff, pointing out she would solely benefit from her brother’s title and lands if he was to be killed.

The brother was spared and a truce was agreed on June 10 1338.

Black Agnes was later immortalised in a song as a “brawling, boisterous Scottish wench”.

Lady Anne Farquharson- Mackintosh - Colonel Anne

Lady Anne Farquharson- Mackintosh remained staunchly loyal to the Jacobite cause despite her husband, Angus Mackintosh, being captain of the the Black Watch, the Government force first raised to police the Highlands following the 1715 uprising and then to fight the rebels during the ‘45.

When Bonnie Prince Charlie raised the standard at Glenfinnan, it is said that Lady Anne led efforts to raise 350 Farquharson and Mackintoshes to fight with the Jacobite Army.

One account describes her as “dressed in a semi-masculine riding habit of tartan trimmed with lace, with a blue bonnet on her head and pistols a her saddle-bow, kindling enthusiasm for the Prince’s cause wherever she went”.

She is believed to be the only woman on record to have raised a clan. While she never led fighters into battle, Lady Anne handed the troops to her cousin, MacGillivray of Dunmaglass, to mobilise.

Captain Mackintosh was captured following his defat at the Battle of Prestonpans and later released into the custody of his wife.

When the couple met, she greeted him with the words, “Your servant, Captain” to which he replied, “your servant, Colonel”.

Following Culloden, Lady Anne was arrested and held at Inverness Castle for six weeks and then released without charge into her husband’s custody.

The two are said to have led a contented married life, despite their political differences.

Margaret Ann Bulkley - Dr James Barry

Dr Barry was a graduate of Edinburgh University and became a successful British Army surgeon in India and Cape Town.

After he died, it was revealed that Dr Barry was a woman - born Margaret Ann Bulkley - whose family had come up with an elaborate plot to get her into medical school.

Margaret Bulkley arrived in Edinburgh as ‘James Barry’ and graduated in 1812. She joined the army as a surgeon in 1813 the following year and was credited with improving hygiene and reorganing medical care while in the field.

It is said that her methods of nursing sick and wounded soldiers from the Crimea meant that she had the highest recovery rate of the whole war. She also performed one of the first successful Caesarean sections, in 1826, and produced a definitive report on cholera in Malta in 1848.

Bulkley ultimately rose to the position of Inspector General in charge of military hospitals.

She died of dysentery in 1865 and it is then that her true identity was revealed. The woman who laid out her body revealed that, although she had spent 46 years as a man in the British Army, ‘James Barry’ was indeed a woman.

There was speculation whether Dr Barry had been born a hermaphrodite but a letter from his doctor, Major D. R. McKinnon, recalled a discussion with the woman who had tended to Dr Barry following death.

The letter stated: “She then said that she had examined the body, and was a perfect female and farther that there were marks of him having had a child when very young. I then enquired how have you formed that conclusion. The woman, pointing to the lower part of her stomach, said ‘from marks here. I am a maried [sic] woman and the mother of nine children and I ought to know.’


Margaret Tudor of The Spanish Princess Deserves Her Own Period Piece

The story of her life&mdashand her three marriages&mdashis jaw-dropping.

  • Season 2 of The Spanish Princessfollows Margaret "Meg" Tudor's life after her husband, King James IV of Scotland, is killed during the Battle of Flodden.
  • Margaret ruled as regent Queen of Scotland for two years&mdashbut her secret marriage to the Duke of Angus caused problems.
  • Here's the true story of Margaret's fascinating life, including what The Spanish Princess leaves out.

It may be called The Spanish Princess , but episode three of the Starz period drama's second season is all about the Scottish Queen. In fact, the true story of Margaret Tudor's (Georgie Henley) two years as regent queen of Scotland, and her secret marriage to Angus Douglas (Andrew Rothney), are worthy of their own period drama, if you ask us.

"Grief" follows what happens when the life of Margaret Tudor (or Meg, as they call her in the show), the older sister of King Henry VIII, is thrown into turmoil&mdashprecisely because of her relatives back in England. Last episode, Meg's sister-in-law, Catherine of Aragon, donned armor and commanded English troops that ultimately killed Meg's husband, King James IV of Scotland, in the Battle of Flodden.

Margaret's marriage to 30-year-old James IV at the age of 14 was meant to broker peace between England and Scotland. But the Battle of Flodden, the largest ever fought between the two nations in terms of troop number, broke that peace. It also left Margaret in a difficult situation, once again torn between her country of origin and her adopted country.

When James IV died in 1513, Margaret became a 24-year-old widow and James, their son, became the 17-month-old King of Scotland. Obviously, James couldn't rule&mdashhe was a baby! James IV's will designated that, in the event of his death, Margaret would rule as regent queen of Scotland until James V came of age.

There was only one catch: Margaret, while regent, couldn't remarry. In walked Archibald Douglas, the Sixth Earl of Angus, and Margaret's time ruling Scotland was placed in jeopardy. Margaret, at the age of 25, married 24-year-old Angus in a secret ceremony in 1514 (The Spanish Princess glides over the fact that Angus was already engaged to Lady Janet Stewart of Traquair&mdashand that they continued their relationship).

A month later, the Privy Council decided that, by marrying, Margaret violated James IV's will and could no longer act as regent. Despite Margaret practically begging for help in a letter, Henry VIII did not help Margaret reclaim the throne, according to Undiscovered Scotland. The Privy Council swiftly appointed the second Duke of Albany to rule in Margaret's place.

While waiting for the Duke of Albany to arrive to Scotland from France, Margaret was held, practically prisoner, in Stirling Castle with her two sons. Ultimately, Margaret had no choice but to retreat to England. Scotland, the place she had lived since 1503, was no longer safe.

But Margaret couldn't take everything, or everyone, with her on the journey home. Tragically, she was forced to hand over both her sons to Albany. When she departed for England, she was pregnant with her daughter, Margaret Douglas. Margaret later learned that her younger son, Alexander, died in the Duke's care.

Future episodes of The Spanish Princess may explore the rest of Margaret's extremely eventful life, including her on-again, off-again&mdashand consistently tumultuous&mdashrelationship with her second husband. When Margaret returned to Scotland in 1517, for example, Angus literally snatched his young daughter out of her hands, and took her to live in his castle, according to History Press. (Margaret Douglas had a fascinating life.)

Margaret Tudor's priority was still her son, the King of Scotland. In 1524, Margaret managed to plan a coup d'etat to depose the Duke of Albany and get James, then 12, on the throne, with Margaret advising him, according to History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Elizabeth. At the same time, Margaret's estranged husband was living in France with his lover. Angus returned to Scotland, convinced he had a right to guide his step-son's time as king (he was supported in this belief by King Henry VIII).

What happened next is, well, Starz drama-worthy. Margaret greeted Angus by ordering the cannons at Edinburgh Castle and Holyrood House to fire at him. Angus retaliated by ontvoering James V in 1526 and holding him as a virtual prisoner for nearly three years, Undiscovered Scotland recounts.

In 1528, Angus and Margaret finally had their marriage annulled by the Pope. In the same year, 16-year-old James escaped from his step-father's clutches by dressing as a servant and riding to his mother at Stirling Castle (we can practically Hoor the Western-themed music).

The Spanish Princess may even get as far as Margaret's third marriage (her brother, Henry VIII, married twice as many times). Margaret married Henry Stewart, the first Lord Methven, in 1528. The marriage was just as tumultuous&mdashin fact, when Henry moved in with a mistress, Margaret tried to get the marriage annulled so she could return to Angus. James prevented the divorce.

In 1541, Margaret died of a palsy-related illness at the age of 52 (the same year Margaret Pole, also in The Spanish Princess, was executed by King Henry VIII) . According to historians, Margaret remained fixated on Angus until her dying day. Her last words were about him. "I desire you. to beseech the King to be gracious to the Earl of Angus. I beg God for mercy that I have so offended the Earl," she said.

Margaret spent her life straddling two countries, and was unable to broker a peace between her brother, King Henry VIII, and her son, King James V. However, years later, her her great-grandson James VI would be the first monarch to be called the King of Great Britain, and rule both England and Scotland.

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The Curse of King James: Scotland’s royal calamities 1406-1688

Being a king of Scotland was no easy task. Before the British Act of Union in 1707 Scotland was a poor country on the fringes of Europe that constantly had to assert its sovereignty and independence in the face of constant pressure from its larger and more powerful neighbour: England.

This pressure was often violent and the king not only had to keep England at bay but also try to assert his authority amongst his fractious nobles who constantly vied for power. Consequently, the life of a Scottish king was often nasty, brutish and short and it did not help if your regal name was James.

Kings of Scotland constantly had to assert their independence from England.

There have been seven kings of Scotland called James and they dominated Scottish history between 1406 and 1688, with a couple of Charleses and a certain Mary peppered in between. All of them belonged to the House of Stewart and of the seven monarchs, five ruled in direct succession between 1406 and 1542. All of them led tragic lives with most meeting a sticky end and it is surprising that people did not say there was a curse on the name.

James I (r.1406-37) set the tone for the calamities to come. When he was twelve years old his father Robert III attempted to send him to France to protect him from the plots of his ambitious uncle but his ship was captured by the English en route and Henry IV of England imprisoned him. Robert III reportedly died of grief when he heard the news and James became king in captivity in 1406. He remained a ‘guest’ of the English for 18 years and didn’t return to Scotland until 1424. James attempted to rule justly but alienated his nobles who resented his strict system of government.

A plot was hatched to murder him and on 20 February 1437 assassins attacked James in his bedchamber. He tried to escape through a sewer but he had recently blocked a part of it off to prevent tennis balls escaping and he was caught and murdered with 16 stab wounds.

James I was ignominiously murdered in a sewer.

James was succeeded by his six-year old son James II (r.1437-60). The new king was a tough character who brutally asserted his power over his nobles. On one occasion he participated in the gruesome murder of the Earl of Douglas where the earl’s brain was cleaved out with an axe. However, James’s time ran out when he got involved in the English Wars of the Roses and attempted to retake Roxburgh Castle.

James was fascinated by artillery and used cannon to bombard the fortress. One of them accidentally exploded next to him and the king’s thighbone was decapitated. James died quickly afterwards.

James II was killed by an exploding cannon at the Siege of Roxburgh.

His nine-year-old son James III (r.1460-88) became a weak monarch who displeased his subjects by pursuing unpopular English alliances and was arrested on one occasion by his disgruntled nobles. Eventually they broke out in open rebellion with the king’s eldest son James as their figurehead. James III was defeated at the Battle of Sauchieburn and killed soon afterwards, reputedly by a rebel pretending to be a priest. His heir James IV(r.1488-1513) later regretted his role in the rebellion and wore a heavy chain around his waist for the rest of his life as a penance.

James III was reportedly murdered by a rebellious subject disguised as a priest

James IV’s reign was notably more successful than his predecessors. He could speak several languages and was the last Scottish king to speak Gaelic. James was a notably effective ruler who built a strong navy and was an advocate of the printing press. Scotland benefitted from having a Renaissance king but ultimately he suffered the same grisly fate as his forebears. In 1513 he invaded England while Henry VIII was campaigning in France and suffered a disastrous defeat at Flodden where he became the last British king to be killed in battle. His body was found with many wounds from arrows and billhooks. Once again the new King of Scotland was a minor (17 months old) and also called James.

James IV was Scotland’s Renaissance King and proved to an able ruler.

Like his father, James V (r.1513-42) was quite an accomplished monarch who was nicknamed the “King of the Commons” in reference to his reputed concern for his subjects and was a patron of the arts. However he too was destroyed by wars with Henry VIII. Henry was James’s uncle and expected his nephew to join in the disestablishment of church revenues that were consuming England. When James refused to do the same in Scotland war broke and the Scots were heavily defeated at Solway Moss in 1542. James’s health, which was already wracked with fever, broke down completely after the defeat and he died three weeks later leaving a six-day old daughter to inherit the throne. The infant girl was proclaimed as Mary, Queen of Scots.

James V’s disputes with his uncle Henry VIII led to his premature death in 1542.

For the first time since 1406 a King James did not rule Scotland but it only took 25 years for another James to ascend the throne. Mary’s rule was contentious from the start. For half of her reign she was an absentee queen who lived abroad and married the King of France and when she returned to Scotland after his death she quickly became unpopular thanks her poor marriage decisions and her stubborn Catholic faith in a country that had converted to Protestantism in her absence. She was forced to abdicate in 1567 and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I before being executed in 1587. Her successor was another infant and again called James but unlike his mother and the James’s before him, this king would be successful and more importantly, survive.

James VI (r.1567-1625) is one of the most important monarchs in British history. He was the only son of Mary and her dangerously stupid husband Lord Darnley who had been murdered shortly after his birth. After his mother’s abdication and exile James grew up without parental guidance but reached his majority in the 1580s. In 1603 he also became King James I of England upon the death of Elizabeth I and the two kingdoms suddenly shared the same monarch. James was a conflicting personality whose faults were legion but he was also relatively enlightened.

On the negative side he was an enthusiastic witch-hunter, did little to alleviate the persecution of Catholics in his kingdoms, had poor relations with Parliament and had appalling manners. However, he advocated a political union between England and Scotland a century before it happened, preferred peace over war, was a keen patron of William Shakespeare, commissioned the King James Bible and was an early fierce critic of tobacco smoking for health reasons. This seemingly split personality resulted in him being nicknamed, “the wisest fool in Christendom” and when he died in his bed in 1625 he achieved what all other previous King James’s had failed to do: survive and leave a peaceful kingdom with an adult heir. Indeed, he had gone much further and died the ruler of three kingdoms: Scotland, Ireland and England.

James VI united the crowns of Scotland and England and survived where previous King James’s had failed.

The trouble was his heir was Charles I who inherited James VI’s belief in the Divine Right of Kings and managed to lose his kingdoms and his life in a vicious civil war with the English Parliament that engulfed the entire British Isles. Charles’s fatal mismanagement of dealing with Parliament would result in a final coda to the curse of King James.

James VII’s incompetent rule led to his deposition and he was the last Stewart king of Scotland and England.

The last King James of Scotland was Charles’s second son James VII (also II of England). Like his father and grandfather James had notoriously difficult relations with Parliament and like his great-grandmother Mary he was a fervent Catholic, which put him at great odds with his Protestant subjects. Within three years of his succession he was deposed in the “Glorious Revolution” by the combined forces of Parliament and William of Orange and James fled into permanent exile in France. The Stewart dynasty, which had ruled in Scotland since 1371, was now on the way to dynastic oblivion and James VII died in 1701 a very disappointed man. The curse was complete and there has never been another King James of Scotland.

For more on the triumphs and tragedies of Britain’s monarchs, pick up the new issue of History of Royals or subscribe and save 40% on the cover price.

  • http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/scottish_kings.htm
  • http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofScotland/Kings-Queens-of-Scotland/

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