Geskiedenis Podcasts

Michael Psellos tydlyn

Michael Psellos tydlyn


Michael Psellus: Chronographia

SOWAT drie jaar gelede het ek 'n uitstekende bundel wat deur professor Norman Baynes geskryf is, beoordeel, Die Hellenistiese beskawing en Oos -Rome. Daarin noem hy Michael Psellus se beroemde staaltjie oor die Bisantynse Sclerena en Konstantyn IX. Omdat ek nuuskierig was om meer van Psellus te weet, het ek die Bude -uitgawe gekoop en die Chronografie tenvolle. Dit is hoe hierdie vertaling gebore is, want dit was vir my jammer dat Engelse geleerdes wat geen Grieks ken nie, die geleentheid ontneem word om hierdie bewonderenswaardige werk in hul eie taal te lees. Studente uit die Middeleeuse geskiedenis moet veral daarby baat vind. Geen ander hedendaagse skrywer gee beslis so 'n lewendige weergawe van die elfde-eeuse Bisantium nie. Ek hoop dat hierdie pionierpoging ander kan aanspoor om hom te lees en te geniet.

Ek wil hier my skuld erken aan M. Emile Renauld, wat die geskiedenis eers in 'n moderne taal vertaal het. Alhoewel hierdie interpretasie op baie punte van die Franse weergawe verskil, sal sy invloed duidelik wees. Ek is ook dankbaar vir die vriendelike belangstelling en voortdurende aanmoediging van die heer R. H. Barrow, C.B.E., en van die heer W. F. Jackson Knight, wie se geleerdheid veel verder strek as die Virgiliaanse veld waarin hy veral skitter. Toe ek die eerste keer die werk onderneem, het wyle dr W. H. D. Rouse my goeie advies gegee, en toe ek die einde nader, het professor Arthur E. Gordon, van die Universiteit van Kalifornië, waardevolle kritiek gelewer. Aan hulle twee is ek baie dank verskuldig. Nodeloos om te sê dat nie een van hierdie here verantwoordelik gehou kan word vir die onvolmaakthede wat in so 'n lang werk moet kruip nie.

Bo alles is ek dankbaar vir professor J. M. Hussey, wat nie net ingestem het om die inleiding tot hierdie boek te skryf nie, maar tyd gekry het om my aantekeninge te hersien, die kort bibliografie by te voeg en 'n paar nuttige voorstelle te maak wat die teks verbeter het.

E. R. A. S.
Newbury, Berkshire.
9 Oktober 1952.

GIBBON se legende van 'n dekadente Oos -Romeinse Ryk sterf hard in gewone Engelse kringe. Maar navorsing van die afgelope halfeeu moes nou al duidelik gemaak het dat die Bisantynse beskawing sy eie kan hou in die Middeleeuse wêreld. Dit is nie te ontken dat dit sy ups en downs gehad het en in die loop van meer as duisend jaar baie van karakter verander het nie. Die elfde eeu, waarin Michael Psellus geleef het, was 'n deurslaggewende tyd, nie vanweë die akute politieke moeilikhede nie - die Ryk het immers keer op keer in die gesig gestaar - maar omdat dit nou opgedaag is teen sekere nuwe en onheilspellende verwikkelinge binne en sonder waarteen dit nie beheer het nie, en daarom kan die totale ondergang daarvan in die vyftiende eeu teruggevoer word na hierdie tydperk. Af en toe toon Psellus 'n gedeeltelike begrip van sulke gevare, soos byvoorbeeld wanneer hy kommentaar lewer oor die noodsaaklikheid van Konstantinopel se militêre verdediging, maar hy kon nie die versamelingsimpuls van die westerse kruisbeweging voorspel wat die Bisantynse lewe in die Egeïese wêreld so hewig ontwrig het nie, Hy het ook nie besef dat die Seljuk -Turke die weg voorberei vir die byna volledige verlies van die groot pakhuis van die Ryk, Klein -Asië, of dat die gedreun op die Balkan die groei en emansipasie van die jong Slawiese nasies sou inlig nie. Hy het immers geleef en geskryf in die bloeitydperk van die elfde eeu toe die rampspoedige omwenteling in keiserlike lotgevalle amper nie waarneembaar was nie, en toe Konstantinopel nog tot 'n sekere mate kon koester in die opgehoopte heerlikhede van die groot dae van die tiende eeu met sy klassieke herlewing en die uitbreiding van die grense. En inderdaad, ongeag watter swakhede in die daaropvolgende jare 'n kieskeurige oog sou laat skrik het, kon daar altyd tevredenheid gevind word in die konstante instandhouding en ontwikkeling van kulturele aktiwiteite, waarvan sekere aspekte hartstogtelik na aan die hart van Psellus was.

Wat ook al sy pa se aansprake op aristokratiese voorouers het, Michael Psellus het grootgeword in die omgewing van 'n middelklasgesin. Sy geskrifte, [2] en veral sy begrafnisrede vir sy ma, onthul 'n redelike hoeveelheid oor sy kinderjare en sy eie persoonlike voorkoms en kaste. In die liggaam lyk hy soos sy pa wat vrolike oë en goed gedefinieerde wenkbroue gehad het en mooi was as 'n 'goed gegroeide sipres'. Maar sy pa se ewe temperament en stil lewenswyse, wat van dag tot dag so stil en glad 'soos vloeiende olie' beweeg het, is nie deur die seun geërf nie. In uitkyk en temperament was hy meer soos sy ma, wat duidelik die hoofbron van die gesin was. Psellus sê dat sy aantreklik was en 'soos die roos nie meer nodig was nie', sy was ook energiek, vinnig en veral 'n vroom Christen. Sy het haar dinamiese eienskappe beslis aan haar seun bemaak, hoewel sy subtiliteit van benadering in kontras was met haar eenvoudiger aanhang van die Christelike geloof, en sy prestasies op intellektuele gebiede, hoe baie hulle ook al te danke was aan haar vroeë pogings en aanmoediging, was in wese sy alleen.

Hy word in 1018 in Konstantinopel gebore en het uitgegroei tot 'n uiters waakzame, intelligente kind, en hy is grootgemaak op Homeros soos Griekse kinders was en is. Sy ma het daarin geslaag om sy opvoeding te verleng totdat hy in sy tienerjare was, en toe het die behoefte om 'n bruidskat vir sy suster te voorsien, dit moeilik gemaak om hom langer te onderhou. Hy word klerk by 'n provinsiale regter, maar na die onverwagte dood van sy suster keer hy terug na Konstantinopel en gaan voort met sy studies. Hy is geleer deur John Mauropous, daarna aartsbiskop van Euchaita, maar daarna 'n privaat tutor in Konstantinopel. Johannes, beide uit Psellus en uit ander bronne, word geopenbaar as 'n eensgesinde geleerde en 'n man met groot integriteit. Hy het klaarblyklik 'n aantal slim jongmanne afgerig, wat almal later hul stempel afdruk en vaste vriende met mekaar en met hul tutor gebly het. John Xiphilinus het hoof geword van die fakulteit in die regte aan die Universiteit van Konstantinopel, toe monnik en abt van 'n klooster in Klein -Asië, en uiteindelik patriarg van Konstantinopel. Konstantyn Ducas, nog 'n bekende lid van die groep, het uiteindelik die troon opgevolg as Konstantyn X. Konstantyn Psellus - hy het later die naam van Konstantyn verander vir die van Michael waarmee hy gewoonlik bekend is - het daarin geslaag om sy weg in hofkringe te maak en die verhaal van sy opkoms tot mag kan in syne gelees word Chronografie en ingevul uit ander hedendaagse bronne.*

* Vir 'n onlangse kort opsomming van Psellus se loopbaan, sien P. Joannou, Psellos et le monastère Ta Narsoà, Byzantinische Zeitschrift vol. 44 (1951), pp. 283-90.

Die twee oorheersende passies van Psellus se lewe was om in [3] die wêreld aan te gaan en om geleerdheid en leer te bevorder. Hierdie eerste eienskap is waarskynlik die duidelikste uit syne Chronografie. Met herhaalde verskonings beskryf hy altyd die belangrikheid van sy eie posisie, die mate waarin keiserlike persoonlikhede van hom afhanklik is, en voeg hy graag afwykings by om sy eie private gevoelens te openbaar en om die belangrikheid van sy pogings om meer effektiewe onderwys. Dit kan betwyfel word hoe betroubaar 'n adviseur hy oor staatsaangeleenthede gemaak het, maar die feit dat hy 'n lang reeks heersers uit die elfde eeu gedien het tot 1077, is 'n huldeblyk aan sy persoonlikheid sowel as sy aanpasbaarheid. Psellus moet erken dat hy ten minste een ongelukkige episode in sy politieke loopbaan beleef het, wat hy in die verslag verduidelik Chronografie so goed as wat hy kan. Gedreig met 'n omkering by die hof teen die einde van Konstantyn IX se bewind, het hy dit verstandig geag om homself 'n tyd lank afwesig te wees. Die natuurlike ding vir 'n Bisantynse in sulke omstandighede was kloosteraftrede wat al dan nie permanent sou wees. Psellus besef gou sy totale gebrek aan roeping en keer terug na die sekulêre wêreld sodra dit veilig was. Heel anders met sy vriend en metgesel Xiphilinus, wat inderdaad sy lewenswyse gevind het. Hulle ervarings word elders in Psellus se geskrifte meer breedvoerig beskryf. Psellus het klaarblyklik aan die klooster gedink bloot in terme van 'n gemaklike agtergrond vir 'n reeks Sokratiese dialoë in die kloosters tussen hom en sy mede -geleerde, en word half geterg, half deur Xiphilinus verwyt oor sy fout.

Die twee aantreklikste eienskappe van Psellus is sy lojaliteit teenoor sy vriende en sy toewyding aan geleerdheid. Sy hele lewe lank het Psellus vasgehou aan sy vroeëre vriende, manne van karakter en prestasie wat baie anders was as sy eie. John, sy ou leermeester, is byna tot keiserlike kennisgewing gesleep en het daarna 'n tyd lank 'n dosentskap aan die Universiteit gehou op die nominasie van Psellus. Xiphilinus en Psellus het in noue kontak gebly, alhoewel hul paaie na die kloosterepisode gekantel het en hul sieningsverskille duideliker geword het, maar dit het Psellus klaarblyklik vinnig laat beskuldig deur Xiphilinus van onverstandige konsentrasie op Platoniese studies, en hy was vinnig daaraan toe bewys sy ortodoksie en herstel hom in die goeie mening van sy ou vriend. Konstantyn Ducas, toe hy in 1059 keiser geword het, het nie kontak met die vriend van veertig jaar gelede verloor nie en uiteindelik het hy sy vertroue in Psellus getoon deur hom sy seun se onderwyser te maak - ongelukkig vir die Ryk, soos die jong man opgelei het op die manier van 'n [4] filosoof-koning, soos dit deur Psellus voorgestel is, was nutteloos om grense te verdedig teen indringende Turke of Normane en moes abdikeer.

Psellus se vrugbaarste pogings was om hoër onderwys te bevorder en die invloed van sy eie geskrewe werke. Syne was die dryfveer agter die herorganisasie van die Staatsuniversiteit van Konstantinopel in 1045, en in hierdie verband is sy invloed in keiserlike kringe ten goede gebruik. Daar was klaarblyklik 'n aantal opgeleide mans beskikbaar om as dosente op te tree en 'n studentekorps wat sulke geleenthede wil gebruik, sodat Psellus se uitspattige opmerkings in die Chronografie oor sy opdraande taak en Anna Comnena se bytende kommentaar in die Alexiad op die lae eb waarheen leer in die elfde eeu gesink het, kan nie heeltemal op hul nominale waarde geneem word nie. Nie dat die effek van Psellus se dinamiese persoonlikheid ontken kan word nie, en sy werk om belangstelling in Platoniese studies te stimuleer, moet ook nie onderskat word nie. Dit was nie verniet dat Xiphilinus impliseer dat hy 'n god van sy Plato maak nie '. Die filosofiese neigings van Psellus kan hier en daar in die Chronografie, maar dit is slegs uit die geheel korpus van sy werke dat sy aktiwiteite en akademiese belange volledig gerekonstrueer kan word. Filosofie, met spesiale klem op platonisme, is beskou as die kroon en die top van die geleerde se lewe. Tog was Psellus, toe hy uitgedaag was, die eerste om toe te gee dat sulke aktiwiteite slegs binne, en dus tot 'n mate beperk is, deur die aanvaarde Christelike raamwerk. Dit sou boonop onakkuraat wees om te dink dat Psellus geïnteresseerd was in filosofiese, met uitsluiting van alle ander strewes. Hy was gemoeid met die Christelike teologie, die Christelike interpretasie van die heelal, hy het byvoorbeeld die byna universele geloof in wonderwerke gedeel, hoe baie hy ook al teen magiese praktyke protesteer, en blykbaar goed vertroud met die hedendaagse opvattings oor die demoonwêreld. Hy het sy gedagtes dikwels geklee in wat vir ons 'n vloed van retoriek lyk, veral in sy toesprake en briewe. Maar hy het 'n oog vir detail, hy was 'n skerp beoordelaar van die menslike natuur en hy kon fyn, gebalanseerde, akkurate prosaportrette van sy tydgenote lewer. Die Chronografie spreek vanself en kan meer as sy eie hou met soortgelyke hedendaagse literatuur van die Latynse wêreld.

In sy inleiding tot die Chronografie Psellus verduidelik dat hy dikwels gedruk is om 'n geskiedenis van sy eie tyd te skryf en dat hy uiteindelik ingestem het om 'n kort skets op spesiale versoek van 'n [5] groot vriend te maak. Hierdie vriend, 'die mees geliefde van alle mense', soos Psellus hom noem, bly naamloos, maar was moontlik Konstantyn Lichudes, 'n metgesel van sy studentedae wat onder Konstantyn IX tot hoë amp gestyg het en in 1059 patriarg van Konstantinopel geword het. Lichudes as patriarg is oorgehaal om diegene te ondersteun wat Psellus daarvan beskuldig het dat hy sy gelofte nie nagekom het nie en hom in die klooster van Narsou naby die westelike mure van die stad aangehou het. Psellus wou hom dalk versoen deur die geskiedenis te skryf waarna hy gevra het. Die Chronografie gaan egter verder as 1063, die jaar van Lichudes se dood.*

* Vgl. Chronografie, VIIa, 5 (bl. 254) en VIIc, II (bl. 285).

Die werk val in twee afsonderlike afdelings, waarvan die eerste die verhaal opneem waar die tiende-eeuse historikus Leo die diaken gestop het by die toetrede tot Basil II in 976 en strek tot die abdikasie van Isaac Comnenus in 1059. Dit is meer belangrike en meer onpartydige afdeling. Die tweede deel, waarskynlik laat in die bewind van Michael VII geskryf - want Psellus sê daarin dat hy die seuntjie van Michael, wat in 1075 gebore is, gesien het, is minder krities van toon en vol waardering vir die familie en regime van Ducas. Dit is betreurenswaardig, maar dit is begryplik, want Psellus skryf die hedendaagse politiek waarin hy self betrokke was. Hy kan byvoorbeeld nie onthef word van 'n ernstige oordeelsfout om die ongelukkige omverwerping van keiser Romanus IV Diogenes in 1071 te ondersteun nie, maar hy sou byna bomenslik gewees het as hy die nageslag 'n kritiese weergawe van sy eie optrede en dié van die imperiale Ducas -familie met wie hy sulke intieme assosiasies gehad het.

Ten spyte van hierdie ongelyke behandeling tussen die twee afdelings, het die Chronografie bly geskiedenis van hoë orde. Psellus het duidelike sienings oor die funksie van 'n historikus. Sy doel moet die aanbieding van die waarheid wees, hetsy uit die bewys van betroubare rekords en getuies of uit sy eie eerstehandse ervarings. Daarom probeer Psellus onpartydig rekenskap gee, in elk geval in die eerste afdeling van sy werk, en daaropvolgende gebeure in die geskiedenis van die Ryk bevestig dikwels sy skerp kritiek en voorspellings. Maar geen gevoel van die hoë roeping en noodsaaklike onpartydigheid van die historikus kan die rasistiese individualisme van Psellus se benadering of die delikate kunstenaarskap van sy styl en taal demp nie. Sy lewendige toestelle, sy literêre bronne, sy ryk en gevarieerde woordeskat, word alles geopenbaar in die elegante glans en vinnige beweging van sy beeld van die Bisantynse lewe. Sy beskrywings van sonaliteite het beroemd geword, en in elk geval is sy akkuraatheid en detail volledig bevestig deur die onlangse onthulling van die keiserlike portrette in mosaïekwerk wat St Sophia, die katedraal van Konstantinopel, versier. Hier in die suidelike galery, toe die lae Turkse gips verwyder is, word die bejaarde keiserin Zoe onthul met haar ongerimpelde vel en mollige wange, haar potloodwenkbroue en opgemaakte kenmerke, net soos Psellus haar geken het. Aan die ander kant van die bekroonde Christus was haar derde eggenoot, Konstantyn IX Monomachus, wat ook baie ooreenstem met Psellus se beskrywing van die vriendelike, liefdevolle en soms ligsinnige heerser wat sy hoof beskermheer was.

Daar kan nog baie meer gevind word in die Chronografie behalwe lewensgetroue portrette van individue (waaronder een van die skrywer self). Daar is baie direkte en indirekte inligting oor die Bisantynse opvatting van die keiserlike amp, en daar is 'n paar wenke oor die verhouding tussen keiser en aartsvader (alhoewel Psellus by hierdie geleentheid baie diskreet is oor die patriarg Michael Cerularius wat die stryd aangesê het) die aanvaarde interafhanklikheid van kerk en staat). Daar word aanvaar dat die Christelike agtergrond en die werking van 'n goddelike voorsienigheid groot klem gelê word op goeie opvoeding en 'n regte waardering van die intellektuele erfenis van die Helleense wêreld. Baie word weggelaat. Dit geld veral die politieke en administratiewe geskiedenis, veral die buitelandse beleid, maar sulke inligting kan dikwels in ander en minder lewendige geskiedenis van die tydperk gevind word en moet in elk geval aangevul word uit bronne van 'n ander aard. Die prent kan ingevul word uit rekords soos dokumente, gewoonlik óf keiserlik óf monasties, uit literêre geskrifte, beide sekulêr en kerklik, en bowenal uit die monumente van die tydperk, hetsy mosaïek in St. Sophia of die meer afgeleë, maar niet minder indrukwekkende werk wat oorleef in monastieke kerke soos die van Sint Lukas in Phocis.

Maar ongeag die gebreke en tekortkominge daarvan, kan daar geen plaasvervanger vir die wees nie Chronografie self. 'N Twaalfde-eeuse satirikus wat die afkoms van Psellus voorgestel het na die koninkryk van die onderwêreld, beskryf die warmte waarmee hy deur ander geleerdes wat reeds daar was, verwelkom is. En met goeie rede. Michael Psellus moes 'n eersteklas metgesel gewees het (hetsy in hierdie wêreld of die volgende) en hy was beslis 'n vermaaklike skrywer.

Michael Psellus: Chronographia, trans E.R.A Sewter, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953)

Hierdie outeursreg op hierdie teks is nie hernu nie. Uitgebreide navrae is gedoen in die rekords van hernuwing van outeursreg, en daarna het 'n korrespondensie met Yale University Press (op lêer) die situasie bevestig.

Let daarop dat daar 'n latere en hersiene uitgawe van die vertaling is, uitgegee deur Penguin, en waarna verwys moet word vir wetenskaplike doeleindes.

Hierdie teks verander die organisasie en die tipografie van die gedrukte uitgawe effens.

Bladsynommers van die gedrukte uitgawe word in die tekste aangedui deur syfers tussen hakies, bv. [57].

'N Paar kort aantekeninge word tussen hakies in die teks geplaas [*soos hierdie].

Langer notas word in die teks met twee sterretjies ** gemerk en aan die einde van elke hoofstuk geplaas

Teks geskandeer deur Hanna Orr.

Hierdie teks is deel van die Internet Middeleeuse Bronboek. Die Bronboek is 'n versameling publieke domein en tekste wat toegelaat word vir kopiëring wat verband hou met die Middeleeuse en Bisantynse geskiedenis.

Tensy anders aangedui, is die elektroniese vorm van die dokument outeursreg. Toestemming word verleen vir elektroniese kopiëring, verspreiding in gedrukte vorm vir opvoedkundige doeleindes en vir persoonlike gebruik. Dui die bron aan as u die dokument wel herhaal. Geen toestemming word vir kommersiële gebruik verleen nie.

Die Internet Middeleeuse Bronboek is deel van die Internetgeskiedenis Bronboeke -projek . Die Internet History Sourcebooks -projek is geleë in die geskiedenisgeskiedenis van die Fordham Universiteit, New York. Die Internet Medieval Sourcebook en ander middeleeuse komponente van die projek is geleë in die Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies. en bedienerondersteuning vir die projek. Die IHSP is 'n projek onafhanklik van die Fordham Universiteit. Alhoewel die IHSP alle toepaslike kopieregwetgewing wil volg, is Fordham University nie die institusionele eienaar nie en is dit nie aanspreeklik as gevolg van enige regstappe nie.

& kopieer werfkonsep en ontwerp: Paul Halsall geskep 26 Januarie 1996: nuutste hersiening 20 Januarie 2021


Tydlyn (1981-1988)

Op 5 Junie verskyn 'Pneumocystis Pneumonia-Los Angeles', deur dr Michael Gottlieb en kollegas van die Universiteit van Kalifornië in Los Angeles, in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (vol. 30, bl. 250-52), 'n Centers for Disease Beheer en voorkoming (CDC) publikasie. Dit was die eerste artikel oor vigs in die mediese literatuur.

Op 16 Junie is die eerste VIGS -pasiënt wat by die NIH gesien is, opgeneem onder doktor Thomas Waldmann se National Cancer Institute (NCI) Omnibus Metabolism Branch -protokol.

'N Taakspan oor Kaposi se sarkoom en opportunistiese infeksies is by die CDC gestig onder leiding van dr. James Curran.

Augustus

Die CDC het 108 gevalle van die nuwe siekte in die Verenigde State aangemeld.

September

Op 15 September het NCI 'n konferensie geborg in Bethesda, MD, oor Kaposi se sarkoom en opportunistiese infeksies. Vyftig vooraanstaande klinici het dit bygewoon.

Herfs 1981

Simian -verworwe immuungebreksindroom (simiaan VIGS) is in makakies geïdentifiseer in twee van die NIH se plaaslike primaatsentrums.

Somer en herfs

Die hoof van die agentskap vir die openbare gesondheidsdiens (PHS) het die nuwe sindroom tydens gereelde vergaderings bespreek.

Januarie

Op 15 Januarie - tydens 'n sneeustorm wat die regering gesluit het - is die tweede vigs -pasiënt wat by NIH gesien is, opgeneem in die National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) en is deur dr. Anthony S. Fauci gesien.

Maart

Op 3 Maart is 'n konferensie oor die nuwe siekte gehou deur die Amerikaanse Public Health Service (PHS) by die CDC in Atlanta. Die debat het gegaan oor die vraag of die siekte deur 'n oordraagbare of immuunonderdrukkende middel (s) veroorsaak is.

Maart

NIAID binnemuurse wetenskaplikes het 'n studie gedoen van adenovirus by pasiënte met die nuwe siekte.

Maart

NCI het 'n werkgroep vir epidemiologie gestig oor Kaposi se sarkoom.

April

Intramurale navorsers van NCI het 'n veldstudie gedoen om die immunologiese status van gesonde homoseksuele mans te bepaal.

April

Intramurale wetenskaplikes van NIAID het immuunregulerende defekte, herpesvirus-isolate en Epstein-Barr-virus en sitomegalovirus bestudeer by pasiënte met die nuwe siekte.

April

Rep. Henry Waxman, kongreslid van Los Angeles, het die eerste kongresverhoor oor die nuwe siekte gehou. Die CDC beraam dat tienduisende mense deur die siekte geraak sal word.

Die protokol van die NIH Clinical Center (CC) is goedgekeur om die etiologie van immunoregulatoriese defekte by die nuwe siekte te bestudeer as 'n gesamentlike poging tussen CC -afdelings, NIAID, NCI, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS), National Institute of Dental Research ( NIDR), National Eye Institute (NEI) en die Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

'N NIH -werkgroep om die nuwe siekte te bestudeer, is saamgestel met verteenwoordigers van elke instituut en skakelaars van die CDC en FDA.

NINCDS -ondersoekers het kliniese beoordeling van neurologiese simptome in CC -protokolle verskaf.

NINCDS werk saam aan studies oor simiaanse vigs.

Die National Library of Medicine (NLM) het 'n bibliografie begin saamstel oor die manifestasies van die nuwe siekte.

Op 30 Junie is oortuigende bewyse dat die siekte deur 'n aansteeklike middel veroorsaak is, aangebied tydens 'n vergadering by die New Yorkse departement van gesondheid: gevalle is aangemeld by intraveneuse dwelmgebruikers, homoseksuele, hemofilieë en Haïtiane.

15 Julie

Die CDC het 413 gevalle van die nuwe siekte in die Verenigde State aangemeld met 155 sterftes.

27 Julie

Tydens 'n vergadering in Washington, DC, bygewoon deur federale amptenare, universiteitsnavorsers, gemeenskapsaktiviste en ander, is die naam "verworwe immuungebreksindroom", of vigs, gekies vir die nuwe siekte.

Augustus

NCI het 'n versoek om aansoeke (RFA) uitgereik vir navorsingsprojekte wat verband hou met vigs. Ses toelaes vir hierdie RFA is in Mei 1983 deur NCI en NIAID toegeken.

September

Die CDC het 593 gevalle van vigs in die Verenigde State aangemeld met 243 sterftes.

September

Die CDC het 'n geval van vigs gedefinieer as 'n siekte, ten minste matig voorspellend vir 'n gebrek in selgemedieerde immuniteit, wat voorkom by 'n persoon met geen bekende oorsaak vir verminderde weerstand teen die siekte nie.

November

Die CDC het formele aanbevelings gepubliseer vir die beskerming van laboratorium- en kliniese personeel wat kontak het met VIGS -pasiënte en kliniese monsters. Die aanbevelings is gebaseer op dié vir hepatitis B.

November

Die National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) het 'n intra-agentskap ooreenkoms met CDC onderteken om immunologiese veranderinge te evalueer na transfusie met bloed of bloedprodukte by mense met hemofilie, sekelselle en thalassemie.

Desember

Die CDC meld 'n geval van vigs wat veroorsaak word deur bloedoortapping by 'n voorheen gesonde baba.

Desember

NIH se intramurale studie van die natuurlike geskiedenis van die immuungebrek en gevolglike opportunistiese infeksies het 25 pasiënte met VIGS ingeskryf

Januarie

Die CDC het met bloedbankorganisasies in Atlanta vergader om voorstelle te bespreek om individue met 'n hoë risiko vir vigs uit die bloedskenkerspoel te verwyder. Selfidentifikasie deur middel van vraelyste of onderhoude is voorgestel.

Januarie

Die CDC het gevalle van VIGS aangemeld by die vroulike seksmaats van mans met VIGS.

Maart

NHLBI het 'n vergadering van wetenskaplike deskundiges belê om navorsingsaanbevelings vir studies oor vigs en bloedoortapping te formuleer.

Maart

Epidemiologiese bewyse het getoon dat vigs veral gay mans in San Francisco en New York geraak het. In New Jersey was VIGS -pasiënte hoofsaaklik intraveneuse dwelmgebruikers en Haïtiane, en 68 persent van die gevalle was by Afro -Amerikaners of Latino's.

Maart

Die CDC het riglyne wat deur die PHS aangeneem is, gepubliseer waarin lede van groepe wat 'n groter risiko vir vigs het, versoek word om nie bloed te skenk nie.

Lente

Op uitnodiging van die Haïtiaanse ministerie van gesondheid het dr. Richard Krause, direkteur van die NIAID, 'n klein afvaardiging van NIAID- en CDC -wetenskaplikes na Haïti gelei om die vigs -epidemie daar te bestudeer en hul klinici te help.

Lente

NIAID het 'n groot vergadering van kundiges in Bethesda, Maryland, aangebied om moontlike etiologieë van vigs te bespreek. Dr Albert Sabin het die vergadering opgesom en navorsers aangespoor om ''n wye net te gooi'.

Dr Luc Montagnier en sy medewerkers van die Pasteur -instituut het in Science berig dat 'n nuwe retrovirus, LAV, wat met vigs geassosieer word, geïsoleer word, wat hulle nie beweer het dat LAV vigs veroorsaak het nie.

Die CDC het 1 641 gevalle van vigs in die Verenigde State aangemeld met 644 sterftes.

Die NIH Clinical Center het voorsorgmaatreëls uitgereik vir gesondheidsorgwerkers wat vir VIGS -pasiënte sorg.

NIAID het kontrakte toegeken aan die New York Blood Center en die Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center om monsters van VIGS -pasiënte te versamel om die etiologiese middel te soek.
Somer

Die Amerikaanse departement van gesondheid en menslike dienste (DHHS) het verskeie verklarings uitgereik om die vrees vir die publiek te besweer dat vigs toevallig opgedoen kan word.

Augustus

NIAID het 'n informele nuusbrief, die AIDS Memorandum, begin publiseer waardeur wetenskaplikes ongepubliseerde navorsingsbevindinge kon deel. Hierdie publikasie het twee jaar geduur totdat VIGS -artikels vinnig deur die hoofblaaie gepubliseer is.

Augustus

Die CDC het 1 972 gevalle van vigs in die Verenigde State aangemeld met 759 sterftes.

September

NIDR het aanbevelings aan praktiserende tandartse uitgereik oor die voorsorgmaatreëls wat hulle moet tref om hul pasiënte met VIGS te bestuur.

September

Die CDC het 2 259 gevalle van vigs in die Verenigde State aangemeld met 917 sterftes.

September

Op 12-13 September is die NIH Workshop on the Epidemiology of AIDS gehou in die Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza in Rockville, Maryland.

September

NIAID en NCI het die Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) en die San Francisco Men's Health Study (SFMHS) van stapel gestuur om groot, omvattende, longitudinale studies van populasies te ontwikkel wat blykbaar 'n risiko vir vigs het. Kort daarna het NIAID die volledige verantwoordelikheid vir die program aanvaar.

Oktober

Projet SIDA, 'n multidissiplinêre studie in Kinshasa, Zaïre, is gesamentlik begin deur NIAID, CDC, die Belgiese Instituut vir Tropiese Geneeskunde en die Zairese Ministerie van Gesondheid.

Januarie

Die CDC het 3000 gevalle van VIGS in die Verenigde State met 1,283 sterftes aangemeld.

Januarie

NHLBI het 'n Ad Hoc -werkgroep oor vigs en bloedoortappings byeengeroep.

April

Op 23 April het DHHS 'n perskonferensie gehou waar HHS se sekretaris Margaret Heckler aangekondig het dat dr. Robert Gallo van NCI die oorsaak van vigs, die retrovirus HTLV-III, gevind het. Sy kondig ook die ontwikkeling van 'n diagnostiese bloedtoets aan om HTLV-III te identifiseer en hoop dat 'n entstof teen vigs binne twee jaar geproduseer kan word.

Vier artikels uit die laboratorium van dr. Gallo wat aantoon dat die HTLV-III-retrovirus die oorsaak van vigs is, is in Science gepubliseer.

NHLBI het 'n kontrak toegestaan ​​om 'n vrywillige bloedskenker serumopslagplek vir HTLV-III skenker/ontvangerstudies op te rig.

NHLBI, CDC en FDA het 'n VIGS -etiekonferensie ondersteun.

Intramurale ondersoekers van NIDR het getoon dat die VIGS -virus nie net T4 -limfosiete kan besmet nie, maar ook makrofage.

Drs. Robert Gallo en Luc Montagnier het 'n gesamentlike perskonferensie gehou om aan te kondig dat Gallo se HTLV-III-virus en Montagnier se LAV feitlik identies is.

Die CDC het 4,918 gevalle van vigs in die Verenigde State aangemeld met 2,221 sterftes.

Somer

Intensiewe studie van die VIGS -retrovirus is van stapel gestuur, wat gelei het tot bevindings soos: die CD4 -molekule op T4 helper limfosiete is geïdentifiseer as een reseptor waardeur die VIGS -virus selle binnedring. Genetiese rye van HTLV-III en LAV is bepaal.

September

'N Vergadering tussen NCI -ondersoekers en die farmaseutiese maatskappy Burroughs Wellcome is gehou om planne te bespreek om moontlike middels as retrovirus -remmers te toets. Die uitkoms van hierdie vergadering was navorsing en ontwikkeling van AZT, die eerste anti-retrovirale middel wat goedgekeur is om vigs te behandel.

November

Op 2 November is dr. Anthony S. Fauci aangewys as NIAID -direkteur.

November

Pasteur Instituut -ondersoekers het die genetiese volgorde van LAV gepubliseer.

November

Die CDC het 6 993 gevalle van vigs in die Verenigde State aangemeld met 3,342 sterftes.

NIAID het 'n konferensie by sy Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton, Montana, gehou oor moontlike dieremodelle vir retrovirusinfeksies en hul verwantskap met vigs.

Januarie

Op 17 Januarie het NCI-wetenskaplikes en hul medewerkers die genoom van HTLV-III in Nature gepubliseer.

Maart

Op 7 Maart is die eerste VIGS-teenliggaamtoets, 'n ELISA-tipe toets, vrygestel.

April

Op 15-17 April is die eerste Internasionale VIGS-konferensie in Atlanta gehou, geborg deur NIH, CDC en FDA, die alkohol-, dwelmmisbruik- en geestesgesondheidsadministrasie, die Health Resources and Services Administration en die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie (WGO). 'N Internasionale netwerk van samewerkende sentrums oor vigs is gestig.

Die CDC het 10 000 gevalle van vigs in die Verenigde State aangemeld met 4,942 sterftes.

Die CDC het die omskrywing van VIGS hersien om addisionele spesifieke siektetoestande in te sluit en om mense as VIGS-gevalle uit te sluit as hulle 'n negatiewe uitslag het op die toets van serum-teenliggaampie teen HTLV-III/LAV.

United Press International berig dat die akteur Rock Hudson vigs het.

September

Die Indiana -tiener Ryan White, 'n hemofilie wat aan vigs ly, is toegang tot die skool geweier.

September

Die Amerikaanse militêre dienste het onder sy personeel begin toets vir die VIGS -virus.

Oktober

Rock Hudson is op 2 Oktober dood. Hy was die eerste groot openbare persoon wat aan vigs gesterf het. Die vrees vir die publiek oor vigs het dramaties toegeneem.

Desember

Die publikasie van die bevinding dat die VIGS -virus in speeksel voorkom, het die openbare angs oor vigs verhoog.

Januarie

Die CDC meld 16,458 gevalle van vigs in die Verenigde State met 8,361 sterftes aan.

Februarie

NIAID het 'n afdeling vir vigs gestig.

Die naam van die VIGS -virus is op voorstel van 'n multinasionale komitee van wetenskaplikes verander na menslike immuniteitsgebreksvirus (MIV).

Tydens 'n PHS-geborgde konferensie in die Coolfont Conference Center in Wes-Virginia is 'n voorspelling gemaak dat in 2001 ongeveer 270 000 mense in die Verenigde State met VIGS gediagnoseer sou word en dat 179 000 mense gesterf het.

NIAID het AIDS Treatment Evaluation Units (ATEU's) gestig, wat later AIDS Clinical Trials Units (ACTU's) geword het.

NHLBI ondersteun die FDA en die NIH Office on Medical Applications of Research 'n konferensie oor die 'impak van HTLV-III-teenliggaamtoetsing op die openbare gesondheid'.

Oktober

Die CDC het berig dat hoewel die voorkoms van vigs vir alle rasse/etniese groepe en in alle geografiese streke van die land toeneem, die kumulatiewe voorkoms van vigs onder swartes en Spaans meer as drie keer die koers vir blankes was.

Oktober

Surgeon General C. Everett Koop released his “Report on Acquired Immune Deficiency.”

Desember

The CDC reported 28,098 cases of AIDS in the United States with 15,757 deaths.

Februarie

WHO launched its Global Programme on AIDS

Maart

The FDA approved AZT as the first antiretroviral drug to be used as a treatment for AIDS.

Maart

President Ronald Reagan and French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac announced a joint agreement settling the dispute arising from the discovery of the AIDS virus, the first international agreement relating to a biomedical research issue to be announced by heads of state.

April

FDA approved the first Western blot blood test–a more specific HIV diagnostic test.

The CDC reported that between 1981 and 1987, nine health care workers caring for AIDS patients and having no other risk factors had been infected with HIV.

NHLBI awarded a contract to maintain a colony of 50 chimpanzees for studies of post-transfusion HIV infection and AIDS.

Augustus

The CDC reported 40,051 cases of AIDS in the United States with 23,165 deaths.

Augustus

The CDC revised its definition of AIDS to place a greater emphasis on HIV infection status.

Augustus

On August 18, Dr. H. Clifford Lane and his NIAID colleagues began the first U.S. clinical trial at NIH to test an experimental HIV vaccine in humans.

Augustus

NIAID established the AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group (AVEG), a network of clinical sites to conduct trials of experimental HIV vaccines.

The NIH Office of the Director launched its Targeted Antiviral Program to encourage intramural analysis of the three-dimensional structure of HIV and to determine the shape of protein-bound drugs.

Oktober

Cleve Jones made the first panel for the AIDS Memorial Quilt in memory of his friend Marvin Feldman.

Oktober

NIAID established 17 Clinical Study Groups (CSGs) to extend to a wider geographical area access to clinical trials of promising AIDS therapies.

Desember

The CDC released the results of a study on the prevalence of HIV infection in the United States, indicating a shifting emphasis toward defining AIDS as “infection with HIV” rather than by defining particular “indicator diseases” that characterized late-stage AIDS.

Januarie

The CDC updated the International Classification of Diseases codes for HIV infection for use with U.S. morbidity and mortality data.

Januarie

The CDC published guidelines developed for educational efforts to combat AIDS.

Februarie

On February 12, trimetrexate was the first AIDS drug granted pre-approval distribution status under new FDA regulations. The drug was used to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients who could not tolerate standard treatments.

Maart

A total of 136 countries or territories reported a total of 84,256 cases of AIDS to the WHO Global Programme on AIDS.

April

The NIH reported that between 1981 and 1988, two workers in laboratories producing large quantities of HIV had been infected with HIV, and it issued biosafety recommendations for laboratories.

April

NIAID established an AIDS reagent repository to catalogue and expedite the availability of experimental materials used in AIDS research.

The CDC reported that a new AIDS case was reported every 14 minutes.

The brochure “Understanding AIDS,” prepared by Surgeon General C. Everett Koop in collaboration with the CDC, was mailed to every household in the United States.

NIAID and NICHD established an epidemiologic study of HIV transmission during pregnancy and birth, the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS).

Augustus

The CDC reported 72,024 cases of AIDS in the United States and estimated that 1 to 1.5 million Americans were infected with HIV.

Augustus

NIAID’s AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Units initiated their first study of an experimental AIDS vaccine.

September

The World Health Organization reported that 111,000 cases of AIDS had been documented worldwide. Authorities at WHO placed the actual number of cases, including those unreported, at 250,000.

September

NIDR investigators reported that saliva inhibits transmission of HIV.

Oktober

AIDS protestors, demanding a quicker approval process for drug treatments, shut down the FDA.

Oktober

On October 13, NIAID established three programs: the Centers for AIDS Research (CFARS) to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of AIDS the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Units (Pediatric ACTUs), a network of clinical sites to test experimental HIV drugs in children and the Programs for Excellence in Basic Research (PEBRA), to develop novel strategies to determine how HIV causes disease.

November

NIAID established the International Collaborations in AIDS Research (ICAR) program to encourage studies of AIDS in Africa, Mexico, and Brazil.

November

NIAID established the Clinical Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) to involve community physicians in AIDS research.

November

A CDC study revealed that 3 of every 1,000 college students are infected with HIV.

November

The NIH Office of AIDS Research (OAR) was established.

November

On November 21, FDA licensed Intron A and Roferon A (human alpha interferon injection) for the treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma.

November

On November 28, FDA authorized pre-approval distribution of ganciclovir under a treatment IND protocol for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS patients.

Desember

NIAID funds a natural history study, HATS, in male and female heterosexuals at high risk of AIDS who are not IV drug users. The study is modeled on the MACS.

Desember

On December 1, WHO’s Global Programme on AIDS instituted the first World AIDS Day as an annual event.


Resensies en vergoedings

'This work leads to rich revelations about what Psellos was getting at in his writing, but beyond him, it provides us with subtle and convincing explorations of Byzantine culture, particularly the pervasive importance of ancient and biblical models of ideal behavior for the formation of character and the expression of self. Together with Derek Krueger's Liturgical Subjects: Christian Ritual, Biblical Narrative, and the Formation of the Self in Byzantium (2014), Papaioannou's exploration of Psellos's self-presentation lays the groundwork for understanding Byzantine conceptions of self and identity.' Leonora Neville, Speculum


Resensies en vergoedings

'This work leads to rich revelations about what Psellos was getting at in his writing, but beyond him, it provides us with subtle and convincing explorations of Byzantine culture, particularly the pervasive importance of ancient and biblical models of ideal behavior for the formation of character and the expression of self. Together with Derek Krueger's Liturgical Subjects: Christian Ritual, Biblical Narrative, and the Formation of the Self in Byzantium (2014), Papaioannou's exploration of Psellos's self-presentation lays the groundwork for understanding Byzantine conceptions of self and identity.' Leonora Neville, Speculum


About: Michael Strahan

Born on November 21, 1971, Michael Anthony Strahan can be defined as a man with several kinds of skills and talents. He certainly ticks the mark of being tall, dark, and incredibly handsome.

The 49-year-old is sure a multi-talented person with being a former professional football player along with currently dabbling and testing his abilities as an actor as well as a journalist and earned himself his name as a television personality in the United States.

So this pretty much sums up the man in question with his almost too perfect combo of basically everything.

Michael played football for the NFL’s one of the most prominent teams, the New York Giants as their defensive player, and has a successful, professional career for 15 years.


2021

In January, the Black Lives Matter movement was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by Norwegian MP Petter Eide. His written nomination noted that, &ldquoawarding the peace prize to Black Lives Matter, as the strongest global force against racial injustice, will send a powerful message that peace is founded on equality, solidarity and human rights, and that all countries must respect those basic principles.&rdquo

On 20 April, former police officer Derek Chauvin was found guilty on all three counts relating to his killing of George Floyd &ndash second- and third-degree murder, and manslaughter. The jury reached the verdict unanimously after 10-and-a-half hours of deliberations.

Crowds who were gathered at the spot where Floyd was killed, outside the courtroom and across the US erupted into cheers as the verdict was read out.

Floyd&rsquos family spoke of their relief and highlighted the work still to be done. &ldquoI am going to put up a fight every day,&rdquo said George&rsquos brother, Philonise Floyd. &ldquoBecause I am not just fighting for George anymore.&rdquo

Darnella Frazier, the passer-by who recorded the widely shared video of Floyd&rsquos murder when she was 17 years old, said in a Facebook post: &ldquoGeorge Floyd we did it!! Justice has been served.&rdquo

US President Joe Biden addressed the nation following the verdict, saying it's &ldquoa moment of significant change&rdquo, but added: &ldquoIt's not enough. We can&rsquot stop here. We&rsquore going to deliver real change and reform.&rdquo

Find out what you can do to demand justice for Black lives here


1001-C.E.-1100 C.E. [wysig | wysig bron]

1001 [wysig | wysig bron]

The evil Org initially attack the Earth (Hyakujuu Sentai Gaoranger).

The demons Sammael and Lilith perform a dark ritual, enabling demons to invade the world (The Mortal Instruments).

1002 [wysig | wysig bron]

Time-traveling V.I.L.E. agent Baron Grinnit steals Leif Erikson's ship, leaving Erikson and his crew marooned in Vinland. ACME agents arrive on the scene and help the Vikings to recapture their ship. ACME apprehends Baron Grinnit and takes him back to the present day. (Carmen Sandiego's Great Chase Through Time)

1003 [wysig | wysig bron]

Pai Mei slaughters all sixty monks in a Shaolin monastery after he believes one of their number insulted him (Kill Bill).

1004 [wysig | wysig bron]

In the Pegasus Galaxy, the Genii Confederation is founded (Stargate Atlantis).

1005 [wysig | wysig bron]

Macbeth is born in Scotland. His parents are Findlaech, High Steward of Moray and Princess Doada of Scotland. His maternal grandfather is Malcolm II of Scotland. Making the boy a potential heir to the throne (Gargoyles).

Fall of the Kingdom of Guardia (Chrono TriggerChrono Cross).

Birth of Thyra in Northern France to Wilmetta and an unknown father. She would grow up to become a witch (The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O.).

1010 [wysig | wysig bron]

A boy named Serge drowns/is rescued by a strange girl in El Nido. A timeline that already loops back on itself in several places is split into two dimensions (Chrono Cross).

Hiccup Haddock, son of Stoick, ushers in a new era of peace between Berk and the dragons by befriending a Night Fury and defeating the Green(or is it Red?) Death. (How to Train Your Dragon)(Going by a teaser on Nickelodeon showing an Olympic like event being written as occuring in 1010).

1011 [wysig | wysig bron]

A dual-sword-wielding thief becomes a main character and challenges Iihiko Shishime, but is killed (Medaka Box).

1014 [wysig | wysig bron]

Heart of Mantorok sealed away in Ellia, a dancing girl at the court of King Suryavarman I (Eternal Darkness).

The Kree go to war with the Nova Empires (Marvel Cinematic Universe).

1015 [wysig | wysig bron]

V.I.L.E. agent Medeva arrives in this year and steals the first chapter of Die verhaal van Genji, giving Writer's Block to Murasaki Shikibu. ACME corrects the damage done to history and captures Medeva (Carmen Sandiego's Great Chase Through Time).

1018 [wysig | wysig bron]

Yoda granted the title of Jedi Master (Star Wars).

1020 [wysig | wysig bron]

Serge stumbles into an alternate timeline, beginning an adventure to save all of history (Chrono Cross).

Findlaech, High Steward of Moray is assassinated by the mysterious Hunter (secretly his nephew Gillecomgain), at the behest of Prince Duncan in order to secure his own claim to the throne. Gillecomgain was also supposed to assassinate Findlaech's heir, Macbeth, but Macbeth is rescued by Demona and the Weird Sisters. Duncan rewards Gillecomgain by appointing him High Steward of Moray. (Gargoyles)

1023 [wysig | wysig bron]

December 31: At midnight, the Old Year Sir 1023 ends his reign, and retires to an island in the Archipelago of Last Years. (Rudolph's Shiny New Year)

Most classic fairy tales, including Snow White, Cinderella, Mother Goose, en Goldilocks and the Three Bears, take place in this year (Rudolph's Shiny New Year).

1027 [wysig | wysig bron]

June: Thyra of Collinet, Northern France, gives birth to a girl. The father is unknown. Thyra's aunt Emma gladly takes in both Thyra and her daughter, who is named Beatrice. (The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O.).

1032 [wysig | wysig bron]

Gillecomgain marries Gruoch. When he refuses to kill Macbeth at the behest of Duncan, Duncan reveals him to actually be the Hunter, and Gillecomgain is killed by Macbeth and Demona. Duncan claims the identity of the Hunter for himself (Gargoyles).

Macbeth marries Gruoch. They have a son, Luach, later that year (Gargoyles).

Birth of Malcolm Canmore to Prince Duncan and an unnamed mother. He would grow up to become a King of Scotland. (Gargoyles)

1034 [wysig | wysig bron]

Duncan I succeeds to the throne of Scotland but fears his cousin Macbeth has an equally strong claim to it. He continues to conspire against his cousin (Gargoyles).

1040 [wysig | wysig bron]

Before August 14: Macbeth and Demona are bound together as immortals in exchange for Demona's assistance fighting King Duncan. Demona is left rejuvenated, Macbeth now seems physically older than his actual age (Gargoyles).

Macbeth and Demona's forces defeat Duncan's forces in battle. Macbeth and his friend Banquo, while travelling without Demona, Macbeth is confronted by the weird sisters who make a prophecy that he shall be King and that Banquo will father a line of Kings yet not be one. Macbeth relays this prophecy to his wife and the plot to kill Duncan. The elderly King Duncan of Scotland is killed in his sleep by Macbeth, Thane of Cawdor. Upon the discovery of the body, Princes Malcolm and Donalbain flee Scotland in fear of their lives. This allows Macbeth to implicate them in the murder and claim the throne for himself (Macbeth). Macbeth becomes king of Scotland. Demona earns her new name by "fighting like a demon" in the last battle. She goes on to lead her own Clan of gargoyles to prosperity. Canmore, son of Duncan, is banished to England. (Gargoyles)

1040 to 1057 [wysig | wysig bron]

Macbeth rules Scotland with an iron fist(Macbeth).

1041 [wysig | wysig bron]

The Byzantine historian, philosopher, and demonologist Michael Psellos compiles the Corpus Hermeticum he also produces an independent Greek version of al-’Azīf/the Necronomicon from a Syriac translation. (Hermetic Magic, Cthulhu Mythos)

1042 [wysig | wysig bron]

After conquering many realms, Shao Kahn challenges Earth Realm to Mortal Kombat. The Sorcerer Shang Tsung claims the first victory for Outworld(Mortaly Kombat).

1045 [wysig | wysig bron]

Tristan Lyons of D.O.D.O., having recognised from accounts of her life that Thyra is probably a witch, arrives in Collinet to recruit her. He is correct and succeeds in doing so, helping stave off a village raid in the process. This heroic act ends up making him into a romanticised folk hero and canonised saint, without him realising (The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O.).

1046 [wysig | wysig bron]

April: Thyra is admonished by the local church for her reluctance to dispose of her witchcraft tools. The local priest pardons her (The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O.).

1050 [wysig | wysig bron]

Augustus: Thyra is scolded by the mayor of Collinet and a local lord for foraging for herbs on their land. She causes 'great sorrow' on them in return (The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O.).

Many copies of the Necronomicon burned at the order of Patriarch Michael. All Arabic manuscripts have been lost by this time (Cthulhu Mythos).

1054 [wysig | wysig bron]

Eruption of the Crab Nebula. (Real Life)

1057 [wysig | wysig bron]

Demona, fearing treachery, betrays Macbeth to Duncan's son Canmore and the English. Canmore destroys all of Demona's gargoyles, except her. Macbeth and Demona learn that neither can die until one slays the other (Gargoyles). Macbeth fights a duel to the death with Macduff, Thane of Fife. He loses and Malcolm Canmore succeeds him as King (Macbeth). Macbeth discovers that he has survived decapitation and finds himself alive. Macbeth wanders the earth, seeking vengeance on Demona.

1058 [wysig | wysig bron]

March 21: The gargoyles Angela, Gabriel, Ophelia and Boudicca are born in Avalon. Due to the nature of time in Avalon, the new Avalon Clan would age slowly and be still physically young in the late 20th Century (Gargoyles).

Luach attempted to make himself King of Scotland but is slain in battle by Malcolm Canmore. Malcom becomes the third person to use the Hunter's identity. Gruoch, widow of Macbeth and mother of Luach, commits suicide shortly after. A line of Canmore's descendants would use "Canmore" as their last name and raise further generations of Hunters up to the 20th century (Gargoyles).

1061 [wysig | wysig bron]

Death of Thyra of Collinet. The residents of her valley are concerned by this, as they believe she kept a famine at bay on their behalf (The Rise and Fall of D.O.D.O.).

1062 [wysig | wysig bron]

Mathias Cronqvist is born(Castlevania).

1066 [wysig | wysig bron]

Before October 14: The First Doctor and his companions Steven Taylor and Vicki Pallister defeat the Meddling Monk's plan to avert the Norman conquest and let the Saxons win the Battle of Hastings(Dokter wie).

October 14: William, Duke of Normandy (later known as William the Conqueror) defeats the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson in the Battle of Hastings, marking the beginning of the Norman conquest of England. (Real Life) The time travelers Phineas Bogg and Jeffrey Jones are present for the battle (Voyagers!) At this same time, Phra the Phoenician awakes in a hermit's hut on the eve of the battle of Hastings. He recalls nothing since falling asleep in 410. Unable to bear the trauma of his loss of Blodwen, Phra's personality undergoes further strain. The hermit sends Phra on a mission and he arrives at the battlefield just as King Harold is defeated by William of Normandy, where he rescues Editha, a young Saxon noblewoman of Harold's retinue(Phra the Phoenician).

William the Conqueror unifies England(Real Life).

1068 [wysig | wysig bron]

During this time Phra marries Editha and lives in relative peace for twelve years as a Saxon lord. They had two children(Phra the Phoenician).

1072 [wysig | wysig bron]

Leon Belmont is born (Castlevania).

1073 [wysig | wysig bron]

Zombie outbreak in Jerusalem, put down by local militia using tactics described in surviving Roman texts. Dr. Ibrahim Obeidallah conducts a case study, beginning the science of zombology (The Zombie Survival Guide).

1078 [wysig | wysig bron]

Angela of the Wyvern clan hatches (Gargoyles).

1080 [wysig | wysig bron]

May: Cadfael is born in Trefriw, Conwy, Wales (Brother Cadfael).

1084 [wysig | wysig bron]

After years of hiding from the Normans, Phra and his family are forced to flee their estate to nearby St. Olaf's Monastery. Although his wounds are not major, the trauma of Phra's escape sends him into another prolonged hibernation(Phra the Phoenician).

1086 [wysig | wysig bron]

Edward and Edmund Canmore, two princes of Scotland, arrive in Alexandria with an army of two thousand men. Though their expedition began after a night of heavy drinking some months ago, they declare war on the Fatimid Caliphate and conquer the city, beginning the rise of the Scottish Empire (A Scotsman in Egypt).

V.I.L.E. agent General Mayhem steals the Domesday Book, creating an ahistorical Saxon rebellion against William the Conqueror. ACME agents restore history and capture General Mayhem (Carmen Sandiego's Great Chase Through Time).

1093 [wysig | wysig bron]

Mathias Cronqvist's wife dies. Stricken with grief and rage, Cronqvist uses the soul of the vampire Walter Berhard to become a vampire himself, taking the name Dracula, son of the devil. He curses the Belmont family to forever hunt the night, in other words, to battle the forces of darkness for all time(Castlevania).

Na 1093 [wysig | wysig bron]

Dracula develops a new method of immortality by being reborn in younger bodies. In addition, he devises the soul-clone system, wherein he places fragments of himself into new vampires that he created. He also begins taking up residence in Castlevania (aka, Castle Dracula) in Wallachia(Castlevania).

1094 [wysig | wysig bron]

Leon Belmont swears his clan to devote their lives to combatting him Vampire Killer whip created via alchemy and the soul of Leon's lover (Castlevania: Lament of Innocence).

1096 [wysig | wysig bron]

Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, uncovers ancient documents in Jerusalem relating to the true story of Jesus's life. He founds the Priory of Sion, which is devoted to monitoring and protecting the Holy Grail bloodline (The Da Vinci Code, DC Comics). It merges with the established organizations.

1099 [wysig | wysig bron]

An army of Crusaders reach Jerusalem. (Real Life). This marked the end of the First Crusader and the start of the Crusader Presence in the Holy Land for over two centuries. Vito joins the Crusaders upon their arrival in the Holy Land, joining their side out of admiration of their outfits - these outfits are ostensibly those of the Knights Templar, which he may have joined at this time(League of Extraordinary Gentlemen). Ibrahim Obeidallah is beheaded for the crime of devil worship, and much of his work is lost or destroyed. (The Zombie Survival Guide) This crusade was manipulated by Belzebuth so the first attempt at the Second Coming of Christ can be thwarted. (Belzebuth)

11th century [wysig | wysig bron]

Yuyuko Saigyouji, frightened of her power to incite death in others, commits suicide. Her body is used to seal the Saigyou Ayakashi, a cursed cherry tree, while her spirit reigns over the shrine Hakugyokurou in the netherworld (Touhou).

Hoping to face Marcus Octavius, Colin joins the MacLeod clan, where he romances Deborah MacLeod. Colin falls in battle and is buried as a hero, but then revives and scares off most of his old comrades, who think he is a demon. Deborah and Gregor help him to escape, and he decides to keep the name MacLeod. (Highlander: The Search for Vengeance).

On P4S-237, it is prophesied that strangers will one day come through the Stargate to slay the Goa'uld and free the native people from enslavement. This prophecy seems to come to pass in 2003 when SG-1 liberates the planet from Lord Mot (Stargate SG-1).

An unidentified alien race terraforms Madrona (Stargate SG-1).

1100 [wysig | wysig bron]

The Minbari develop interstellar travel and discover the hyperspace gates network left behind by an unknown species (Babylon 5).


Michael Jackson: A Quarter-Century Of Sexual Abuse Allegations

Michael Jackson, leaving the Santa Barbara County courthouse during his 2005 criminal trial.

Carlo Allegri/Getty Images

Updated on March 15 at 1 p.m. ET

The two-part documentary Leaving Neverland, which began airing on HBO on Sunday night, tells the story of two men, Wade Robson and James Safechuck, who accuse Michael Jackson of having sexually abused them for years, beginning when they were respectively about seven and 10 years old.

Michael Jackson's estate continues to deny all allegations, as the entertainer did in his lifetime. His estate has sued HBO for distributing the Dan Reed-directed documentary, which debuted at the Sundance Film Festival in January in its filings, the estate called Leaving Neverland a "posthumous character assassination."

It's no secret that, before and even after his death in 2009, Jackson was the subject of multiple sexual abuse accusations and police investigations as well as civil and criminal lawsuits. This timeline lays out key dates, known allegations and the main accusations the artist and his estate have faced, going back more than a quarter century.

December 1986: James Safechuck meets Michael Jackson on a Pepsi ad set

A 10-year-old California boy, James (Jimmy) Safechuck, is hired to appear in a Pepsi commercial alongside Michael Jackson. In Leaving Neverland, Safechuck says that Jackson befriended him and his family after the ad began airing, that the singer was immediately generous to him and allegedly began lavishing him with gifts — including, Safechuck says, his jacket from the "Thriller" video. Safechuck and his family also say that Jackson began flying them for visits and on vacations.

On one such trip to Hawaii, Safechuck alleges, Michael Jackson first asked the boy to sleep with him in his bed.

August 1993: Los Angeles police begin investigating Jackson

Die Los Angeles Times reports that the LAPD has begun investigating Jackson based on allegations that he possibly molested four children, including a 13-year-old boy. (The boy is mentioned by name and in photos in Leaving Neverland.)

The police find no incriminating evidence at Jackson's Neverland ranch, nor at his Los Angeles condominium.

In a lengthy report published the following January, Vanity Fair — calling the boy "Jamie" — publishes the 13-year-old and his family's allegations. The boy's lawyer tells the magazine, "Michael was in love with the boy."

The family says that Jackson argued with Jamie's mother about sleeping in the same bed with him, saying, according to Vanity Fair, "Why don't you trust me? If we're a family, you've got to think of me as a brother. Why make me feel so bad? This is a bond. It's not about sex. This is something special." From that point onwards, the family claims, Jamie slept with Jackson nearly every night for the next several months.

September 1993: One family files suit against Jackson

In the filing, a family — whose child is ostensibly the 13-year-old boy referred to as "Jamie" by Vanity Fair — alleges that Jackson had "repeatedly committed sexual battery" on their son.

Jackson's team maintains that the suit is part of an attempt to extort the star for $20 million. More than a decade later, however, Court TV reveals in a 2004 report that Jackson settled the suit for even more than that. As part of the settlement, the singer denied any "wrongful acts."

In September 1994, prosecutors announce that they are not filing criminal charges against Jackson involving three boys — because the "primary alleged victim" declined to testify.

In the course of the investigation and ensuing civil case, Jackson and his team put various young boys on the witness stand and in front of cameras.

One is 10-year-old Wade Robson, an Australian boy who first met the megastar five years earlier, when he won a Michael Jackson dance contest in Brisbane. Within a few years, Robson had moved with his mother to Los Angeles with Jackson's encouragement.

In 1993, Robson's mother talked to CNN about her child's "slumber parties" with the singer.

"They play so hard, they fall asleep, they're exhausted," she tells the interviewer. "There's nothing more to it than that."

In Leaving Neverland, Robson says: "I was excited by the idea of being able to defend him. And being able to save him."

December 1993: La Toya Jackson says that abuse allegations are true

On Dec. 8, at a press conference held while on tour in Tel Aviv, Jackson's estranged sister La Toya alleges that the abuse accusations against Michael are true.

"This is very difficult for me," she says. "Michael is my brother. . But I cannot, and I will not, be a silent collaborator of his crimes against small, innocent children." She claims that their mother, Katherine Jackson, has shown her checks that Michael allegedly made out to the families of some very young boys, at least one allegedly as young as nine years old. She says that the amounts paid out were substantial, though she doesn't specify any sums.

LaToya Jackson also repeats her claim that she and her siblings were abused, including sexually abused, by their parents. It's an assertion she first made at least two years earlier in her 1991 autobiography La Toya: Growing Up in the Jackson Family.

Other members of the family, including Katherine Jackson, rally to Michael's defense. Die Washington Post quotes Katherine as saying, "La Toya is lying and I'll tell her to her face she's lying," adding that her daughter was "trying to make money off of [Michael's] downfall."

In a follow-up interview with the Vandag show's Katie Couric, La Toya Jackson claims that their mother had shown her such checks as early as "around '84." However, she tells Couric she can't prove that the alleged checks were meant as hush money, nor has she ever seen him in bed with a boy herself.

In 2011, in a second autobiography called Starting Over, La Toya Jackson retracted her allegations against both her brother Michael and her father Joe, saying that she was forced to make them by her husband at the time, whom she accused of being abusive.

"My family and Michael knew that wasn't really me talking," the Daily Beast quotes her as saying in an interview. "I never believed for a minute my brother was guilty of anything like that."

February 2003: Living with Michael Jackson documentary airs in the U.K. and U.S.

The documentary, reported by journalist Martin Bashir, includes footage of Jackson holding hands with and cradling a young teenager, then identified as a cancer survivor, and says that they share a bed. Both Jackson and the boy deny that anything untoward is going on. "My greatest inspiration comes from kids," Jackson says to Bashir indignantly, while holding onto the child. "It's all inspired from that level of innocence, that consciousness of purity."

After the documentary airs, Jackson issues a statement denying any wrongdoing, and says that he is "devastated" by Bashir's portrayal of him. Nietemin, Living with Michael Jackson sparks a criminal investigation.

November 20, 2003: Police book Jackson on child molestation charges

The Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office provided this mug shot after he was booked on multiple counts of child molestation in November 2003. Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office/Getty Images steek onderskrif weg

The Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office provided this mug shot after he was booked on multiple counts of child molestation in November 2003.

Santa Barbara County Sheriff's Office/Getty Images

Two days after raiding Neverland, Jackson's famous ranch in Santa Barbara County, Calif., the sheriff's office arrests Jackson on charges of child molestation, but does not immediately disclose details of the charges or identify the victim.

Jackson's lawyer, Mark Geragos, calls the charges "a big lie." After posting $3 million in bail the same day and surrendering his passport, Jackson is allowed to go free as he awaits trial.

Jackson is eventually indicted on 10 criminal counts, including child molestation, abduction, false imprisonment and extortion.

February 28, 2005: Jackson's criminal case goes to trial

After being charged in late 2003 and then given additional charges the following April, Jackson is put on trial. The victim is identified as Gavin Arvizo, the young man who appeared in the Bashir documentary he is among those who testify at the trial.

Among those testifying in Jackson's defense are actor Macaulay Culkin and Wade Robson. (By 2005, Robson is a noted choreographer and songwriter, who has created dance routines for the likes of Britney Spears and 'NSYNC, and who has already had his own show on MTV.)

They are described as "special friends" of Jackson who have slept with the singer in his bed. The men deny that Jackson has touched them or otherwise acted inappropriately. Volgens Die Washington Post, Robson's mother, Joy, says of the singer: "Unless you know him, it's hard to understand him. . He's not the boy next door."

Gavin Arvizo is now aged 14, and says on the stand that Jackson masturbated him Gavin's brother corroborates his claim, and says that Jackson gave them alcohol and showed them pornography. Gavin's mother, Janet Arvizo, also appears as a witness the BBC describes her testimony as "combative and rambling." A former member of Jackson's household staff, Blanca Francia, testifies that she saw the singer taking a shower with Robson. Francia's son also alleges that Jackson has molested him.

Years later, Robson claims he lied at the 2005 trial. According to a 2014 Daily Beast article, prosecutors wanted to name Safechuck — who had provided a witness statement defending Jackson in the 1993 suit — as one of the singer's alleged victims. However, Safechuck declined to participate in the 2005 trial, and the prosecution excluded him as a potential victim. Safechuck claims later that he had lied in the statement he gave to prosecutors in the 1993 investigation.

June 13, 2005: Jackson is acquitted of all criminal charges

After a trial that had a circus-like atmosphere and whose proceedings seemed to sometimes be upstaged by Jackson's antics (including showing up late in pajamas on one occasion), the singer is acquitted of all charges. At least some of the jurors seem to place the onus on the alleged victim's mother, Janet Arvizo. according to NPR. Allowing a child to sleep with any non-family member, one of the female jurors asks, according to NPR, "What mother in her right mind would allow that to happen?"

Within months, prosecutors charge Janet Arvizo with fraud and perjury related to statements made at the Jackson trial she accepts a plea agreement the following year.

June 25, 2009: Michael Jackson dies, age 50

The singer is found unresponsive at his home in Holmby Hills, Calif. At the time of his death, his family releases a statement saying that it is believed that he died of cardiac arrest.

On Nov. 11, 2011, a doctor, Conrad Murray, is found guilty of involuntary manslaughter in Jackson's death for having administered a deadly dose of the anesthetic propofol.

During the trial, the New York Times reports that Murray, who had been hired as Jackson's personal physician, "had stayed with Jackson at least six nights a week and was regularly asked — and sometimes begged — by the insomniac singer to give him drugs powerful enough to put him to sleep."

2013-2014: Wade Robson and James Safechuck file suits against the Jackson estate and his companies

The Daily Beast reports in 2013 that after very publicly and repeatedly defending Jackson, Robson now says that Jackson sexually molested him for seven years.

Two years later, in May 2015, a judge in Los Angeles County Superior Court, Mitchell L. Beckloff, dismisses Robson's suit against the estate, saying that he waited too long to file his claim. In December 2017, the same judge dismisses the rest of Robson's suit, filed against Jackson's two companies, MJJ Productions and MJJ Ventures, because the two corporations could not be found liable for Jackson's alleged behavior. Notably, neither of these judgments address the credibility of Robson's accusations.

James Safechuck files a similar suit against MJJ Productions and MJJ Ventures in 2014, alleging that Jackson abused him on "hundreds" of occasions between 1988 and 1992. Beckloff, who is also the presiding judge in this suit, rejects Safechuck's suit in June 2017 on the same grounds he gave Robson.

Movie Interviews

'Neverland' Director On Investigating 'What Happened Once The Bedroom Door Closed'

March 3, 2019: Leaving Neverland begins airing on HBO

After debuting at Sundance in late January, the two-part, four-hour documentary begins airing. Jackson's estate has already filed suit against the network, claiming that damages could exceed $100 million. Its petition begins: "Michael Jackson is innocent. Period."

The estate also argues that HBO has violated a non-disparagement agreement that it made with the singer in order to air a concert special, Live in Bucharest: The Dangerous Tour, back in 1992. (That program was a megahit when it aired, scoring HBO its highest-rated special ever at that time.) In a bid for positive counter-programming, Jackson's estate releases the 1992 film on YouTube at the same time as Leaving Neverland's broadcast premiere.

"In producing this fictional work," the suit continues, "HBO ignored its contractual obligations to Michael and his companies by disparaging both him and the Dangerous World Tour that HBO had previously profited from immensely." The estate also calls Robson and Safechuck "two admitted perjurers," and accuses them of "practicing their stories and rehearsing their lines . for years now."

In an interview on All Things Considered, filmmaker Dan Reed says that two different threads drew him to telling the two men's stories.

"It's the complexity that drew me into wanting to really tell the story," Reed says, "which is that in an abusive pedophile relationship there is both love, affection, mentoring, friendship, caring — and there is sexual abuse. Those two things coexist."

March 14, 2019: Louis Vuitton backs off its Michael Jackson-inspired designs

Less than two weeks after Leaving Neverland airs on HBO, the luxury fashion house Louis Vuitton seeks distance from the late pop icon, whose signature looks had helped inspire much of its fall 2019 menswear collection.

The company had showcased the collection at a show on Jan. 17, or just over a week before the documentary was screened publicly for the first time at the Sundance Film Festival. In a statement shared exclusively with WWD, the company's top executives said they were unaware of the documentary — and its "deeply troubling and disturbing" allegations — at the time of their own show.

"I am aware that in light of this documentary the show has caused emotional reactions," Virgil Abloh, the artistic director of menswear at the company, said in the statement. "I strictly condemn any form of child abuse, violence or infringement against any human rights."

The company also told WWD that it would not produce anything that "directly features Michael Jackson elements," and that its final collection will "purely reflect the true values of the brand and of our artistic director."

Additional reporting by NPR's Elizabeth Blair and Colin Dwyer.

Correction March 8, 2019

This article originally misidentified James Safechuck as one of those who testified in Michael Jackson's defense during his 2005 trial — he did not. We have also clarified that Safechuck claims to have lied in a statement given in the 1993 investigation, while Wade Robson claims to have lied during his testimony in the 2005 trial.


A Timeline of (Nearly) Every LGBTQ Couple in TV History

I remember how exciting it was whenever a gay TV character A) existed, and B.) got into a relationship. My earliest memory was probably Doug and Clayton on Die Golden Girls. Blanche's gay brother Clayton was back in town and getting married to a hot, mustachioed cop named Doug. Blanche, who had previously dealt with Clayton's coming out a few seasons prior, still had trouble wrapping her head around the whole gay thing. Naturally, she came around by the end of the episode, and Doug and Clayton presumably lived happily ever after. And I wondered what they did after they left Miami, what their life was like, if they were happy, if Blanche and the girls ever visited. It was as much and as real a relationship for me as if I had experienced it myself. I waited in front of my TV for other same-sex couples to validate the feelings I had but could not vocalize, to show me that it was possible to find love and be happy as a gay man. But they were few and far between.

Now, there are more LGBTQ couples on TV than I can keep track of—there are over 100 in this slideshow alone, and that's not even including British shows (I got tired). I was surprised, and more than a little overwhelmed by the sheer number of queer couplings, some I had never heard of from shows I had never watched. It was also incredibly heartening to see how far visibility has come and how varied, honest, and diverse depictions of LGBTQ couples have become.

Couples went from being platonic friends who rarely touched, let alone kissed one another, to fully realized people with passions and hurts that, rather importantly, had sex. Just like straight couples on TV have been doing since Lucy and Ricky pushed their beds together.

So what defines a couple? Well, if I knew that, I wouldn't be single. But in terms of this slideshow, a relationship means not an affair and more than just a hook-up (for so speaketh Beyoncé: ashes to ashes, dust to sidechicks). A one-off appearance is fine, just as long as it's established that the couple in question has been together before or will continue to be together after their appearance.

I'm sure I've missed some couples here and there, because there's just too much LGBTQ love on TV—who knew that could ever be a (bad) thing?—so let me know if I've omitted anyone in the comments below.

Click through the gallery for a definitive timeline of LGBTQ couples in TV history!


Kyk die video: Længere I Mikrosko (November 2021).