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Slag van Willems, 10 Mei 1794

Slag van Willems, 10 Mei 1794

Slag van Willems, 10 Mei 1794

Die slag van Willems (10 Mei 1794) was 'n onsuksesvolle Franse poging om hul offensief in Wes -Vlaandere voort te sit, wat suksesvol begin is met die verowering van Menin en 'n oorwinning oor die Oostenrykers in Mouscron (29 April).

Toe die Franse offensief begin, was die belangrikste Geallieerde leër, toe onder bevel van keiser Francis II, besig met die beleg van Landrecies (17-30 April), naby die middel van die lang frontlyn tussen die Geallieerdes en die Franse , wat op daardie tydstip ongeveer langs die grense van België geloop het. 'N Kleiner bedekkende leër, onder bevel van generaal Clerfayt, is oorgelaat om Wes -Vlaandere dop te hou, en was byna oorweldig toe die Franse offensief begin. Na sy aanvanklike suksesse by Menin en Mouscron, neem generaal Pichegru, toe bevelvoerder van die Franse Armée du Nord, 'n posisie in tussen Menin en Coutrai, op die linkeroewer van die Lys, en stop dan.

Dit het die Geallieerdes tyd gegee om op die nuwe Franse bedreiging te reageer. Teen 3 Mei het die hertog van York Tournai bereik. Tussen hulle het Clerfayt en die hertog van York nou 40 000 man gehad, versprei tussen Tourani en Spierres. Die geallieerde posisie, weswaarts, was in die suidooste van die belangrikste Franse leër - Spierres is ongeveer ses kilometer suidoos van Courtrai. Pichegru het tussen 40 000 en 50 000 man in sy hoofleër gehad, met nog 20 000 man onder generaal Bonnaud by Sainghin, vyf myl suidoos van Lille (ongeveer tien kilometer wes van die geallieerde linkervleuel by Tournai).

Terwyl die Geallieerdes beplan het vir 'n aanval op Courtrai, het Pichegru besluit om die belangrikste geallieerde linies aan te val. Drie Franse kolomme was by die aanval betrokke. Aan die noordelike punt van die lyn val generaal Souham die Hanoverians aan, en vang Dottignies en Coyghem wes van die hooflyn vas, maar misluk by Spierres.

Die tweede kolom is gestuur om aan te val rondom die linker (suidelike) flank van die Geallieerde lyn. Dit het van Bouvines na Cysoing gevorder, maar het toe 'n mag Oostenrykers by Bachy raakgeloop, en die opmars daarvan is gestaak.

Die grootste kolom, onder generaal Bonnaud, vorder reguit langs die hoofweg van Lille na Tournai. Die Geallieerdes is uit hul gevorderde poste by Baisieux en Camphin, vyf myl wes van Tournai, gedwing en die Franse begin daarna om die belangrikste geallieerde linies te bombardeer.

Die mislukking van die suid -Franse kolom het die regterflank van hierdie hoofaanvalmag blootgestel. Die hertog van York het 'n sterk kavalleriemag bymekaargemaak, bestaande uit sestien eskaders van Britse dragone en twee van Oostenrykse huzare, en beveel hulle om na Cysoing, om die suidelike flank van die Franse hoofkolom, te vorder.

Die Franse infanterie is nou blootgestel aan herhaaldelike aanvalle deur die Geallieerde kavallerie. By vroeëre vergaderings was die Franse pogings om vierkante te vorm, tevergeefs (insluitend Avesnes-le-Sec, 12 September 1793 en Villers-en-Cauchies, 24 April 1794), maar hierdie keer het hulle meer sukses behaal. Nege kavallerieklagte het op die Franse pleine gebreek, en die hertog van York moes noodgedwonge 'n brigade en vier bataljons Britse infanterie vorentoe stuur.

Terwyl die Britse infanterie gevorder het, het die Franse op hul pleine noord teruggetrek na die dorpie Willems, ondersteun deur 'n magte kavallerie. Die Geallieerde kavallerie, wat nou tot vier en twintig eskaders versterk is, het die Franse kavallerie verdryf en die infanterie weer blootgestel.

Slegs nou het sommige van die Britse artillerie die toneel bereik. Infanteriepleine was altyd kwesbaar vir kanonvuur, en eers nou begin die Franse vierkante wankel. Die volgende geallieerde kavallerie -aanklag het uiteindelik by een van die pleine ingebreek, toe 'n beampte van die Greys die tou aangelê het, drie mans uit sy plek geslaan het en ses op pad uit. Hierdie vierkant is gebreek, en nog twee het gou geval. In die chaos wat gevolg het, het die Franse 2 000 slagoffers gely, terwyl die Britte 450 gevangenes geneem en 13 gewere gevange geneem het. Die Britse kavallerie het 30 dood en 83 gewondes verloor.

Alhoewel die Franse pleine uiteindelik gebreek is, het hul langdurige weerstand getoon dat die nuwe Franse leër al hoe meer professioneel word. Die Britse kavalerie sou eers 'n ander Franse plein eers in Salamanca, agtien jaar later, breek!

Aan die noordelike punt van die geallieerde lyne was Clerfayt betrokke by 'n aparte verlowing, 'n halfhartige aanval op Courtrai. Aan die einde van die dag was die Franse terug in hul oorspronklike lyn tussen Menin en Courtrai, terwyl die geallieerde lyn nou van Tournai tot by Courtrai gestrek het. Die daaropvolgende dag val die Franse weer aan (slag by Courtrai), en Clerfayt is gedwing om noordwaarts terug te trek en die geallieerde lyn in twee te breek. Die Geallieerdes is gedwing om meer versterkings weswaarts te skuif, maar die hoofleër, onder die Prins van Sakse-Coburg, is in Tourcoing (18 Mei 1794) verslaan. Alhoewel 'n tweede geveg in Tournai op 22 Mei getrek is, moes die Geallieerdes hul terugtog voortgaan.

Napoleontiese tuisblad | Boeke oor die Napoleontiese oorloë | Onderwerpindeks: Napoleontiese oorloë


Formasie wysig

Die regiment is eers in 1661 as 'n enkele groep veterane van die parlementêre leër opgerig, kort daarna uitgebrei tot vier troepe, aangesien die Tangier Horse, naamlik die naam van hul diens in Tanger. [2] Vir die volgende paar jaar verdedig die regiment Tanger, wat deur die Engelse Kroon verkry is deur die huwelik van koning Charles II met Catherine van Braganza in April 1662, van die Moorse kavalerie. [3]

Die regiment het bestaan ​​uit vier troepe, waarvan drie oorspronklik troepe in die Engelse regiment van ligte perd in Frankryk verbonde aan die Franse leër van Lodewyk XIV en onder bevel van sir Henry Jones. Hulle is in 1672 saamgestel en nadat Jones tydens die beleg van Maastricht in 1673 vermoor is terwyl hy saam met die hertog van Monmouth gedien het, het die bevel aan die hertog oorgedra. Die regiment is in 1674 aangewys as die 1ste Dragoons, die oudste kavalerieregiment van die linie. in 'n oorlog teen Frankryk. Vroeg in 1679 is dit ontbind en dan in Junie van daardie jaar hervorm as Gerard's Horse Regiment (sy kolonel was Charles Gerard), met die meeste van dieselfde offisiere en mans, om die Covenanters in Skotland te polisieer. Die regiment is laat in 1679 ontbind en drie van sy kapteins, John Coy, Thomas Langston en Charles Nedby, saam met hul troepe, het in 1680 as versterkings na Tanger gegaan. Toe hulle in 1683 terugkeer, het hulle aangesluit by 'n nuwe permanente regiment van die Royal Dragoons. [4]

Vroeë oorloë Redigeer

By hul terugkeer na Engeland in 1683, het die drie troepe saam met drie nuut opgewekte troepe 'n titel gekry The King's Own Royal Regiment of Dragons, vernoem na Charles II. [2] In 1690 is die regiment herdoop as eenvoudig Die Royal Regiment of Dragons. Dit het geveg tydens die Slag van die Boyne in Julie 1690 en die beleg van Limerick in Augustus 1690 tydens die Williamite -oorlog in Ierland. [3]

Die regiment het aksie by die Slag van Dettingen in Junie 1743 en in die Slag van Fontenoy in Mei 1745 tydens die Oorlog van die Oostenrykse Erfopvolging, en is formeel getiteld as die 1ste (Koninklike) Regiment van Dragoons in 1751, [2] het dit deelgeneem aan die Raid on St Malo in Junie 1758, die Raid on Cherbourg in Augustus 1758 en die Slag van Warburg in Julie 1760 tydens die Sewejarige Oorlog. [3]

Die regiment het ook geveg tydens die Slag van Beaumont in April 1794 en die Slag van Willems in Mei 1794 tydens die Vlaandere -veldtog. [3] Dit dien onder burggraaf Wellesley, as die agterhoede tydens die terugtog na die lyne van Torres Vedras in September 1810, en laai die vyand op tydens die Slag van Fuentes de Oñoro in Mei 1811 tydens die Skiereilandoorlog. [3] Die regiment het ook tydens die Honderddae-veldtog deelgeneem aan die leiding van die Unie-brigade onder bevel van generaal-majoor William Ponsonby in die Slag van Waterloo. [3] Kaptein Alexander Kennedy Clark, 'n offisier in die regiment, het die Franse keiserarend van die 105th Line Infantry Regiment tydens die geveg gevang. [5]

In 1816 was 'n afdeling van die regiment betrokke by die onderdrukking van die onluste in Littleport. [6]

Die regiment, onder bevel van luitenant-kolonel John Yorke, het ook tydens die Krimoorlog in Oktober 1854 tydens die Slag van Balaclava aan die leiding van die swaar brigade deelgeneem. Na die herbenaming van die 1ste (Royal) Dragoons in 1877, [2] sien die regiment ook aksie by die Slag van Abu Klea in Januarie 1885 tydens die Mahdist -oorlog. [3]

20ste eeuse oorloë Redigeer

Na die uitbreek van die Tweede Boereoorlog in Oktober 1899 is die regiment na Suid -Afrika gestuur waar dit in November in Durban aangekom het. Dit vorm deel van die mag wat gestuur is om Ladysmith te verlig en deel te neem aan die gevegte van Colenso (Desember 1899), Spion Kop (Januarie 1900) en die Tugela Heights (Februarie 1900). In Januarie 1900 was die regiment deel van 'n mag wat die westelike flank van die Boerelyne wou ontdek. Dit kon 'n kolom van ongeveer 200 Boere naby Acton Homes in 'n hinderlaag lok en ongeveer 40 daarvan suksesvol vasgekeer het. [7] Van Junie 1900 tot April 1901 was die regiment in diens van die bewaking van die Buffelsrivier en die Transvaalse benaderings na die Drakensberge, onder bevel van luitenant-kolonel Sclater-Booth. Gedurende die res van die oorlog was hulle werksaam in Transvaal en in die Oranjerivierkolonie. Na afloop van die oorlog het 623 offisiere en manne van die regiment Suid -Afrika verlaat op die SS Kildonan -kasteel, wat in Oktober 1902 in Southampton aangekom het. [8] Na hul terugkeer is hulle in Shorncliffe gestasioneer, waar hulle deur hul Kolonel in hoofkeiser Wilhelm II in November 1902. [9]

Die regiment wat in Potchefstroom in Suid -Afrika gedien het toe die Eerste Wêreldoorlog begin het, het na die VK teruggekeer en as deel van die 6de Kavalerie -brigade in die 3de Kavalleriedivisie in Oktober 1914 vir diens aan die Westelike Front geland. [10] Dit het deelgeneem aan die Eerste Slag van Ieper in Oktober 1914, die Tweede Slag van Ieper in April 1915, die Slag van Loos in September 1915 en die opmars na die Hindenburg -lyn in 1917. [3]

Die regiment het die titel as die 1ste The Royal Dragoons in 1921. [2] Dit is in 1927 na Egipte ontplooi, na Secunderabad in Indië in 1929 en na Palestina in 1938. [3]

Die regiment het gemeganiseer kort na die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en is in 1940 na die Royal Armoured Corps oorgeplaas. [2] Dit is in Desember 1941 na die Westelike Woestyn ontplooi as die verkenningsregiment vir die 1ste Pantserdivisie [11]. was die eerste troepe wat Benghazi later die maand binnegekom het, voordat hulle weer aksie by die Slag van Gazala in Mei 1942 sien. [3] Dit het in September 1942 die verkenningsregiment geword vir die 10de Pantserdivisie en het gehelp om die vyandelike voorraadkolomme by die Tweede Slag van El Alamein in Oktober 1942. [3] Die regiment het aksie beleef tydens die geallieerde inval van Sicilië in Julie 1943 en neem dan kortliks deel aan die Italiaanse veldtog voordat hulle in Desember 1943 huis toe keer en aan die landings in Normandië deelneem in Julie 1944 [3] Die regiment het deelgeneem aan die opmars na die Elbe en, nadat hulle 10 000 vyandelike gevangenes geneem het, het Kopenhagen in Mei 1945 bevry. [3]

Na-oorlogse redigering

Die regiment het in November 1945 na Eutin in Sleeswyk-Holstein verhuis en in November 1950 na Dale Barracks in Chester. [12] Dit het in Februarie 1951 troepe na Egipte ontplooi en daarna in Mei 1954 na Combermere Barracks in Wesendorf en na Harewood Barracks in Herford. in Augustus 1957. [12] Dit het in September 1959 na die Verenigde Koninkryk teruggekeer, waarvandaan dit in November 1959 troepe na Aden ontplooi het en in Desember 1960 na Malaya. [12] Die regiment het die onmiddellike vermindering van die magte na die oorlog oorleef en is weer -getiteld as The Royal Dragoons (1st Dragoons) in 1961. [2] Dit het in Oktober 1962 teruggekeer huis toe en daarna in Februarie 1964 troepe na Ciprus ontplooi voordat dit in Januarie 1965 na Hobart Barracks in Detmold oorgeplaas het. [12] Dit het saamgesmelt met die Royal Horse Guards (The Blues) om The Blues and Royals in 1969. [2]

Die regimentversameling word gehou deur die Household Cavalry Museum, wat gebaseer is op Horse Guards in Londen. [13]

Die slagoffers van die regimente was soos volg: [2]

  • Vroeë oorloë: Tanger 1662–80, Dettingen, Warburg, Beaumont, Willems, Fuentes d'Onor, Peninsula, Waterloo, Balaklava, Sevastopol, Relief of Ladysmith, South Africa 1899–1902
  • Die Groot Oorlog: Ypres 1914 '15, Langemarck 1914, Gheluvelt, Nonne Bosschen, Frezenberg, Loos, Arras 1917, Scarpe 1917, Somme 1918, St. Quentin, Avre, Amiens, Hindenburg Line, Beaurevoir, Cambrai 1918, Pursuit to Mons, France and Flanders 1914–18
  • Die Tweede Wêreldoorlog: Nederrijn, Veghel, Ryn, Noordwes-Europa 1944–45, Sirië 1941, Msus, Gazala, Knightsbridge, Defense of Alamein Line, El Alamein, El Agheila, Advance on Tripoli, North Africa 1941–43, Sicily 1943, Italy 1943

Die bevelvoerders was: [14]

  • Lt.-kol. Philip B. Fielden: Januarie 1959 - Julie 1961
  • Lt.-kol. Kenneth F. Timbrell: Julie 1961 - Julie 1962
  • Lt.-kol. Richard E. Worsley: Julie 1962 - Desember 1965
  • Lt.-kol. Peter D. Reid: Desember 1965 - Januarie 1968
  • Lt.-kol. Richard M. H. Vickers: Januarie 1968 - Maart 1969

Die kolonels-in-hoof van die regiment was soos volg: [2]

  • 1894–1914 HIM Wilhelm II, Duitse keiser en koning van Pruisen, KG [beëindig 1914]
  • 1922 F.M. HM Koning George V
  • 1936 F.M. HM Koning George VI

Die kolonels van die regiment was soos volg: [2]

  • 1661–1663 Henry Mordaunt, 2de graaf van Peterborough (kaptein en kolonel) [15]
  • 1663–1664 Andrew Rutherford, 1ste graaf van Teviot (kaptein en kolonel) [15] (vermoor tydens die Slag van Tanger)
  • 1664–1666 Sir John Bridges (kaptein en kolonel) [15]
  • 1666–1668 Edward Witham (kaptein) [15]
  • 1668–1675 Alexander Mackenzie (Lieut) [15]
  • 1675–1683 Alexander Mackenzie (Kaptein) [15]
  • 1683–1685 John, Lord Churchill. app. 19 November 1683 - Lord Churchill's Dragoons
  • 1685–1688 Edward, burggraaf Cornbury. app. 1 Augustus 1685 - Hyde's Dragoons of Lord Cornbury's Dragoons
  • 1688 Richard Clifford. app. 24 November 1688 - Clifford's Dragoons
  • 1688–1689 Edward, Burggraaf Cornbury. herprogram. 31 Desember 1688 - Lord Cornbury's Dragoons
  • 1689–1690 Anthony Heyford. app. 1 Julie 1689 - Heyford's Dragoons
  • 1690–1697 Edward Mathews. app. 21 Junie 1690 - Mathews se Dragoons
  • 1697–1715 Thomas, graaf van Strafford. 30 Mei 1697 - Wentworth's Dragoons of Lord Raby's Dragoons of Earl of Strafford's Dragoons
  • 1715–1721 Richard, burggraaf Cobham. app. 13 Junie 1715 — Tempel se Dragoons of Lord Cobham's Dragoons
  • 1721–1723 Sir Charles Hotham. app. 10 April 1721 - Hotham's Dragoons
  • 1723–1739 Humphrey Gore. app. 12 Januarie 1723 - Gore's Dragoons
  • 1739–1740 Charles, hertog van Marlborough. app. 1 September 1739 - Spencer's Dragoons, of Sunderland's Dragoons of Duke of Marlborough's Dragoons
  • 1740–1759 Henry Hawley. app. 10 Mei 1740 - Hawley's Dragoons

Op 1 Julie 1751 het 'n koninklike lasbrief bepaal dat regimente in die toekoms nie onder die naam van hul kolonels bekend sou wees nie, maar deur hul 'aantal of rang'.


Skakels:

Die arme hertog, soos beskryf by

& quot was bestem om onregverdig gepil te word in die rympie The Grand Old Duke of York, wat lui:

Die groot ou hertog van York, Hy het tienduisend man gehad. Hy het hulle opgetrek tot bo -op die heuwel, en hy het hulle weer afgetrek. En toe hulle opstaan, was hulle op. En toe hulle onder was, was hulle onder. En toe hulle net halfpad op was, was hulle nie op of af nie.

Geskiedkundiges soos Alfred Burne en Richard Glover het baie gedoen om die militêre reputasie van York opnuut te beoordeel. Charlotte van Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Hy was 'n soldaat van 1764 tot 1803, prins-biskop van Osnabr in die Heilige Romeinse Ryk. Vanaf die dood van sy vader in 1820 tot sy eie dood in 1827 was hy die erfgenaam van sy oudste broer, George IV, in beide die Verenigde Koninkryk van Groot -Brittanje en Ierland en die Koninkryk Hannover.

Frederick word op 'n baie vroeë ouderdom in die Britse leër ingedruk en word op dertigjarige ouderdom aangestel in hoë opperbevel, toe hy bevel gekry het oor 'n berugte ondoeltreffende veldtog tydens die Oorlog van die Eerste Koalisie, 'n kontinentale oorlog na die Franse Revolusie. Later, as opperbevelhebber tydens die Napoleontiese oorloë, het hy toesig gehou oor die herorganisasie van die Britse leër en het hy belangrike strukturele, administratiewe en werwingshervormings ingestel, waarvoor hy erken word dat hy meer vir die weermag gedoen het as wat enige een daarvoor gedoen het. in sy hele geskiedenis. & quot

Prins Frederick Augustus, of die hertog van York soos hy later geword het, behoort aan die Huis van Hannover. Hy is op 16 Augustus 1763 in die St. James's Palace, Londen, gebore. Sy vader was die regerende Britse monarg, koning George III. Sy ma was koningin Charlotte (n ພ Prinses van Mecklenburg-Strelitz). Hy is gedoop op 14 September 1763 in St James's, deur die aartsbiskop van Canterbury, Thomas Secker, en sy peetouers was sy oupa, die hertog van Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (vir wie die graaf Gower, Lord Chamberlain, gevolmagtig was) , sy oom, die hertog van York (vir wie die graaf van Huntingdon, bruidegom van die stoelgang, gevolmagtig was) en sy groot-tante, die prinses Amelia.

Op 27 Februarie 1764, toe prins Frederick ses maande oud was, verseker sy vader sy verkiesing as prinsbiskop van Osnabr ࿌k in vandag se Nedersakse. [3] Hy het hierdie titel ontvang omdat sy vader, as keurvorst van Hannover, elke ander houer hiervan kon kies (in afwisseling met 'n Rooms -Katolieke prelaat). Hy is op 30 Desember 1767 belê as Ridder van die Eerbaarste Orde van die Bad en op 19 Junie 1771 as Ridder in die Orde van die Kouseband.

George III besluit dat sy tweede seun 'n weermagloopbaan sou volg en het hom op 4 November 1780 aan die kolonel laat kyk. Van 1781 tot 1787 woon prins Frederick in Hannover, waar hy studeer (saam met sy jonger broers, prins Edward, prins Ernest, prins Augustus en prins Adolphus) aan die Universiteit van G öttingen. Hy word op 26 Maart 1782 aangestel as kolonel van die 2nd Horse Grenadier Guards (nou 2nd Life Guards) voordat hy op 20 November 1782 tot generaal-majoor bevorder word. Op 27 Oktober 1784 word hy tot kolonel van die Coldstream Guards aangestel. 28 Oktober 1784.

Hy is op 27 November 1784 hertog van York en Albany en graaf van Ulster geskep en lid van die Privy Council geword. Hy het die bisdom van Osnabr ࿌k behou tot 1803, toe die bisdom in die loop van die sekularisasie voorafgaande die ontbinding van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk in Pruise ingelyf is. By sy terugkeer na Groot -Brittanje het die hertog in die House of Lords gaan sit, waar hy op 15 Desember 1788 tydens die Regency -krisis die William Pitt's Regency Bill teengestaan ​​het in 'n toespraak wat deur die Prins van Wallis beïnvloed moes word . Op 26 Mei 1789 neem hy deel aan 'n tweegeveg met kolonel Charles Lennox, wat hom beledig het deur Lennox gemis, en prins Frederick weier om terug te skiet.

Op 12 April 1793 word Frederick bevorder tot volle generaal. Daardie jaar is hy na Vlaandere gestuur in bevel van die Britse kontingent van Coburg se leër wat bestem was vir die inval in Frankryk. Frederick en sy bevel het in uiters moeilike omstandighede in die Vlaandere -veldtog geveg. Hy het verskeie noemenswaardige verbintenisse gewen, soos die beleg van Valenciennes in Julie 1793, maar is verslaan tydens die Slag van Hondschoote in September 1793. In die veldtog van 1794 was hy suksesvol in die Slag van Willems in Mei, maar is hy verslaan tydens die Slag van Tourcoing later daardie maand. Die Britse leër is in April 1795 deur Bremen ontruim.

Na sy terugkeer na Brittanje, bevorder sy vader George III hom op 18 Februarie 1795 tot die rang van veldmaarskalk. Op 3 April 1795 stel George hom as effektiewe opperbevelhebber in opeenvolging aan by Lord Amherst, hoewel die titel eers in drie jaar bevestig is jare later. Hy was ook vanaf 19 Augustus 1797 kolonel van die 60ste Regiment of Foot.

Sy tweede veldkommando was by die weermag wat gestuur is vir die Anglo-Russiese inval in Holland in Augustus 1799. Op 7 September 1799 kry hy die eretitel kaptein-generaal. [19] Sir Ralph Abercromby en admiraal sir Charles Mitchell, in beheer van die voorhoede, het daarin geslaag om 'n paar Nederlandse oorlogskepe in Den Helder te vang. Na die aankoms van die hertog met die hoof van die leër, het die geallieerde magte 'n aantal rampe getref, waaronder 'n tekort aan voorrade. Op 17 Oktober 1799 onderteken die hertog die konvensie van Alkmaar, waardeur die geallieerde ekspedisie onttrek het nadat hy sy gevangenes prysgegee het. 1799 het Fort Frederick in Suid -Afrika ook na hom vernoem.

Frederick se militêre terugslae van 1799 was onvermydelik, gegewe sy gebrek aan morele senioriteit as veldbevelvoerder, die swak toestand van die Britse leër destyds en teenstrydige militêre doelwitte van die protagoniste.

Frederick se ervaring in die Nederlandse veldtog het 'n sterk indruk op hom gemaak. Hierdie veldtog, en die Vlaandere -veldtog, het die talle swakpunte van die Britse weermag na jare se verwaarlosing bewys. Frederick het as 'n opperbevelhebber van die Britse leër 'n massiewe hervormingsprogram deurgemaak. Hy was die persoon wat die meeste verantwoordelik was vir die hervormings wat die mag geskep het wat in die Skiereilandoorlog gedien het. Hy was ook in beheer van die voorbereidings teen die beplande inval van Napoleon in die Verenigde Koninkryk in 1803. Volgens die mening van sir John Fortescue het Frederick vir die weermag meer gedoen as wat enige een in sy hele geskiedenis daarvoor gedoen het. & Quot

In 1801 het Frederick aktief die stigting van die Royal Military College, Sandhurst, ondersteun wat die professionele, op meriete gebaseerde opleiding van toekomstige kommissarisse bevorder het.

Op 14 September 1805 kry hy die eretitel Warden of Windsor Forest.

Frederick bedank op 25 Maart 1809 as opperbevelhebber as gevolg van 'n skandaal wat veroorsaak is deur die aktiwiteite van sy jongste minnares, Mary Anne Clarke. Clarke is daarvan beskuldig dat hy onwettig weermagkommissies verkoop het onder leiding van Frederick. 'N Uitgesoekte komitee van die Laerhuis het die saak ondersoek. Die parlement het Frederik uiteindelik vrygespreek omdat hy omkoopgeld met 278 stemme teen 196 ontvang het. Hy het nietemin bedank weens die hoë telling teen hom. Twee jaar later is onthul dat Clarke op 29 Mei 1811 die vrygespreekte Frederick op 29 Mei 1811 as hoofbevelvoerder, Gwyllym Wardle, se betaling teruggekry het.

Frederick het 'n landelike woning in Oatlands naby Weybridge, Surrey, maar hy was selde daar, en verkies om hom te verdiep in sy administratiewe werk by Horse Guards (die hoofkwartier van die Britse weermag) en, na ure, in die hoë lewe van Londen, met sy tafels: Frederick was voortdurend in die skuld as gevolg van sy oormatige dobbelary op kaarte en renperde. Na die onverwagte dood van sy niggie, prinses Charlotte van Wales, in 1817, word Frederick tweede op die troon, met 'n ernstige kans om dit te erf. In 1820 word hy vermoedelik erfgenaam met die dood van sy vader, George III.

Frederick is in 1827 aan die hart van Rutland in Arlingtonstraat, Londen, aan die dood van skynbare kardiovaskulêre siektes oorlede. Nadat hy in die staat in Londen gelê het, is die oorskot van Frederick begrawe in die St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Op 29 September 1791 te Charlottenburg, Berlyn, en weer op 23 November 1791 in Buckingham-paleis, trou Frederick met sy neef prinses Frederica Charlotte van Pruise, die dogter van koning Frederik Willem II van Pruise en Elisabeth Christine van Brunswick-L üneburg. Die huwelik was nie gelukkig nie en die egpaar het gou geskei. Frederica tree terug na Oatlands, waar sy tot haar dood in 1820 gewoon het.


Verenigde Iere

Ondergronds gedryf, het die Genootskap homself weer gevorm as 'n geheime, eedgebonde organisasie wat toegewy is aan die strewe na 'n republikeinse regeringsvorm in 'n aparte en onafhanklike Ierland. Dit sou hoofsaaklik bereik word deur direkte Franse militêre ingryping. Die plan was die naaste aan die sukses ná die aankoms van 'n Franse invlootvloot, met ongeveer 14 000 soldate, aan die suidelike kus van Ierland in Desember 1796. Ongunstige weersomstandighede het die Franse egter nie verhinder om te land nie, en die vloot was verplig om sy terug na Frankryk. Vanaf hierdie datum het Dublin Castle sy oorlog teen die Verenigde Iere verskerp, hul geledere infiltreer met spioene en informateurs, drakoniese wetgewing teen subversiewe mense ingeroep, 'n blinde oog vir militêre uitspattigheid en dié van die vasberade lojalistiese Oranje Orde en bou sy verdedigingsmagte op, sodat die Franse nie sterk sou terugkeer nie.

. daar was geen moontlikheid van Franse hulp nie.

Teen die lente van 1798 blyk dit dat Dublin Castle suksesvol was in sy vasbeslote pogings om die genootskap se opstandkapasiteit te vernietig: baie van sy leiers was in die gevangenis, die organisasie was in wanorde en daar was geen kans op Franse hulp nie. Ten spyte van hierdie probleme, is daar in die nag van die 23ste/24ste Mei, soos beplan, beslag gelê op die poswaens wat Dublin verlaat - 'n teken vir die Verenigde Iere buite die hoofstad dat die tyd van die opstand aangebreek het.

As gevolg van die versuim van Dublin om op te staan, word die Rebellie egter oral onderskei deur 'n gebrek aan konsert en 'n gebrek aan fokus. Die opstande buite die hoofstad was deur die Verenigde Iere bedoel as ondersteunende handelinge - syvertonings - vir die hoofgebeurtenis in Dublin, maar omdat Dublin nie soos beplan presteer nie, het rebelle in die buitelande hulself nou tot die middelste verhoog bevorder. In die gebrek aan koördinasie tussen die rebelle oorlogsteaters was die redding van Dublin Castle en die Britse bewind in Ierland.


Slag van Willems, 10 Mei 1794 - Geskiedenis

Historiese gebeure in Mei, per dag:

1 Mei 1840 - Engeland stel die eerste 1ste plakseël vry.

1 Mei 1841 - Die eerste wa -trein verlaat Independence, Mo, na Kalifornië.

1 Mei 1883 - "Buffalo Bill" Cody se eerste Wild West Show.

1 Mei 1884 - Die bouwerk begin aan die eerste wolkekrabber, die gebou met 10 verdiepings, Home Insurance Company, in Chicago, IL.

1 Mei 1931 - Die Empire State -gebou is ingewy.

1 Mei 1941 - Die graan "Cheerios" kom op die winkelrakke.

1 Mei 1951 - Slugger Mickey Mantle slaan sy eerste tuiswedstryd.

1 Mei 1952 - Meneer Aartappelkop word voorgestel.

2 Mei 1878 - Die VSA hou op met die munt van die 20 sent.

2 Mei 1885 - Good Housekeeping Magazine verskyn die eerste keer in die kiosk.

2 Mei 1932 - Jack Benny se eerste radioprogram wys op première.

2 Mei 1939 - Lou Gehrig speel in sy 2130ste wedstryd, 'n bofbalrekord wat 57 jaar sal duur totdat Cal Ripken kom.

3 Mei 1494 - Christopher Columbus ontdek "St Iago". Dit word later die naam Jamaika genoem.

3 Mei 1936 - Joe DiMaggio maak sy debuut in die hoofliga met 3 treffers vir die NY Yankees.

3 Mei 1937 - Margaret Mitchell wen die Pulitzer -prys vir "Gone With the Wind & quot.

3 Mei 1978 - Digital Equipment Corporation stuur die eerste grootmaat ongevraagde kommersiële e -posse. spam word gebore!

4 Mei 1626 - Manhattan Island word verkoop! Inheemse Amerikaanse Indiane stem in tot die ooreenkoms in ruil vir $ 24 in lap- en amp -knoppies.

4 Mei 1878 - Fonograaf word vir die eerste keer in die Grand Opera House gespeel.

4 Mei 1932 - Atlanta Penitentiary het 'n nuwe inwoner nadat Al Capone skuldig bevind is aan belastingontduiking.

4 Mei 1934 - Academy of Motion Pictures word gestig. (1934)

4 Mei 1964 - Première van sepies "Another World" en "As the World Turns".

4 Mei 1979 - Margaret Thatcher word die eerste vroulike premier van die Verenigde Koninkryk.

5 Mei 1260 - Kublai Khan, die kleinseun van Genghis Khan, word heerser van die Mongoolse Ryk.

5 Mei 1862 - Mexikaanse magte onder Benito Juarez verslaan Franse troepe in die Slag van Puebla. Vandag word hierdie geveg gevier as Cinco de Mayo.

5 Mei 1865 - North Bend, Ohio kom op die kaart. Dit is die plek waar die eerste Amerikaanse treinroof plaasgevind het.

5 Mei 1893 - Die aandelebeurs in New York stort neer en veroorsaak die 'Groot Paniek van 1893'.

5 Mei 1904 - Cy Young speel die eerste perfekte wedstryd in die moderne bofbalgeskiedenis.

5 Mei 1968 - Senator Robert F. Kennedy word vermoor.

5 Mei 1971 - Alan Shepard ry 'Freedom 7' word 1ste Amerikaner in die ruimte.

6 Mei 1833 - John Deere vervaardig die eerste staalploeg.

6 Mei 1915 - Die Yale -slot word gepatenteer.

6 Mei 1889 - Die Parys -uitstalling open met die pas voltooide Eiffeltoring as die middelpunt daarvan.

6 Mei 1915 - Future Baseball Hall of Famer Babe Ruth tref sy eerste tuiswedstryd.

6 Mei 1937 - The Dirigible Hindenburg ontplof in vlamme by Lakehurst, NJ.

6 Mei 1994 - Chunnel wat Engeland en Frankryk verbind, word amptelik geopen.

6 Mei 2002 - Ondernemer Elon Musk vorm SpaceX.

7 Mei 1789 - Die eerste inhuldigingsbal word gehou ter ere van George Washington en sy vrou.

7 Mei 1888 - George Eastman patenteer die Box Camera.

7 Mei 1934 - Die grootste pêrel ter wêreld (6,4 kg) is in die Filippyne ontdek.

7 Mei 1941 - Glenn Miller, die groot orkesleier, neem die "Chattanooga Choo Choo" op.

7 Mei 1945 - Duitsland teken 'n onvoorwaardelike oorgawe in Rhims, Frankryk, en beëindig die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Europa.

7 Mei 1970 - Die laaste album van The Beatles word vrygestel - "Long and Winding Road".

7 Mei 1992 - Die eerste reis van die ruimtetuig Endeavour.

8 Mei 1794 - Die Amerikaanse poskantoor word gestig.

8 Mei 1945 - VE -dag, Duitsland teken onvoorwaardelike oorgawe.

8 Mei 1861 - Richmond, Virginia, word die hoofstad van die Konfederasie genoem.

8 Mei 1879 - George Selden lê die eerste patent vir 'n gas aangedrewe motor in.

8 Mei 1952 - Mad Magazine verskyn in die kiosk.

8 Mei 1980 - Die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie kondig aan dat pokke wêreldwyd uitgeroei is.

9 Mei 1869 - 'n "Golden Spike" is op Promontory Summit, Utah, in die spoorweë gery, wat die spore van die Union Pacific en Central Pacific -spoorlyne verbind, wat die eerste transkontinentale spoorlyn gevorm het.

9 Mei 1886 - Die stroop vir Coca Cola word uitgevind deur die apteker John Styth Permerton in Atlanta.

9 Mei 1899 - Die grassnyer is gepatenteer.

9 Mei 1914 - President Woodrow Wilson verklaar Moedersdag.

9 Mei 1926 - Amerikaners Richard Boyd en Floyd Bennett word die eerste om oor die Noordpool te vlieg.

9 Mei 1960 - Die geboortebeperkingspil word deur die FDA goedgekeur.

10 Mei 1797 - Die eerste Amerikaanse vlootskip, genaamd United States & quot, word gelanseer.

10 Mei 1908 - Die eerste Moedersdag word in Philadelphia, PA, gehou.

10 Mei 1969 - Die eerste kleurfoto's van die aarde uit die ruimte word vanaf Apollo 10 teruggestuur.

10 Mei 1994 - Nelson Mandela word Suid -Afrika se eerste swart president.

11 Mei 1916 -Einstein's bied sy teorie van algemene relatiwiteit aan.

11 Mei 1928 - General Electric open die wêreld se eerste televisiestasie in Schenectady, NY.

11 Mei 1947 - BF Goodrich vervaardig die eerste buislose band.

11 Mei 1951 - Jay Forrester patenteer rekenaarkerngeheue.

May 12, 1921 - The first National Hospital Day is celebrated honoring the birth of Florence Nightingale.

May 12, 1792 - The flush toilet is patented.

May 12, 1847 - Mormon pioneer William Clayton invents the odometer while crossing the western plains in a covered wagon.

May 13, 1767 - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's first opera "Apollo et Hyacinthus" premieres in Salzburg. He wrote it when he was 11 years old.

May 13, 1965 - The Rolling Stones record the now infamous song "Satisfaction".

May 13, 1970 - The Beatles movie "Let it Be" premieres.

May 13, 1983 -"Mr. October", Reggie Jackson becomes the first major league ballplayer to strike out 2,000 times.

May 14, 1607 - A party of settlers led by John Smith establish the first permanent English settlement in New World at Jamestown Va.

May 14, 1787 - Delegates gather in Philadelphia to draw up the Constitution of the United Sates of America.

May 14, 176 - Physician Edward Jenner develops a vaccine for smallpox.

May 14, 1878 - Vaseline petroleum jelly slides onto store shelves for the first time.

May 14, 1973 - The first U.S. space station, "Skylab" is launched.

May 14, 1965 - The last episode of Seinfeld is aired. It's a sad day in May for millions of Seinfeld followers.

May 15, 1862 - President Abraham Lincoln established the Department of Agriculture (USDA)

May 15, 1918 - Regular airmail service inaugurated (between New York, Philadelphia & Washington DC.

May 15, 1940 - Nylon stockings hit the market for first time.

May 15, 1963 - "If I had a Hammer" by Peter, Paul, and Mary wins a Grammy.

May 16, 1817 - Mississippi river steamboat service begins.

May 16, 1866 - Charles Hires invents Root Beer.

May 16, 1920 - Joan of Arc is canonized as a saint.

May 16, 1985 - Michael Jordan is named "NBA Rookie of the Year".

May 17, 1875 - "And They're Off!" as the first Kentucky Derby is held at Churchill Downs.

May 17, 1900 - "The Wonderful World of Oz" is published.

May 17, 1884 - Alaska becomes a U.S. territory.

May 17, 1954 - The first "Running of the Kentucky Derby" is held at Churchill Downs.

May 18, 1804 - Napoleon Bonaparte becomes Emperor of France

May 18, 1860 - The Republican party nominates Abraham Lincoln for president.

May 18, 1927 - Grumman's Chinese Theater opens in Hollywood, CA.

May 18, 1965 - Gene Rodenberry suggests 16 names for Star Trek Captain. The list includes Kirk.

May 19, 1836 - Ann Boleyn, second wife of English King Henry VIII is beheaded.

May 19, 1884 - Ringling Brothers circus premieres.

May 19, 2018 - American actress Meghan Markle marries England's Prince Harry in a ceremony at Windsor castle, and becomes the Duchess of Sussex..

May 20, 1830 - The fountain pen is patented.

May 20, 1926 - Thomas Edison says Americans prefer silent movies over talkies.

May 20, 1990 - Hubble Space Telescope transmits photograph's from space.

May 21, 1602 - Captain Bartholomew Gosnold is the first to see Martha's Vineyard.

May 21, 1861 - Richmond, VA is designated the capital of the Confederacy.

May 21, 1881 - The American Red Cross was formed.

May 22, 1455 - The opening battle in England's 30 year "War of the Roses".

May 22, 1807 - Former Vice President Aaron Burr is tried and acquitted of treason.

May 22, 1868 - The Great Train Robbery.

May 22, 1819 - The steamship Savannah departs Savannah, GA to Liverpool, England on the first trans-Atlantic crossing by a steamship.

May 22, 1906 - The Wright Brothers are granted a patent for their "flying machine".

May 22, 1931 - Canned rattlesnake meat goes on sale in Florida.

May 22, 1933 - First reported sighting of the Loch Ness Monster.

May 22, 1967 - The debut of "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood".

May 22, 1977 - After a 94 year run, the Orient Express takes it's final trip across Europe.

May 23, 1785 - Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals.

May 23, 1900 - Associated Press News Service is formed.

May 23, 1934 - Legendary bank robbers Bonnie and Clyde Barrow are shot to death in a police ambush in Louisiana.

May 23, 1958 - Cliff Notes are first used by U.S. school children.

May 24, 1775 - John Hancock is unanimously elected president of the Continental Congress.

May 24, 1830 - Nursery Rhyme "Mary Had a Little Lamb" was written by Mary Hale of Boston.

May 24, 1844 - Samuel Morse opens the first telegraph line between Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC.

May 24, 1883 - The Brooklyn Bridge is formally opened.

May 25, 1927 - Ford ceases production of the Model "T".

May 25, 1961 - President John F. Kennedy announces a goal to put an American astronaut on the moon before the end of the decade.

May 25, 1968 - Gateway arch in St. Louis is dedicated.

May 25, 1977 - The original movie blockbuster "Star Wars, Episode IV" is released.

May 25, 2012 - A SpaceX Dragon becomes the first commercial spacecraft to dock at the International Space Station.

May 26, 1805 - Lewis and Clark are the first to see the Rocky Mountains.

May 26, 1940 - During WWII, the trapped British Expeditionary Force evacuates the European mainland from Dunkirk, France.

May 26, 1994 - Michael Jackson marries Elvis Presley's daughter Lisa Marie Presley.

May 27, 1647 - Achsah Young is the first woman to be executed as a witch in Massachusetts.

May 27, 1919 - The pop-up toaster is patented.

May 27, 1930 - Richard Gurley Drew receives a patent for cellophane tape.

May 27, 1937 - The San Francisco Golden Gate bridge opens. Over 200,000 people go across it on opening day.

May 27, 1941 - German battleship Bismarck is sunk by British navy.

May 28, 1928 - Dodge Brothers Inc. and Chrysler Corporation merge.

May 29, 1849 - Famous Abraham Lincoln quote: "You can fool some of the people all of the time, all of people some of time, but you can't fool all of the people all of time".

May 29, 1916 - Official flag of the President of the United States is adopted.

May 29, 1919 - Albert Einstein publishes his Theory of Relativity.

May 29, 1942 - Bing Crosby sings "White Christmas" into the record books as the biggest selling record.

May 29, 1953 - Sir Edmund Hillary is on top of the world. He is the first person to reach the summit of Mt. Everest.

May 30, 1431 - During the Hundred Years War, 19 year old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake.

May 30, 1821 - James Boyd patents the fire hose.

May 30, 1889 - The brassiere is invented. As we understand, it received a lot of support.

May 30, 1922 - The Lincoln Memorial is completed and dedicated by Supreme Court Chief Justice William H. Taft.

May 31, 1790 - U.S. Copyright law is enacted.

May 31, 1884 - Dr. John Harvey Kellogg patents "flaked cereal".

May 31, 1969 - John Lennon and Yoko Ono record the song "Give Peace a Chance".

May 31, 1977 - The Trans-Alaska pipeline is completed.

May 31, 1990 - Seinfeld television comedy show premieres.

May 31, 2000 - Television reality show "Survivor" premieres.

Holiday Insights , where every day is a holiday, a bizarre or wacky day, an observance, or a special event. Join us in the daily calendar fun each and every day of the year.

Het jy geweet? There are literally thousands of daily holidays, special events and observances, more than one for every day of the year. Many of these holidays are new. More holidays are being created on a regular basis. At Holiday Insights, we take great efforts to thoroughly research and document the details of each one, as completely and accurately as possible.


Titles, styles, honours, and arms

Titles and styles

  • 16 August 1763 – 27 November 1784: His Royal Highness The Prince Frederick
  • 27 November 1784 – 5 January 1827: His Royal Highness The Duke of York and Albany

His full style, recited at his funeral, was "Most High, Most Mighty, and Illustrious Prince, Frederick Duke of York and of Albany, Earl of Ulster, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, First and Principal Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order". [31]

Honours

His honours were as follows: [31]

  • KG: Royal Knight of the Order of the Garter, 19 June 1771[32]
  • GCB: Knight Grand Cross (military) of the Order of the Bath, 2 January 1815[33]
  • GCH: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order, 12 August 1815[34]
  • Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle of Prussia, 11 April 1814[35]
  • Knight of the Order of the St-Esprit of France, 21 April 1814[36]
  • Knight of the Order of St. Andrew of Russia, 9 June 1814[37]
  • Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky of Russia, 9 June 1814[38]
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III of Spain, 21 August 1814[39]
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Maria Theresa of Austria, 1814[36]

Ohio's 14 most historic battlefields

CLEVELAND, Ohio -- Ohio is home to some of the most historic battles fought in the many wars and conflicts fought on U.S. soil throughout history.

The American Revolution, the American Civil War, various conflicts with Native Americans and even two battles in the War of 1812 were fought inside the Buckeye State.

Scroll through the slides to read about some of the most important. Descriptions of each battle come from OhioHistoryCentral.org and OhioHistory.org.

Plain Dealer Archives

Ohio's most historic battlefields

Oliver Hazard Perry commanded American naval forces during the Battle of Lake Erie, a turning point in the War of 1812.

The Battle of Fort Sandusky

The Battle of Fort Sandusky was one of many clashes during Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763. The Native American leader gathered several tribes in a loose alliance and attacked British forts throughout what is now Ohio and Michigan. Although Pontiac's uprising ultimately failed to drive out the British, a group of Wyandots managed to take Fort Sandusky on May 16, 1763. They entered the stronghold after requesting a council and then slaughtered everyone inside.

Pontiac is pictured to the left in an artist's rendering.

The Battle of Chillicothe

Colonel John Bowman led roughly 300 members of the Kentucky militia in an attack on a Shawnee town of Chillicothe, near modern-day Xenia, in May 1779. While the Shawnee ultimately repelled Bowman and his men, who were unable to extricate the Native American fighters from their fortifications, the American soldiers burned down the town and killed a Shawnee chief.

Plain Dealer Archives

Gnadenhutten Massacre

After Native Americans kidnapped and killed several Pennsylvanians in 1782, Captain David Williamson led a group of militiamen to a Moravian Church in Gnadenhutten where they captured more than 100 members of a Christian Delaware tribe. Although that particular group of Native Americans had nothing to do with the kidnappings and killings in Pennsylvania, the militiamen voted to execute them the next day.

A memorial to those lost is pictured to the left.

Following a series of Shawnee raids on American settlements throughout Kentucky, George Rogers Clark led more than 1,000 men across the Ohio River and burned five Shawnee villages in August, 1780, before marching north and confronting a Shawnee army near present-day Springfield. Both sides suffered heavy losses, but American forces eventually won the encounter. Today the clash is called the "Battle of Piqua," which is short for Pekowi, a branch of the Shawnee.

The Siege of Fort Laurens

The Continental Army built Fort Laurens in 1778, hoping to use it as a jumping off point for an invasion of Detroit during the American Revolution. But the British discovered the fort, surrounded it and laid siege to the stronghold on Feb. 22, 1779. The Fort Laurens commander was tipped off to the attack and prepared the fort. However, both sides eventually suffered from a shortage of food and supplies. The soldiers inside managed to outlast their attackers, however, and the British ended the siege on March 20 of that year.

American troops later abandoned the fort, which they determined wasn't close enough to Detroit to serve as a staging ground for an attack.

General George Washington ordered U.S. forces to take control of the Northwest Territory (including what is now Ohio) after the American Revolution. The resulting campaign was unsuccessful at first, marked by a series of defeats at the hands of Native American tribes more familiar with the region.

One such defeat came when U.S. military commander Arthur St. Clair, leading an army largely comprised of inexperienced men who were also short on food and rest, faced off with a Native American force led by Little Turtle near present-day Fort Recovery on November 4, 1791. His mostly untrained troops were routed by the Native American forces, losing nearly half their soldiers. The defeat was such an embarrassment that General Washington demanded St. Clair's resignation.

An artist's rendering of Little Turtle is pictured to the left.

Siege of Fort Recovery

Believing Fort Recovery to be too heavily armed to attack directly, Native American forces instead attempted to starve the American troops of food and supplies first.

While Native American fighters managed to capture a train delivering supplies to the fort on June 30, 1794, their subsequent attack on the fort itself failed, and they ultimately retreated.

Greg Horvath, Associated Press

The Battle of Fallen Timbers

United States soldiers faced a confederacy of Native American tribes led by Blue Jacket outside of what is now Maumee on Aug. 20, 1794. They won a decisive victory that paved the way for American expansion into a region of the Northwest Territory that would eventually become Ohio.

The fight became known as "The Battle of Fallen Timbers" because it was fought in the trail of a tornado that felled tree trunks which provided the ill-fated Native American warriors with cover.

Blue Jacket's men retreated to a British fort, but the fort's commander refused to admit them, fearing the possibility of war with the United States.

A monument to the Battle of Fallen Timbers is pictured to the left.

The Battle of Marblehead Peninsula

On a quest to secure croplands to feed American troops during the War of 1812, American militias marched into Danbury Township on the Marblehead Peninsula near modern-day Port Clinton. A force of Native Americans aligned with the British ambushed them in the marshlands on Sept. 28, 1812, resulting in the first battle in the War of 1812 to take place in Ohio. Whether or not the Americans won depends on the historian you talk to, but a monument on the site of the battle commemorates American lives lost.


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Battle of Willems, 10 May 1794 - History

Raised near London by Colonel George Augustus Elliott

HRH Ernest Duke of Cumberland, K.G.

High Wycombe, Marlow and Henley on King&rsquos Duty March &ndash Reading April &ndash Blackwall 4 troops to Flanders, 5 troops at Reading Ostend Manires Dunkirk October &ndash Lannoy Cateau Courtrai

April &ndash Premont Vaux VILLERS-EN-CAUCHIES WILLEMS Roubaix Duffel Boxtel Nijmegen

Geldermalsen Groningen retreat to Bremen Westphalia December &ndash to England North Shields

North Shields travelling south February &ndash Croydon April &ndash 8 troops to form 4 squadrons Reading July &ndash Weymouth September &ndash Newbury, Hungerford and Marlborough

Newbury, Hungerford and Marlborough July &ndash Weymouth October &ndash Windsor

Windsor Hounslow July &ndash Ashford Swinley September - Newbury, Hungerford and Marlborough

Newbury, Hungerford and Marlborough June &ndash Trowbridge, Chippenham, Devizes, Frome, Wells and Gloucester July &ndash Croydon augmented to 9 troops September &ndash Canterbury 4 troops to Helder EGMONT-OP-ZEE October &ndash three more troops at Helder to England Canterbury

Canterbury augmented to 10 troops April &ndash received 172 Fencible volunteers July &ndash Salisbury October - Dorchester

Dorchester, Poole, Shaftesbury, Warminster, Trowbridge and Wells April &ndash Taunton July &ndash Southampton August &ndash Hertford October &ndash Guildford

Guildford May &ndash reduced from 10 to 8 troops August &ndash Worcester

Worcester May &ndash Margate and Walmer

Margate May &ndash Ramsgate June &ndash Wimbledon Common Winchester and Southampton augmented from 8 to 10 troops November &ndash escorted captured Spanish treasure from Plymouth to London

Winchester and Southampton March &ndash Salisbury July &ndash Weymouth Radipole started conversion to hussars

Radipole March &ndash Dorchester ordered to grow mongol moustaches June &ndash Richmond July &ndash Hounslow Heath Woodbridge October &ndash Rushmere Heath Weeley

Weeley July &ndash Romford August &ndash Wanstead Flats October &ndash 8 troops to Portsmouth, 2 troops at Dorchester to Spain Corunna Astorga SAHAGUN

Cacabellos Corunna to England Romford October &ndash Guildford and Godalming

Guildford and Godalming February &ndash Hounslow and Hampton Court April &ndash Burdett riots London Hounslow

Hounslow June &ndash Wimbledon Common June &ndash Romford December &ndash 8 troops to Nottingham and Mansfield Luddite riots

Nottingham and Mansfield April &ndash Leeds, Wakefield and Sheffield November &ndash Manchester December &ndash 4 troops to Brighton and Arundel, 6 troops to Portsmouth

6 troops at Chichester Portsmouth to Portugal February &ndash Lisbon Luz May &ndash Freixados Almendra June &ndash Morales Burgos Osma VITTORIA augmented from 10 to 12 troops Pyrenees Cambo

Cambo Orthez Grenade St Gernier Tarbes Toulouse June &ndash to Boulogne to England Dover Canterbury Hounslow reduced from 12 to 8 troops Liverpool to Ireland September &ndash Dublin Clonmel

Clonmel April &ndash augmented from 8 to 10 troops May &ndash 6 troops to Cork, 4 troops at Fermoy (later Arundel) 4 troops to Belgium Ostend WATERLOO Cambrai Paris Army of Occupation

May &ndash Calais to England Canterbury.

Careers of Senior Officers (shown as highest rank attained in regiment in the period)

Lt Col Francis Edward Gwyn

Served in American War of Independence Major in 16th Light Dragoons to August 1775 Lieutenant-Colonel in 20th Light Dragoons 5 May 1779 to half-pay 1783 Lieutenant-Colonel in 3rd Dragoons 19 March 1787 ADC to King George 1787 Lieutenant-Colonel in 15th Light Dragoons 5 June 1789 commanded 15th Light Dragoons 1789 to 1793 subsequently Major-General 29 December 1793 Colonel of 25th Light Dragoons May 1794 Lieutenant-General 26 June 1799 General 28 August 1808 Colonel of 1st Dragoon Guards February 1820 died Sheerness January 1821.

Lt Col George Churchill

Major in 15th Light Dragoons 30 August 1781 brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 18 November 1790 commanded 15th Light Dragoons in Flanders 1793 to 1794 Lieutenant-Colonel 10 March 1794 wounded in Flanders brevet colonel 21 August 1795 subsequently Major-General 18 June 1796 served in West Indies and commanded on San Domingo in 1797 to Lieutenant-Colonel in 20th Light Dragoons 6 September 1798 served at Helder 1799 Lieutenant-General 30 October 1805 died London August 1808.

Lt Col George Caesar Hopkinson

Major in 15th Light Dragoons 10 March 1794 Lieutenant-Colonel 11 March 1794 retired 14 December 1794.

Born Fifeshire 1770, son of General William Erskine Major in 15th Light Dragoons 1 March 1794 Lieutenant-Colonel 14 December 1794 ADC to General Erskine 1793 to 1795 MP 1796 to 1802 to half-pay of 133rd Foot 27 February 1796 Colonel of 14th Garrison Battalion 7 January 1801 to half-pay 1805 Major-General 25 April 1808 served in Peninsula June to September 1809 again in Peninsula October 1810 to February 1811 temporary commander of Light Division March and April 1811 commanded cavalry division in Peninsula April 1812 to January 1813 Lieutenant-General in Spain 14 May 1813 committed suicide at Lisbon 14 May 1813.

Maj William Aylett, Kt.

Served in Flanders 1793 and 1794 commanded 15th Light Dragoons and wounded at Villers-en-Cauchies Major in 15th Light Dragoons 1 March 1794 received Austrian Order of Maria Theresa 1794 brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 1 January 1798: to Major in 19 Foot 9 August 1804 subsequently brevet Colonel 23 April 1808 Major-General 4 June 1811 Lieutenant-General 19 July 1821 died July 1834.

Maj Robert Pocklington, Kt.

Served in Flanders 1793 to 1794 brought regiment out of Villers-en-Cauchies Major in 15th Light Dragoons 14 December 1794 received Austrian Order of Maria Theresa 1794 retired 29 December 1798.

Born Fifeshire 1772, son of General William Erskine served in Flanders 1793 to 1794 Lieutenant-Colonel in 133rd Foot 22 August 1794 to half-pay 1795 Lieutenant-Colonel in 15th Light Dragoons 27 February 1796 commanded 15th Light Dragoons at Helder 1799 brevet Colonel 1 January 1800 ADC to King George 6 January 1801 to Lieutenant-Colonel in 2nd Dragoon Guards 10 February 1803 subsequently Major-General 25 April 1808 commanded brigade in 1st Division in Peninsula October 1810 to May 1811 temporary commander of 5th Division in Peninsula February to May 1811 Lieutenant-General 4 June 1813 died in London 3 March 1825.

Major in 20th Light Dragoons 15 December 1794 Major in 16th Light Dragoons 15 June 1797 Lieutenant-Colonel in 20th Light Dragoons 21 December 1797 Lieutenant-Colonel in 15th Light Dragoons 6 September 1798 served in Flanders 1795 served at Helder 1799 brevet Colonel 1 January 1805 Lieutenant-Colonel of 16th Light Dragoons 12 December 1805 served in Peninsula April 1809 to May 1809 again in Peninsula June 1809 to January 1810 subsequently Major-General 25 July 1810 commanded cavalry brigade in Peninsula May 1811 to July 1813 Colonel of 23rd Light Dragoons 3 August 1814 Lieutenant-General 12 August 1819 General 1 February 1837 Governor of Chelsea Hospital 1846 to 1849 MP 1806 to 1841 died at Chelsea 4 November 1849.

Lt Col Richard Augustus Seymour

Served in Flanders 1793 to 1794 Major in 15th Light Dragoons 29 December 1798 served at Helder 1799 brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 25 September 1803 Lieutenant-Colonel 22 August 1805 commanded 15th Light Dragoons 1805 to 1808 to Lieutenant-Colonel in 72nd Foot 25 August 1808 Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Garrison Battalion 22 June 1809 subsequently Major-General 4 June 1814 died on St Lucia 21 October 1817.

Maj Francis Forrester

Born 1784 Major in 19th Foot 4 August 1799 Major in 15th Light Dragoons 9 August 1804 served in Peninsula November 1808 to January 1809 retired 31 August 1809 MP 1820 to 1826 died London October 1861.

Major in 15th Light Dragoons 26 September 1805 to Major in 17th Light Dragoons 20 February 1805 died at Calcutta 11 May 1809.

Born 1771 Brigade-Major and DAG in Flanders 1793 to 1794 served in Irish Rebellion 1798 Major in York Rangers 26 July 1797 Lieutenant-Colonel of Hompesch Mounted Rifles 7 February 1798 Major in York Hussars 28 June 1800 to half-pay 1802 Lieutenant-Colonel in 2nd Dragoon Guards 3 December 1803 Lieutenant-Colonel in 16th Light Dragoons 7 September 1805 Lieutenant-Colonel in 15th Light Dragoons 12 December 1805 brevet Colonel 25 April 1808 commanded cavalry brigade in Peninsula November 1808 to January 1809 served at Walcheren 1809 commanded cavalry brigade in Peninsula March 1811 to August 1813 subsequently Major-General 4 June 1811 Lieutenant-General 19 July 1821 died London 2 March 1825.

Maj Walter Nathaniel Leitch

Served at Helder 1799 Major in 15th Light Dragoons 20 March 1806 Major in 72nd Foot 20 July 1809 served in Peninsula November 1808 to January 1809 brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 4 June 1813 Lieutenant-Colonel in 72nd Foot 29 December 1814 retired 5 November 1818.

Born in Scotland 1764 served in India 1799 Major in 28 Light Dragoons 21 February 1801 Lieutenant-Colonel in 72nd Foot 1 May 1805 served at Cape of Good Hope 1806 Lieutenant-Colonel in 15th Light Dragoons 25 August 1808 commanded 15th Light Dragoons in Peninsula November 1808 to January 1809, wounded at Sahagun ADC to Prince Regent February 1811 commanded cavalry brigade in Peninsula April to July 1813, and again September to November 1813 wounded four times Major-General 4 June 1814 commanded cavalry brigade at Waterloo Colonel 15th Light Dragoons 22 January 1827 Lieutenant-General 22 July 1830 died Dorset 20 December 1836.

Maj John, Earl Waldegrave

Born 1785 Major in 8th Garrison Battalion 9 June 1808 Major in 72nd Foot 20 March 1808 Major in 15th Light Dragoons 25 July 1809 served in Peninsula July to December 1812 Major in 12 Light Dragoons 13 March 1812 Lieutenant-Colonel in 54th Foot 26 November 1812 commanded 54th Foot in Waterloo campaign died July 1835.

Maj Alexander Hepburn Belcher

Major in 15th Light Dragoons 2 September 1809 (on transfer from 3rd Dragoon Guards) retired 14 November 1812.

Lt Col Sir Leighton Cathcart Dalrymple, Bt., C.B.

Born Ayrshire 1785, second son of General Sir Hugh Dalrymple served in Peninsula November 1808 to January 1809 Major in 15th Light Dragoons 14 March 1812 Lieutenant-Colonel 16 December 1813 commanded 15th Light Dragoons 1813 to 1820 again in Peninsula March and April 1814 commanded 15th Light Dragoons at Waterloo, lost left leg died Hertfordshire 6 June 1820.

Born 1784 served in Peninsula November 1808 to January 1809 Major in 15th Light Dragoons 5 November 1812 again in Peninsula February 1813 to April 1814 commanded 15th Light Dragoons at Vittoria and Orthez killed in action at Waterloo.

War Office. Army Lists 1791 to 1815. London: various years.

Cannon, Richard. Historical Record of the Fifteenth or the King&rsquos Regiment of Hussars. London: John W. Parker, 1841.

Wylly, Harold Carmichael. XVth (The King&rsquos) Hussars, 1759 to 1813. London: Caxton Publishing Company, 1914.

Mollo, John. The Prince&rsquos Dolls Scandals, Skirmishes and Splendours of the First British Hussars 1793-1815. London: Leo Cooper, 1997.

McKenna, Michael G. The British Army &ndash And Its Regiments and Battalions. West Chester, Ohio: The Nafziger Collection. 2004.

Park, S.J. and Nafziger, G.F. The British Miltary &ndash Its System and Organization 1803-1815. Cambridge, Ontario: Rafm Co. Inc. 1983.

Reid, Stuart. Wellington&rsquos Officers, Volume 1. Leigh-On-Sea: Partizan Press, 2008.

Reid, Stuart. Wellington&rsquos Officers, Volume 2. Leigh-On-Sea: Partizan Press, 2009.

Reid, Stuart. Wellington&rsquos Officers, Volume 3. Leigh-On-Sea: Partizan Press, 2011.

Philippart, John. The Royal Military Calendar, or Army Service and Commission Book. London: A.J. Valpy, 1820.

17th-18th Century Burney Collection Newspapers. April 2013. National Library of Australia.

19th Century British Newspapers Collection. April 2013. National Library of Australia.


Kentucky History Timeline

Kentucky's first inhabitants are descendants of prehistoric people who migrate from Asia over the Arctic land bridge. Archaic people grow squash in the area, and Woodland people cultivate corn and beans. Kentucky was granted statehood in 1792, becoming the first U.S. state west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Frontiersman Daniel Boone was one of Kentucky's most prominent explorers and many immigrants followed the trail he blazed through the Cumberland Gap, known as the Wilderness Road.

18th Century Kentucky History Timeline

1739 - Capt. Charles de Longueuil discovers Big Bone Lick

1750 - Thomas Walker explores Kentucky through the Cumberland Gap

1751 - Christopher Gist explores area along Ohio River.

1763 - France cedes area including Kentucky to Britain.

1769 - Daniel Boone and John Finley first saw the far distant Bluegrass atop Pilot Knob, now in Powell County. The recorded date is June 7, 1769.

1774 - James Harrod constructed the first permanent settlement in Kentucky at Fort Harrod. 1774. James Harrod starts building Harrodstown (Harrodsburg) Indians force settlers to withdraw settlers return in 1775.

  • Boiling Springs and St. Asaph settled.
  • Indians give Richard Henderson land between Ohio and Cumberland rivers for Transylvania Land Company.
  • Daniel Boone builds the Wilderness Trail and establishes Fort Boonesborough

1776 - Harrodsburg settlers, jealous of Boonesboro, send George Rogers Clark and John Jones to ask Virginia's aid Virginia declares Transylvania Land Company illegal creates Kentucky County.

1778 - The longest siege in United States frontier history was the thirteen-day siege of Fort Boonesborough in September 1778.

1779 - The First Baptist Church west of the Allegheny Mountains was formed at Elizabethtown.

1782 - "Last battle of American Revolution" fought at Blue Licks, near Mount Olivet.

1784 - First of ten conventions held to prepare way for separation of Kentucky from Virginia.

1791 - Upper Spottsvania Baptist Church Left In 1791 For Floyd County, Kentucky From Virginia Leading the Wagon train was Rev. Lewis Craig and Capt. William Ellis.

1792 - Kentucky becomes the 15th state on June 1, 1792. June 1 governor, Isaac Shelby capital, Lexington, then Frankfort.

  • Gen. "Mad Anthony" Wayne's victory at Fallen Timbers in Ohio ends Indian attacks in Kentucky.
  • On July 4, 1794, Col. William Price, Revolutionary War veteran, held the first Independence Day celebration in the West, in Jessamine County.

1796 - Wilderness Road opened to wagons.

1798 - Legislature passes Kentucky Resolutions opposing United States Alien and Sedition Acts.

19th Century Kentucky History Timeline

1801 - The great church camp meeting at Cane Ridge in Bourbon County was attended by more than 20,000.

1811 - Henry Clay elected to Congress from Kentucky. New Orleans, first steamboat on Ohio River, stops at Louisville Enterprise reaches Louisville from New Orleans, La., in 1815.

1812 - Kentuckians bear brunt of war with England north of the Ohio and in New Orleans.

1818 - Westernmost region of the state was annexed, following its purchase from the Chicasaw Indians.

1819 - The first commercial oil well was on the Cumberland River in McCreary County Kentucky in 1819.

1830 - Louisville and Portland Canal opened.

1849 - Zachary Taylor, Kentucky hero of Mexican War, becomes 12th president of United States.

1850 - Kentucky was the 8th most populated state in the nation in the 1850 census. There were 982,405 citizens listed.

  • Kentucky declares its neutrality in American Civil War.
  • Civil War Kentucky had supplied about 86,000 troops to the north and 40,000 troops to the south. Ironically, south-central Kentucky was the birthplace of both the Union president, Abraham Lincoln, and the Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, further enhancing the state's dualistic role in the Civil War
  • Fort Jefferson, the first settlement in western Kentucky, was one of the first Kentucky positions occupied by Union Troops after the Confederates seized the area surrounding Columbus in September 1861.
  • The first major battle on Kentucky soil during the Civil War was fought near Prestonsburg, January 10, 1862
  • The bloodiest Civil War Battle to be fought on Kentucky soil was the Battle of Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862.

1865 - University of Kentucky founded at Lexington.

1875 - First Kentucky Derby run at Churchill Downs.

1891 - Present state constitution adopted.

1892 - The radio was invented by a Kentuckian named Nathan B. Stubblefield of Murray in 1892.

20th Century Kentucky History Timeline

1899-1900 - Kentucky experienced four different governors in less than three months time, between early December of 1899 and early February of 1900.

1900 - Governor William Goebel was shot by an assassin on January 30, 1900. He died on February 3, 1900

1909 - Present State Capitol completed.

1912 - McCreary County, the last to be created of Kentucky's 120 counties, was formed in 1912. It is the only one formed in the 20th Century.

1904-1909 - The Black Patch War ends a tobacco-buying monopoly

1921 - In 1921 the law passed making it legal for women to serve on juries.

  • Mammoth Cave National Park established.
  • The cardinal was adopted as Kentucky's state bird and the goldenrod as the state flower in 1926

1933 - The Tennessee Valley Authority begin building dams in Kentucky

  • The last legal public hanging in Kentucky took place August 14, 1936 in Owensboro. Florence Thompson was the first female sheriff in Davis County History. She was in charge of Kentucky's last legal hanging.
  • A US Gold Depository is established at Fort Knox

1937 - Worst Ohio River flood occurs. United States gold depository built at Fort Knox.

1944 - Kentucky Dam on Tennessee River completed by Tennessee Valley Authority.

1946 - Frederick M. Vinson, born in 1890 in Louisa, is appointed chief justice of the United States.

1950 - Atomic energy plant built near Paducah.

1951 - Wolf Creek Dam on Cumberland River dedicated.

1959 - Cumberland Gap National Historical Park dedicated.

1961 - It takes 20,000 plants to decorate Kentucky's Floral Clock. The clock was dedicated May 4, 1961 by Governor Bert T. Combs.

1962 - Kentucky is first state given control of certain nuclear energy materials by federal government.

1964 - Western Kentucky Parkway opened Kentucky Central Parkway, in 1965.

  • Kentucky is first Southern state to pass a comprehensive civil rights law.
  • Barkley Dam on Cumberland River dedicated.

1969 - The Tennessee Valley Authority builds a steam-generating plant in Paradise

1977 - Nightclub fire in Southgate kills 164 persons.

1988 - Voters approve the establishment of a state lottery.

1990 - The Kentucky Education Reform Act is passed.

21st Century Kentucky History Timeline

2005 - U.S. Supreme Court ruled against display of Ten Commandments inside two Kentucky courtrooms

2006 - Comair flight crashed near Lexington, 49 killed

  • Tea Party candidate, Rand Paul, won Republic Senate primary
  • Man killed five people, self in argument about breakfast
  • Five U.S. military members from Fort Campbell 101st Combat Aviation Brigade killed in helicopter crash in Afghanistan

2011 - Australian man held in Louisville on charges of locking fake bomb around neck of Sydney teenager