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Die geskiedenis van voormoderne Japan: die Nara -tydperk

Die geskiedenis van voormoderne Japan: die Nara -tydperk


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Hierdie lesing beskryf die Nara-tydperk van pre-moderne Japan.


Geskiedenis Nara tydperk

Die Nara -tydperk (奈良 時代 Nara jidai) is die historiese tydperk wat begin in 710, die jaar waarin die hoofstad van Fujiwarakyō na Heijōkyō (die hedendaagse stad Nara) verskuif is en eindig in 784 toe die hoofstad na Nagaokakyō verskuif is. Die tien jaar by Nagaokakyō (784-794) is gewoonlik ingesluit in die Nara-tydperk, maar gee dit 'n einddatum van 794.

Todai-ji

Die Nara-tydperk was die hoogtepunt van die Chinees-geïnspireerde ritsuryō (律令) regeringstelsel sowel as die aktiewe bekendstelling van ander aspekte van die Chinese beskawing. Om Boeddhisme die geestelike basis van gesentraliseerde politieke gesag te maak, moet provinsiale tempels (kokubunji) in Japan gestig is. Die Nara -tydperk beskou die vestiging van Boeddhisme as die godsdiens van die hof en, in uitbreiding, van die staat, en 'n nuwe hoogtepunt in intellektuele en kulturele prestasies, soos geïllustreer in die bou van die groot saal van die Tōdaiji -tempel, sowel as die samestelling van Japan se eerste kronieke, die Kojiki (古 事 記, 712) en die Nihon Shoki (日本 書 紀, 720). Onder die invloed van Tang China het die kunste floreer in wat bekend staan ​​as die Tempyō (天平) kultuur. Gedurende die middelperiode het daar egter 'n magstryd onder die hofadels uitgebreek. Veranderinge in die grondbesitstelsel het gelei tot die opbou van groot dele privaat grond (荘 園 of 庄園 shoen) deur edeles en godsdienstige instellings, wat die ineenstorting van die kōchi kōmin (公地 公民) stelsel van openbare eienaarskap van grond en die verbrokkeling van die ritsuryō stelsel. Die laaste jare van die Nara -tydperk was 'n toenemende armoede onder die kleinboere, wat deur belasting belas was, en 'n toenemende aantal hawelose swerwers.

Ritsuryō -stelsel

In die konteks van die politieke geskiedenis het die Nara -tydperk moontlik begin met die bekendmaking van die Taihō -kode (大 宝 律令 Taihō-ritsuryō) in 701. Onder die kode is die sentraliserende hervormings wat deur die Taika-hervormings (645) ingehuldig is, vorentoe gestoot, en in die tydperk het die vaste vestiging van die keiser die hoof van 'n Chinese styl geword ritsuryō staat. Onder die ritsuryō stelsel, het die sentrale regering gelei deur die dajōkan (太 政 官 Groot Staatsraad), wat agt ministeries gelei het. Die regering is beman deur amptenare wat deur die keiser aangestel is en genooi is om as sy lojale dienaars op te tree. Die land is verdeel in provinsies (国 kuni of kokii), wat weer in distrikte verdeel is (郡 geweer of kōri), dorpe (郷 gaan) en gehuggies (里 ri of sato). 'N Vroeë dokument uit die Nara-tydperk bevat 67 provinsies, bestaande uit 555 distrikte, 4,012 dorpe en 12,036 gehuggies. Die provinsies is geadministreer deur goewerneurs (国 司 kokushi), wat uit die hoofstad gestuur is. Al die mense word beskou as die onderdane van die keiser en daar word van hulle verwag om die amptenare wat in sy naam opgetree het, te gehoorsaam.

Alle rysgrond is as openbare domein verklaar. Onder die hande shūju (班 田 収授) stelsel is die grond elke ses jaar herverdeel aan alle mans en wyfies ouer as ses jaar. 'N Mannetjie het 2 gekry Tan (1 Tan (段) = 0,12 hektaar of 0,3 hektaar), 'n vroulike tweederde van die bedrag. Om die korrekte toekenning van rysgrond te verseker, is die sensusregister elke ses jaar bygewerk. Die destydse gesag van die keiserlike hof strek tot so suid as die eilande van die punt van Kyūshū en so ver noord as Akitajō, in die huidige Akita -prefektuur. Die bevolking in hierdie gebied was na raming ongeveer 5 tot 6 miljoen en die oppervlakte van rysland ongeveer 601,000 chō (ongeveer 721.200 hektaar of 1,8 miljoen hektaar). Dit is duidelik dat, selfs nadat die verhouding tussen mannetjies en wyfies in ag geneem is, daar nie genoeg grond was nie. Te oordeel na historiese materiaal, is die hande stelsel en die sensusregistrasie blykbaar in die hele land met min weerstand geïmplementeer te wees. Die toegewysde rysland is genoem kubunden (口 分 田). Houers van kubunden was geneig om te corvée (雑 徭 zōyō), 'n rysbelasting (租 so), 'n belasting op handwerk of plaaslike produkte (調 chō). Daar was ook 'n belasting op handwerk of plaaslike produkte (庸 jy) in plaas van arbeid.

Om die administratiewe en militêre kommunikasie met die provinsies te versterk en die betaling van belasting te vergemaklik, het die regering 'n netwerk van posstasies gestig (駅 制 ekisei) op die openbare paaie wat die hoofstad en die provinsiale regerings setels verbind. Die rys- en produksiebelasting wat tot dusver aan plaaslike hoofde betaal is, is nou direk aan die sentrale regering gestuur.

Todai-ji

'N Getroue nabootsing van die Chinese regeringstelsel het negatiewe newe-effekte, want dit pas nie by die landbouwerklikheid van Japan nie. Volgens 'n dokument van 730, is 412 uit 414 huishoudings in die provinsie Awa (die huidige Chiba-prefektuur) gelys as op die bestaansvlak. Die syfers vir die provinsie Echizen (die moderne Fukui-prefektuur) in daardie jaar vertel dieselfde verhaal: van 1 019 huishoudings was 996 armoede. Die belastinglas val die swaarste op die boere, en die aantal wat weggekom het, het in 'n onrusbarende tempo toegeneem. Terselfdertyd, onder die Sanze isshin no hō (723) en die Konden onsi shizai hō (743), is herwonne woesteny vir een of drie geslagte erken, of vir ewig. Edeles en godsdienstige instellings kon uitgebreide grondbesit toepas, wat van belasting vrygestel was. Dwaalboere wat op soek was na 'n lewensbestaan, het op hierdie lande saamgedrom. Hierin lê die fundamentele teenstrydigheid van die Nara -grondbesitstelsel.

Die projek om 'n imposante kapitaal te bou op die model van die Chinese hoofstad Chang'an (Ch'ang-an), was nog 'n voorbeeld van oorywerige nabootsing. Baie van die boere wat vir diens ingeroep is, het die duisende rustelose boere wat daagliks bymekaargekom het aan die buitewyke van Heijōkyō, weggehardloop, wat 'n voortdurende bedreiging ingehou het, wat noodsaak dat gewapende wagte by die paleisarsenaal en die keiser se woning ontplooi word. Dit was om die Taihō-kode aan te pas by inheemse realiteite dat die minister Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原 不比 等, 659-720) begin het met die opstel van die Yōrō-kode (養老 律令 Yōrō-ritsuryō) in 718.

Na die dood van Fuhito in 720 was prins Nagaya die magtigste politieke figuur, maar in 729 is die prins deur die keiser beveel om selfmoord te pleeg omdat hy na bewering 'n opstand aanhits het. Hy is trouens valslik beskuldig deur lede van die Fujiwara -familie, wat vermoedelik die sosiale onrus sou gebruik om politieke leiding uit die keiserhuis te gryp. Die dood van al vier die seuns van Fuhito in 'n pokke -epidemie in 737 het egter 'n einde gemaak aan die imperiale aspirasies van die gesin.

Die keiser Shōmu (聖 武天皇 Shōmu-tennō, 701-756), wat getroud was met keiserin Kōmyō (光明 皇后 Kōmyō-kōgō, 701–760), 'n dogter van Fuhito, was diep versteur deur die verloop van die gebeure, en in die hoop dat die magte van Boeddhisme 'n einde sou maak aan epidemiese siektes en sosiale siektes, beveel hy in 741 die bou van tempels en kloosters (国 分 kokubunji) in elke provinsie. Hierdie onderneming is eers na baie jare voltooi. Shōmu beveel ook in 743 die bou van 'n reusagtige standbeeld van die Boeddha Vairocana sodat die seëninge van die Boeddha oor die hele land sou strek. Bekend as die Groot Boeddha (大 仏 daibutsu) van Tōdaiji, is dit in 752 ten duurste voltooi.

Staatsuitgawes het dus hoofsaaklik gegaan vir die bou van imposante godsdienstige geboue en standbeelde. Boeddhistiese kunste en kultuur, met die fokus op hierdie goeie werke, bereik 'n ongeëwenaarde rykdom en glans. Geleerdes sou later die artistieke bloei van hierdie periode Tempyō -kultuur noem, na die era se naam (nengō) vir die jare 729-749.

Tempyō -kultuur en ambassades in China

Die rypwording van die Tempyō (天平) kultuur was in geringe mate te danke aan die hervatting van die betrekkinge met die Tang (T'ang) dinastie (618-907) van China. Die stuur van amptelike gesante is gestaak sedert die nederlaag van die Japanse magte deur die gesamentlike leërs van Tang China en die Koreaanse staat Silla in die Slag van Hakusukinoe in 663. In 701 is besluit om 'n ambassade na China te stuur, en die gesante het die volgende jaar na die vasteland vertrek. Tussen 701 en 777 is sewe missies gestuur, elk met soveel as 500 of 600 manskappe.

Die seereise oor die see was gevaarlik en dikwels noodlottig, wat dui op die gretigheid waarmee die Japannese gehoop het om uit China te leer. Baie studente en geleerdes vergesel hierdie ambassades, 'n aantal wat jare lank in China bly. Sommige van hulle het buitelandse monnike en nuwe vorme van Boeddhisme teruggebring. Hulle het aansienlik bygedra tot die oorvloed Tempyō-kultuur, Gembō (玄 昉, d. 746), Kibi no Makibi (吉 備 真 備, 695-775) en Abe no Nakamaro (阿 倍 仲 麻 呂, 698-770) is enkele van die meer bekend van hierdie studente. Gembō het teruggekeer met meer as 5000 sutras, terwyl Kibi no Makibi, wat Confucianisme, militêre wetenskap en seremoniële rituele bestudeer het, 'n opvoedkundige program vir toekomstige regeringsamptenare opgestel het. Die Chinese monnik Jianzhen (of Ganjin, 鑒真 of 鑑真 688–763) bereik Japan uiteindelik in 754 na vier onsuksesvolle pogings. Hy het die leerstellings van die Risshū (律宗) sekte oorgedra en die Tōshōdaiji (唐 招 提 寺) tempel in Nara gestig.

Besoekers het van so ver as Sentraal- en Wes -Asië, Indonesië, Viëtnam, Maleisië en Indië gekom, wat die dinamika en diversiteit van die Tempyō -kultuur versterk het. Die kenmerk van Nara -kuns word verteenwoordig in die duisende voorwerpe wat bewaar is in die Shōsōin (正 倉 院), die skathuis van Tōdaiji in Nara. Alhoewel dit aanklank vind by buitelandse invloed, het die Nara -kultuur uniek Japannees gebly. Die Chinese skryfstelsel is aangeneem, maar die Japannese taal bly ongeskonde. Verder, deur die gebruik van Chinese karakters op 'n vrye en verbeeldingryke manier, het die Japannese aansienlik toegevoeg tot die rykdom en subtiliteit van hul taal. Die poëtiese bloemlesing Man’yōshū (万 葉 集, "Versameling van tienduisend blare") is 'n uitstekende meesterstuk van die tydperk. Japan se eerste geskiedenis, die Kojiki (古 事 記), is in 712 voltooi en dit is agt jaar later gevolg deur 'n ander kroniek, die Nihon Shoki (日本 書 紀), wat in Chinees (漢文 kanbun). Die Fudoki (風土 記), tydskrifte wat plaaslike gebruike, topografie en produkte beskryf, is ongeveer dieselfde tyd saamgestel. Al hierdie projekte is voltooi te midde van die administratiewe eise van grond- en belastinghervorming.


Nara -tydperk (710 - 794)

Vanaf die oprigting van die nuwe keiserlike hoofstad in Nara in 710, was die Nara -tydperk die begin van die klassieke era van die Japannese geskiedenis. Dit was gedurende hierdie tydperk dat die keiserlike mag gesementeer is en die dogma van keiserlike opvolging van die songodin, Amaterasu, in die Kojiki en Nihonshoki gekodifiseer is. Die Nara -tydperk is ook gekenmerk deur die ontwikkeling van twee kragtige boeddhisme -skole, Tendai en die meer esoteriese Shingon, en die opkoms van Boeddhisme in die algemeen. Die era het tot 'n einde gekom toe die keiser Kanmu (737 - 806) besluit het om die hoofstad kort na die dood van keiserin Koken (718 - 770) te verhuis, in 'n poging om die hof te verwyder van die intriges en magspel van die Boeddhist vestiging te Nara. Aanvanklik het keiser Kanmu die hoofstad in 784 na Nagaoka-kyo (15 km van Kyoto) verplaas, maar weens voortdurende oorstromings op die nabygeleë riviere het die hoofstad in 794 weer na Heiankyō (Kyōto) verplaas.

Soos met die vorige kaarte en daaropvolgende kaarte, dui rooi gebiede die grense van vestiging en politieke beheer aan deur wat moderne etnograwe as 'etniese' Japannese beskou.


Tenpyo -kultuur

Die samestelling van nasionale mite, geskiedenis en streeksgeografie

Omdat die keiserlike hof die instelling van die wetlike kode uitgevoer het, moes hulle 'n nasionale geskiedenis opstel. Keiser Tenmu (天 武天皇) het Hieda-no Are (稗 田 阿 礼) beveel om die mite en die mondelinge tradisie op te sê, en Oono Yasumaro (太 安 万 侶) om in 712 'n rekord op te skryf. “Kojiki ” (古 事 記, Records of Ancient) Matters) was die eerste historiese rekord in Japan.

In 720 het hulle nog 'n historiese boek gemaak met die naam “Nihonshoki ” (日本 書 紀). En die keiserlike hof het sedertdien vir meer as 180 jaar voortgegaan om die nasionale geskiedenis saam te stel. Boonop beveel hulle om inligting oor aardrykskunde en produkte oor die hele land in te samel. Die verslag is genoem as “Fudoki ” (風土 記) voordat mense weet.

Waka (和 歌)

Meer Japannese het Waka deur Nara Periode saamgestel. Nie net diegene met 'n hoë posisie nie, keiserlike gesinne en edeles, maar ook boere en monnike. Ootomo-no Yakamochi (大 伴 家 持) het ongeveer 4500 digters versamel, wat vernoem is as “Manyoshu ” (万 葉 集).

Boeddhisme tempels

Die leiers in die Nara -tydperk stel Boeddhisme as 'n kern van die Japanse samelewing. Dus het hulle gedurende die tydperk baie tempels in Nara gebou.

Shotoku Taishi het reeds die Horyuji -tempel in die Asuka -periode gevestig en mense in die Nara -periode het ander strukture uitgebrei, waaronder Yumedono (夢 殿) in die omgewing.

Yumedono -saal

Bo alles het keiser Shomu Todaiji gebou en die Groot Boeddha daar geplaas. Die Daibutsu-den (大 仏 殿, die saal vir die Groot Boeddha) oorskry ander strukture in die wêreld as 'n houtraamwerkmetode.

Terwyl die leiers 'n mag soek om die nasie te verenig, vertrou hulle op die dharmas en die invloed van Boeddhisme. Daarom het die keiserlike hof die sewe groot tempels van Nara (Nanto-Shichidaiji, 南 都 七大 寺), Daianji, Gangoji, Horyuji, Kofukuji, Saidaiji, Todaiji en Yakushiji gevestig.

Aangesien Horyuji nie in Nara vind nie, voeg sommige mense Toshodaiji by die sewe groot tempels. Al die struktuur van die hoofsaal in Tenpyo het tot vandag toe verdwyn, behalwe die Toshodaiji.

Die hoofsaal van Toshodaiji

Albei kante van die dak het Shibi (鴟 尾), 'n sierteël van sjarme teen vuur. En die pilare swel in die middel (entasis), net soos met die gang van Horyuji. Die struktuur van die ouditorium is verander van Kiridzuma-dzukuri (切 妻 造, dakdak) in Irimoya-dzukuri (入 母 屋 造, heup-en-gewel dakstruktuur) met die rekonstruksie in die 13de eeu.

Boeddha standbeelde

In 745 begin keiser Shomu met die plan om die Groot Boeddha te maak om mense te help met hul lyding. Die groot standbeeld verstom mense wat Todaiji besoek nog steeds. Maar jy kan meer ander kosbare beelde in die tempel sien.

Die Groot Boeddha by Todaiji

Die beeldhouer van die Boeddhabeeld in die Tenpyo -kultuur gebruik nie net die snywerk nie, maar ook die manier om te vorm en te lak. Al die beelde is van klei gemaak, sodat die skok van die aardbewing of water van reën dit afbreek. Na die Nara -tydperk het die beeldhouer nie die manier van giet gebruik nie.

Die Hokke-do (法 華堂) van Todaiji bevat baie beroemde Boeddhabeelde, waaronder Fukuken-kannon (不 空 羂 索 観 音), Nikko-bosatsu (日光 菩薩) en Gakko-bosatsu (月光 菩薩).

By Todaiji kom die beelde van die voogde, Shitsu-Kongozo (執 金剛 像) en die Four Devas, in 'n ry en beskerm die belangrikste Boeddha-standbeeld.

Die Budda -standbeeld van Asura, een van die agt legioene in Boeddhisme, staan ​​in Kofukuji. Die meeste Asura's is woedend, maar die Kofukuji's lyk hartseer en oplettend.

Asura, Kofukuji -tempel. Foto deur Imaizumi Atsuo

Ganjin (鑑真) wat 'n reis uit China gemaak het en Toshodaiji gevestig het, is in 763 oorlede. Kort tevore het een van sy dissipels gedroom 'n balk van die ouditorium breek en hy vermoed dat dit sy meester se dood verteenwoordig. Die dissipels het probeer om die beelde van Ganjin te verlaat en die standbeeld in detail gemaak. Dit is die oudste portretbeeld in Japan.

Skilderye

Nara Periode het 'n paar gewilde skilderye gehad, maar die vouskerm van ses panele van geverfde vroue, geklee in die Tang-styl, verskyn, en#8221 (鳥毛 立 女 屏風, Torige Ryujo-no Byobu) verskyn in die hoërskool van die Japannese geskiedenis . Shosoin (正 倉 院) by Horyuji hou die prentjie vas.

“Kako Genzai Einga-kyo ” (過去 現在 絵 因果 経) toon die vorige en hierdie lewe van Boeddha met 'n styl van 'n prentrol. Die Boeddhistiese skrif is die oudste prentrol in Japan. Maar onwaarskynlik later werk, die prente is in die boonste reël geteken en die karakters is in die onderste letter geskryf.

Handwerk

Shosoin plaas baie waardevolle kunsvlyt, wat keiserin Komyo (光明 皇后, keiser Shomu en vrou van 8217) haar man se gedenkteken in orde geskenk het. Veral een van die meesterwerke, “Raden Shitan Gogen-no Biwa ” (螺 鈿 紫檀 五絃 琵琶) verteenwoordig die aankoms van die kultuur uit Oos- en Suid-Asië.

Raden Shitan Gogen-no Biwa

Die kitaaragtige musiekinstrument (biwa) het vyf snare (gogen) en versierings van pêrelmoer (raden), met rooi sandelhout as materiaal. Die ornamente maak die figuur van die man en die blomme in die westelike streke van China.

Dieselfde as die biwa, en#8220Hakururi-no Wan ” (白 瑠 璃 碗, witgesnyde glas) reis oor die Silk Road. Die navorsers het gedink dat die glas uit Persië kom, maar die onlangse wetenskaplike analise dui op die moontlikheid van die Romeinse Ryk.


EAS232 Evolusie van die Japannese taal

Hierdie module is SLEGS beskikbaar vir studente wat geregistreer is vir BA Japanese Studies (EASU01).

Module -inhoud

Die module stel die taal en verteenwoordigende voorbeelde van die belangrikste literêre genres van Japannees bekend-insluitend poësie, reisverhale, dagboeke en verhale-van die Nara-tydperk tot die middel-Edo-periode, met hoofsaaklik aandag aan die taal van die Heian- en Kamakura-periodes. Deur die lees van geannoteerde voorbeelde van voormoderne tekste en selfstudie-grammatika, word u vertroud met die tekste en die sosiale en kulturele milieu wat dit verteenwoordig.

Onderwerpe gedek

  • 'N Werkkennis van die grammatika van voormoderne Japannese
  • Die belangrikste tekste en genres van die klassieke tydperk
  • Die kulturele, politieke en sosiale agtergrond van die klassieke tydperk
  • Die geskiedenis en ontwikkeling van die pre-moderne taal en sy skrif.

Studie ure

Die universiteit beveel aan dat u 200 uur aan 'n 20 kredietmodule werk. Dit sal die volgende insluit:

  • Lees-/grammatikaklasse 2 uur/week
  • Onafhanklike studie 176 uur (ongeveer 14 uur per week vir 13 weke)

Evaluering

Hierdie module word slegs deur die kursus beoordeel, soos volg:

Voor jy begin…

As u kennis wil maak met die voormalige Japannese letterkunde, is Helen McCullough se klassieke Japannese prosa: 'n bloemlesing 'n goeie plek om te begin.


  • 710 (Wado 3): Die hoofstad van Japan is in Nara gestig (Heijō-kyō). Δ]
  • 712 (Wade 5): Die Kojiki klaar was. Ε ]
  • 720 (Jor 4): Nihon Shoki voltooi. Ζ ]
  • 749-752 (Tenpyō-shōhō 1-4): Keiser Shōmu beveel die skepping van 'n groot standbeeld van Boeddha (Daibutsu) by Tōdai-ji Η ]
  • 760 (Tenpyō-hōji 4): Man'yōshū voltooi. ⎖ ]
  • 784 (Enryaku 3): Die keiser skuif die hoofstad na Nagaoka ⎗ ]
  • 788 (Enryaku 7): Die Boeddhistiese monnik Saichō ⎘ ] vestig 'n klooster op Mt Hiei
  • 17 Desember 794 (Enryaku 13, 21ste dag van die 10de maand): Die keiser beweeg per wa in 'n groot optog van Nara na Heian-kyō. ⎙ ]
  1. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. pp. 𧎺–699. ISBN   978-0-674-01753-5.
  2. ↑ Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan, "Nara and Heian Periods" opgehaal 2011-11-22.
  3. ↑ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). Die Keiserlike Huis van Japan, bl. 56.
  4. Jien Delmer Myers Brown, Ichirō Ishida (1979). 愚 管 抄: 'n Vertaling en studie van die Gukansho, 'n interpretatiewe geskiedenis van Japan, geskryf in 1219. Universiteit van Kalifornië Pers. p. 𧈏. ISBN   978-0-520-03460-0.
  5. ↑ Ellington, Lucien. (2009). Japan, bl. 28.
  6. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 𧎺. ISBN   978-0-674-01753-5.
  7. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 𧌡. ISBN   978-0-674-01753-5.
  8. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 𧏆. ISBN   978-0-674-01753-5.
  9. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. pp. 𧆈–137. ISBN   978-0-674-01753-5.
  10. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 𧍠. ISBN   978-0-674-01753-5.
  11. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 𧎪. ISBN   978-0-674-01753-5.
  12. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 𧐥. ISBN   978-0-674-01753-5.
  13. Jien Delmer Myers Brown, Ichirō Ishida (1979). 愚 管 抄: 'n Vertaling en studie van die Gukansho, 'n interpretatiewe geskiedenis van Japan, geskryf in 1219. Universiteit van Kalifornië Pers. p. 𧈗. ISBN   978-0-520-03460-0.

Belangrike sleutelwoorde van die onderstaande artikel: japan, kenmerkend, kimono, dis, nara, Japannees, algemeen, bekend, vind, skaars, nogal, plek, tydperk, geskiedenis, huur, aanbod, winkels, klere, tenpyo.

SLEUTEL ONDERWERPE
Alhoewel kimono -verhuringswinkels redelik algemeen in Japan voorkom, is dit selde om 'n plek te vind met klere wat kenmerkend is van die Nara -tydperk in die Japannese geskiedenis, ook bekend as Tenpyo -klere. [1] Hierdie manier van aantrek is beïnvloed deur Chinese klere, aangesien die Nara -tydperk gesien het hoe Chinese sendelinge na Japan kom om Boeddhisme en Confucianisme te versprei. [2] In die Asuka -tydperk het Japannese klere Tang -Chinese mode baie nageboots, en Chinese modes het die Japannese drag nog steeds beïnvloed in die Nara -tydperk. [3]

Alhoewel kimono-verhuringswinkels redelik algemeen in Japan voorkom, vind u selde kledingstukke met klere wat kenmerkend is van die Nara-tydperk (710-794) van die Japannese geskiedenis, ook bekend as Tenpyo-klere. [4] Die Nara -periode () van die geskiedenis van Japan dek die jare van ongeveer 710 tot 784 nC. Die keiserin Gemmei vestig die hoofstad in Nara, ook bekend as Heijo kyo, waar dit die hoofstad van die Japannese beskawing gebly het totdat die keiser Kammu die nuwe hoofstad in Nagaoka gestig het (en slegs 'n dekade later, Heian of Kyoto). [5] Onderwerpe sluit in die invloed van die Chinese kultuur op die klassieke Japan, die keiserlike familie, die Nara -tydperk, Boeddhisme, Shinto, die Japannese taal en die Japanse poësie van die tydperk. [5] Ten spyte van Japan se fassinasie met die kultuur en kuns van Tang China, het die Nara-tydperk geboorte geskenk aan 'n 'semi-onafhanklike' Japanse beeldhoustyl, een wat nie meer uitsluitlik staatgemaak het op beelde wat ingevoer is en slaafs van Chinese en Koreaanse modelle gekopieer is nie. [5] Sommige van Japan se literêre monumente is gedurende die Nara -periode geskryf, waaronder die Kojiki en Nihon Shoki, die eerste nasionale geskiedenis, wat in 712 en 720 onderskeidelik die Man'yōshū, 'n versameling gedigte en die Kaifūsō, 'n bloemlesing saamgestel is Chinees deur Japannese keisers en prinse. [5] Sommige van Japan se literêre monumente is gedurende die Nara -periode geskryf, waaronder die Kojiki en Nihongi, die eerste nasionale geskiedenis wat in 712 en 720 saamgestel is, onderskeidelik die Man'yosh (versameling van tienduisend blare), 'n versameling gedigte en die Kaifuso (Fond Recollections of Poetry), 'n bloemlesing geskryf in Chinees deur Japannese keisers en prinse. [5]

Hulle het Boeddhistiese rituele, klere, argitektuur, kuns en boeke saamgebring; die Nara -periode verteenwoordig die mees aktiewe periode van kulturele invoer na Japan. [5]

Gedurende die Nara-periode (710-784) het Boeddhisme die staatsgodsdiens van Japan geword. [6] 'n Ander vroeë groep kostuums in Japan is gebruik tydens optredes en seremonies ter herdenking van 'n enorme brons Boeddha wat in 752 voltooi is, halfpad deur die Nara-periode (710-794). [7] In hierdie les leer u meer oor die Nara-tydperk in Japan en sy Chinese en Boeddhistiese geïnspireerde kunswerke. [8]

Om watter rede ook al, het rompe gedurende die Nara-periode 'n doodloopstraat op Japannese wyse bereik. [3] Nara-periode, (ad 710-784), in die Japannese geskiedenis, die tydperk waarin die keiserlike regering in Nara was, en sinisering en Boeddhisme was die hoogst ontwikkelde. [6] Die Nara -tydperk was 'n tyd in die Japannese geskiedenis van ongeveer jaar 710 CE tot 784. [8]

Deesdae kan "Tenpyo" dikwels onderling met "Nara -periode" gebruik word, en daarom word klere wat kenmerkend is vir die Nara -periode, Tenpyo -klere genoem. [1] Dit was gedurende die Nara-periode dat die eerste werklike kimono-agtige klere verskyn het. [9]

Nara -tydperk Terwyl Japan voortgegaan het om hom as 'n nasie te vestig, is die kleding nog steeds meestal beïnvloed deur Chinese style. [10] Heian Japan: 'n inleidende opstel -opstel wat die belangrikste punte van die Japanse geskiedenis gedurende die Heian -periode beklemtoon, waaronder die verhuis van die hoofstad uit Nara, die wegdraai van Chinese modelle, die Fujiwara -familie en die Heian -aristokrasie, en Boeddhisme in Japan . [5] Die Nara-tydperk (Nara Jidai) van antieke Japan (710-794 nC), so genoem omdat die hoofstad meestal in Nara, toe bekend as Heijokyo, 'n kort oorgangstydperk was voor die belangrike Heian tydperk. [11] In die Nara-tydperk (709-795 nC) het die Boeddhisme in Japan begin blom, maar dit was beperk tot die hoofstad en die koninklike hof. [5] Die Nara-periode (奈良 時代, Nara-jidai) van die geskiedenis van Japan dek die jare van ongeveer 710 tot 784 nC, waartydens die keiserin Genmei (元 明天 皇, Gemmei Tennō) die hoofstad van Heijō-kyō (平城 京, die huidige Nara). [5] Die Nara -tydperk (奈良 時代, Nara jidai?) Is 'n tydperk in die geskiedenis van Japan wat van 710 tot 794 geduur het. [5] Daar word daarop gewys dat in die moderne Japan met ongeveer 3 miljoen cho geboer word om te voed 'n bevolking wat 20 keer groter is as die in die Nara -tydperk. [5] Gedurende die Nara -periode het die mag en invloed van Boeddhisme in Japan uitgebrei, en baie nuwe tempels is gebou om die groeiende aantal aanbidders en geestelikes te akkommodeer. [5]

Die kultuur van die Nara-tydperk (710-794) Betekenis Dit het 'n verband tussen die Chinese en die Japannese gemaak, en die kulture is baie belangrik in die sin dat die meeste van hulle vandag nog in Japan gebruik word. [5] Chinees was gedurende die hele Nara -tydperk die gewone geskrewe regeringstaal, maar daar is baie bewyse dat alle Chinese kantoorname en amptelike titels Japannese vertalings bevat wat gereeld in spraak gebruik word. [5] Omdat die grootste deel van die Japannese Boeddhiste in die Nara -periode Koreaans en Chinees was, was Nara Boeddhisme in wese identies met die Chinese Boeddhisme van dieselfde tydperk (T'ang China). [5] Die Nara-tydperk word gekenmerk deur die fassinasie van die Japannese hof met die Tang-kultuur in China, deur sterk hof-geestelikesverhoudinge en uitspattige staatsuitgawes aan Boeddhistiese tempels, beelde en tekste. [5] Gedurende die Nara -periode is ook talle Japannese missies (eksterne skakel) na China gestuur, en die Japannese monnike op hierdie reise het ontelbare tekste en beelde teruggebring, wat dan eindeloos vir die provinsiale tempels gekopieer is. [5]

Chinese ideograwe, bekend as kanji, was teen hierdie tyd algemeen gebruik, maar dit is die tweede helfte van die Nara -tydperk waartydens outentieke Japannese poësie, godsdienstige denke en filosofie die eerste keer deur Japannese hande geskryf is. [5] 'n Vroeë Nara -tydperk in die Chinese styl en 'n tweede tuin in die Japannese styl wat iewers in die middel van die Nara -periode oor die bestaande tuin gebou is, miskien ongeveer 767 nC. [5] Die Nara -tydperk het 'n ingrypende verandering in die Japannese regering teweeggebring deur die aanneming van Chinese regeringsmodelle, waarin Confuciaanse ideale ingesluit is. [5] Gedurende die Nara -tydperk onderskei die regeringsrekords twee soorte Emishi, diegene wat 'n tradisionele stamstyl geleef het en diegene wat hulle as boere gevestig het en wie se lewens weinig verskil van die Japannese. [5] Die konsentreerde pogings van die keiserlike hof om die geskiedenis daarvan op te teken en te dokumenteer, het die eerste werke van die Japanse literatuur gedurende die Nara -tydperk opgelewer. [5] Kussingwoorde verskyn eers in die Man'yōshū, die oudste versameling Japannese poësie wat uit die Nara -periode dateer. [5] Houtmateriaal in die Nara-era In teenstelling met die Asuka-tydperk, toe champhor 樟 (kusu) die hooftipe hout was wat vir houtbeelde gebruik is, was Katsura 桂 ( Judasboom), Keyaki 欅 (Zelkova) en Kaya 榧 (Japannese neutmuskaat). [5] Meer Japannese het Waka saamgestel deur Nara Period. [5] Gigaku, 'n seremoniële dans wat gewild was gedurende die Nara -periode, het dikwels sowel Japannese folklore as Boeddhistiese verhale gebruik. [5]

Ander meen egter dat die 'rasionele koper' -model wat eers deur John Hunter Boyle voorgestel is om die kulturele leen van die laat negentiende eeu in Japan te beskryf, net so van toepassing is op die Asuka en die daaropvolgende Nara -periode. [5] Nara -tydperk Japan floreer ekonomies en kultureel, wat sy aristokrate 'n weelderige lewensstyl bied. [5] Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原 不比 等: 659-720) was gedurende die Asuka- en Nara-tydperke 'n kragtige lid van die keiserlike hof van Japan. [5] In die Nara -tydperk is dit opmerklik dat daar gereeld melding gemaak word van die migrasie van Koreane na Japan, vermoedelik persone uit voormalige Paekche- en Koguryo -gebiede wat ontevrede was met die heerskappy deur Silla. [5] Een rede vir die voortdurende oorheersing van brons gedurende die Nara -tydperk was die ontdekking, in 708 nC, van koper in Japan in groot hoeveelhede. [5] Gee hierdie bladsy aan: Carr, K.E. Nara -periode - Vroeë Middeleeuse Japan. [5]


As bewys van die egtheid daarvan, word Shozoku Sanpo 710 selfs deur die uitvoerende komitee van die fees onderskryf as 'n amptelike winkel van die Ancient Nara Tenpyo -fees, wat die atmosfeer van antieke Nara herskep met 'n optog in tydelike klere en ander tradisionele geleenthede. [1] Dit was ook die tydperk waarin Japannese tradisionele klere aan die Westerse wêreld bekendgestel is. [12]

Mansklere het gedurende die hele Heian -periode in die Nara -modus voortgegaan. [2] Die geleentheid om aan te trek as 'n aristokraat uit die Nara -periode, is 'n onvergeetlike ervaring wat almal wat die ou hoofstad van Japan besoek, moet benut. [1] Die Nara -tydperk het begin met die stigting van 'n nuwe hoofstad vir die keiserlike hof. [8] Die Nara -periode dek die grootste deel van die tyd, van jaar 710 tot 794. [8] Beeldhouwerk was belangrik gedurende die Nara -periode, veral die skepping van Boeddhistiese figure vir tempels. [8] Ons het ons verslaggewer na 'n winkel in Nara gestuur, waar u as 'n edelman uit die Nara-periode (710-794 nC) kan aantrek en selfs in u kostuum deur die stad kan loop. [1] Die argitektuur gedurende die Nara -tydperk het baie elemente ontleen aan die Tang -dinastie in China, wat diep gefokus was op Boeddhisme. [8] Gedurende die Nara -periodes is wette aangaande mode bepaal wat spesifiseer wat u by verskillende geleenthede moet aantrek, soos begrafnisse en vieringe. [8]

Vanaf die oprigting van die nuwe keiserlike hoofstad in Nara in 710, was die Nara -tydperk die begin van die klassieke era van die Japannese geskiedenis. [5] Nara Periode het 'n paar gewilde skilderye gehad, maar 'die opvoubare skerm met ses panele van geverfde vroue geklee in die Tang-styl' (鳥毛 立 女 屏風, Torige Ryujo-no Byobu) verskyn in die handboek van die Japannese geskiedenis in die hoërskool. [5]

BODDHISTUS STATUARIE TYDENS NARA -ERA Die Nara -tydperk word dikwels uitgebeeld as die eerste groot era van artistieke beeldhouwerk in Japan. [5] The capital at Nara, which gave its name to the new period (710-794), was styled after the grand Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-907) capital at Chang'an and was the first truly urban center in Japan. [5] Nara was the capital of Japan during the Tenpyo period more than 1,300 years ago. [5]


TRADITIONAL JAPANESE CLOTHING Kofun/Asuka Periods and Ancient Japan Japan's culture was influenced heavily by China and other surrounding countries, which was reflected in their clothing choices. [10] From the Nara period (710-794) until then, Japanese people typically wore either ensembles consisting of separate upper and lower garments (trousers or skirts), or one-piece garments. [13] The way of clothing for men, for a major part of this era, remained the same as that was in the Nara period. [14]


Because these moves represented new stages in the development of the Japanese state, historians now divide these years into the Nara (710-794) and Heian (794-1185) periods. [5] Empress Genmei moved the capital of Japan to the new planned city of Nara in 710 AD. She wanted the move to help get more power into her own hands and out of the hands of other powerful Japanese families. [5] In the case of Japan, the Asuka, Nara, and the first century of the Heian period represent the "slave society" phase. [5] Nara and Heian Japan (710 AD - 1185 AD) An overview of Japan's Nara and Heian periods. [5] As Japan gradually turned into a clearly defined, centralized state, the descendents of the uji became the aristocracy during the Nara and Heian periods. [5]

Heian Period Japan is known as the Golden Age of Japanese history because of the major import and further development of Chinese ideas in art, architecture, literature, and ritual that occurred at this time and led to a new and ultimately unique Japanese culture. [15] Japanese history: Nara, Heian Periods You are using an outdated browser. [5] Classic Court Culture: Media of Reception and Identity An overview of Japan's Nara and Heian periods. [5] Japan's first historical epoch-the Asuka period, named for the area near Nara where the court resided-coincides with the introduction of Buddhism into the country. [5]

The Nara Period saw the establishment of Buddhism as the religion of the court and, by extension, of the state, and a new height in intellectual and cultural achievements as exemplified in the building of the Great Hall of the Tōdaiji temple, as well as the compilation of Japan’s first chronicles, the Kojiki (古事記, 712) and the Nihon Shoki (日本書紀, 720). [5] Buddhism during the Nara period was essentially for the court, upper classes, and clergy. [5] During the Nara period, Buddhism and all its external trappings became the most important symbol of imperial authority. [5] I. Nara Period (710-784) A. First "permanent" imperial capital (Heijo) 1. [5] The Nara period might rightfully be called the Shōmu Era, for the capital in Nara during the reign of Emperor Shōmu 聖武 (+ 724 to 749) covered about 35 square miles and was home to more than a million people. [5] The last emporer of the Nara period, Kanmu, in fact moved the capital away from Nara to escape the influence of the Buddhist clergy. [5] Factional fighting at the imperial court continued throughout the Nara period as imperial family members, leading court families such as the Fujiwara (藤原), Tachibana, and Otomo clans, and Buddhist priests all contended for influence. [5] The politics of the Nara period were characterized by the dominance of the Fujiwara clan and its struggles against its rivals, discontent among members of the imperial family, the efforts of the imperial government to impose nationwide control at the expense of local administrations, and the parallel attempt of the Buddhist temples to establish their authority at the expense of the imperial government. [5] The Nara Period marked the height of the Chinese-inspired ritsuryō (律令) system of government as well as the active introduction of other aspects of Chinese civilization. [5] During the Nara Period (710-94), women painted their face with a white powder called oshiroi, and in the Heian Period (794-1185), a white facial color continued to stand as a symbol of beauty. [16] From around the Nara Period (710-94), a garment called a kosode (small sleeves) was worn, first as underclothes and later as an outer garment, by both women and men. [17] The Nara Period (奈良時代 Nara jidai ) is the historical period beginning in 710, the year the capital was moved from Fujiwarakyō to Heijōkyō (the modern-day city of Nara), and ending in 784, when the capital was moved to Nagaokakyō. [5] Overview of Nara History The Nara period begins with the relocation of the capital to Heijōkyō 平城京 (present-day Nara). [5] Although dating to the Nara period (710-794), it only became widely used in the tenth or eleventh century, but at that point it became immensely popular, becoming the second-most-popular motif for family mon by the start of the Edo period (1600). [5] Buddhism was introduced by Baekje in the sixth century but had a mixed reception until the Nara period, when it was heartily embraced by Emperor Shōmu. [5] The introduction of Buddhism brought unity and new ideas to the people in the Nara Period because it was believed that Buddhism would bring peace and restore health and prosperity to the land. [5] Significance Besides Buddhism, some people also believed in another religion called Shinto, which means two religions were accepted in the Nara Period. [5] Shotoku Taishi had already established Horyuji temple in Asuka Period and people in Nara Period extended other structures including Yumedono(夢殿) in the area. [5] The Nara period thus inaugurated is remarkable for its wealth of sculpture, which begins with the bronze trinity of Amida in Yakushiji and is followed by the Yakshi trinity of the same temple thirty years later, undoubtedly the finest existing specimen of this art. [5] At the start of the Nara period there were probably were about 8000 officials receiving salaries, but as time went on the number steadily dropped, and by the middle of the 9th century many offices in the table of organization had effectively ceased to exist. [5] The idea that all land should belong to the state and be periodically redistributed to peasants by need - that is, the allocation system adopted from China in the Nara period -- was difficult to set up and bitterly resented by the deeply imbedded clan (uji) interests it probably did work for a while, but by the late 8th century, private land holdings were beginning to appear. [5] After the death of Fujiwara no Fuhito early in the Nara period, Prince Nagaya (長屋王, Nagaya-no-ōkimi, 684 - March 20, 729, a son of Prince Takechi and great-grandson of Emperor Temmu) seized power at the court. [5] As Emperor Kōnin (光仁天皇 Kōnin-tennō, 709-782), he became the last sovereign whose reign fell completely within the Nara Period. [5] During the Nara period the power and influence of Buddhism grew. [5] Early Statecraft and Buddhism: Structures of Power and Faith An excellent short overview of the Asuka period, as well as the Kofun, Hakuho, and Nara periods. [5]


Heian Period The Heian Period marked the end of Chinese influence in Japan and the first period of classical Japanese history. [10] Fashion of the Nara period (645–794) was highly influenced by Chinese styles, especially in the use of silk. [18] Even hair, fashioned using a clip accessory to mimic the style of the Nara Period, takes only a short time to prepare. [4] Because the capital was primarily located in Heij (modern Nara) between 710 and 784 C.E., these years are referred to as the Nara period. [19]

These court outfits derive from Chinese court clothing that came across in the Nara period, but the middle-Heian and later outfits would hardly be recognizable, as the form of many of the various pieces changed in the Heian Period. [20] Large bronze statues were made in great number during the Nara period, spurred on by the discovery of large quantities of copper in Japan in +708. [21] It is believed that it was brought to Japan in the Nara period. [22]

In the Asuka and Nara periods, gilt bronze statues (kondou 金銅 ) were imported in great number from Korea and China, and numerous copies of these were made in Japan's court-sponsored workshops. [21] The Nara period is often portrayed as Japan's first great age of artistic genius. [21]

This era is considered a groundbreaking period in Japanese Buddhism and Buddhist art, with two new sects introduced to the original Six Sects of Nara. [21] It's said that this moon viewing custom was introduced to Japan from China during Nara and Heian period. [22] During the Asuka (550-710) and Nara (710-794) periods methods of sewing developed further, and clothing became longer and wider. [23] Japan's pre-Buddhist beliefs in nature spirits and holy men with magical powers were incorporated into Buddhism during the Nara and Heian periods, resulting in a complex blend of Shinto-Buddhist practice. [21] Heian period Heian period c. 800 -1200 (with the mid-point being 1000 CE, the millennial year) followed by the Kamakura period (technically 1185 - 1333) This places the 400 years of the Heian Period centering on the year 1000 in the midst of two other periods of c. 100 years each -- the Nara Period before and the Kamakura Period after. [24] The Nara period might rightfully be called the Shōmu Era, for the capital in Nara during Emperor Shōmu's reign (reigned +724 to 749) was home to between 70,000 to 200,000 people and covered roughly 4.2 kilometers from east to west and 4.7 kilometers from north to south. [21] During the Nara period, the great temples of Nara and their sects flourished and became politically powerful, resulting in the capital being moved to Kyoto in 794 to escape the temples' meddling. [25] Artwork from the Nara period is mostly a reflection of Chinese influences, aristocratic tastes, and the reproduction of imported sculptural models from China and less so from Korea. [21]

Buddhism was brought to Japan and many aspects of the Chinese culture were incorporated into the Japanese society. [8] Sanskrit proper, however, has not been used as a liturgical language in Japan--the Sanskrit and Pali that is used in Buddhism in Japan is taken from Chinese, leading to pronunciations of words like Prajñāpāramitā as 'Han Nya Ha Ra Mi Ta' in modern Japanese. [3]

Within the broad category of No robes called ôsode, a term referring to tall and wide sleeves that are left unsewn at their ends, are certain types of robes long since obsolete in Japan, except within the most conservative and traditional spheres of Japanese life, such as imperial court rites and Shinto rituals. [7] Buddhist sects (such as Zen), previously unknown in Japan, were introduced from the Asian mainland, which resulted in the importation of kesa made from certain luxurious types of textiles otherwise unavailable to the Japanese. [7]

Dignitaries from various Asian countries came to Nara, then the capital of Japan, to attend. [7] This period was later named after the city of Nara, which is where the first capital was located. [8] Only a few years before moving the capital permanently to Nara, the government passed a law dictating what dress suited high ceremony, uniforms and mourning wear (the Taihou Code of 701), and only a few years after establishing the new capital, the Yourou Clothing Code of 718 was passed, declaring that collars must be crossed left over right, in accordance with the Chinese way of dressing. [3] Empress Genmei and her successors developed Nara into a center of modernity, religion, and innovation where she emulated many aspects of the Chinese culture and incorporated them into the Japanese society. [8] Before Tokyo or Kyoto, Heijo-kyo, otherwise known as modern-day Nara, was the capital of Japanese civilization between approximately AD 710-794. [1]

During the Meiji period, terms were coined in order to distinguish the old Japanese way of dressing ( wafuku ) from the newly adopted Western dress ( yofuku ). [7] According to period documents, dress at Japan's imperial court followed that of China's at this time, with rank indicated by color. [7] This proposed the widely held belief that those of lower ranking, who were perceived to be of less clothing due to their casual performance of manual labor, were not protected in the way that the upper class were in that time period. [12] It is also during this period that family crests are thought to have first appeared on clothing. [7] We will explore the main characteristics of the architecture, clothing, and other forms of art from this period. [8]

The imperial city of Kyoto became the capital again with the advent of the Nambokuchô era (1333-1392), a period marked by clashes between rival military clans. [7] There are few extant garments from the Kamakura era (1185-1333), and the period literature is not very rich on the subject of costume. [7] A costume history of this period cannot be based on extant garments, as extremely few examples have survived. [7]

Before the Yayoi period (300BC - 700AD), people used to wear a tubular dress with holes to put their arms through, like a sack dress. [2] During the Kamakura period (1185-1133) with the rising influence of the military class and warriors, people had no need for elaborate kimono. [2] By the time of the Yayoi period, people mainly wore a top and a bottom. [2] The Obi is similar to a belt as it wraps around the final layer of the traditional robe to help in keeping all of the layers together for a long period of time. [12]

The year 552 is considered the official date for the introduction of Buddhism in Japan and marked the first year of the Asuka period (552-710). [7] During the Edo period, Japan was divided into feudal states. [2]

Photograph of a man and lady wearing traditional clothing, taken in Osaka, Japan. [12] Bright colors were the dominant tones in men's clothing in Japan. [3]

Traditional fashion gradually transformed to best suit Japanese people lifestyles, as their clothing became more practical, light, and self-expressive. [12] In later Japanese traditional dress, several of these early modes of clothing were to be reflected in the costumes of the No theater. [7] In more recent years, the word has been used to refer specifically to traditional Japanese clothing. [2]

Japanese traditional fashion combines multiple styles that reflect early Japan's visual culture. [12] The most well known form of Japanese traditional fashion is the kimono (translates to "something to wear"), but other types include the yukata and the hakama. [12] For the more sophisticated urban population, and especially men, traditional Japanese dress ceased to be a part of everyday wear until eventually the use of traditional dress was relegated to Buddhist temples and monasteries Shinto shrines No, kyôgen, and Kabuki theater tea ceremony and other traditional arts such as flower arranging and the imperial court. [7] Whereas ample archaeological evidence exists in China of extant garments, ceramic sculptures, and tomb paintings, giving a credible view of Chinese costume history across several centuries before the advent of the Common Era, a verifiable history of Japanese dress does not begin until the eighth century C.E. [7] Japanese dress was to mimic the Chinese mode in this and in other ways soon thereafter. [7] With the adoption of the imperial title tennō, translated from the Chinese t’ien-huang, or "heavenly emperor," the Chinese concept of the emperor as the supreme symbol of central government rule was incorporated into the native Japanese interpretation of the emperor as also the leading Shintō cult figure. [6] Like its T’ang Chinese prototype, the Japanese central government consisted of a Council of State (Dajōkan) and ministries of Rites, Personnel, Public Works, War, Justice, and Revenue. [6] Chinese language and literature were studied intensively the Chinese characters were adapted to the Japanese language and numerous Chinese manuscripts, particularly Buddhist scriptures, were copied. [6]

The elevation of handcrafted works made by simple-living country people and minorities on the fringe of Japanese society did not fit with conventional ideas of social hierarchy in Japan. [7] A Japanese family also might don kimono when participating in special national and regional festivals or when relaxing after bath time at a traditional inn. [7] These developments continue to influence Japanese color theory into modern times. [3] Japanese fashion designers: the work and influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo. n.p.: Oxford New York: Berg, 2011., 2011. [12] Fashionable Tang Dynasty ladies wore their skirts tied over their robes (unlike when China first contacted the Japanese, when fashion dictated that jackets and shirts should drape over the top of skirts), and so Japanese women began to follow this trend. [3] After the agekubi robes left the world of everyday dress for men of the court, they were left with the crossed-collar mode worn by women and lower-class Japanese. [3] Japanese Woman in Traditional Dress Posing Outdoors by Suzuki Shin'ichi, ca. 1870's. [12] Silk remains the fiber of choice for traditional Japanese dress. [7] Japanese street fashion emerged in the 1990s and differed from traditional fashion in the sense that it was initiated and popularized by the general public, specifically teenagers, rather than by well known fashion figures/designers. [12] The Japanese are often recognized for their traditional art and its capability of transforming simplicity into creative designs. [12] Those who championed the idea of mingei can be thought of as the East Asian inheritors of the Arts and Crafts movement, although they did not have to insist on the importance of handicraft, as did their Western predecessors, because in the traditional Japanese distinctions between fine and decorative arts were not emphatic. [7]

Helen Craig McCullough's Classical Japanese Prose contains many excerpts of Heian era writings, mostly by female authors, as well as several early Kamakura era writings (mostly by authors who had witnessed the end of the Heian Period), including the Gossamer Journal by Michitsuna's Mother, Sei Shonagon's Pillow Book, and a selection of short stories from the middle to late Heian Period. [3] The Heian Period was the longest, most stable period of Japanese history, lasting nearly 400 years and promoting the development of a uniquely Japanese culture. [3]

Kuukai in particular is credited with bringing the Siddham script to Japan, as his handwriting has been particularly venerated throughout Japanese history (all of the other monks on the same mission surely also learned and practiced Siddham, after all!). [3]

The Kimono (着物), labeled the "national costume of Japan", is the most formal and well-known form of traditional fashion. [12] From the intricate patterns to the layers of fabric, the essence of beauty that was found in traditional wear has influenced the modern fashion that is immersed in Japan's community on a daily basis, specially found in Tokyo, the capital of Japan. [12] Such dress would not be suitable for Japan's long months of warm and humid weather, and a life on horseback would have been unlikely in mountainous Japan. [7] The archaeological record in Japan yields little in the way of human imagery until the fifth century C.E. Prior to that time representations of stick figures found on pottery shards and bronze bells allow for the hypothesis that a long tunic-like garment, belted at the waist, may have been a common form of dress. [7] The history of Buddhist dress in Japan, as embodied in the religion's principal ritual garment, a patchwork mantle ( kesa ), illustrates the theme of importation and adaptation. [7] This city was an important point of the Silk Road, became a center of Buddhist worship in Japan and is also known for the Heijo Palace, home of Empress Genmei. [8] The different styles have been produced, expressed, and transformed by artists well known in Japan, including fashion designers Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto, and Rei Kawakubo. [12] Different forms of street fashion have been socially categorized based on geography and style, such as the Lolita in Harajuku (原宿) or the Ageha of Shibuya (渋谷), all of them being based in the popular shopping districts of Tokyo, Japan. [12]

Buddhism had its origins more than a thousand years earlier in India, spread to China by the beginning of the Common Era, and finally reached Japan by way of Korea. [7] In the 8th century, many technologies and cultural aspects of neighboring China were brought to Japan. [8] Geisha, still an institution in Japan at the start of the twenty-first century, were still expected to entertain in kimono. [7] During the latter part of the twelfth century, the base of power in Japan shifted away from the increasingly decadent, self-absorbed imperial court in Kyoto to provincial military clans who chose the town of Kamakura as their headquarters. [7]

Buddhists and elite samurai families sold off quantities of kesa and No costumes, ultimately enriching museum and private collections in Japan and the West. [7] The Shôsôin costumes are very likely representative of diverse types of Asian dress then in use, and any number of them may well have been made outside of Japan. [7] Color has always been a very important indicator of rank throughout Japan. [2]

It was not uncommon for a Japanese housewife to attend kimono school in order to better understand how to select and properly wear a kimono and its most important accessory, the obi. [7] The uchikake is a type of kimono coat worn by Japanese brides on their wedding day. [12]

Pattern-dyed designs were to become one of the most important creative expressions in later Japanese dress. [7] Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo were Japanese fashion designers who shared similar tastes in design and style, their work often considered to be difficult to differentiate by the public. [12] Tang Dynasty fashion also influenced the Japanese to begin wearing skirts and pants over their robes, a style which persists to modern day. [3]

Nara became a very powerful center of Buddhist influence, exercising greater and greater influence over the Imperial family, much to the chagrin of the Fujiwara clan, the traditional center of power over the emperor. [3] Through the Nara and the Heian eras (8th-12th century), the nobility ( kuge ) constituted the ruling class, and learning and culture were the concern primarily of the kuge and the Buddhist monks. [6] The government ordered the construction of seven Buddhist temples in the city of Nara. [8] After moving the capital permanently to Nara, the government passed a law dictating that collars must be crossed left over right, in accordance with the Chinese way of dressing. [2] Nara, the country’s first permanent capital, was modeled on the Chinese T’ang dynasty (618-907) capital, Ch’ang-an. [6]

In 710 the imperial capital was shifted a short distance from Asuka to Nara. [6] The new capital was called Heijō-kyō and is known today as Nara. [6] It began when a new capital was established in a city later known as Nara. [8]

If you have access to a car, our reporter also recommends taking an approximately 15-minute drive from the shop to pose in front of several reconstructed structures of Heijo Palace, also known as the Nara Imperial Palace. [1] Nara artisans produced refined Buddhist sculpture and erected grand Buddhist temples. [6] Tang Dynasty women showing the high fashion of the day, then copied by Nara ladies. [3]

Liza Dalby's Kimono: Fashioning Culture is an excellent resources on clothing and history (specifically Heian and Meiji culture), and is very readable. [3] Issey Miyake is most known for crossing boundaries in fashion and reinventing forms of clothing while simultaneously transmitting the traditional qualities of the culture into his work. [12] The clothing that embodies the culture represents Japan's traditional values that remain in their community to this day. [12] People of high stature wore suits and dresses, and the traditional kimono was reserved for special occasions only, no longer part of daily clothing requirements. [2] Traditional clothing often included a variety of colors in their time, and their use of "the absence of color" provoked multiple critics to voice their opinions and criticize the authenticity of their work. [12] You can mix and match your costume from various pieces of clothing found within the shop. Take some time to choose the perfect colors that suit you from dozens of vivid hues. [1] Clothing was also influenced by the Chinese fashion of the times. [8] Loose-fitting, wide-sleeved, floor-length Chinese robes, the other dominant elite mode of dress on the continent, were the antithesis of this kind of nomadic clothing. [7] Further articles of clothing, such as a jacket, skirt-like pants ( hakama ), and an apron worn at the back completed women's court dress. [7] The most well-known clothing of the Heian period is the juunihitoe, or 'twelve layered robe', worn by the highest-ranked ladies of the Imperial Court. [3] By the Edo period (1603-1868), No costumes were being made specifically for use on the stage however, for the most part the costume styles did not change and continued to reflect the clothing of earlier periods. [7]

Our reporter Masami, whom we sent to check out the new store, was incredibly pleased with this particular style of dress as it was very easy to move around in, unlike the 12-layered "junihitoe" kimono worn by court ladies of the subsequent Heian period (AD 794-1185). [1] Men's ensembles varied mostly in color and design between court ranks, according to the ranking system in use in the Heian Period, the Court Rank System of 701 introduced by Emperor Tenno. [3] Now, the only people wearing the round-necked robes of the early Heian Period (aside from historical re-enactors) are members of the Imperial family during their marriages, or during the investiture of a new Emperor. [3]

A woman's ability to put together a well-coordinated ensemble, sensitive to the passing seasons and elegantly displaying forbidden colors or specially granted brocades was far more important than her physical beauty, and the sight of sleeves became a popular romantic motif in poetry, novels, and art from the Heian Period. [3] I'll likely go more in-depth about color in another Hub--many of these color traditions still hold (i.e. bright colors in winter, pale pastels in spring, light, cool colors in summer, dark, warm tones in fall), but some have changed (i.e. in the Heian period, bright red hakama indicated a married woman, while a darker maroon indicated an unmarried girl in modern kimono 'grammar', bright red is a child's color while dark colors indicate a grown woman of refined taste). [3]

Male dress of the Heian period retained the narrow, round tunic-like collar reflecting the earlier period of influence from the Asian mainland, and men also wore a skirt-like trouser and an underrobe or two. [7] The same term had been used for the plain silk robe worn next to the skin and under layers of voluminous garments in the Heian period. [7]

The materials, colors, and layers used for the clothing differentiate them and their significance, as the looks are also often worn seasonally. [12] With traditional clothing, specific techniques are used and followed, such as metal applique, silk embroidery, and paste- resist. [12]

Western dress was adopted, with the emperor and empress helping to set an example for the rest of the country by occasionally wearing Western clothing. [7] The kesa also reflected fashionable taste in a more indirect way as a result of the custom for lay Buddhists to donate valuable clothing to temples. [7] Stitching techniques and the fusion of colors also distinguished the wealthy from the commoner, as those of higher power had a tendency to wear ornate, brighter clothing. [12] The peasants and lower classes of the Heian era wore simple clothing, similar to the 'kosode' undergarments worn by the aristocrats. [3]

Japan's native religion, Shintoism, coexisted with Buddhism, in keeping with a continuous theme in Japanese history of borrowing from the outside while preserving the most valued native traditions and ultimately transforming foreign ways into something uniquely Japanese. [7] Paul Varley's Japanese Culture is an excellent overview of Japanese history, with specific attention paid to the influence of Buddhism on Japanese culture. [3]

Such costumes did, however, change their over-all sleeve shape from oblong to squarish in response to an Edo period trend, and certain No robes with embroidered designs were occasionally influenced by contemporary fashion styles. [7] During the Edo period, most kosode -category costumes still preserved Muromachi and Momoyama period styles. [7] Kabuki costumes of the early twentieth century continued to resemble those of the Edo period. [7]


When the capital was moved to Kyoto at the end of the period it was destroyed, which was common practice in Japan. [5] In 995 there was a dangerous epidemic of measles (a new disease to Japan at the time) and 8 out of the 14 sangi level counselors died during a period of months. [27] Long before Karl Marx became a man of political renown he was an historian, and in Japan in the period after the Second World War it is fair to say that the majority of historians have been Marxist. [5] Late in the period Japan entered into direct diplomatic relations with the Manchurian kingdom of Po-hai, which claimed to be a successor state of Koguryo, and which controlled much of what is today North Korea, so that it could communicate directly with Japan by ship across the Japan Sea. [5] In the early days two or three thousand conscripts from eastern Japan were sent to serve as coast guards in Kyushu, but this was abandoned rather early in the period. [5] With more than 1,200 years of history as the imperial capital of Japan (794-1867), the lavish, elegant life of the nobles of the Heian period was perhaps Japan's finest period. [28]

Society became based on clans and was ruled overall by the Emperor of Japan whose capital was in Yamato province, now known as Nara. [5] Nara, or more correctly Heijokyo, as it was known then, was made the capital of Japan from 710 to 784 CE, after which time it was relocated to Nagaokakyo. [11] Nara, located around 30 km south of modern Kyoto, was the capital of ancient Japan between 710 and 784 CE. It gave its. [11] Kasuga Taisha is an ancient Shinto shrine located in a forest east of Nara, capital of Japan between 710 and 784 CE. Founded. [11] A statue of Hachiman is ceremoniously transferred from the Shinto Usa shrine to the Buddhist Todaiji shrine in Nara, Japan. [11] Balhae sent its first mission in 728 to Nara, which welcomed them as the successor state to Goguryeo, with which Japan had been allied until Silla unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea. [5] Bohai sent their first mission across the Sea of Japan to Nara in 728. [5]

Overall, the history of Nara coinage provides solid evidence of the fact that the Japanese domestic economy was still primitive by Chinese standards, which demonstrates in turn that the administrative system that was adopted was much more complicated than would have been required by the demands of Japanese society alone, and could scarcely have evolved without the impulse to attempt to raise Japan to the level of civilization attained by Korea and China. [5] POSSIBLY USEFUL The establishment of Nara, modeled on a Chinese capital, with lavish palaces and accumulated wealth, influenced by Buddhist thought and Chinese culture, brought about a dramatic alienation of Japanese aristocracy from the Japanese population. [5] The Japanese capital is moved from Fujiwarakyo to Nara (aka Heijokyo). [11] The Buddhist Kofukuji temple is established at Nara, main temple of the Japanese Fujiwara clan. [11] The first authentically Japanese gardens were built in the city Nara at the end of the eighth century. [5] Although resonating with foreign influence, the Nara culture remained uniquely Japanese. [5]

The Ryukyus were not made a part of Japan until the 19th century and did not come under Japanese political control until the 17th century. [27] The word kimono literally means "clothing", and up until the mid 19th century it was the form of dress worn by everyone in Japan. [17]

Date favoured by historians for the founding of the Kasuga Taisha Shinto shrine at Nara, Japan. [11] The capital at Nara, which gave its name to the new period, was styled after the grand Chinese Tang dynasty (唐, 618-907) capital at Chang'an (長安). [5] The Nara era lasted from about 710 to 794 CE, and marks the period where the capital of Nihon moved to Heijo-kyo (Nara city), which was modeled after the capital city of Tang China. [5] The early Heian period (794-967) continued Nara culture the Heian capital was patterned on the Chinese capital at Chang'an, as was Nara, but on a larger scale. [5] The Nara era ends when the capital moves from Nara (Heijōkyō 平城京 ) to Kyoto (Heian 平安 ), and the subsequent Heian Period begins. [5] One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. [5] The general rule throughout the Nara and Heian periods was that each politically important clan would have just one man in the Dajokan at a time, though the Fujiwara were frequently able to violate this rule and have several. [5] Each be specialized in a skilled task such as farming, warfare, shamanism, etc. Some of the most skilled of the important and difficult be such as metallurgy, who typically consisted or recent immigrants from the Korean peninsula, joined the lower ranks of the aristocracy in the Nara and Heian periods. [5]

GEREKTEER GESELEKTEERDE BRONNE(36 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Welcome to Explore Nihon

Hello! Hoe gaan dit? It’s nice to meet you. My name is Sam.

If you’re looking for an introduction into Japanese and the history and culture behind the language, you’re in the right place. I’m a firm believer that to understand your target language you need to get familiar with the culture and history behind it. There are certain concepts that you will be able to understand better because you have background knowledge. In my future posts, I will talk about formal and informal language. Japanese has both, and there are different ways to talk to different people. Maar hoekom? The answer to this question lies in Japanese culture. There is a strict social hierarchy that dictates how you speak to people. You talk to strangers and your friends very differently. Sort of how we change how we talk depending on the situation. You wouldn’t talk to your friends the same way you do to your boss. Except it isn’t as noticeable in English.

In my next post get ready to start with the very basics. We’ll start going over premodern history. I’m currently taking my second Japanese history course, which is about modern Japan. Premodern Japan was the first one. So, everything I go over will be what I learned in that class, plus what I read in the textbook. Japan has a vast history that is very interesting and unique. The Jomon Period started around 14500 BCE. Compared to the US’s nearly 250 years, Japanese history is extensive.

I will leave you with one thing before I go. What is one Japanese word that most people know? Its Sushi, or すし(寿司), す(su) し(shi).


Part 2: Prehistory

Jomon c. 8,000-300 BC

The evidence of chipped stone tools suggests that humans inhabited Japan at least 30,000 years ago. “Neolithic” cultures called “Jomon” (that still retained stone tool traits of earlier periods), date to at least 10,000 BC. The Jomon people were hunters and gatherers who lived upon the rich resources of game, fish, and wild plants native to post-Ice Age Japan. One of the unusual features of Jomon culture is pottery—the oldest reliably dated on earth. By 8,000 BC a type of cord-wrapped pottery—with decorated lines made by wrapping or laying cords on wet clay – developed. Other clay objects are the so-called dogu (“earth god”) figurines. These are small statues that look something like “extra-terrestrials” (or Pokemon cartoon figures!) that may have been used in fertility worship. Always few in number, the Jomon peoples seem to have been centered on the Kanto plain area of Honshu island.

A dogu “earth god” figurine

Jomon pottery with rope design

Yaoyoi Period c. BC 300- AD 300

Japan first appears in the historical records of China in about 300 BC. In those records the inhabitants of Japan were known as the “Wa.” The records tell of a Queen named Pimiko (Himiko) who had a tribal domain in the southwest areas of Honshu and Kyushu. According to the accounts she lived in a hill-top fortress and was waited upon by 1,000 young women. Her brother handled communications outside the walls, acting as a sort of regent. The queen may have had a dual role as a type of shaman with links to the spirit world. It is not known if she was related to the gods. Eventually, Japanese emperors would trace descent directly to the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu, who along with her brother, were instrumental in the creation story of Japan.

The Sun Goddess Amaterasu emerges from her cave and dances

During the Yayoi period a number of new technological and agricultural elements arrived from the Asian mainland, most probably by boat from the Korean peninsula. Among the new cultural attributes were wet-rice agriculture, bronze and iron, new styles of pottery, livestock, and a whole host of cultural patterns having to do with village and elite life. Most likely, these elements of culture were carried to Japan by waves of immigrants who settled around the land, gradually displacing or absorbing the native populations. It is unclear how the aboriginal Ainu fit into the picture of these early periods of Japan, but warfare with displaced tribes continued for centuries.


  • 710 (Wadō 3): Japan's capital city was established in Nara (Heijō-kyō). Δ]
  • 712 (Wadō 5): Die Kojiki was finished. Ε ]
  • 720 (Yōrō 4): Nihon Shoki voltooi. Ζ ]
  • 749-752 (Tenpyō-shōhō 1-4): Emperor Shōmu orders the creation of a large statue of Buddha (Daibutsu) at Tōdai-jiΗ]
  • 760 (Tenpyō-hōji 4): Man'yōshū voltooi. ⎖ ]
  • 784 (Enryaku 3): The emperor moves the capital to Nagaoka⎗]
  • 788 (Enryaku 7): The Buddhist monk Saichō⎘] establishes a monastery on Mt Hiei
  • December 17, 794 (Enryaku 13, 21st day of the 10th month): The Emperor moves by carriage in a grand procession from Nara to Heian-kyō. ⎙ ]
  1. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. pp. 698-699. ISBN𧓒-0-674-01753-5 . https://books.google.com/?id=p2QnPijAEmEC&pg=PA698 .  
  2. ↑Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan,"Nara and Heian Periods" retrieved 2011-11-22.
  3. ↑Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, bl. 56.
  4. ↑ Jien; Delmer Myers Brown, Ichirō Ishida (1979). 愚管抄: A Translation and Study of the Gukansho, an Interpretative History of Japan Written in 1219. University of California Press. p. 271. ISBN𧓒-0-520-03460-0 . https://books.google.com/?id=w4f5FrmIJKIC&pg=PA271 .  
  5. ↑ Ellington, Lucien. (2009). Japan, bl. 28.
  6. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 698. ISBN𧓒-0-674-01753-5 . https://books.google.com/?id=p2QnPijAEmEC&pg=PA698 .  
  7. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 545. ISBN𧓒-0-674-01753-5 . https://books.google.com/?id=p2QnPijAEmEC&pg=PA545 .  
  8. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 710. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA710.  
  9. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. pp. 136-137. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA136.  
  10. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 608. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA608.  
  11. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 682. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA682.  
  12. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japanse ensiklopedie. Harvard University Press. p. 805. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA805.  
  13. ↑ Jien ; Delmer Myers Brown, Ichirō Ishida (1979). 愚 管 抄: 'n Vertaling en studie van die Gukansho, 'n interpretatiewe geskiedenis van Japan, geskryf in 1219. University of California Press. p. 279. ISBN 𧓒-0-520-03460-0. https: //books.google.com/? Id = w4f5FrmIJKIC & amppg = PA279.  



Kommentaar:

  1. Vizragore

    Dankie aan Afur vir 'n goeie plasing. Ek het dit baie noukeurig gelees en baie waarde vir myself geleer.

  2. Auhert

    Hierdie pos, is vergelykbaar))), dit is vir my baie interessant :)

  3. Jakson

    the Excellent and timely answer.

  4. Benji

    Ek aanvaar dit met plesier. Die vraag is interessant, ek sal ook aan die bespreking deelneem. Saam kan ons op die regte antwoord kom. Ek is seker.

  5. Waldemar

    There was a mistake



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