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Regering in antieke Rome

Regering in antieke Rome

Die Romeinse regering draai om die Romeinse senaat met sy liggaam van aristokratiese burgers wat hulself onderskei het van almal met hul titels, pers gestreepte togas, senatoriale ringe en selfs spesiale skoene. Senatore het die belangrikste openbare ampte beklee, en baie sou provinsies en leërs beveel. Syfers soos Julius Caesar en die keisers wat gevolg het, sal die rol van die Senaat verminder, maar dit sal 'n invloedryke liggaam bly gedurende die lang geskiedenis van Rome. Daar was ook die gewilde vergaderings wat wetgewing uitgevaardig het en 'n leër van landdroste wat dit toegepas het. Boonop vertolk howe die groot wette wat teruggekeer het na die twaalf tabelle en het talle wysigings, sake en keiserlike opdragte ingesluit.

In hierdie versameling ondersoek ons ​​die veranderende rol van die senaat, die fyn besonderhede van die Romeinse wetgewing en sommige van die belangrikste landdrosposisies, soos die aediele en kwestors wat elke faset van die burgerlike pligte van 'n Romeinse burger beheer het, van belastingbetaling tot deelname in godsdienstige feeste.

Gedurende die tyd van die Republiek was hierdie verskillende vergaderings die stem van die burgers van Rome, en hoewel dit nie ten volle demokraties was in die moderne definisie van die woord nie, kon hulle ten minste 'n deel van die Romeinse burgerskap laat hoor. Hulle belangrike rol in die Romeinse regering was van kardinale belang dat die weermag die letters SPQR op hul militêre standaarde ingeskryf het - Senatus Populusque Romanus of Senaat en Romeinse mense.


Regering in antieke Rome - Geskiedenis

Nou kyk ons ​​na die geskiedenis in vrede en oorlog, van 'n vrye nasie, geregeer deur jaarliks ​​verkose staatsamptenare, en nie onderhewig aan individuele gesindheid nie, maar aan die oorheersende gesag van die wet. " - Livy

In 509 v.C. die Romeine het in opstand gekom teen hul Etruskiese heersers wat die koningskap vervang het met 'n republiek ('n land wat deur die verkose verteenwoordigers van sy mense beheer word) en die Patrisiërs het die regering van die republiek in 'n uitvoerende gesag en 'n wetgewende tak georganiseer. (sien Rome se ontwikkeling van 'n grondwet)

Twee patrisiërs, bekend as die konsuls (omdat hulle mekaar moes raadpleeg voordat hulle optree), was die uitvoerende hoof en het die stede daagliks bestuur. Hulle is verkies om vir een jaar in die amp te dien. Elke konsul kan veto (Latynse woord beteken & quotto verbied & quot) die ander besluite neem. Die konsuls handhaaf orde onder die uitvoerende amptenare (praetors, regters, sensore, tollenaars, ens.). Hulle het die senaat voorgesit en was tydens oorlogstyd die opperbevelhebber. Hulle was ook hoogste regters.

Toe Rome in 'n krisistyd was, sou hulle tydelik 'n diktator aanstel (een wie se woord wet was), en slegs hy kon die besluit van die konsuls oorheers.

Die Senaat was ook 'n liggaam van patrisiërs, 300 burgers uit die rykste gesinne van Rome, wat ook die tesourie sowel as die buitelandse beleid onderhou het en hulle lewenslank gedien het. Hulle weeg swaarder as die Vergadering van Eeue en adviseer die konsuls, stel wette voor en keur nuwe bou van paaie, tempels en militêre verdediging goed. Hulle was vermoedelik 'n adviesliggaam, maar in werklikheid was dit die middelpunt van alle beleidsbesluite rakende buitelandse sake, militêre aangeleenthede, finansies, openbare grond en staatsgodsdiens.

Die konsuls was in beheer van die regering en ook van die weermag. Die senaat van 300 burgers het hulle te alle tye daarvan in kennis gestel. In die geskiedenis van die Romeinse Republiek was die Senaat altyd die magtigste groep. Slegs die Vergadering kon een van hul wette goedkeur of afkeur en slegs die vergadering het kandidate vir die amp van konsul verkies. Daar was altyd 'n basiese konsep van tjeks en saldo's.

Die moderne Amerikaanse grondwet is gebaseer op hierdie basiese konsepte van kontrole en saldo's binne die antieke regering van die Romeinse Republiek. Of dit nou die president, die kongres of die howe is, niemand kan die regering oorheers nie. Elke tak het 'n manier om die optrede van die ander te kontroleer en die aksies van elke tak balanseer die ander.

Die middelklas en armes was verteenwoordig in 2 gemeentes:

Daar was ook 'n groep patrisiërs in die wetgewende afdeling wat bekend staan ​​as die Vergadering van Eeue (vernoem na 'n militêre samestelling van 100 man & quotcentum & quot) en hulle is in die amp verkies. Hulle kan oorlog verklaar.

'N Wetgewende vergadering van verkose amptenare het tribunes en speurders genoem wat wette aangeneem het en klein verhore uitgevoer het.

Daar was ook 2 sensors (oud-konsuls) wat die sensus geneem het, die belasting beoordeel, senatore genoem het, ens.

4 Aediles het as burgemeesters van die stad gedien en 8 Quaestors het as tesouriere opgetree.

Die plebeiërs het gevoel dat hulle geen werklike mag in die nuwe republiek het nie en in 494 vC het hulle gestaak en gedreig om die leër te verlaat en 'n nuwe republiek te begin. Die patrisiërs stem toe in om die stem van die Tribunes te hoor.

Die 10 Tribunes, wat deur die Plebeians verkies is, beskerm die mense se regte teen die besluite wat die senaat geneem het. Hulle het die mag om enige regeringsbesluit te veto. Die Plebeërs het geëis dat die patrisiërs die tribunes sou hoor en vanweë die vrees dat hulle hul militêre en arbeidsmag sou verloor, was die patrisiërs dit eens. Hulle het so beskermd geword dat iemand wat 'n Tribune beseer, doodgemaak kan word.

Die regterlike tak van die regering

Die regterlike tak van die regering was die 6 Praetors (verkies vir 2 jaar) wat die hoë regters was.

Die Plebeërs het nog steeds minderwaardig gevoel omdat hulle eintlik nooit presies geweet het wat die wette is nie. Die wette is nog nooit op skrif gestel nie en was slegs deur die patrisiërs bekend. Die Plebeians het daarop aangedring dat die regering die wette neerskryf. Uiteindelik in 451 vC het die patrisiërs ingestem om die wette op 12 brons tablette te graveer en dit in die forum te plaas sodat almal dit kan sien. Hierdie 12 tabelle het die basis geword vir alle toekomstige Romeinse reg.

Die Plebeërs het spoedig die reg gekry om in sommige openbare ampte te dien, en in 287 vC het hulle 'n groot oorwinning behaal, hulle het die reg gekry om wette vir die republiek in die Vergadering van Stamme te maak. Rome was op die punt om 'n ware demokrasie te word. Maar teen die 2de eeu. V.C. meer mag was in die hande van die senaat en hulle het korrup geword. (sien beweeg na demokrasie)


Senaat (senatus = raad van ouderlinge, verwant aan die woord 'senior') was die adviesafdeling van die Romeinse regering, wat vroeg reeds bestaan ​​het uit ongeveer 300 burgers wat lewenslank gedien het. Hulle is eers deur die konings gekies, eers dan deur die konsuls, en aan die einde van die 4de eeu, deur die sensors. Die geledere van die senaat, afkomstig van oud-konsuls en ander offisiere. Eiendomsvereistes het met die era verander. Aanvanklik was senatore slegs patrisiërs, maar mettertyd het plebeiërs by hul geledere aangesluit.

Die Vergadering van Eeue (comitia centuriata), wat uit alle lede van die weermag bestaan ​​het, jaarliks ​​tot konsuls verkies. Die vergadering van stamme (comitia tributa), bestaande uit alle burgers, goedgekeurde of verwerpte wette en besliste kwessies oor oorlog en vrede.


Die Senaat

Die Romeinse senaat word dikwels beskou as die setel van die Romeinse mag, waar al die belangrikste besluite wat die regering van die ryk beïnvloed het, geneem is.

Die realiteit is dat die senaat hoofsaaklik 'n adviesorgaan was, wat ondanks die rykdom en aansien van diegene wat in die heilige kamer sit, eintlik verbasend min mag gehad het. Dit geld natuurlik vir die keiserlike tydperk, waartydens die keiser koning was, maar eintlik nogal verbasend die geval was gedurende die tydperk van die Republiek.

Alhoewel lede van die Senaat oor onderwerpe beraadslaag en gestem het, is werklike wetgewing in die verskillende vergaderings verseker. Hierdie vergaderings het volgens die aanbevelings van die beraad van die senaat opgetree en ook die landdroste gekies.


Belangrike sleutelwoorde van die onderstaande artikel: verdeeld, tak, wetgewend, uitvoerend, regering, modern, Rome, soos takke :, antieke, geregtelike.

SLEUTEL ONDERWERPE
Net soos die moderne Amerikaanse regering, kan die grootste deel van die regering van antieke Rome in drie takke verdeel word: wetgewende, uitvoerende en geregtelike. [1] Na die laaste koning van Antieke Rome, is die nuwe regering in 509 vC gebore. Hierdie nuwe republiek het antieke Romeinse burgers toegelaat om leiers te kies om hulle te regeer, eerder as die vorige koningsstelsel van die konings. [2] Die Romeinse reg is die regstelsel van antieke Rome, insluitend die regsontwikkelings wat strek oor meer as duisend jaar se regspraak, van die twaalf tafels (ongeveer 449 v.C.) tot die Corpus Juris Civilis (529 nC) wat deur Oos -Romeinse gebied is. Keiser Justinianus I. [3] Die laaste koning van antieke Rome was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, daar word gesê dat hy uiters wreed was en dat baie Romeine doodgemaak is. [2] Hierdie deel van die regering het die gewone mense van Antieke Rome beskerm. [2] In die drie-regering van Antieke Rome, bekend as 'n drieledige regering, het elke deel van die regering sy eie kontroles, regte en voorregte gehad. [2] Elke deel was verantwoordelik vir sekere pligte en om te verseker dat antieke Rome sou floreer. [2] Historiese verslae toon aan dat die laaste drie konings van Antieke Rome van Etruskiese oorsprong was. [2] Sommige landdroste was selfs verantwoordelik vir vermaaklikheidselemente soos feeste en speletjies waaroor antieke Rome bekend geword het. [2] Patrisiërs was die welgestelde grondeienaars en die hoër klas van Antieke Rome. [2]


Geregtelike tak Romeinse regstelsel: Die Romeinse regstelsel het bestaan ​​uit ses regters wat elke twee jaar verkies is. [4] Die regterlike tak het bestaan ​​uit agt regters wat vir een jaar gedien het. [5]

Sommige van die mees basiese waardes en instellings van die Verenigde State, soos burgerlike pligte en 'n aparte geregtelike tak, het in die Romeinse Republiek begin. [5]

Aangesien die antieke Romeine nie wou hê dat een man al die wette sou opstel nie, het hulle besluit om die mag van die regering tussen drie takke te balanseer; daar was eers die uitvoerende gesag, dan die wetgewende gesag en laastens die regterlike gesag. [6] Dieselfde drie, in werklikheid, soos ons hier in die Verenigde State doen: uitvoerend, wetgewend en geregtelik (hoewel die regterlike tak die mees betwiste van die drie is). [7] Die regterlike tak het ses regters gehad wat elke twee jaar verkies is. [8]


Antieke Rome: Romeinse reg Ouers en onderwysers: Ondersteun eendjies deur ons te volg op of. [9] Senaat, in antieke Rome, die bestuurs- en adviesraad wat die mees permanente element in die Romeinse grondwet was. [10] In antieke Rome was u nie toegelaat om oor wette te stem of leiers van die regering te kies voordat u 'n volwassene was nie. [8] Baie van die basiese stelsels en idees wat ons vandag oor wette en regering het, kom uit antieke Rome. [9] Antieke Rome het op baie maniere 'n regering soortgelyk aan wat ons in die Verenigde State het. [7] Vergelyk en kontrasteer die regering van antieke Rome met die regering van die Verenigde State. [7] Besoek die afdelings hieronder vir meer inligting oor verskillende regeringsvorme in Antieke Rome, insluitend die rolle van sleutelgroepe en individue. [6] Van Tribunes tot Aediles, en Praetors tot Censors, vind uit wat die verskillende ampte van antieke Rome behels. [6]


Aangesien die antieke Romeine nie wou hê dat een man al die wette sou opstel nie, het hulle besluit om die mag van die regering tussen drie takke te balanseer; daar was eers die uitvoerende gesag, dan die wetgewende gesag en uiteindelik die regterlike gesag. [11] Dokument 1 'n uiteensetting van die Romeinse regering tydens die Republiek: Uitvoerende tak Wetgewende tak Geregtelike tak Die twee leiers van die uitvoerende gesag, die konsuls, is vir slegs een jaar deur die hoër klas verkies. [12]

Feit 1: Die geregtelike tak van Italië is onafhanklik van die ander takke van die land se regering, en dit werk volgens 'n gemengde regstelsel wat sowel inquisitoriale as teenstrydige elemente bevat, sowel as duisende wette wat saamgevoeg is uit verskillende regskodes. [13] Omdat die regterlike tak dikwels deel uitmaak van 'n staats- of landregering, is die geografiese jurisdiksie van plaaslike regters dikwels nie saam met munisipale grense nie. [14]


Gee spesifieke voorbeelde oor die Romeinse kultuur en hoe dit lyk soos ons eie kultuur vandag in die Verenigde State deur voorbeelde uit ons eie kultuur te gee wat soortgelyk is aan dié van antieke Rome. [12] Op soek na 'n manier om u studente uit te daag om werklik die inhoud van antieke Rome en die Romeinse Ryk te verstaan ​​en daarmee te werk? Hierdie taakkaartstel is presies wat u nodig het. [15] Bespreek die grondwetlike geskiedenis van geskeide en gedeelde magte soos gevorm in die republiek en ryk van antieke Rome. [16] In Antieke Rome het die Tribunes wat die gewone burger verteenwoordig het, 'n vetoreg oor die wet van die Senaat om wetgewing deur die rykes te voorkom wat nie die belange van die algemene bevolking sou dien nie. [14] By die konstitusionele konvensie het Benjamin Franklin en generaal Pinkney aangevoer dat die senaat, soos in antieke Rome, uit die ryk klasse moet bestaan ​​en geen vergoeding vir hul diens moet ontvang nie. [14] Antieke geskiedenis Rome - OK, dit is bedoel vir kinders, maar volwassenes hou ook daarvan! Die Britannica Kids Ancient Rome -app praat op 'n prettige en innemende manier oor antieke Rome. [15] Antieke Rome Interaktiewe geanimeerde geskiedeniskaart van TimeMaps. [15] In antieke Rome kon slegs die Centuriate -vergadering oorlog verklaar. [17] DBQ-rigtings uit antieke Rome: Beantwoord die volgende leidende vraag in 'n goed ontwikkelde opstel. [12] DBQ -aanwysings in antieke Rome: beantwoord op u eie die leidende vraag met behulp van die dokumente wat u hierbo ondersoek het. [12]

Net soos Rome het die Verenigde State 'n geskrewe grondwet waarop sy regering gebaseer is. [5] Bou voort op wat u weet U het reeds geleer dat Rome sy konings omvergewerp het en 'n republiek gevorm het. [5] Honderde jare na die stigting van die republiek het Rome sy gebied uitgebrei. [5] In die latere jare van die Republiek, toe Rome op baie plekke by ingewikkelde buitelandse avonture betrokke was, was daar 'n vraag na baie veldkommandante. [1]

In die vroeë keiserlike Rome was die Senaat swak totdat die ryk tot stand gekom het. [2] As 'n konsul of praetor 'n belangrike taak, gewoonlik 'n oorlog, buite Rome verrig het wat sy ampstermyn oortref het, was hy dikwels gemagtig om aan te hou totdat hy klaar was. [1] Selfs konsuls en praetore wat hul ampstermyn in Rome gedien het, is stelselmatig as promagistrate uitgestuur. [1]

Praetors het die eer gekry dat hulle 'n groot deel van die burgerreg van Rome uitgelê/gevorm het. [19]

In die Romeinse reg het ius privum persoonlike, eiendoms-, burgerlike en strafregtelike regsgedinge ingesluit, 'n privaat proses (iudicium privatum) en misdade privaat (behalwe die ernstigste wat deur die staat vervolg is). [3] Tydens die republiek en tot die burokratisering van die Romeinse geregtelike prosedure was die regter gewoonlik 'n privaat persoon (iudex privatus). [3]

Hierdie tipe regering het drie takke: uitvoerende, wetgewende en geregtelike. [5] Hierdie landdroste het regdeur die Ou Romeinse Ryk gesorg vir finansies en geregtelike verpligtinge. [2] Die eerste deel van die Antieke Romeinse regering bestaan ​​uit amptenare wat in die amp gekies is, met die naam landdroste. [2] Die derde deel van die Antieke Romeinse regering het bestaan ​​uit gemeentes en tribunes. [2] Die tweede deel van die Antieke Romeinse regering was 'n liggaam genaamd die Senaat. [2] Om die Romeinse burgers te beheer, het patrisiërs radikale veranderinge aan die antieke Romeinse regering aangebring. [2] Plebeërs was gewone mense wat 'n beroep op verandering in die Antieke Romeinse regering gedoen het. [2] Met die vermoë om veto teenoor ander amptenare te maak, het dit tribunes baie kragtig gemaak in die Antieke Romeinse regering. [2]

Sedertdien het geleerdes die antieke Romeinse regstekste begin bestudeer en ander geleer wat hulle uit hul studies geleer het. [3]

Senaat (senatusraad van ouderlinge) was die adviesafdeling van die Romeinse regering, wat vroeg reeds bestaan ​​het uit ongeveer 300 burgers wat lewenslank gedien het. [18] Die wetgewende tak van die Romeinse regering het die senaat en die vergaderings ingesluit. [5]

Die Amerikaanse stelsel van kontrole en saldo sorg dat een tak van die regering nie te veel mag het nie. [5] Die tak van hierdie tak is om oorlog te verklaar, verdrae te bekragtig, oor regters te stem en wette op te stel/uit te voer. [19] Die eerste tak, bekend as Assemblies, bestaan ​​uit die plebeiane en die patriciërs. [2] In die tweede tak, bekend as die tribunes, bestaan ​​dit uit verkose amptenare. [2] Die uitvoerende gesag het hoofsaaklik bestaan ​​uit 'n aantal landdroste wat deur die mense verkies is. [1]

Die Romeine het drie regeringsvertakkings gehad, waaronder die wetgewende vergaderings (tak van die mense), die senaat (tak van die edeles en patrisiërs) en die konsuls (uitvoerende gesag). [9] Romeinse regering - Antieke geskiedenis ensiklopedie Romeinse regering Donald L. Wasson Westerse beskawing is ewig skuld aan die mense van antieke Griekeland en Rome. [20] 'n Interessante feit is dat die mense van Rome baie van hul regeringsidees van die antieke Grieke geneem het. [6] Met inagneming van die konteks van antieke tye en hedendaagse regeringsvorme, en met inagneming van die beperkte verteenwoordigende elemente daarvan, moet Rome egter 'n uitstekende voorbeeld bly van 'n suksesvolle antieke regering. [20] United Nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) verteenwoordig die allesomvattende mag van Rome in die antieke wêreld. [6] Die Westerse beskawing is ewig skuld aan die mense van antieke Griekeland en Rome. [20]

Die Lex Hotensia verklaar dat wette wat deur die Concilium Plebis in Rome aangeneem is, bindend is vir alle mense, selfs patrisiërs. [20] Ongelukkig het baie mense in Rome, in die vroeë stadiums van die Republiek, uitsluitlik in die hande van die elite, die ou grondeienaars of patrisiërs gelê. [20] Gedurende die tyd van die Republiek was hierdie verskillende vergaderings die stem van die burgers van Rome, en hoewel dit nie heeltemal demokraties was in die moderne definisie van die woord nie, kon hulle uiteindelik 'n deel van die Romeinse burgerskap laat hoor. [20] Swords Against the Senate beskryf die eerste drie dekades van Rome se eeu lange burgeroorlog wat dit van 'n republiek tot 'n keiserlike outokrasie verander het, van die Rome van burgerleiers tot die Rome van dekadente keiserboewe. [6] Na die seëvierende oorloë van Rome, vanaf die derde eeu v.C., het 'n groot aantal slawe na Rome gekom, en dit het slawehandel en groter uitbuiting van slawe tot gevolg gehad. [21]

Met die afskaffing van die monargie in Rome in 509 v.C., word die senaat die adviesraad van die konsuls (die twee hoogste landdroste), wat slegs op hul plesier vergader en as gevolg van die aanstelling daarvan, bly dit dus 'n sekondêre mag van die landdroste. [10] Die Senaat het sowel die binnelandse as die buitelandse beleid bespreek, toesig gehou oor die betrekkinge met buitelandse moondhede, die godsdienstige lewe van Rome gelei en die staatsfinansies beheer. [20] Daar is gevind dat daardie onbeperkte magte dikwels misbruik is en dat die beheer van die Senaat nie maklik op toenemende afstande van Rome bewerkstellig kon word nie. [10] Dan was daar die quaestors, die finansiële beamptes, wat die mag van quaestores aerarii of die beheer oor die tesourie in die Forum van Rome gehad het. [20]

Later, om die regte van die plebiërs verder te beskerm, is die Twaalf Tabelle, ook genoem die Tien plus die Twee, aangeneem as die eerste verslag van die Romeinse reg - daar was nog nooit 'n geskrewe grondwet in Rome nie. [20] Gedurende die laat republikeinse era van die Romeinse geskiedenis was daar twee hooftipes Praetor: een was die Praetor Urbanus, of Urban Praetor, wat as die hoofadministrateur van Rome sou optree, wat verbied is om meer van die stad afwesig te wees as tien dae. [22]

Namate Rome sy grense noordwaarts na Gallië, verder ooswaarts in Asië en suidwaarts na Afrika uitgebrei het, kon die regering van die Republiek nie die hoof bied nie, en het sodoende die eerste keiser, Augustus, en die geboorte van 'n ryk binnegegaan. [20] Na die verdrywing van die laaste koning van Rome, Tarquinius Suberbus, is die Republiek beheer deur 'n hiërargie van landdroste. [21] Die (semi-mitologiese) sewe konings van Rome: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tulus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. [20] Jare onder die onwrikbare juk van 'n koning het die mense van Rome geleer dat hulle moet beskerm teen die heerskappy en moontlike onderdrukking van een individu. [20]

Die Valerio-Horatiese wette vestig die stamvergaderings in Rome. [20] Twee plebeiers beklee die twee posisies van sensor vir die eerste keer in Rome. [20] Die oorspronklike tablette is vernietig toe die Galliërs onder Brennus Rome in 390 vC verbrand het. Daar was geen ander amptelike bekendmaking van hulle om te oorleef nie, slegs nie -amptelike uitgawes. [21]

Rome se eerste keiser, Augustus, die aangenome seun van Julius Caesar, het waarskynlik die langste invloed op die geskiedenis van alle heersers van die klassieke wêreld gehad. [6]

Die senaat het regterlike funksies ontvang en word vir die eerste keer 'n hof, wat bevoeg is om sake van afpersing in die senatoriese provinsies te verhoor. [10] In die Romeinse reg het ius privum persoonlike, eiendoms-, burgerlike en strafregtelike regsgedinge ingesluit, en 'n privaat proses (iudicium privatum) en misdade privaat (behalwe die ernstigste wat deur die staat vervolg is). [21] Tydens die republiek en tot die burokratisering van die Romeinse geregtelike prosedure was die regter gewoonlik 'n privaat persoon (iudex privatus). [21]

Die Wet van die Twaalf Tablette (Latyn: Leges Duodecim Tabularum of, informeel, Duodecim Tabulae) was die antieke wetgewing wat die grondslag van die Romeinse reg gestaan ​​het. [21] Die bevoegdhede van die senaat het teen hierdie tyd baie verder gestrek as die ou voorregte. [10]

Praetor was 'n titel wat deur die Antieke Romeinse regering toegestaan ​​is aan 'n landdros wat slegs laer as senators en konsuls was. [22] Oor die algemeen word gedink dat die antieke Romeinse regering ook drie takke gehad het. [7]

In die Romeinse regering het die hoof van die uitvoerende gesag militêre pligte gehad, net soos ons president as opperbevelhebber dien. [7] Die volgende tabel sal jou vertel wat elke tak van die Romeinse regering gedoen het. [8]

Die uitvoerende gesag word gelei deur die president van die Verenigde State en hul taak is om wette uit te voer. [23] Die twee leiers van die uitvoerende gesag, die konsuls, is vir slegs een jaar deur die hoër klas verkies. [8] Ander lede van die uitvoerende gesag was die tollenaars, burgemeesters, stadspolisie en ander mense in magsposisies in stede. [8]

Die mees kragtige deel van die wetgewende gesag was die Senaat. [8]

GEREKTEER GESELEKTEERDE BRONNE(23 brondokumente gerangskik volgens voorkomsfrekwensie in bogenoemde verslag)


Laat Republiek

Nadat hulle die Masedoniese en Seleukidiese Ryk in die 2de eeu vC verslaan het, het die Romeine die dominante bevolking van die Middellandse See geword. [40] [41] Die verowering van die Hellenistiese koninkryke het die Romeinse en Griekse kulture in nouer kontak gebring en die Romeinse elite, eens landelik, het 'n luukse en kosmopolitiese geword. Op hierdie tydstip was Rome 'n gekonsolideerde ryk en in die militêre siening het mdashand geen groot vyande gehad nie.

Buitelandse oorheersing het tot interne twis gelei. Senatore het ryk geword ten koste van die provinsies soldate, wat meestal kleinboere was, was langer weg van die huis en kon nie hul grond in stand hou nie en die toenemende afhanklikheid van buitelandse slawe en die groei van latifundia die beskikbaarheid van betaalde werk verminder. [42] [43]

Inkomste uit oorlogsbuit, mercantilisme in die nuwe provinsies en belastingboerdery het vir die rykes nuwe ekonomiese geleenthede geskep en 'n nuwe klas handelaars gevorm, die perdryers genoem. [44] Die lex Claudia lede van die Senaat verbied om handel te dryf, dus hoewel die ruiters teoreties by die Senaat kon aansluit, was hulle baie beperk in politieke mag. [44] [45] Die Senaat het voortdurend gekibbel, herhaaldelik belangrike grondhervormings geblokkeer en geweier om die ruiterklas 'n groter seggenskap oor die regering te gee.

Geweldige bendes van die stedelike werkloses, onder beheer van mededingende senatore, het die kiesers geïntimideer deur geweld. Die situasie het in die laat 2de eeu vC onder die knie gekom onder die Gracchi -broers, 'n paar tribunes wat gepoog het om grondhervormingswetgewing te aanvaar wat die belangrikste patrisiërs se grondbesit onder die plebeiërs sou herverdeel. Beide broers is dood en die senaat het hervormings aanvaar wat die optrede van die broer van Gracchi omgekeer het. [46] Dit het gelei tot die groeiende kloof tussen die plebeiaanse groepe (populares) en ruiterklasse (optimaliseer).

Marius en Sulla

Gaius Marius, a nuut homo, wat sy politieke loopbaan met die hulp van die magtige Metelli -gesin begin het, word gou 'n leier van die Republiek, en het die eerste van sy sewe konsulasies ('n ongekende aantal) in 107 vC gehad deur te beweer dat sy voormalige beskermheer Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus nie in staat was nie om die Numidiaanse koning Jugurtha te verslaan en vas te vang. Marius begin toe met sy militêre hervorming: in sy werwing om Jugurtha te beveg, hef hy die armes ('n innovasie) op, en baie landlose manne het die weermag binnegekom, dit was die saad om die lojaliteit van die leër aan die generaal in bevel te verseker.

Op hierdie tydstip begin Marius sy rusie met Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Marius, wat Jugurtha wou vang, het Bocchus, skoonseun van Jugurtha, gevra om hom te oorhandig. Aangesien Marius misluk het, het Sulla, destyds 'n generaal van Marius, in 'n gevaarlike onderneming self na Bocchus gegaan en Bocchus oortuig om Jugurtha aan hom te oorhandig. Dit was baie uitdagend vir Marius, aangesien baie van sy vyande Sulla aangemoedig het om Marius teë te staan. Desondanks is Marius verkies vir vyf agtereenvolgende konsulskappe van 104 tot 100 vC, aangesien Rome 'n militêre leier nodig gehad het om die Cimbri en die Teutones, wat Rome bedreig het, te verslaan.

Na Marius se aftrede het Rome 'n kort vrede gehad, waartydens die Italianer socii ("bondgenote" in Latyn) versoek om Romeinse burgerskap en stemreg. Die hervormer Marcus Livius Drusus het hul regsproses ondersteun, maar is vermoor, en die socii het in opstand gekom teen die Romeine in die Sosiale Oorlog. Op 'n stadium is beide konsuls doodgemaak Marius is aangestel om saam met Lucius Julius Caesar en Sulla die leër te beveel. [47]

Teen die einde van die Sosiale Oorlog was Marius en Sulla die voorste militêre manne in Rome, en hul partydiges was in konflik, en beide partye het om mag geworstel. In 88 vC is Sulla verkies vir sy eerste konsulskap en sy eerste opdrag was om Mithridates VI van Pontus te verslaan, wie se bedoeling was om die oostelike deel van die Romeinse gebiede te verower. Die partisane van Marius het egter sy installasie onder die militêre bevel bestuur en Sulla en die Senaat trotseer, en dit het Sulla se toorn veroorsaak. Om sy eie mag te konsolideer, het Sulla 'n verrassende en onwettige aksie uitgevoer: hy het met sy legioene na Rome gemarsjeer, almal vermoor wat Marius se steun ondersteun het en hul koppe in die Forum Romanum aangepak het. In die volgende jaar, 87 vC, het Marius, wat tydens die optog van Sulla gevlug het, na Rome teruggekeer terwyl Sulla 'n veldtog in Griekeland gehad het. Hy het die mag saam met die konsul Lucius Cornelius Cinna aangegryp en die ander konsul, Gnaeus Octavius, vermoor en sy sewende konsulsskap behaal. In 'n poging om Sulla se woede op te wek, het Marius en Cinna wraak geneem op hul partydiges deur 'n bloedbad te doen. [47] [48]

Marius sterf in 86 vC weens ouderdom en swak gesondheid, slegs 'n paar maande nadat hy die mag oorgeneem het. Cinna oefen absolute mag uit tot sy dood in 84 vC. Sulla het na sy terugkeer uit sy Oosterse veldtogte 'n vrye pad gehad om sy eie mag te herstel. In 83 vC maak hy sy tweede optog in Rome en begin 'n tyd van terreur: duisende edeles, ridders en senatore is tereggestel. Sulla het ook twee diktature en nog een konsulskap gehad, wat die krisis en agteruitgang van die Romeinse Republiek begin het. [47]

Caesar en die Eerste Triumviraat

In die middel van die 1ste eeu vC was die Romeinse politiek onrustig. Politieke verdeeldheid in Rome word geïdentifiseer met twee groeperings, gewild (wat gehoop het op die ondersteuning van die mense) en optimaliseer (die "beste", wat eksklusiewe aristokratiese beheer wou behou). Sulla het alle populistiese leiers omvergewerp en sy grondwetlike hervormings het magte verwyder (soos dié van die tribune van die plebs) wat populistiese benaderings ondersteun het. Intussen het sosiale en ekonomiese spanning voortgegaan om te bou. Rome het 'n metropool geword met 'n superryke aristokrasie, skuldgedrewe aspirante en 'n groot proletariaat, dikwels van arm boere. Laasgenoemde groepe het die Catilinarian -sameswering en mdasha dawerende mislukking ondersteun, aangesien die konsul Marcus Tullius Cicero vinnig die hoofleiers van die sameswering gearresteer en tereggestel het.

Op hierdie onstuimige toneel verskyn Gaius Julius Caesar, uit 'n aristokratiese familie met beperkte rykdom. Sy tante Julia was Marius se vrou, [49] en Caesar vereenselwig hom met die populares. Om die mag te verkry, versoen Caesar die twee magtigste manne in Rome: Marcus Licinius Crassus, wat 'n groot deel van sy vroeëre loopbaan gefinansier het, en Crassus se mededinger, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (verengels as Pompeius), met wie hy met sy dogter getroud is. Hy vorm hulle tot 'n nuwe informele alliansie, waaronder homself, die First Triumvirate ("drie mans"). Dit bevredig die belange van al drie: Crassus, die rykste man in Rome, word ryker en bereik uiteindelik 'n hoë militêre bevel Pompeius oefen meer invloed uit in die senaat en Caesar verkry die konsulskap en militêre bevel in Gallië. [50] Solank hulle kon saamstem, was die drie in werklikheid die heersers van Rome.

In 54 v.C. sterf Caesar se dogter, Pompeius se vrou, tydens die bevalling en ontrafel een skakel in die alliansie. In 53 vC val Crassus Parthia binne en word hy in die Slag van Carrhae dood. Die Triumvirate het by Crassus se dood ontbind. Crassus het as bemiddelaar tussen Caesar en Pompeius opgetree, en sonder hom het die twee generaals teen mekaar gemanoeuvreer om mag. Caesar verower Gallië en verkry enorme rykdom, respek in Rome en die lojaliteit van strydgeharde legioene. Hy het ook 'n duidelike bedreiging vir Pompeius geword en is deur baie gehaat optimaliseer. In die vertroue dat Caesar met regsmiddele gestuit kon word, het Pompeius se party probeer om Caesar van sy legioene te ontneem, 'n voorspel tot die verhoor, verarming en ballingskap van Caesar.

Om hierdie lot te vermy, steek Caesar die Rubicon -rivier oor en val Rome in 49 vC binne. Pompeius en sy groep het uit Italië gevlug, agtervolg deur Caesar. Die Slag van Pharsalus was 'n briljante oorwinning vir Caesar, en in hierdie en ander veldtogte vernietig hy die hele optimaliseer ' leiers: Metellus Scipio, Cato die Jongere en Pompeius se seun, Gnaeus Pompeius. Pompeius is in 48 vC in Egipte vermoor. Caesar was nou vooraanstaande in Rome en het die bitter vyandskap van baie aristokrate aangetrek. Hy het baie ampte en eerbewyse gekry. In net vyf jaar beklee hy vier konsulasies, twee gewone diktatorskappe en twee spesiale diktators: een vir tien jaar en 'n ander vir ewigheid. Hy is vermoor in 44 vC, op die Ides van Maart deur die Bevryders. [51]

Octavianus en die Tweede Triumviraat

Die moord op Caesar het politieke en sosiale onrus in Rome veroorsaak sonder die leiding van die diktator, die stad is beheer deur sy vriend en kollega, Mark Antony. Kort daarna het Octavius, wat Caesar deur sy testament aangeneem het, in Rome aangekom. Octavianus (historici beskou Octavius ​​as Octavianus vanweë die Romeinse benamingskonvensies) het probeer om by die Caesarian -faksie in te skakel. In 43 vC het hy saam met Antony en Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, die beste vriend van Caesar, [52] die Tweede Triumviraat wettig gestig. Hierdie bondgenootskap sou vyf jaar duur. By die stigting daarvan is 130 en ndash300 senatore tereggestel, en hul eiendom is gekonfiskeer weens hul vermeende ondersteuning vir die Liberatores. [53]

In 42 BC, the Senate deified Caesar as Divus Iulius Octavian thus became Divi filius, [54] the son of the deified. In the same year, Octavian and Antony defeated both Caesar's assassins and the leaders of the Liberatores, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, in the Battle of Philippi. The Second Triumvirate was marked by the proscriptions of many senators and gelyk stel: after a revolt led by Antony's brother Lucius Antonius, more than 300 senators and gelyk stel involved were executed on the anniversary of the Ides of March, although Lucius was spared. [55] The Triumvirate proscribed several important men, including Cicero, whom Antony hated [56] Quintus Tullius Cicero, the younger brother of the orator and Lucius Julius Caesar, cousin and friend of the acclaimed general, for his support of Cicero. However, Lucius was pardoned, perhaps because his sister Julia had intervened for him. [57]

The Triumvirate divided the Empire among the triumvirs: Lepidus was given charge of Africa, Antony, the eastern provinces, and Octavian remained in Italia and controlled Hispania and Gaul. The Second Triumvirate expired in 38 BC but was renewed for five more years. However, the relationship between Octavian and Antony had deteriorated, and Lepidus was forced to retire in 36 BC after betraying Octavian in Sicily. By the end of the Triumvirate, Antony was living in Ptolemaic Egypt, an independent and rich kingdom ruled by Antony's lover, Cleopatra VII. Antony's affair with Cleopatra was seen as an act of treason, since she was queen of another country. Additionally, Antony adopted a lifestyle considered too extravagant and Hellenistic for a Roman statesman. [58] Following Antony's Donations of Alexandria, which gave to Cleopatra the title of "Queen of Kings", and to Antony's and Cleopatra's children the regal titles to the newly conquered Eastern territories, war between Octavian and Antony broke out. Octavian annihilated Egyptian forces in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Now Egypt was conquered by the Roman Empire, and for the Romans, a new era had begun.


TAXATION

Kingdoms, nations, and empires need to pay for such items as armies, roads, and building projects. Like modern nations, the states of the ancient world relied on their inhabitants for funds. Taxation is the general term for the many different ways in which states collect revenue from individuals. It has long been part of history. Even before money existed, people paid taxes to their rulers in the form of labor or goods, such as crops, gold, or livestock. Conquered peoples paid tribute* to their conquerors. The Greeks and Romans, like other ancient peoples of the Mediterranean world, gradually developed formal systems of taxation. As states grew larger and required more revenue, their tax systems became more complex.

* tribute payment made to a dominant power or local government

Greek Taxation. The Greek city-state* grew out of kinship groups&mdash collections of tribes, clans, and families descended from the same ancestor. In an early system of taxation, these kinship groups required their members to contribute food, other materials, and the manpower to wage war and maintain religious shrines. Coinage, which became common in the Greek world during the 500s B.C., brought widespread economic changes, such as the use of mercenaries* and the growth of trade and commerce. Around the same time, roughly between the 700s B.C. and the 300s B.C., the city-states developed into central political powers that needed to raise revenue in order to provide public services. These services included police, temple building, grain distribution to the people, offerings to the gods and goddesses, and rewards for killing the wolves that threatened some communities.

Greek city-states raised revenue from many sources. Some owned profitable mines, while others seized the wealth of cities they conquered. Athens forced its weaker allies to pay huge amounts in tribute. Taxation, however, was the most dependable way for Greek city-states to raise money. Metics* had to pay a direct tax to the state each year, and those who could not pay were enslaved. Citizens did not have to pay this direct tax. Although everyone who bought goods in a market paid a market tax, because metics could not own land and had to buy everything in the markets, they paid more market taxes than anyone else.

Greeks paid indirect taxes in two forms&mdashcustoms duties and excise taxes. Customs duties were fees for traveling or carrying goods into and out of the state. They included harbor fees and gate tolls. Excise taxes were similar to present-day sales taxes. Consumers paid these fees when they bought goods. Each article had its own fee. For example, the tax on eels was different from that on other seafood. Most items carried a tax of about 1 percent of their cost. Many common business transactions, including prostitution, also carried excise taxes.

Two special taxes raised revenue from wealthy citizens. The liturgy was a special tax, often paid willingly and with pride, that made an individual responsible for the expenses of a single public event, such as a dramatic festival or a ship for the navy. Originally voluntary, liturgies were later imposed. The eisphora was a tax on rich people during periods of emergency, such as wartime.

Unlike modern nations, Greek city-states did not maintain large staffs of tax collectors. Instead, city-states auctioned contracts to collect taxes. The individual or group who bought the contract from the state then collected the taxes. Tax farmers, as these people were called, kept everything they collected over the original cost of the contract. Tax collecting was frequently very profitable. Tax farmers had the power to take people to court and to enslave them for failure to pay taxes.

* city-state independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding territory

* mercenary soldier usually a foreigner who fights for payment rather than out of loyalty to a nation

* metic free person living in a Greek city-state who was not a citizen of that state

THE CRUELTY OF TAX COLLECTORS

Philo, a man who lived in the Egyptian dty of Alexandria shortly after Egypt came under Roman rule, wrote an account of a brutal raid by a tax collector and his agents. They rounded up and savagely beat people who owed taxes but were too poor to pay them&mdashand then beat the taxpayers' wives, children, and parents as well. When the beatings failed to produce payments or information about other people who had fled because they could not pay their taxes, the collector and his agents resorted to torture and even murder. Similar events occurred throughout the Roman empire. Because of such occurrences, people naturally despised and feared the tax collectors.

This relief shows a Roman tax collector at work. The Roman treasury relied heavily on tribute raised by provincial taxation to fill its coffers.

Roman Taxation. The Roman tax system changed over the centuries, and it also varied from region to region within the Roman world. At its worst, the system was a bewildering maze of hundreds of different taxes. After the Romans conquered Egypt, they largely adopted the Ptolemaic tax system already in use there. Records show that the government collected taxes on people, land, livestock, olives, oil, beeswax, grain, wine, beer, fish, bread, flour, salt, and even pigeons and pigeon nests. People paid taxes for irrigation ditches, for prison guards and ferry police, for land measurement, and for maintaining public baths. People who wanted to free their slaves had to pay a tax to do so. Fishermen, prostitutes, tailors, builders, bankers, bakers, and people in many other professions paid special taxes. Nearly every business exchange was taxed. Yet this array of taxes is only a partial list of the ways in which the Roman government raised tax revenue.

The major tax throughout Roman history was the tributun, which was a tax on material wealth, including land, slaves, and goods. This tax depended on a person&rsquos citizenship&mdashor lack of it. In theory, Roman citizens did not have to pay tributum, although during financial crises the state often imposed taxes on citizens. Citizens also paid tributum on land they owned outside of Italy. All noncitizens living in Roman territory paid tributum on all of their property.

The Roman government developed two important tools to support its system of taxation. The first was the census, which was a detailed list of the populations of each region that showed the status and wealth of every citizen taxpayer. The census not only identified citizens and noncitizens but also indicated other tax categories. All Jews, for example, paid a special tax, as did unmarried Egyptian women with property above a certain value. The state&rsquos second tool was the land survey. The Romans developed an elaborate system for measuring and mapping property. Their goal was to know exactly who owned each piece of land and who had the obligation to pay the taxes on it.

Like the Greek city-states, the Roman Republic* farmed out the chore of tax collecting. Wealthy people paid the state for contracts that allowed them to collect taxes and keep some of what they collected. Some tax collectors extracted huge profits from the taxpayers. In North Africa, for example, the state set a tax rate of 10 to 12 percent, but tax officials could legally collect as much as 33 percent from the people. Tax contracts were so costly, however, that few individuals could afford them. Investors formed associations to buy the contracts and collect the taxes. Tax collectors were generally greedy, often corrupt, and sometimes cruel. The emperors later replaced the contract system with a network of local and imperial* officials who worked for the state. They may have been as hard on the taxpayers as the private collectors had been, but they were more efficient and brought greater revenue to the imperial treasury. (See also Land: Ownership, Reform, and Use Money and Moneylending.)


How was Rome governed

Rome, in its earliest days, was governed by kings. However, Ancient Rome was to develop its own form of government that allowed the Romans to govern themselves.

In one sense, for a society that used its feared army to conquer other nations and reduced people to slavery, Rome was remarkably democratic when its own people were concerned. Citizens of Rome would gather at an assembly to elect their own officials. The chief officials of Rome were called consuls and there were two of them. The consuls governed for a year. If they did not live up to expectations, they could be voted out of office at the next election. Therefore, competence was rewarded and incompetence punished.

In addition to consuls, there were other elected officials – judges, magistrates and tax collectors being some of them. Ten “Tribunes of the People” were also elected to look after the poor of Rome.

The consuls could not be expected to know everything. They were advised by a Senate. This was made up of leading citizens of Rome and when they met, the Senate would discuss issues such as proposed new laws, financial issues affecting Rome etc. There were about 600 men in the Senate. They were usually from rich noble families and what they thought went a long way to determining Roman law.

Senators at work in Rome

When the Roman Empire started to grow and Rome became a more powerful city, a top government position became more and more attractive. Therefore, more and more ambitious men got involved in government. These men believed that Rome would be better served by one man governing the city and empire, as opposed to a group of elected officials. These sole rulers were called emperors. The story behind the first emperor involves one of Ancient Rome’s most famous stories.If elections were reasonably democratic, the role of the Senate was not. Most, if not all, decisions were in favour of the rich. Only the rich were in a position to use their wealth to influence decision-making within the Senate. However, very few people in lower social classes questioned this system. Many felt that the rich were there to do the work of the Senate and that it was not the place for those less well off. Another reason to favour the Senate was the simple fact that while it existed, Rome went on to become the greatest power in the Mediterranean and in Europe. From 509 BC to 27 BC, Rome was governed as a republic – this also coincided with Rome’s vast power. Many people logically believed – why change a good thing?

Julius Caesar wanted to control all of Rome and its empire. This would have led to the end of the system of government used in Ancient Rome for many years. When making a speech in the Senate to support his belief in a one-man rule, Caesar was murdered by Brutus who wanted to keep the old way going. This murder did not stop the problem, as Caesar’s supporters started a civil war to try to force their wishes onto Rome. The war was long and costly. Exhaustion led to many Romans supporting Augustus, Caesar’s nephew. To many people he seemed the obvious choice to end the chaos Rome had descended into. Augustus was seen as a strong ruler and he became emperor in 27 BC, bringing to an end the republic of Rome.


Government in Ancient Rome - History

After Tarquinius Superbus was thrown out of Rome in 509 BC, a king was not welcome. Now the Romans had to create a new form of government. That form of government is known as a republic, which means "public good." In a republic, people elect representatives to make decisions for them. The United States of America has a republic.

The ancient Roman republic had three branches of government. In the beginning, the legislative branch was the Senate, a group made up of 300 citizens from Rome's patrician class, the oldest and wealthiest families of Rome. It was the patricians, tired of obeying the king, who revolted and threw out Tarquinius Superbus. The Senate was the most powerful branch of the Roman republic, and senators held the position for life. The executive branch was made up of two consuls, elected yearly. These two consuls had almost kingly powers, and each could veto, or disapprove of the other's decision. It is quite possible that the idea of two consuls came from Sparta with its two kings. Praetors were part of the judicial branch, they were elected yearly by the people of Rome, and acted as judges.

In the beginning of the Roman republic, all officials came from the patrician, or wealthy class, this led to the plebeians, Rome's poor and middle class feeling left out. Who would care for the concerns of the plebeians? In 494 BC, an event occurred known as the "Struggle of the Orders." Most of the Roman army was made up of soldiers who came from the lower, plebeian class. The plebeians complained that they were serving as soldiers, but had very little say in the government. The plebeians refused to fight, and left to city to start their own settlement. It didn't take the patricians, Rome's wealthy, too long realize they needed the plebeians. Reforms in government followed. Tribunes were added to the legislative branch of government. Tribunes were elected yearly, and represented the concerns of the plebeians. In 451 BC, the plebeians pressured the senate to write down the laws of Rome, the result was the Twelve Tables, twelve stone tablets with written laws that were posted in the forum, or marketplace of Rome for all to see. Before the Twelve Tables, the patricians could change the laws at any time to their benefit. And then in 376 BC, the Licinian Law said that one consul must be elected from the plebeian class.

One of the disadvantages of a republic is that many officials are involved in decision-making. This can be troublesome when, at times, swift action is necessary. The Romans were prepared for this by granting one man total power in Rome in a time of crisis, called a dictator. The term of dictator was six-months. The dictator could make decisions on his own, without consulting the Senate. One early dictator of Rome was Cincinnatus. Cincinnatus was asked to be dictator in 458 BC, when Rome had an enemy army approaching. Cincinnatus was once a consul, but had retired to his farm in the country. Cincinnatus accepted the role of dictator, he led an army and defeated the foe, then he stepped down as dictator after only sixteen days. Cincinnatus could have gone the whole term of six months, which would have brought him great power, but Cincinnatus felt that the crisis was over, and he preferred to go back to his farming. Not all dictators of Rome would be as humble as Cincinnatus.

The Gauls, as the Romans called them, where a group of people living in what is now modern-day France. The Gauls, or Celts, were considered barbarians by the Romans because the Gauls lived in villages rather than building cities, and could not read or write. However, the Gauls were excellent craftsmen and courageous warriors. The Romans feared the Gauls. For whatever reason, in 450 BC, some of the Gauls moved across the Alps from their homeland and into Central Italy. As the Gauls moved through Etruria, the land of the Etruscans, many Etruscan cities were destroyed. In 386 BC, the Gauls attacked the city of Rome. The Romans were unable to defeat the Gauls in battle and the Gauls advanced on the city. Many Romans fled, but the senators and a few soldiers stayed on top of one of the hills of Rome. The Gauls then destroyed most of the city. The Gauls left Rome and settled permanently in the northern part of Italy, in an area called the Po River Valley. The Romans have two stories about the invasion of Rome by the Gauls. In one, the sacred geese living in a temple on top of the Capitaline Hill alerted the Romans on the hilltop about the advancing Gauls trying to sneak up the hill. In the second stories, Camillus, a Roman who had been asked to leave the city, returned with an army and drove out the Gauls. We are not sure if these stories are true, but one thing is for sure, the Romans were deeply affected by the invasion of the Gauls, and vowed that Rome would never be invaded again.

Because of the invasion of the Gauls, the Romans, now weakened, were attacked by the Latins. It took many years, but Rome defeated the Latins and other enemies. Whenever Rome won a war, they allowed the defeated people to rule themselves, as long as they were loyal Roman allies. The Roman army grew as it added allies of defeated people. Rome also granted Roman citizenship to defeated people. In this way Rome expanded its territory and influence beyond the city limits of Rome, creating a Roman condeferacy. Soon, no one group of people outside of the Roman confederacy could stand up to Rome.

In 295 BC, a great battle was fought between Rome and an alliance of the Gauls, Samnites (people from Central Italy) and the Etruscans, this was the turning point of the Third Samnite War. None of these groups of people were in the Roman confederacy, and they saw Roman expansion as a threat. At the Battle of Sentinum, Rome defeated the alliance. During battles, the consuls led Roman armies. The legendary Roman hero of this battle was Decius Mus, one of the Roman consuls at the battlefield. Decuis Mus had a dream the night before the battle that one of the consuls would die, but the Romans would win the battle. During the battle, the Romans were losing the battle, so Decuis Mus sacrificed himself by riding his horse directly into the enemy lines to inspire his troops. The move was successful, Decius Mus was pulled from his horse and killed, but the Romans rallied and won the battle. The Romans call this self-sacrifice devotio. After the Battle of Sentinum, only the Samnites and the Greeks in the southern part of Italy were free of Roman rule. Romans left garrisons within newly conquered territories, but also offered Roman citizenship to the conquered people. Newly built Roman roads connected Roman territory, and allowed Roman soldiers to move quickly from one area to another in Italy if trouble arose.

The Pyrrhic War (280-272 BC)

An interesting character in ancient times was King Pyrrhus of the Hellenistic kingdom of Epirus. As you have read in the chapter on Alexander the Great, Olympias, Alexander's mother, came from Epirus, a neighboring kingdom of Macedonia. In 307 BC, Pyrrhus, a second cousin of Alexander through Olympias, became the king of Epirus. Pyrrhus was impressed by the past conquests of Alexander, and felt that he too could carve out a vast empire. Therefore, when the Greek city-state of Taras (Tarentum in Latin) in Southern Italy asked Pyrrhus to send an army to defend them from the Romans, who had declared war on Taras in 280 BC, it was not surprising that Pyrrhus sailed across the Adriatic Sea with an army. The defense of Taras, and the possibility of defeating the Romans was just the adventure Pyrrhus was looking for.

Pyrrhus brought along his friend and trusted advisor, Cineas. It was Cineas who did most of the talking and negotiating with both friend and foe in Italy. Pyrrhus also brought with him 20 war elephants, originally from India. As this was the Hellenistic Age, Hellenistic armies brought elephants to battle against each other, but this would be the first time the Roman army had ever faced, or even seen these beasts. Pyrrhus carried the elephants over the Adriatic Sea from Epirus to Italy, and amazing feat, and the first amphibious attack by war elephants in history.

When Pyrrhus entered the city of Taras, he was not impressed with the people whom he came to defend. The people of Taras were lazy they over-ate and attended plays, while they expected Pyrrhus to fight for them. Pyrrhus closed the amphitheaters to stop the plays. Pyrrhus then forced the men of Taras to join the army, and he worked them into shape. Pyrrhus would not fight for lazy men who did not care to defend themselves.

The first time the Romans fought Pyrrhus was in 280 BC, at the Battle of Heraclea. The Roman horses were terrified of the elephants, and although Pyrrhus won the battle, he admired the strength and courage of the Roman army. "If only I had men like the Romans on my side, I could conquer the world," is what Pyrrhus was quoted as saying about the Roman army after the battle. Pyrrhus admired the organization of the Roman army, and the fact that all of the dead Romans had wounds in the front of their bodies, no Romans had fled the battlefield that day.

After the Battle of Heraclea, Pyrrhus sent Cineas to Rome with an offer of peace. The terms were that Rome must end the war with Taras and allow Pyrrhus' army to move about Italy. The Roman Senate seemed to agree until Appius Claudius, an old Roman who had once been a senator, but stepped down due to his age and blindness, stood up and gave a great speech that convinced the Romans to continue the fight.

The Romans sent Fabricius, an honest but poor man, to Pyrrhus' camp to try to convince Pyrrhus to release the Roman prisoners of war captured at Heraclea. Pyrrhus tested Fabricius first by trying to bribe him with gold, and next by trying to scare him with an elephant, but Fabricius, though poor, would not take the gold, and was unafraid of the beast. Pyrrhus, impressed by Fabricius, asked Fabricius to join his army Fabricius refused. Later, when Fabricius was elected consul, Pyrrhus' doctor sent Fabricius a letter saying that, for a fee, he would poison the king. Fabricius sent a letter to Pyrrhus telling him about his doctor. Pyrrhus punished the doctor, and allowed all of the Roman prisoners of war to return home.

The following year in 279 BC, the Romans fought Pyrrhus again at Asculum. The Romans tried to handle the elephant attack, but after a long battle, Pyrrhus won again, though he had lost many men and was wounded himself in the battle. After one of this commanders congratulated him on the victory, Pyrrhus said, "Another victory like this, and I will be totally ruined!" To this day we call any victory at a high cost a Pyrrhic victory, named after the king of Epirus. Pyrrhus called the Roman army a hydra, because, though they lost many men in battle, they could always find replacements. Pyrrhus' army, on the other hand was running out of men, and was finding it difficult to replace his losses.

Frustrated with his war with the Romans, Pyrrhus turned his attention to the nearby island of Sicily, a land he wished to conquer. Leaving a garrision behind in Taras, Pyrrhus crossed the Straits of Messina, into Sicily in 279 BC. The City of Syracuse on Sicily asked Pyrrhus to drive out the Carthaginians, who also settled in Sicily. Carthage was an ancient Phoenician settlement in Africa, very close to Sicily. The Mamertines,mercenary fighters, hired by the king of Syracuse, took over a whole city in the north-east corner of Sicily, and were also a threat to Syracuse. Upon his arrival, Pyrrhus was proclaimed the King of Sicily.

Pyrrhus fought both the Carthaginians and the Mamertines, but again became frustrated and returned back to Italy to fight the Romans. One great victory for Pyrrhus in Sicily was the battle of Eryx, where he took over the Carthaginian city. When Pyrrhus left Sicily, he said, "What a battlefield I leave for Rome and Carthage," predicting that Rome and Carthage would go to war over the possession of the island.

In 275 BC, Pyrrhus fought the Romans for the third time at Beneventum. This was a Roman victory. The Romans captured some of Pyrrhus' elephants and riders, and paraded them through the streets of Rome. Pyrrhus left Italy with very little of his original army. In 272 BC, Rome defeated Taras, adding southern Italy to its growing empire. In that same year, Pyrrhus was killed in the streets of Argos, trying to add southern Greece to his territory.

Rome was now the master of Italy and had stood up to a Hellenistic army considered one of the best in the ancient world. But would Pyrrhus' prediction of Rome and Carthage fighting over Sicily come true? We will find out in the next online textbook page.


Antieke Rome

Ancient Rome was the largest city in the then known world. It is thought that Rome’s population was over 1 million people when the city was at the height of its power. From Rome, the heart of government beat military decisions were taken and the vast wealth Rome earned was invested in a series of magnificent buildings.

To start with, many buildings in Rome were built around the forum. Traditionally, this had been a market place and an area where people met. Therefore, it would have been a natural place to put government buildings, temples and palaces. As Rome grew, however, the forum became more and more crowded. Therefore, a second city centre was planned and built some distance from the forum but still in Rome itself.

Rome itself had some magnificent buildings erected within the city. Some exist to this day, all be it in a less wonderful state. The most famous is probably the Colosseum where thousands of Roman citizens would gather for their entertainment – be it animals fighting or gladiators etc. Such grand buildings were constructed so that emperors would be remembered by future generations. The Colosseum was built on the orders of the Emperor Vespasian and completed when the Emperor Titus was in power. The building was finally completed in AD 80.

Rome also had numerous triumphal arches constructed throughout the city to celebrate military victories. These served a dual purpose. First, they were a celebration of the military victories the Romans had and, second, they were a reminder to the people of Rome of how powerful the army was.

As with any city, Rome had its rich and poor areas. The poor could only afford to live in wooden houses which were a serious fire risk in a hot country like Italy. On a number of occasions, Rome suffered severe damage as a result of fires starting in the city’s slums. The slums were also dangerous places to go to if you had any money as crime was very common. The Emperor Augustus created a police force to patrol the city but the poor areas remained all but untamed. However, for the influential people of Rome, this was of little importance as they never visited such areas.


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