Geskiedenis Podcasts

Die Wit Weermag

Die Wit Weermag

Na die omverwerping van die Voorlopige Regering op 7 November 1917, het die All-Russian Congress of Soviets vergader en die mag aan die Sowjetraad van Volkskommissarisse oorhandig. Vladimir Lenin is tot voorsitter verkies en ander aanstellings sluit in vooraanstaande bolsjewiste soos Leon Trotsky (Buitelandse Sake) Alexei Rykov (Binnelandse Sake), Anatoli Lunacharsky (Onderwys) en Joseph Stalin (Nasionaliteite).

Alexander Kerenski, wat daarin kon slaag om uit arrestasie te ontsnap, het getroue troepe van die Noordfront bymekaargemaak. Onder leiding van generaal Krasnov is die Kosakke deur die Bolsjewistiese magte in Pulkova verslaan. Teen Desember 1917 was Sentraal -Rusland en Siberië onder die beheer van Lenin se regering.

Generaal Lavr Kornilov het nou 'n vrywillige weermag georganiseer en in Januarie 1918 het sy magte 3 000 man getel. In die komende maande het ander groepe wat die Bolsjewistiese regering gekant was, by die stryd aangesluit. Uiteindelik het hierdie soldate bekend gestaan ​​as die Blankes.

Diegene wat by die Wit Leër aangesluit het, was onder meer die Kadette, wat die oorlog teen die Sentrale Magte wou voortsit. Sommige mensjewiste en sosialistiese revolusionêre wat gekant was teen die diktatoriale magte van die nuwe regime, het ook by die verset aangesluit. Ander wat aangesluit het, sluit in grondeienaars wat hul boedels verloor het, fabriekseienaars wat hul eiendom genasionaliseer het, toegewyde lede van die Russies -Ortodokse Kerk wat beswaar maak teen die regering se ateïsme en royaliste wat die monargie wou herstel.

Die Wit Leër het aanvanklik sukses behaal in die Oekraïne, waar die Bolsjewiste ongewild was. Die belangrikste weerstand was Nestor Makhno, die leier van 'n anargistiese leër in die gebied. Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko, het die Rooi Leër gelei en geleidelik het pro-Bolsjewiste beheer oor die Oekraïne geneem. Teen Februarie 1918 het die Blankes geen groot gebiede in Rusland gehad nie.

Die grootste bedreiging vir die Bolsjewiste was die Duitse leër wat op pad was na Petrograd. Op 3 Maart 1918 het Vladimir Lenin sy span onderhandelaars beveel om die Brest-Litovsk-verdrag te onderteken. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die Russe die Oekraïne, Finland, die Baltiese provinsies, die Kaukasus en Pole moes oorgee.

Hierdie besluit het die vyandigheid in Rusland teenoor die Bolsjewiste verhoog. In Mei 1918 het die Tsjeggo -Slowaakse korps in opstand gekom nadat hulle deur die plaaslike Rooi Wagte sleg behandel is. In die volgende vier maande het die Tsjeggiese legioen 'n groot stuk grond oos van die Wolga ingeneem. Die Wit Leër het ook gevegte in Simbirsk en Kazan gewen.

Vladimir Lenin het Leon Trotsky aangestel as kommissaris van oorlog en is gestuur om die Rooi Leër in die Wolga byeen te bring. Trotsky was 'n uitstaande militêre bevelvoerder en Kazan en Simbirsk is in September 1918 herower. Die volgende maand het hy Samara ingeneem, maar die Wit leër het wel vordering gemaak in die suide toe generaal Anton Denikin beheer oor die Kuban -streek neem en generaal Peter Wrangel begin om die Volga op te styg.

Die grootste bedreiging vir die Bolsjewistiese regering kom van generaal Nikolai Yudenich. In Oktober 1918 verower hy Gatchina, slegs 50 kilometer van Petrograd. Leon Trotsky het aangekom om die verdediging van die hoofstad te rig. Rooi Garde -eenhede is onder industriële werkers gestig en die spoornetwerk is gebruik om troepe uit Moskou te bring. In die minderheid het Yudenich sy manne beveel om terug te trek en na Estland gegaan.

Admiraal Alexander Kolchak het ook 'n anit-Bolsjewistiese militêre diktatuur by Omsk in die ooste van Siberië gestig. Om die Wit Weermag te help, is troepe uit Brittanje, Frankryk, Japan en die Verenigde State na Rusland gestuur. Teen Desember 1918 was daar 200 000 buitelandse soldate wat die anti-Bolsjewistiese magte ondersteun het.

Die Rooi Leër het aanhou groei en het nou meer as 500 000 soldate in sy geledere. Dit het meer as 40 000 offisiere ingesluit wat onder Nicholas II gedien het. Dit was 'n ongewilde besluit met baie Bolsjewiste wat gevrees het dat hulle hul troepe sou verraai as hulle die geleentheid sou kry. Trotsky het hierdie probleem probeer oorkom deur 'n streng stelsel van straf op te lê vir diegene wat as ontrou beskou word.

In Maart 1919 verower Alexander Kolchak Ufa en bedreig Kazan en Samara. Onder leiding van Mikhail Frunze en die Rooi Leër het teruggeveg en in November 1919 het hulle Omsk binnegekom. Kolchak het ooswaarts gevlug, maar hy is gevang deur die Tsjegge wat hom aan die Bolsjewiste oorgegee het. Kolchak is op 7 Februarie 1920 deur die vuurpeloton geskiet.

Generaal Mikhail Frunze het Turkestan van alle anti-Bolsjewistiese magte verwyder. Generaal Anton Denikin en sy leër het na die Krim teruggetrek. Hy het 'n kort standpunt in Rostov gemaak voordat hy weer teruggetrek het na Novorossiysk aan die Swart See. In April 1920 besluit hy om Rusland te verlaat en word vervang deur generaal Peter Wrangel.

In Junie het Wrangel se magte uit die Krim uitgebreek, maar hy kon nie veel indruk maak op generaal Mikhail Frunze en die Rooi Leër nie en in November verlaat die oorblywende lede van die Wit Leër Rusland.

Die Wit -ramp was die gevolg van twee kardinale foute: hul gebrek aan intelligensie en moed om agrariese hervormings uit te voer in die gebiede wat hulle uit die rewolusie bewerkstellig het, en dat hulle oral die ou drie -eenheid van generaals, hoë predikante en eienaars heringestel het.


Geskiedenis van die Withuis se militêre kantoor

Militêre verteenwoordiging in die Withuis het sy oorsprong by General Washington's Aide-de-Camp, wie se rol as Persoonlike Hulp aan die President voortgesit is en tans deur die Militêre Hulpverleners aan die President vervul word. Hierdie rolle bevat 'n wye verskeidenheid funksies, van kritieke militêre bevel- en beheermissies tot seremoniële pligte tydens presidensiële geleenthede.

Camp David is in 1942 gestig om die president 'n veilige en ontspannende plek weg van die Withuis te bied. Dieselfde jaar is die Withuis se kommunikasie -agentskap gestig om veilige, veilige en betroubare kommunikasie vir die president te verseker.

Twee jaar later het president Franklin D. Roosevelt 'n beroep op die oprigting van die presidensiële loodskantoor, in 2001 hernoem tot die Presidensiële Airlift -groep, gedoen om lugvervoer aan die president en sy personeel te verskaf.

Die Withuis se mediese eenheid is in 1945 in die West Wing gestig. Die White House Mess is in 1951 gestig en word sedertdien deur die vloot bestuur.

Marine Helicopter Squadron One (HMX-1) is in 1957 geskep toe president Dwight D. Eisenhower in Newport, Rhode Island, vakansie gehou het en op kort kennisgewing na die Withuis moes terugkeer. Hy vlieg die eerste gedeelte van die reis aan boord van HMX-1.

Die Withuis Garage is geskep deur 'n kongreswet in 1909. Deur die jare is dit omskep in 'n militêre organisasie en word dit in 1963 'n gewone eenheid genaamd die U.S. Army Transportation Agency (White House), en hernoem die White House Transportation Agency.

Deur die jare het die Withuis se militêre kantoor aangepas by die ontwikkelende rol van die president in die Amerikaanse samelewing en die diens van die hoogste gehalte gelewer om aan die vereistes van die opperbevelhebber te voldoen.


Militêre weermag lappies Geskiedenis



1ste weermag

Die eerste Amerikaanse weermag is in La Ferte-sous-Jouarre, Frankryk, in Augustus 1918 georganiseer vir die St.-Mihiel-offensief, onder bevel van generaal John J. Pershing. Rooi en wit is die kleure van onderskeidende vlae vir leërs, en die swart letter & quotA, & quot dui op weermag.

Veldtogte: Eerste Wêreldoorlog (Lorraine 1918, St.-Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne), Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Normandië, Noord-Frankryk, Rynland, Ardennes-Alsace, Sentraal-Europa).


Gedra deur: 11 Desember 1918 - 1 Januarie 1966 en van 1 Junie 1983 - September 1995.

Die Tweede Weermag van die Verenigde State is in September 1918 in Toul, Meurthe-et-Mosellle, Frankryk, georganiseer. Dit was 'n opleidingsleër tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, en deur sy pogings is sewe-en-vyftig uiters opgeleide afdelings in die stryd gewerp. Rooi en wit is die kleure van onderskeidende vlae vir leërs, terwyl die syfer & quot2 & quot die benaming van die eenheid aandui.


3de leër

Die Derde Amerikaanse weermag is aanvanklik in November 1918 georganiseer in Ligny-en-Barrois, Frankryk, onder bevel van generaal-majoor JT Dickman, met die doel om na Duitsland te vorder en die brughoof by Coblenz te beset tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. die mooiste oomblikke het gekom in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog toe die Derde Leër onder bevel van generaal George Patton in negentien uur honderd -en -vyftig myl gejaag het om die beleërde 101ste lugafdeling tydens die Slag van die Bulge te verlig. Die twee grense van die skyf verwys na die benaming van die eenheid, en die wit letter & quotA & quot dui op weermag. Die & quotA & quot is ook binne -in & quotO, wat staan ​​vir die Army of Occupation, Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

Veldtogte: Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Normandië, Noord-Frankryk, Rynland, Ardennes-Elsas, Sentraal-Europa).



4de leër

Die Vierde Amerikaanse weermag is in Augustus 1932 in Omaha, Nebraska, geaktiveer. As oefenleër het hy ongeveer die helfte van die gevegstroepe voorberei en toegerus tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Die klawerblaar op die kenteken dui die numeriese benaming van die leër aan, terwyl die kleure dié is wat tradisioneel met leërs geassosieer word.



5de leër vroeg

Gedra deur: 8 September 1926 - 2 April 1943.

Beide die vyfhoekige ontwerp en vyf rooi sterre dui die numeriese benaming van die eenheid aan.



5de leër

Die eerste ontwerp van die vyfde leër is laat vaar op versoek van kommandant -generaal Mark Clark, wat 'n pleister wou hê wat meer verteenwoordigend was van die gebied waarin die vyfde gevorm is. Die tweede ontwerp is 'n omskrewe figuur van 'n moskee, verteenwoordigend van Marokko, Noord-Afrika, waar die weermag in Januarie 1943 geaktiveer is. Die letter & quotA & quot dui op weermag. Van Operation Avalanche - die inval in Italië by die Golf van Salerno - tot die laaste stoot oor die Po -vallei, het die Vyfde Leër 604 aaneenlopende gevegsdae onderneem.

Veldtogte: Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Napels-Foggia, Anzio, Rome-Arno, Noord-Apennyne, Po-vallei).



6de leër

Gedra deur: 26 Januarie 1927 - 10 Januarie 1945.

Beide die sespuntige ster en die seskantige vorm van die kol verwys na die benaming van die eenheid. Die kleure rooi en wit verteenwoordig die onderskeidende vlae vir veldleërs.



6de leër

Die sesde Amerikaanse weermag is in Januarie 1943 in Fort Sam Houston, Texas, geaktiveer. Onder ander heldhaftige prestasies word dit toegeskryf aan die bevryding van Manila ten koste van meer as sewe en dertigduisend ongevalle. Die sespuntige ster verwys na die getal ses, en die rooi letter & quotA & quot dui op weermag.

Veldtogte: Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Nieu -Guinee, Bismarck -argipel, Leyte, Luzon).

Versierings: Verdienstelike lof van die eenheid (streamer geborduur Stille Oseaan -teater), Filippynse presidensiële eenheidsitaat (streamer geborduur 17 Oktober 1944 tot Julie 1945.


7de leër

Die sewende Amerikaanse weermag is in Julie 1943 aan die kus van Sicilië op see geaktiveer. By die landing in die suide van Sicilië het dit die eerste veldleër geword wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gevegte beleef het. Die Sewende Leër het aan Operasie Anvil (later Operasie Dragoon) deelgeneem en gehelp om Suid -Frankryk te bevry. Die piramidale figuur omsluit die letter & quotA & quot, wat die eerste letter van die woord & quotarmy voorstel, & quot, terwyl die sewe stappe aan elke kant die numeriese benaming van die eenheid aandui. Rooi (artillerie), blou (infanterie) en geel (wapenrusting) verteenwoordig die gevegstakke wat 'n veldleër vorm.

Veldtogte: Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Sicilië, Rome-Arno, Suid-Frankryk, Rynland, Ardennen-Elsas, Sentraal-Europa).


8ste leër

Die Agtste Amerikaanse weermag is in Junie 1944 in Memphis, Tennessee, geaktiveer. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die "Amfibiese Agtste" twee-en-vyftig strandaanvalle op eilande regoor die Stille Oseaan uitgevoer, elkeen 'n D-dag in miniatuur. Die agthoek verteenwoordig die numeriese benaming van die leër en is in die kleure van onderskeidende vlae vir leërs.

Veldtogte: Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Leyte, Luzon, Nieu-Guinee, Suid-Filippyne), Koreaanse Oorlog (VN se verdediging, VN-offensief, CCF-ingryping, Eerste VN-teenoffensief, VN-somer-val-offensief, Tweede Winter, Somer-herfs 1952, Derde Winter, Somer 1953 ).

Versierings: Filippynse Presidensiële Eenheid Citation (streamer geborduur 17 Oktober 1944 - 4 Julie 1945), Presidensiële eenheid van die Republiek van Korea (streamer geborduur Korea 1950), Presidensiële eenheid van die Republiek van Korea (streamer geborduur Korea 1950 - 1951), Presidensiële eenheid van die Republiek van Korea (streamer geborduur Korea 1952 - 1953).



9de leër

Gedra deur: 21 September 1944 - Oktober 1945.

Die negende Amerikaanse weermag is in April 1944 in Fort Sam Houston, Texas, georganiseer. Die negende het die onderskeid om die eerste geallieerde leër te wees wat die Elbe -rivier oorgesteek het en sou die eerste in Berlyn gewees het as die bevele wat deur die hoër bevel uitgereik is, nie sou ophou nie. Rooi en wit is kleure wat verband hou met leërs. Die negekantige figuur dui die numeriese benaming van die organisasie aan. Die wit letter & quotA & quot verteenwoordig die eerste letter van die woord & quotarmy. & Quot

Veldtogte: Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Noord -Frankryk, Rynland, Sentraal -Europa).


10de leër

Gedra deur: 29 Augustus 1944 - 15 Oktober 1945.

Die tiende Amerikaanse weermag is in Junie 1944 in Fort Sam Houston, Texas, georganiseer. Hierdie leër is aangekla van die beplanning en uitvoering van die inval van die Ryukyus -eilandgroep. Die doelwit is bereik ten spyte van groot verliese teen 'n selfmoordvyand. Die samestelling van die ontwerp verwys na die Romeinse syfer tien, wat die tiende leër aandui.

Veldtogte: Tweede Wêreldoorlog (Ryukyus).


14de leër

Hierdie leër is nooit geaktiveer nie. Die vorm van die pleister in die vorm van 'n eikel dui op sterkte. Die & quotA & quot verteenwoordig & quotarmy. & Quot; Die kleure rooi en wit is kleure van weermag -onderskeidende vlae. Die pleister is ontwerp as deel van Operation Fortitude.



15de leër

Gedra deur: 23 Oktober 1944 - 31 Januarie 1946.

Die vyftiende Amerikaanse weermag is in Augustus 1944 in Fort Sam Houston, Texas, georganiseer en het in Europa aangekom toe Nazi -Duitsland op die punt was om in duie te stort. Die vyftiende was betrokke by die opruiming van die oorblywende sakke van weerstand in die Lorient- en St. Nazaire -gebiede van Frankryk. Rooi en wit is die kleure van onderskeidende vlae vir leërs. Die verdeling per saltire en die sye van die vyfhoek dui op die numeriese benaming van die organisasie, terwyl die letter & quotA & quot weermag aandui.


ROK Army History

Koreane wat militêre dienste in die buiteland beleef het, het op 15 Augustus 1945 met die onafhanklikheid van Korea van Japan na Korea teruggekeer. Nadat hulle gedink het oor die pynlike ervarings van die verlede, het hulle 'n groep vir die stigting van die gewapende magte georganiseer.

Aan die ander kant het 'n Amerikaanse militêre regering sy wette op 13 November 1945 ingestel en ingevolge die BAMBOO -plan het die Amerikaanse militêre regering die groep georganiseer om lede in die weermag op te neem deur 'n militêre korps van 25 000 soldate te stig. Die Amerikaanse militêre regering het die Militêre Engelse Akademie op 5 Desember 1945 gestig om kadette vir die weermag op te lei. Die Amerikaanse militêre regering het jong mans gekies wat militêre ervarings in Japan, Mantsjoerije en China gehad het. 110 militêre kadette is in gebruik geneem nadat hulle die basiese Engelse opleiding voltooi het. Hierdie beamptes was op 15 Januarie 1946 stigters van die National Defense Force in Taenung, Kyunggi Province.

Die ROK-leër het sy eerste nasionale veiligheidsregiment in Tae-neung, Seoul, in Januarie 1946 gestig en 'n nasionale veiligheidsopdrag is op 1 Februarie 1946 in Seoul gestig. Teen November 1946 het ROKA 2de gestig

9de regimente in elke provinsie.

In Mei 1946 is die Southern Cho-sun National Defense Security Military Academy in Tae-neung, Seoul, gestig en het aanvanklik begin om militêre offisiere op te lei deur 88 infanteriekadette te aanvaar.

Die ROK het op 29 Maart 1946 die naam van sy Nasionale Verdedigingskommando verander na die Ministerie van Nasionale Verdediging. Op 15 Junie 1946 is dit weer hernoem na Hoofkommando. Die nasionale veiligheidsregimente is herdoop na die Southern Cho-sun Security Force, en die National Defense Security Military Academy is ook verander na die Southern Cho-sun Security Military Academy. Na die uiteensetting van die Amerikaanse? Rusland-konferensie, het die Cho-sun-veiligheidsmag in 1948 uitgebrei na 5 brigades en 15 regimente (ongeveer 50 000 soldate).

Wat 'n militêre opvoedingsfasiliteit betref, is die Kommunikasie -akademie gestig nadat die Security Military Academy en later, Ordnance, Engineers, Military Police, Intelligence, Artillery, Staff, Infantry, Chirurg, Accountant, Logistics, Military Music Academies, gestig is. ROKA het ook probeer om die kwaliteit van sy offisierskorps te verbeter deur studente na die VSA te stuur. Teen die einde van die vyftigerjare is 10 000 studente na Amerikaanse militêre skole gestuur.

Namate die amptelike ROK-regering en sy nasionale weermag op 15 Augustus 1948 gestig is, is die Cho-sun-veiligheidsmag geïntegreer met die nasionale weermag. Baie ervare militêre bejaardes van die ROK Independence Force, Japanese Force, Manchurian Force en burgerlikes uit Noord- en Suid -Korea het by die ROK National Armed Force aangesluit.

In November 1946 het die ROK -kongres 'n nuwe wet aangeneem wat verband hou met die National Armed Force -organisasie. Op 15 Desember 1948 is die stafhoof van die nasionale weermag dus aan die MND en die personeelhoof en die onderhoof van die personeel by ROKA se hoofkwartiere toegewys. Die eerste stafhoof van ROKA was brigadier-genl Lee, Eung-joon en die eerste vise-stafhoof was kolonel Jung, Yil-gwon.

In Desember 1948 is 'n tak van diensstelsel ingestel. ROKA was verdeel in Infanterie? Armor? Kommunikasie? Lugvaart? Logistiek? Rekenmeester? Inspekteur? Chirurg? Militêre polisietakke en het die algemene personeelstelsel uitgevaardig. In Mei 1949 het die personeelhoofstelsel in die MND geëindig en die minister van nasionale verdediging was in beheer van ROK Army en Navy.

ROKA bevorder vorige brigades tot afdelings en stig ook 7de en 8ste afdelings. ROKA het 'n streeksleërbevel en 'n nasionale verdedigingsleër georganiseer om voldoende reserwemagte te verseker. Gevolglik het ROKA tot aan die begin van die Koreaanse oorlog op 25 Junie 1950 altesaam 8 afdelings en 95 000 soldate gehad.

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Gedurende die beginfases van ROKA het baie kommuniste in ROKA -magte geïnfiltreer om kommunisme te plant en onluste op te wek met behulp van verskillende valse propaganda en planne.

Vanaf die voorval van 3 April op die eiland Je-ju in 1948 het hierdie kommuniste onluste gelei, soos die voorval op 19 Oktober in Yeo-su Sun-chon en die 6de regimentvoorval in Dae-gu. Dus, sonder genoeg tyd om heeltemal self te organiseer, het ROKA 'n Slagkommando gestig en missies uitgevoer om hierdie onluste te onderdruk. ROKA het ook moeite gedoen om kommuniste van binne af te verwyder. As gevolg hiervan het ROKA 1300 kommuniste gearresteer deur middel van vier herhalings van selfinspeksieproses vanaf Oktober 1948 tot die uitbreek van die Koreaanse Oorlog.

Voor die uitbreek van die Koreaanse Oorlog het Noord-Korea guerrillas deur die Oossee en die Tae-Baekberge na Suid-Korea gestuur sodat hulle by die kommuniste in Ji-ri, Oh-dae, Tae-baek-gebergte kon aansluit en verwarring in die agterste gebiede kon veroorsaak . Sedert vroeg in 1950 het Noord -Korea begin om militêre konfrontasies langs die 38ste parallel aan te pak.

Hiervoor het ROKA 'n Vloeiende Kommando ingestel teen die kommuniste in Tae-baek, Ji-ri-gebergte en die provinsie Ho-nam om anti-kommunistiese operasies uit te voer. Voordat ROKA anti-kommunistiese operasies kon voltooi, het die Koreaanse Oorlog begin met 'n skielike inval deur die Noorde.

In die oggend van 25 Junie 1950 het 200 000 soldate uit Noord -Korea onder leiding van Russiese tenks die 38ste parallel oorgesteek en Suid -Korea binnegeval. In baie kort ure het hulle ons verdedigingslinies oorgesteek en op 28 Junie om 01:00, wat slegs 3 dae na die uitbraak was, in Seoul ingedring. ROKA kon net terugtrek totdat hulle die suidelike grens van die Han -rivier bereik het. ROKA vestig hulle daar en hergroepeer sy magte.

Die Amerikaanse weermagkommando is op 27 Junie in Su-won gevestig en generaal McArthur self het die strydlyne op 29 Junie geïnspekteer. Die VN-geallieerde bevel is amptelik in Tokio gestig. Die 24ste afdeling van die Amerikaanse weermag is dringend na Korea gestuur en ROK? US se gesamentlike operasies het op die Keum-kang-verdedigingslyn begin. Die belangrikste magte van die vyand val egter aan langs die Kyung-bu-spoorlyn. Noord-Koreaanse magte het op 15 Julie die Keum-kang-verdedigingslinie verbygesteek en op 20 Julie val Dae-jon in hul hande. Teen hierdie tyd het die 25ste afdeling van die Amerikaanse weermag en die 1ste Amerikaanse kavaleriedivisie, saam met ROKA en ROK? US se gesamentlike magte, 'n sterk verdedigingslinie langs die Nak-dong-rivier gevorm. Hulle het geveg teen die vyand se kragtige vernietigende aanvalle en het die vyand verhinder om die verdedigingslinie te verbygaan.

Ten tyde van die In-cheon Amfibiese operasie, het ROKA die vyand langs die Nak-dong-rivier begin teenaanval. Op 28 September, die hoofstad van ROK, is Seoul in die hande van ROKA teruggegee. Op 1 Oktober het ROKA noordwaarts begin marsjeer en beslag gelê op Won-san, Ham-heung en Pyung-yang onderskeidelik op 10, 17, 19 Oktober. ROKA vorder op 24 November na Hyesanjin naby die nasionale grens van Noord -Korea en Mantsjoerije.

Ongelukkig moes ROKA spoedig terugtrek na die suide omdat onverwagte Chinese magte die Noord -Koreaanse magte versterk het. In Januarie 1951 is 'n nuwe verdedigingslinie langs Pyung-taek, Won-ju, Je-chun, Yung-wol en Sam-chuk gevorm en ROKA het die vyandelike magte teenaanval en noordwaarts gegaan.

ROKA herower Seoul op 14 Maart 1951. Hoewel ROKA in staat was om noordwaarts te marsjeer om die 38ste parallel te verbygaan, het dit gestop by die lyn wat Gae-sung, Chul-won, Keum-sung en Go-sung verbind het, want daar het op Julie 'n wapenstilstand begin 10, 1951. Gevolglik was gevegte beperk tot die gebiede langs die 38ste parallel.

Daarna was die karakter van die Koreaanse Oorlog hoofsaaklik die verkryging van die hoë lande soos die hoofstad, Baek-ma, sluipskuttersberg, ens. Die Koreaanse Oorlog, wat 'n bloedige oorlog tussen een nasie was, was uiteindelik verby toe die Koreaanse Oorlog -wapenstilstand -ooreenkoms op 27 Julie 1953 bereik is.

Tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog het ROKA ongeveer 257,000 soldate opgeoffer, waaronder 29 % van die soldate tydens die koms van die ROK National Armed Force vir nasionale veiligheid. ROKA was tydens die oorlog die gewapende mag van die amptelike regering van die ROK, veral toe 4 miljoen Noord -Koreane (wat die helfte van die totale aantal Noord -Koreaanse burgers was) ROKA -soldate gevolg het toe hulle suid van die Chinese magte teruggetrek het.

Toe die Chinese magte mensegolftaktieke uitvoer, hoewel dit moeilik was, beskerm ROKA miljoene Noord -Koreane tydens hul terugtog. ROKA het 10 000 Noord-Koreane van die Heung-nam-pier en 10 000 van die Sung-jin-pierboord op die ROKA-vervoerskepe verhuur. Ook, vanaf die Baek-ryung- en Myung-chun-eilande wat die ROK Navy verkry het, het ROKA 60 000 burgerlikes in die Wes-seegebied en duisende burgerlikes in die Oossee-gebied gered. Deur hierdie reddingsoperasies vir vlugtelinge was ROKA die 'Nasionale Weermag'.

ROKA het tydens die Koreaanse Oorlog baie aandag gegee aan sy uitbreiding in omvang. Aan die begin van die oorlog het ROKA slegs 8 afdelings gehad. Ten tyde van die wapenstilstand in die Koreaanse oorlog, het die omvang daarvan uitgebrei tot 3 korps, 18 afdelings en 600 000 soldate.

Na die wapenstilstand het ROKA verspreide magte herrangskik en in 5 korps en 20 afdelings georganiseer. Vir meer doeltreffendheid binne die bevelstelsel het ROKA 1st Field Army, 2nd Field Army & Training HQ's gestig om homself in 3 funksies te verdeel: Operasies, Logistiek en Opleiding. Wat modernisering betref, werk ROKA aan organisasie, eenwording en verdeling van magte, gevolg deur die verkryging van nuwe toerusting.

Op 1 Januarie 1959 verander ROKA van Direct ROKA HQs Control System na Vice Staff Staff System om personeel se take deur verskillende projekte te beveel. In Oktober 1959 het administratiewe en tegniese skole, opleidingsentrum vir vroue -weermagte, ens. (Behalwe die gevegstak), wat oorspronklik ondergeskiktes was van opleidingskwartiere, die direkte ondergeskiktes van ROKA geword. Dit het die hoofde van elke tak verantwoordelik gemaak vir opvoeding/opleiding in elke tak, en daarom is meer geskikte onderrig/opleiding aan takke gegee.

In Mei 1960 is opleidingshoofde gesluit en op 1 Junie is opleidingskommando vir gevegstak op die Sang-moo-basis gestig onder bevel van die 2de veldleër. Infanterie-, artillerie-, wapenrusting, chemiese, lugvaartskole is toegewys aan die opleidingsbevel.

Na 1961 het ROKA hoofsaaklik aandag gegee aan die verbetering en instandhouding van kragkrag. In September 1964, toe die situasie in Viëtnam vererger het, het ROKA 'n mediese mag en 'n Taekwon-do (Koreaanse tradisionele martialarts) instruksiemag na Vietnam gestuur. In Februarie 1965 is ingenieurs en vervoermagte na Viëtnam gestuur. Die magte het die naam "Duiftroepe" gekry. ROKA het ook ROK Military Support Group in Saigon gestig.

In Oktober 1965 stuur ROKA Capital Division (Brave Tiger Division) as 'n gevegseenheid na Vietnam, en in September 1966 is die 9de Division (White Horse Division) ook gestuur. 'N Totaal van 50 000 ROKA -soldate is gedurende hierdie tydperk na Viëtnam gestuur en die ROK Militêre Ondersteuningsgroep het die naam ROKA Command van Viëtnam gekry.

Nie net omdat hierdie afdelings in Viëtnam die eerste buitelandse operasie van ROK was nie, maar ook die verantwoordelikheid van die geallieerde verdedigingslinie inspirerend was, het hierdie ervarings baie vir ROKA beteken, hoewel 4000 ROKA -soldate gedurende hierdie tydperk opgeoffer is.

In 1965 het ROKA die 222ste Air-Defense Artillery Force (genaamd '' NIKE 'Guided Missile Forces') gestig wat in staat was tot moderne lugverdedigingsfunksies. In 1966 stig ROKA Troop Information & Education Branch om by te dra tot die verbetering van veggees en organiseer die 333ste Air-Defense Artillery Force (genaamd die 'Hawk' Guidance Missile Battalion). In 1967 het ROKA 'n 'Mikrogolf' -stelsel ingestel om militêre kommunikasie te moderniseer.

Op 21 Januarie 1968 het Noord -Korea 'n groep spesiale oorlogsmag gestuur om die Blou Huis (die presidensiële herehuis) aan te val. In April is ROK Homeland Reserves gestig namate Noord -Koreaanse soldate meer gereeld in Suid -Korea binnegedring het. Binne ROKA -hoofkwartiere is die reserwe -kommando gestig. Die Oossee -veiligheidsbevel en die 1st & 2nd Ranger Brigades is in 1969 gestig.

Die 1970's was 'n baie opwindende tydperk. Vroeg in 1971 is die 7de afdeling van die Amerikaanse leër in Korea van die wapenstilstandlyn af weggestuur en het ROKA ten volle verantwoordelik geword vir die lyn. In September van dieselfde jaar is 'n Beplanningsvergadering vir die Suid -Noord -Rooi Kruis -konferensie gehou, en die Rooikruis -konferensie en die Suid -Noord -Koreaanse Beheerkomitee -konferensie wat oor die verdrag van 4 Julie bespreek is.

Alhoewel daar kommunikasie tussen twee Korea was, het Noord -Korea ondergrondse tonnels gemaak om Suid -Korea binne te val. Suid -Korea het die eerste tonnel in 1974 gevind, en in '75, '78 en '90 het die tweede, derde en vierde tonnel onderskeidelik gevind. Dit het die ROK en sy mense geskok. Om dit nog erger te maak, het Noord -Koreane op 18 Augustus 1976 'n voorval begin met die naam "Bloody Axe Murder at PanMoonJum" en dit het amper gelei tot 'n ander Koreaanse Oorlog.

ROKA het sedert die vroeë sewentigerjare die behoefte gehad aan 'n selfstandige nasionale verdediging. So, in 1973, het ROKA troepe uit Viëtnam teruggebring en hulle herrangskik om 'n gemeganiseerde infanteriedivisie te vorm om te veg teen die gepantserde magte van Noord -Korea. Van 1974 tot 1981 het ROKA die '1st Yul-gok Plan' opgestel om selfstandige, nasionale verdedigingsvermoë op te bou deur innoverende ontwikkelings, soos die versterking van die krag van die agterste gebiedsafdelings, herrangskikking van 4 maatskappye van afdelings naby die wapenstilstandlyn, die opgradering van persoonlike wapens, die organisering van bykomende artilleriemagte en die verhoging van die lugvaartvermoë. Saam met hierdie ontwikkelings kon ROKA nie net ligte persoonlike wapens vervaardig nie, maar ook verskillende wapens wat deur die bemanning bedien word, artillerie van groot kaliber en opgegradeerde gepantserde voertuie en tenks. In 1978 het ROKA vir die eerste keer middel- en langafstand-geleide missiele en verskeie vuurpylwerpers vervaardig.

In Julie 1973 word die 3de leërkommando gestig. ROKA het ook 4 oefenbasisse gevestig en 40 km lange taktiese verdedigingsmure naby hoofpaaie in die middelweste gebied gebou.

In 1976 het ROK? US Army met 'Team Spirit' -oefeninge begin en elke jaar die oefengrootte uitgebrei. In November 1978 is ROK? US Combined Forces Command gestig om die veiligheidsverhouding tussen die twee nasies te versterk.

ROKA het verskeie tragedies in die hand van Noord -Korea verduur, soos "Bombing Terror in Miyanmar" in 1983 en "Korean Airline Explosion incident" in November 1987. Hoewel Noord -Korea Suid -Korea herhaaldelik uitgelok het, het ROKA veiligheid en ontwikkeling op die voorgrond gehou as hy het sy pligte uitgevoer. As gevolg hiervan het Korea die Asiatiese Spele in 1986 en die 24ste Olimpiese Spele in Seoul, 1988, suksesvol aangebied.

ROKA het voortgegaan met die ontwikkeling van 'n selfstandige nasionale verdediging en het 'Offensive Defense Tactics' opgestel. Op grond van hierdie idee, fokus ROKA hoofsaaklik op die skep van superieure krag en opgeboude selfstandige grondgevegsvermoëns. In Mei 1981 is ROKA Training Command gestig om bevelstelsels te organiseer vir die ontwikkeling van geskikte leerstellings vir Korea en bestrydingsvermoëns wat nodig is vir die toekomstige omgewing. In 1989 het ROKA ook sy hoofkwartiere na die Kyeryongdae -gebied verskuif om sy taktiese geografiese voordele te versterk.

Saam met die ontwikkelings in kragmag, is verdedigingsvermoë ook gevorder. Nadat ROK Air Force KF-16 Fighters in 1982 bekendgestel het, het ROKA 500MD-helikopters wat met TOW-missiele toegerus is, gematig. ROKA het daarin geslaag om ook hoë-tegnologie elektroniese wapenstelsels te huisves. ROKA het byvoorbeeld K-1-tenks en middel-afstandsoppervlakte-missiele vervaardig en in 1985 op die slagvelde afgehandel.

In die negentigerjare versterk ROKA die vermoë om nasionale verdedigingsobjekte en oorlogsgereedheid te bereik en verbeterde gevegsmagte deur die hoofmagte te organiseer. Die gesamentlike stafhoofde is verbeter en ROKA was gereed om selfstandige nasionale verdediging uit te voer. Hiermee saam het ROKA moeite gedoen om 'n onafhanklike en selfstandige operasionele uitvoerstelsel op te stel. Dit het ook probeer om oorwinnings in intelligensie- en verenigde stelselgevegte te verseker en 'n struktuur daar te stel om die doeltreffendheid en deursigtigheid van nasionale verdedigingsbestuur en -operasie te maksimeer.

ROKA het, op grond van sy ervaring met buitelandse ontplooiing in die Viëtnam -oorlog, 'n mediese ondersteuningsgroep na die Golfoorlog gestuur as lid van multinasionale magte wat bestaan ​​uit 33 nasies wat veg vir wêreldvrede. Ook ROKA Engineers en 'n mediese ondersteuningsgroep is na 1993 na onderskeidelik Somalië, Angola en Wes -Sahara gestuur. Hierdie ontplooiings het bewys dat ROKA 'n verantwoordelike lid van die internasionale gemeenskap is. In 1999 is die immergroen eenheid van ROKA in Oos -Timor ontplooi as lid van die multinasionale mag.


DIE LUGVELD

In die veertigerjare het die vloot 'n opleidingsgebied op die Sampson Naval Training -basis gebou, net 'n entjie oos en suid van die depot. Hierdie vlootbasis het geduur totdat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog verby was, en toe het die Amerikaanse lugmag die basis oorgeneem en daarna 'n lugveld aan die suidpunt van die Depot -eiendom gebou. Die vliegveld het 'n strategiese lugkommando -basis geword, maar ironies genoeg is daar nooit 'n enkele vliegtuig daaraan toegewys nie. Dit is aanvanklik gebruik vir die opleiding van vlieëniers, maar is uiteindelik na die Amerikaanse weermag oorgeplaas.

Over the decades the airfield was used countless times to unload munitions for storage or pick them up for disposition in the various war theatres the United States became involved.

The airfield at one time was also used by Mohawk Airlines, a predecessor to US Air. President Dwight Eisenhower and actress Betty Davis were some of the notables who landed at the airfield. The airfield eventually was expanded to 7,000 feet to accommodate the largest planes in the US fleet, and also to provide a backup airfield for emergency landings of the famous U2 spy plane. There are no recorded landings of any U2’s, however, at the airfield.

Since 2000, the airfield has also been used by the NYS State Police and local fire protection groups for training programs. Today, it is part of the 7,000 acres returned to private ownership. It will be the site of further industrial development and potentially continued police and fire personnel training.


HISTORY AND HERITAGE OF THE ARMY RANGERS

While the modern 75th Ranger Regiment was established relatively recently, U.S. military units with the same operational philosophy as the Rangers have existed since before the American Revolution. On this page, you’ll learn about Robert Rogers’ famous standing orders, William O. Darby, and the Buffalo Rangers.

Robert Rogers

Ranger history predates the revolutionary war. Robert Rogers famous “Rogers’ Rangers” used unconventional battle tactics during the French and Indian War.

His ingenuity was legendary. His soldiers were known to travel on sleds, snowshoes, even ice skates, and his force was one of the few non native units to operate effectively in inhospitable conditions.

Rogers wrote the “28 Rules of Ranging” as a guideline for his soldiers during the conflict. Over the years, Rogers' rules have been adapted in various ways, but the 75th Ranger Regiment considers the historical tenets as part of their heritage.

THE SWAMP FOX

A military officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution, Francis Marion is known as one of the preeminent forefathers of unconventional warfare.

Marion, who earned the nickname “Swamp Fox” when a British officer despaired at the commander’s ability to maneuver his forces along swamp paths, was a master of quick surprise attacks on larger bodies of enemy forces.

Among his accolades, he is credited with preventing British forces from capturing Williamsburg, South Carolina at the Battle of Black Mingo and rescuing a small American force pinned down by 500 British soldiers in the Battle of Eutaw Springs.

WAR OF 1812 AND THE CIVIL WAR

Settlers and pioneers typically made up the bulk of Ranger-designated forces during the War of 1812.

These forces were primarily tasked with quelling American Indian activity along the frontier. Many famous men belonged to Ranger units during this time period, including Daniel Boone and Abraham Lincoln.

During the Civil War, Mosby’s Rangers, led by Confederate Col. John Singleton Mosby was known for raiding Union Army camps and sharing supplies with the local populace.

Mosby’s most well-known raid was a 30-man foray he led behind Union lines near the Fairfax County courthouse, capturing a general, two captains, 30 enlisted men and 58 horses without firing a shot.

His raids were so effective that part of Northern Virginia became known as Mosby’s Confederacy.

DARBY’S RANGERS

Ranger units saw sparse activity in the period following the Civil War. It wasn’t until World War II that the Army activated Ranger infantry battalions, which were overseen by William O. Darby.

Darby, an artillery officer who developed a fascination with the training practices and traditions of British Commandos, was assigned to oversee the creation of the new Ranger units. These new units were dubbed “Darby’s Rangers”.

The Rangers launched their first assault at Arzew in 1943. Darby led the attack himself and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.

Darby trained the newly activated third and fourth Battalions in Africa, near the end of the Tunisian campaign. The first, third and fourth battalions formed the Ranger force, and they began the tradition of wearing the scroll shoulder sleeve insignia, which has been officially adopted into the modern regiment.

Darby was killed in action during the Italy campaign when an artillery shell burst in the middle of a group of assembled officers. He was posthumously promoted to brigadier general.

THE BUFFALO RANGERS

Nineteen light infantry Ranger companies were involved in the Korean War, including the legendary 2nd Ranger Infantry Company, known as the "Buffalo Rangers". They were the first and only Ranger unit made up entirely by African American Soldiers.

The company, an airborne trained unit, was primarily used as an advance force to disrupt and push back Chinese attacks to the front. They are most noted for their actions during Operation Tomahawk and the Battle of the Soyang River.

During operation Tomahawk, the Rangers were tasked with dropping behind enemy lines to disrupt supply routes and force a retreat north of Seoul. They successfully surprised and overwhelmed Chinese forces, linked up with friendly forces and spent the next few days mopping up enemy resistance.

Their greatest contribution to the war effort was during the Battle of the Soyang River, where the 2nd Rangers conducted an artillery-supported double envelopment of an enemy terrain position on Hill 581. The Rangers captured the hill without losing a single man, inflicting more than 100 casualties on the enemy.

During the war, the 2nd Ranger Infantry Company earned four campaign streamers, nine Silver Stars and more than 100 purple hearts.

THE “LURPS”

Long Range Reconnaissance Patrols (LRRP), known as “Lurps” (right) were widely used during the Vietnam War. These units were small, heavily armed patrols that penetrated deep into enemy territory to capture objectives and disrupt the enemy front.

During the conflict, Lurp platoons and companies were eventually attached to every unit. In January 1969, these units were re-designated as “Ranger”, within the 75th Infantry Regiment (Ranger), a predecessor to the modern 75th.

In the Battle of Signal Hill, members of LRRP units were tasked with inserting by helicopter onto a mountaintop in the A Shau Valley known as Signal Hill. The hill would serve as a radio relay point for the larger attacking force set to assault the valley.

After sustaining heavy casualties, the LRRP platoons managed to hold the mountaintop for three weeks and helped ensure the success of the operation.

The Vietnam War marked the final major conflict where Ranger designated units were attached to regular infantry divisions. In 1973, with the establishment of the 1st Ranger Battalion, the Rangers became their own Special Operations force.

THE WARS IN IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN

After the vicious attack against the homeland on September 11, 2001, the 75th Ranger Regiment immediately staged and prepared to “Lead the Way” in what came to be known as, the Global War on Terror. Just as the Rangers did at Normandy in 1944, Grenada in 1983, and Panama in 1989, the Ranger Regiment spearheaded the initial ground invasion of Afghanistan.

On October 19, 2001, the Regimental Headquarters and 3rd Ranger Battalion conducted an airborne assault to seize a desert landing strip south of Kandahar known as Objective Rhino. This forced entry operation began eighteen years of continuous combat operations for the 75th Ranger Regiment.

On March 4, 2002, a Ranger Quick Reaction Force departed on a no-notice mission to rescue a fallen U.S. Navy Seal. Earlier in the day during Operation Anaconda, Naval Petty Officer Neil Roberts became stranded after a contested helicopter landing zone infiltration on Takur Ghar Mountain. As the Ranger QRF approached the HLZ, it was engaged with a hail of deadly accurate automatic machine gun fire and rocket propelled grenades. With one MH-47 forced to crash land and another forced to land at an offset HLZ, the Rangers began a pitched thirteen-hour battle to secure the 10,000-foot mountaintop. The Rangers destroyed all Al-Qaeda linked militants and secured all fallen U.S. personnel.

While fighting our nation’s enemies in Afghanistan, the regiment was simultaneously called upon to provide forces for the invasion of Iraq. The 1st and 3rd Ranger Battalions, along with elements of the 2nd Ranger Battalion and the Regimental Headquarters initiated combat operations in the western desert of Iraq to neutralize scud launch sites. During these operations, the 1st Ranger Battalion conducted the first ever C-17 Air land Assault onto Objective Rattlesnake. Simultaneously, 3rd Ranger Battalion conducted an airfield seizure (Objective Serpent) a critical airfield in a western Iraqi desert.

On April 1, 2003, the Regiment with elements of 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions executed a daring raid into the Fedayeen controlled city of Nasiriya. The mission became known as one of the nation’s most successful POW rescues as it resulted in the safe return of PFC Jessica Lynch. Meanwhile, 3rd Ranger Battalion continued the fight against the Iraqi Army and Fedayeen Saddam forces at the Haditha Dam in Anbar Province from April 3-4, 2003. The successful capture of this dam prevented its use as a weapon to impede the coalition ground attack.

As the majority of the Regiment redeployed to the United States in order to prepare for follow-on combat operations, 2nd Ranger Battalion conducted a raid onto Objective Reindeer resulting in 85 terrorists killed. The Ranger Regiment remained a key component of the joint task force in Iraq for the duration of the operation from 2003 2010 and conducted more than 10,000 raids during this period, resulting in the defeat of Al Qaeda in Iraq and the degradation of multiple enemy terrorist networks.

In 2007, due to the increased requirement to find, fix, finish, analyze, and exploit terrorist threats in a hybrid environment, the Regimental Special Troops Battalion was established to provide key enablers to the Regiment and Joint Task Force. Additionally, as operational tempo increased in both Iraq and Afghanistan, the Regiment expanded its combat power with the creation of a fourth maneuver company in each battalion with the designation of Delta Company.

In 2009, as the nation renewed its efforts in the Afghan Theater, the commander of the Joint Task Force assigned the Regimental Headquarters as the mission command for JTF Operations in Afghanistan. As the JTF Headquarters, the Regiment executed missions targeting senior leadership of Al Qaeda, Taliban and Haqqani terrorist networks. These efforts enabled the surge of conventional forces to secure key terrain across regional commands in Afghanistan.


Army Tan Uniform (1942 - 1968) [ edit | wysig bron]

1941 : Introduced as "Khaki Summer Uniform"

12 Nov 1942 : Specifications introduced for the "Tropical Worsted Khaki Service Uniform" in Tan shade 51. (pattern 1942)

21 Dec 1942 : Specifications introduced for the "Tropical Worsted Service Cap"

03 Mar 1945 : Specifications changed for the "Tropical Worsted Service Uniform". (pattern 1945)

1952 : Specifications changed for the "Tropical Worsted Service Uniform". (pattern 1952)

28 Sep 1959 : Name re-designated as "Army Tan Uniform." (patterned after 1938 white service uniform) in Tan shade 61.

03 Oct 1965 : Department of the Army announces pending obsolescence.

31 Dec 1968 : Withdrawn from wear.



The Spanish-American War featured major changes. Uniforms at this point were replaced by khaki field uniforms that were inspired by the British pattern. The material of the uniforms at this time shifted from wool to cotton, and special campaign hats were issued. Between 1898 and 1899, there were at least four patterns of khaki field service coats.

The uniforms of World War I are largely recognizable. The khaki fatigues from the Spanish-American War were largely unchanged, although the color shifted from brown to olive. Soldiers also wore puttees around their legs and adapted the Brodie Helmet from the British.


Lies I learned as a Southerner: Racism, the Confederate flag and why so many white Southerners revere a symbol of hatred

By Charles McCain
Published July 15, 2015 11:00PM (EDT)

The carving depicting Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis, in Stone Mountain, Ga. (AP/John Bazemore)

Aandele

This is where my grandfather shot and killed the Yankee soldier trying to rob us,” the retired Army colonel said, pointing to a bullet hole in the wood lining the entrance hall of his home.

My Boy Scout troop was visiting to view this noble reminder of the Civil War and how Southerners had resisted Union soldiers. It was 1970. I was fifteen. All of us gazed with reverence upon the hole as if medieval Catholics peering at the toe of a saint.

We were absorbing the Southern narrative of the Civil War. In February of 1865 Sherman’s bummers had invaded my small hometown in the South Carolina low country. This man’s grandfather had defended his home as any honorable Southerner would have done.

In the history of the Civil War preached to us lads growing up in the South in those years, slavery was never mentioned. Just perfidious Yankees and our brave boys in gray who repelled them until they were “compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources,” as General Lee described the situation in his General Order No. 9 announcing the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia. Only a fool would interpret his words as admitting defeat. We weren’t defeated. We were just compelled to surrender. Completely different, of course.

Other realities had to be suppressed as well. When the North invaded the South all white Southern males eagerly volunteered to fight against the armies of the Union. But this is not true. The Confederate States passed the first conscription law on the North American continent on 16 April 1862. All white males between seventeen and fifty were required to serve three years in the Confederate Army.

Not every white Southern male was keen on this idea. From the very beginning of the law, many conscripts deserted from the army with the intent of never returning. This became in immense problem in the Southern armies. Not being consonant with the image of the “Lost Cause,” it was rarely mentioned in my youth and rarely mentioned now.

The penalty for desertion was death. Since tens of thousands of men deserted, they could not all be executed. But several hundred were shot by their brothers-in-arms in front of assembled Confederate regiments pour encourager les autres.

Over time we learned that after believing in Jesus Christ, our second most important moral and spiritual task was to uphold the honor of South Carolina and our native South. Be prepared to fight anyone if they insulted our heritage, most especially the Confederacy. Such insults were assaults on our honor as Southerners, something we are very touchy about.

Why did the South of our youth imbue us with such false knowledge? Because the memory of the Confederate defeat shaped Southern culture then and now. C. Vann Woodward, one of the greatest historians of the South, wrote that after the war ended, the Southerners had to learn “…the un-American lesson of submission. For the South had undergone an experience that it could share with no other part of America…..the experience of military defeat, occupation, and reconstruction.”

Because of this searing ordeal, Southerners had and continue to have a radically different historical narrative than the remainder of America. We have distorted our history to fit the Myth of the Lost Cause and it is hierdie history which explains our obsession with the Civil War. Most Americans find both our narrative and our obsession with the war inexplicable. But it isn’t, really.

What Americans outside the South don’t understand is the Confederate defeat was so devastating the impact reverberates to this day. And where the depredations were the greatest, the war is remembered even more strongly. How could it not be? Columbia, the capital of South Carolina? Burned. Charleston? Bombarded. Plantations close by the city burned to the ground. Those of us born and raised in the Deep South grow up in a history book. My birthplace, Mobile, Alabama? Seized and burned after years of off and on attacks. New Orleans where I went to college? Seized by Union troops early in the war cutting off Gulf South from its key port.

In December of 1864, a month prior to crossing into South Carolina after“making Georgia howl,” General William Tecumseh Sherman wrote to H. W. Halleck, Union Army Chief-of-Staff, “… the whole army is burning with an insatiable desire to wreak vengeance upon South Carolina. I almost tremble at her fate, but feel that she deserves all that seems in store for her.” Because South Carolina had started the Civil War, Union troops viewed it as the cradle of secession, which it was.

While Sherman had no need to ratchet-up their desire of vengeance, he did so anyway by saying to his men, “We are not fighting armies but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war.”

South Carolina soon thereafter felt the hard hand of war as no other place in the United States ever had— or ever will. Dozens of towns, plantations and public buildings were looted and burned. My hometown went up in smoke after Sherman’s bummers put it to the torch —an event the adults of my childhood often spoke about. Sherman wanted the South and South Carolina in specific to remember the pain and destruction of the war so we would never rebel again. We remembered. Unfortunately, the Union Army’s march through South Carolina was so devastating that we have continued to remember.

One of the tallest structures in my hometown was the monument to the local Confederate dead—impossible to miss for our bronze Confederate soldier stood atop a fifty foot limestone plinth in the middle of the town square. In 1960, following the lead of our legislature, the town also began to fly the Confederate flag on its official flagpole, also on the town square. Unfortunately, the rectangular banner with the elongated blue X known to most Americans, including Southerners, as “the Confederate flag” is actually the second Confederate naval jack which only flew on ships of the Confederate Navy from 1863 to 1865 and nowhere else. (The Confederacy kept changing flags and had different flags for different things).

To any student of the Civil War, flying the Confederate naval jack seems absurd, stupid even. But I hardly thought such things then. Did I believe we should always honor our gallant Confederate dead? Natuurlik. Have streets in towns throughout the state named after Stonewall Jackson, Jeff Davis, and that crackpot political theorist, John C. Calhoun? Absoluut. In common with most white Southerners, I also revered the memory of General Robert E. Lee.

This was the man who possessed the greatest military mind ever produced in America the man who became the very model of a Southern gentleman who led the fabled Army of Northern Virginia who was betrayed by Longstreet at Gettysburg and who now rests under a recumbent statue of himself, like a medieval knight in Christ like repose, in the Lee Chapel at Washington and Lee University.

Did Robert E. Lee oppose slavery? Of course he did—not. In reality he didn’t and had his slaves whipped for infractions by the local slave dealers. Was he a traitor by renouncing his sacred oath to defend the United States and joining the Confederate Army? I don’t think anyone in the South of my youth ever had that thought. But yes, while painful for me to write, Robert E. Lee was a traitor. Half of all Southern-born officers in the Union Army in 1860 remained loyal to the United States and never went South. They stayed true to their sacred oaths.

As for the greatest military mind produced by America? Lee lost the Battle of Gettysburg, the most critical battle in the Eastern Theater of the war. In those three days, one quarter of his men were also killed or wounded. Never again would the Army of Northern Virginia be capable of offensive action on a large scale.

All the misinformation I absorbed seemed right to me until my early twenties when my indoctrination began to slowly melt away -- although that process took ten years. Like many Southerners, as I grew older and read and studied unbiased accounts of the Civil War, I rejected the idolization of the Confederacy. Dropped out of the Sons of Confederate Veterans and admitted the truth to myself: the South started the Civil War with South Carolina leading the way.

So why do so many whites in the South and especially South Carolina still cling with all their strength to the memory of the Confederacy? Because the American Civil War has never ended for much of the white South. Bitterness over the Confederate defeat remains. For decades after the war, everyone knew where the bitterness came from: the horrifying losses experienced by the Southern armies, the destructive vengeance by Northern troops and the enfranchisement of freed black slaves.

Unfortunately, over time this litany of specifics has been distilled into a blurry folk memory which has been manifested in willing provincial ignorance combined with the violent racism of the decades before the 1970s. When blacks began to be nominally treated with due process of law in the South, violence against them by whites declined. But provincial ignorance remains with many white Southerners seeming to take a perverse sort of pride in their lack of knowledge about the wider world.

Worse, virulent racism continues, fueled by a devil’s brew of rage against change, the perceived arrogance of Washington, the liberal media holding-up white Southerners to ridicule, economic stagnation and the most maddening of all, a black man as president. Beyond the immediate effects, all of these threaten the myth of the Lost Cause.

For Southerners, the memory of the Confederacy is part of our fierce regional identity. Even for me, a liberal Democrat, my strong regional identity separates me from Americans who aren’t from the South. By my own choice, I have not lived in the South for decades yet retain my gentle low country accent, my increasingly old-fashioned manners drilled into me as a child and my connections to a myriad of relatives and friends. I never forget that I am a Southerner and a South Carolinian—nor do I want to. I’m proud of my heritage—some of it—my family and my state.

In a time of head-spinning change, most of us cling to what we know, to what we were taught, to some sort of tradition which gives us identity. The South being the most conservative and traditional part of the country clings to its old traditions. And much of Southern tradition is the Confederacy represented by the Confederate flag. In a world moving at warp speed, many whites in the South sense they are losing their identity as Southerners and the more they feel this, the more vehement white Southerners become in defense of these symbols.

The trauma of the Confederate defeat cut to the bone of the South especially in my native state of South Carolina. When the fighting stopped in April of 1865 and the Confederacy collapsed, 260,000 white Southern males lay dead—23% of those eligible to serve in the Confederate Army. 21,000 were South Carolinians. This was a demographic catastrophe from which the South has never recovered. CSA managed to achieve almost total mobilization of white males into the army so the war touched every family.

When the Civil War finally ended, how could white Southerners come to an emotional acceptance of the hurricane of violence which had passed over them leaving a trail of destruction never imagined and a burden of grief so heavy such as Atlas never had to lift. To bear this, white Southerners had to look for a noble reason to explain why so many of their sons had died as a result of the war. That reason could not be the preservation of slavery. Only finding another reason was difficult since the Civil War was about preserving slavery.

Searching for this reason, white Southerners had to blind themselves to reality since they were surrounded by a huge population of freed slaves—whites actually being in a minority in South Carolina and several other Southern states at that time. Former slaves, written of in memoirs as being indolent, insulting, shiftless and unwilling to do any work, were a constant reminder of one of the major consequences of having lost the war.

And to preserve the “peculiar institution” the South had made a blood sacrifice of one-quarter of its young white males killed— with twice as many wounded— a casualty rate of 75 percent among those who served. Unprecedented in American history or Western history in the modern era. These brave young men clad in honorable gray could not have died to keep all these insolent, ignorant, lazy blacks enslaved. What kind of cause was that to die for?

There had to be another reason, a myth as it were. Slowly a cultural myth came to the fore: the South had fought the Civil War to secure Southern independence from the North and not for the right to maintain the institution of black slavery. The golden youths who had sacrificed their lives for the Confederacy became the revered dead of the South. Having given their lives in the War for Southern Independence, a truly righteous and just fight , the Confederate dead became the keystone in the creation of the myth of the “Lost Cause.” Since they died for such a glorious cause, these were young men for whom enough tears could never be shed.

The wording on the monument to the Confederate dead on the grounds of the South Carolina State House, which I have abbreviated, explains with simple eloquence how South Carolinians and by extension other white Southerners, came to remembered the war and how many still remember it today.

This monument
perpetuates the memory,
of those who…
have glorified a fallen cause
by the simple manhood of their lives,
the patient endurance of suffering,
and the heroism of death
and who,
found support and consolation
in die geloof
that at home they would not be forgotten.

Let the stranger,
who may in future times
read this inscription,
recognize that these were men
whom power could not corrupt,
whom death could not terrify,
whom defeat could not dishonor
and let their virtues plead
for just judgement
of the cause in which they perished….
May 13, 1879

This is the summary of the Myth of the Lost Cause. Unfortunately, the dehumanizing and soul destroying institution of black slavery, any mention of slaves who had suffered far worse, is not mentioned or even hinted at. And slavery could never be mentioned because it would shatter the Myth.

Writes Nobel Laureate Sir V.S. Naipaul on the sparse eloquence of this inscription:

“…the pain of the Confederate Memorial is very great the defeat it speaks of is complete. Defeat like this leads to religion: it can be religion: the crucifixion, as eternal a grief for Christians, as for the Shias of Islam, the death of Ali and his sons…..the helpless grief and rage, such as the Shias know, about an injustice that cannot be rehearsed too often.” “A Turn In the South,” (1986, Knopf, NYC)

The belief that it was not about slavery is a studied denial of the truth, a willing suspension-of-disbelief which allows white Southerners to fully embrace the myth of the “Lost Cause” which propagates the lie that the war was fought for Southern independence and not for slavery.

Nothing cemented this myth more than the film “Gone With the Wind.” The opening title card before the movie begins reads: “There was a land of Cavaliers and Cotton Fields called the Old South… Here in this pretty world Gallantry took its last bow. Here was the last ever to be seen of Knights and their Ladies Fair, of Master and Slave… Look for it only in books, for it is no more than a dream remembered. A Civilization gone with the wind…”

This is laughably untrue—a historical lie as wide as the Mississippi River is long. Worse, this belief by so many white Southerners that the Confederacy fought for Southern independence and not to preserve slavery has itself been a disaster for the South. Hoekom? Two reasons. One, by holding white Southerners in its grip, this belief has prevented the whites from accepting blacks as equals and moving past the trauma of the Civil War. Two, by accepting the lie that the Civil War was fought for Southern independence and not to preserve slavery, the only way to preserve the Myth of the Lost Cause was to create a post-bellum society of brutal white supremacy so as to be completely different and hence nominally independent from the North.

Die idée fixe that the war was about Southern independence absolves white Southerners from facing the truth of the war and breaking their emotional bond to the former Confederacy. Many conservative white Southerners remain in denial about the brutal reality of African-American slavery in the South. Black slaves were the property of their owners just like master’s house or horse.

Owners could kill their slaves if they wished. Rape the females—which they did. (And the males, too). Or starve them. Or make them work for twenty hours a day to get the harvest in—which they did. Whip them, which they did. Torture them, which they did. Even castrate them—a practice so barbaric it was outlawed in the Roman Empire by successive decrees of Emperors before the coming of Christ.

Most white Southerners will not— and cannot— confront the truth of the Civil War, for to do so is to acknowledge that the Myth of the Lost Cause is exactly that. And if they acknowledged the myth, they would have to accept that their ancestors (and my ancestors) fought the Civil War to keep 3 ½ million blacks enslaved in a system as brutal, as violent, and as filled with hopelessness as the labor camps of the Soviet gulag or konzentrationslägers of Nazi Germany.

In the process of accepting this unvarnished truth, white Southerners would also have to acknowledge the Confederate flag for what it actually represents: a nation long dead which fought a war to preserve the monstrous evil of African-American slavery. Further, white Southerners would also have to give up the comforting thought that only a handful of white Southerners owned slaves which is absolutely wrong. One-third of Southern families owned at least one or more slaves. In Mississippi and South Carolina the number of slave owning households approached one half.

Only when the Myth of the Lost Cause is finally exposed as a complete fraud and smashed into pieces by white Southerners themselves, will the South move past its reverence for the Confederacy and accept the moral imperative of African-American equality in the South, America and throughout the world.


The Aftermath of the Bonus Army Protest

In the 1932 presidential election, Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Hoover by a landslide vote. While Hoover’s militaristic treatment of the Bonus Army veterans may have contributed to his defeat, Roosevelt had also opposed the veterans’ demands during the 1932 campaign. However, when the veterans held a similar protest in May 1933, he provided them with meals and a secure campsite.

To address the veterans’ need for jobs, Roosevelt issued an executive order allowing 25,000 veterans to work in the New Deal program’s Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) without meeting the CCC’s age and marital status requirements.

On January 22, 1936, both houses of Congress passed the Adjusted Compensation Payment Act in 1936, appropriating $2 billion for the immediate payment of all World War I veterans’ bonuses. On January 27, President Roosevelt vetoed the bill, but Congress immediately voted to override the veto. Almost four years after they had been driven from Washington by Gen. MacArthur, the Bonus Army veterans finally prevailed.

Ultimately, the events of the Bonus Army veterans’ march on Washington contributed to the enactment in 1944 of the GI Bill, which has since assisted thousands of veterans make the often difficult transition to civilian life and in some small way pay back the debt owed to those who risk their lives for their country.


Kyk die video: Sing with Karl - The Red Army is the strongest. Красная Армия всех сильней German Version (November 2021).