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Die vyf goeie keisers: voorspoed en krag voor die laaste val

Die vyf goeie keisers: voorspoed en krag voor die laaste val

The Five Good Emperors verwys na 'n groep Romeinse keisers wat tussen die 1 regeer het st en 2 nd eeue nC. Hierdie tydperk word dikwels beskou as die hoogtepunt van die Romeinse Ryk, aangesien die welvaart en mag van die ryk vir meer as 80 jaar ononderbroke was. Tog was dit ook gedurende hierdie tyd dat die eerste krake in die ryk begin ontstaan ​​het, wat later sou bydra tot die agteruitgang en uiteindelike val van die Romeinse Ryk.

The Course of the Empire, skildery van Rome deur Thomas Cole . Foto bron: Brandmeister / Public Domain.

Wie was die vyf goeie keisers?

Die vyf goeie keisers was Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Antoninus Pius en Marcus Aurelius. Alternatiewelik staan ​​die Five Good Emperors bekend as die Nerva-Antonine-dinastie. Terwyl Nerva deur die moordenaars van Domitianus tot keiser gemaak is, het die res van die Goeie Keisers aan bewind gekom omdat hulle deur hul voorgangers aangeneem is, in teenstelling met die werklike bloedverhoudinge. Die Nerva 'Dynasty' het bestaan ​​uit Nerva, Trajanus en Hadrianus; terwyl die Antonynse 'dinastie' bestaan ​​uit Antoninus Pius en Marcus Aurelius. Soms sluit laasgenoemde Lucius Verus, Marcus se aanneembroer en Commodus, Marcus se biologiese seun, in.

Die eerste van die vyf goeie keisers was Nerva, wat keiser geword het na die moord op Domitianus in 96 nC. Ten tyde van sy hemelvaart was Nerva reeds 66 jaar oud en sou hy nie lank regeer nie. Nerva se kort regeringstyd van 15 maande het beteken dat hy nie die tyd gehad het om by te dra tot die ryk soos die ander goeie keisers nie. Deur die troon na die moord op Domitianus te aanvaar, kon Nerva egter verhoed dat die ryk in 'n burgeroorlog beland, soos in 69 nC ná die dood van Nero. Hy het weer die stabiliteit van die ryk behou deur Trajanus aan te neem en hom sy opvolger te noem.

Uitbreiding en konsolidasie

In die periode van die vyf goeie keisers het die Romeinse Ryk sy grootste territoriale omvang bereik. Trajan se 19-jarige bewind, wat van 98 nC tot 117 nC geduur het, het 'n aantal militêre veldtogte in die Ooste uitgevoer. In 101 nC het Trajanus sy eerste militêre veldtog teen die Daciërs begin, gevolg deur 'n tweede in 105 nC. Die Romeine het as oorwinnaars uit die stryd getree en die triomf van die keiser oor die Daciërs is herdenk in 'n triomfkolom wat bekend staan ​​as Trajanskolom. Die keiser het daarna 'n veldtog teen die Partiërs gevoer en daarin geslaag om die Parthiese hoofstad Ctesiphon te ontslaan. Boonop het Trajan se veldtog die anneksasie van die Nabatese koninkryk, Armenië en Mesopotamië meegebring.

Uitsig oor Rome met ruiterstandbeeld van Marcus Aurelius, die kolom van Trajanus en 'n tempel. ( DcoetzeeBot / Public Domain)

Die taak om die ryk te konsolideer, was egter in die hande van Trajanus se opvolger Hadrian, wat 21 jaar lank regeer het, van 117 nC tot 138 nC. In die besef dat dit onmoontlik was om vas te hou aan die territoriale winste wat sy voorganger behaal het, besluit Hadrian om Armenië en Mesopotamië te laat vaar. Anders as Trajanus, wat geglo het dat Rome se aansien op militêre verowering berus, was Hadrian van mening dat dit belangriker was om die gebiede wat reeds onder die beheer van Rome was, te ontwikkel. Hadrian se besorgdheid oor die provinsies kan gesien word in die feit dat hy tydens sy bewind byna elke provinsie van die ryk besoek het.
Hadrianus was egter nie baie geliefd by die senaat nie en na sy dood is vergoddeliking geweier. Sy opvolger Antoninus Pius het egter daarin geslaag om die senaat te oorreed om die gebruiklike goddelike eer aan sy aanneemvader te verleen en hom daarmee die titel 'Pius' te kry. Antoninus Pius se regeringstyd van 23 jaar, wat van 138 nC tot 161 nC geduur het, was 'n tydperk van vrede waartydens geen groot oorloë of opstand plaasgevind het nie.

  • 'N Beknopte tydlyn van die Romeinse keisers - 400 jaar se mag gekondenseer
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  • Eksotiese goedere en buitelandse luukshede: die antieke Romeinse mark

Standbeeld van Antonius Pius in pantser. (Jean-Pol GRANDMONT/ Public Domain)

Die era van die vyf goeie keisers kom tot 'n einde

Antoninus Pius is opgevolg deur sy aangenome seuns, Marcus Aurelius en Lucius Verus, wat as mede-keisers regeer het. Toe laasgenoemde in 169 nC sterf, word Marcus die enigste heerser van die Romeinse Ryk. Eeue na sy dood word Marcus hoog geag en word hy dikwels as 'n modelkeiser beskou. Marcus was inderdaad 'n bekwame administrateur en bekend om sy filosofiese sienings. Anders as sy voorganger was Marcus se 19-jarige bewind, wat van 161 nC tot 180 nC geduur het, egter baie minder vreedsaam. In dieselfde jaar van sy hemelvaart het die Partiërs byvoorbeeld Sirië binnegeval. Alhoewel die Romeine die oorlog gewen het, het die terugkerende troepe die plaag meegebring. Die pandemie, bekend as die Antoninese plaag, het die ryk van 165 nC tot 180 nC verwoes. Boonop moes die keiser die Germaanse stamme hanteer wat oor die Danubiese grens van Rome toegeslaan het.

Die engel van die dood slaan 'n deur tydens die plaag van Rome. (Fæ / CC BY-SA 4.0)

Marcus se grootste mislukking as keiser was egter sy opvolging deur sy biologiese seun Commodus. Anders as sy vader en die ander Goeie Keisers, word Commodus deur die geskiedenis onthou as 'n tiranniese heerser. Erger nog, nadat sy sluipmoord in 192 nC weer 'n burgeroorlog uitgebreek het en die daaropvolgende jaar bekend gestaan ​​het as die jaar van die vyf keisers, waartydens vyf keisers mekaar vinnig op die troon sit.

Keiser Commodus as Hercules en as 'n gladiator. (Ghirlandajo / Public Domain)


    6c. Die Pax Romana

    Die term "Pax Romana", wat letterlik "Romeinse vrede" beteken, verwys na die tydperk vanaf 27 v.G.J. tot 180 G.J. in die Romeinse Ryk.

    In hierdie periode van 200 jaar was daar ongekende vrede en ekonomiese voorspoed in die hele Ryk, wat strek van Engeland in die noorde tot Marokko in die suide en Irak in die ooste. Tydens die Pax Romana het die Romeinse Ryk sy hoogtepunt bereik wat die oppervlakte betref, en sy bevolking het na raming tot 70 miljoen mense opgeswel.


    Hierdie kaart beeld die Romeinse Ryk in 117 G.J., op die hoogte van die Pax Romana uit.

    Burgeroorlog en meer

    Na die moord op Julius Caesar het 'n tydperk van burgeroorlog in Rome uitgebreek. Uit hierdie onrus het die Tweede Triumviraat ontstaan, bestaande uit Lepidus, Antony en Octavianus, wat die neef van Julius Caesar was. Hierdie nuwe triumviraat regeer 'n dekade lank in Rome, maar soos met die First Triumverate gebeur het, het daar uiteindelik verskille tussen die leiers ontstaan.


    Die romanse tussen Antony en Cleopatra het die verbeelding van kunstenaars vir 'n millennium geïnspireer.

    Octavianus verslaan Lepidus in die geveg, en draai dan sy leërs teen die magtiger Mark Antony. Antony het verlief geraak op en trou met die betowerende koningin van Egipte, Cleopatra. By die Slag van Actium aan die kus van Griekeland in 31 v.G.J., verslaan Octavianus se vloot die vloot Antony en Cleopatra, wat later albei selfmoord gepleeg het.

    Octavianus het triomfantelik na Rome teruggekeer en homself die titel princeps of "eerste burger" gegee. Octavianus was versigtig om nie die senaat te ontstel deur homself as diktator te verklaar soos sy oom Julius Caesar gedoen het nie. Alhoewel Octavian as 'n de facto -diktator regeer het, het hy die senaat en ander instellings van die republikeinse regering onderhou.

    In 27 v.G.J. het die senaat die heilige titel van Augustus aan Octavianus toegeken. Soos hy bekend geword het, regeer hy 41 jaar lank, en die beleid wat hy uitgevoer het, lê die grondslag vir die vrede en stabiliteit van die Pax Romana.

    Alle paaie lei na Rome


    Die Romeinse leër het die paaie gebou wat die uitgestrekte Romeinse ryk verbind het. Deur sand, sement en klip te lê, het hulle duursame paaie geskep wat lank na die val van Rome geduur het.

    Baie van die vooruitgang in argitektuur en bou het berus op die ontdekking van beton deur die Romeine. Beton het die skepping van groot afgeronde boë en koepels moontlik gemaak.

    Een van die bekendste strukture wat tydens die Pax Romana gebou is, die Pantheon in Rome, het tot vandag toe een van die grootste vrystaande koepels ter wêreld.

    Tydens die Pax Romana het baie van die beste skrywers van Rome (soos Horace, Virgil, Ovidius en Livy) literêre en poëtiese meesterstukke vervaardig. Rome het die ekonomiese, politieke en kulturele hoofstad van die hele Westerse wêreld geword.


    Caligula se bisarre en soms sadistiese gedrag het uiteindelik tot sy moord in 41 G.J. gelei.

    Kaal is nie mooi nie

    Na Augustus se dood in 14 G.J.het ander Romeinse keisers met wisselende doeltreffendheid regeer. Een keiser, Caligula, was geestelik siek en het gereeld sy mag misbruik. Hy was so sensitief oor sy kaalheid dat hy enigiemand verbied het om op sy kop te kyk en 'n paar mense met 'n vol hare te skeer.

    Caligula was 'n wrede sadis en het dit baie geniet om te sien hoe mense doodgemaak word. Trouens, hy het gereeld versoek dat moorde soveel as moontlik verleng word. Caligula het ook 'n geweldige seksuele aptyt gehad en bloedskande gepleeg saam met sy susters.


    "Dink daaraan as u baie bedroef of bedroef is, dat die mens se lewe slegs 'n oomblik is, en na 'n kort tydjie word ons almal dood gelê." -Marcus Aurelius

    Hy het selfs sy gunsteling perd genooi om tydens formele staatsete te eet.

    Uiteindelik het sy bisarre en tiranniese gedrag die Romeine teen hom gedraai, en in 41 G.J. is Caligula vermoor deur lede van sy eie Praetoriaanse wag.

    Nie alle keisers was ongeskik om te regeer nie. Trouens, 'n reeks leiers, bekend as die Vyf Goeie Keisers, het agtereenvolgens regeer en 'n lang tydperk van vrede en voorspoed gelei.


    Jeug en vakleerlingskap

    Toe hy gebore is, was sy grootvader al vir die tweede keer konsul en prefek van Rome, wat die aansienkroon was in 'n senatoriale loopbaan, sy pa se suster was getroud met die man wat bestem was om die volgende keiser te word en met wie hy self sou mettertyd slaag en sy ouma aan moederskant was erfgenaam van een van die grootste Romeinse lotgevalle. Marcus was dus verwant aan verskeie van die mees prominente gesinne van die nuwe Romeinse establishment, wat sy sosiale en politieke mag onder die Flaviese keisers gekonsolideer het (69–96), en die etos van die instelling is inderdaad relevant vir sy eie optrede en houdings. Die heersende klas van die eerste eeu van die Romeinse Ryk, die Julio-Claudiaan, was weinig anders as dié van die laat Republiek: dit was stedelike Romeinse (minagtende buitestaanders), uitspattig, sinies en amoreel. Die nuwe stigting was egter grootliks van munisipale en provinsiale oorsprong - net soos sy keisers - wat nugterheid en goeie werke kweek en meer en meer tot vroomheid en godsdienstigheid oorgaan.

    Die kind Marcus was dus duidelik bestem vir sosiale onderskeid. Hoe hy op die troon gekom het, bly egter 'n raaisel. In 136 kondig die keiser Hadrianus (regeer 117–138) onverklaarbaar aan as sy uiteindelike opvolger 'n sekere Lucius Ceionius Commodus (voortaan L. Aelius Caesar), en in dieselfde jaar was die jong Marcus verloof aan Ceionia Fabia, die dogter van Commodus. Vroeg in 138 sterf Commodus egter, en later, na die dood van Hadrianus, word die verlowing vernietig. Hadrianus neem toe Titus Aurelius Antoninus (die man van Marcus se tante) aan om hom op te volg as die keiser Antoninus Pius (regeer 138–161), en reël dat Antoninus as sy seuns twee jongmanne moet aanneem - een die seun van Commodus en die ander Marcus, wie se naam daarna verander is na Marcus Aelius Aurelius Verus. Marcus is dus op die ouderdom van net onder 17 aangewys as 'n toekomstige gesamentlike keiser, maar soos dit blyk, sou hy eers in sy 40ste jaar slaag. Soms word aanvaar dat Commodus en Antoninus Pius in Hadrian se gedagtes bloot 'plekverwarmers' vir een of albei hierdie jeugdiges sou wees.

    Die lang jare van Marcus se vakleerlingskap onder Antoninus word belig deur die korrespondensie tussen hom en sy onderwyser Fronto. Alhoewel Fronto die belangrikste literêre figuur van die eeu was, was Fronto 'n sombere pedant wie se bloed retoriek was, maar hy moes minder leweloos gewees het as wat hy nou lyk, want daar is 'n ware gevoel en ware kommunikasie in die briewe tussen hom en albei jongmense. mans. Dit was die eer van Marcus, wat intelligent sowel as hardwerkend en ernstig was, dat hy ongeduldig geraak het met die eindelose regime van gevorderde oefeninge in Griekse en Latynse deklamasie en gretig die omhelsing van die Diatribai (Diskoerse) van 'n godsdienstige voormalige slaaf, Epictetus, 'n belangrike morele filosoof van die Stoïsynse skool. Voortaan sou Marcus in die filosofie sy belangrikste intellektuele belangstelling sowel as sy geestelike voeding vind.

    Intussen was daar genoeg werk om aan die kant van die onvermoeide Antoninus te doen, met die leer van die regering en die aanvaarding van openbare rolle. Marcus was konsul in 140, 145 en 161. In 145 trou hy met sy neef, die keiser se dogter Annia Galeria Faustina, en in 147 imperium en tribunicia potestas, die belangrikste formele bevoegdhede van keiserskap, is voortaan aan hom verleen, hy was 'n soort junior koemper, wat die intieme berade en belangrike besluite van Antoninus deel. (Sy aanneembroer, byna 10 jaar jonger, is betyds amptelik bekend gestel.) Op 7 Maart 161, op 'n tyd toe die broers gesamentlik konsuls was (onderskeidelik vir die derde en die tweede keer), was hul vader gesterf het.


    Belangrikste sleutelwoorde van die onderstaande artikel: Rome, oud, goed, 5, vrede, keisers, voorspoed, vyf, stabiliteit, familielid.

    SLEUTEL ONDERWERPE
    Die Vyf Goeie Keisers het relatiewe vrede, stabiliteit en voorspoed na Rome gebring. [1] Commodus het die troon ingeneem as die werklike biologiese seun van Marcus Aurelius in die jaar 180 nC. Anders as sy vader en die ander vyf goeie keisers, het Commodus geen selfbeheersing of goedheid nie. [1] Hiermee vestig ons die aandag op Marcus Aurelius, waarskynlik die bekendste van die vyf goeie keisers. [1]

    Nerva, Romeinse keiser van 18 September 96 tot 98 Januarie, die eerste van 'n opeenvolging van heersers wat tradisioneel bekend staan ​​as die Vyf Goeie Keisers. [2] Soos reeds gesê, begin Nerva in 96 nC onder die bewind van die vyf goeie keisers. Anders as baie keisers, word hy in die geskiedenis onthou as 'n taamlik eerbare man. [1] Nerva se bewind begin met die Nervan-Antonine-dinastie, wat insluit wat die geskiedenis die vyf goeie keisers noem. [1] Die heerskappy van die vyf goeie keisers word gekenmerk deur die aanneming van 'n troonopvolger, eerder as dat die kroon bloot na 'n biologiese seun gaan, of wie ook al sterk genoeg was om dit op te neem. [1] Die geskiedenis is miskien die minste beroemde van die vyf goeie keisers, en die geskiedenis vertel ons dat hy eintlik baie geliefd was onder die onderdane wat hy regeer het. [1] Dit sal die heerskappy van die vyf goeie keisers van die era verduidelik, terwyl dit ook die heerskappy van Commodus, die laaste van die dinastie se keisers, beklemtoon. [1] Met hierdie aanhalings kom ons aan die einde van ons Vyf Goeie Keisers, maar ongelukkig nie aan die einde van die Nervan-Antonine-dinastie nie. [1]

    Die "Vyf goeie keisers" (Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Antoninus Pius en Marcus Aurelius) regeer Rome gedurende die tweede eeu nC en het die laaste dekades van die Pax Romana gelei. [3] Hadrian - Ancient History Encyclopedia Hadrian Joshua J. Mark Hadrian was Romeinse keiser van 117 tot 138 CE en hy staan ​​bekend as die derde van die Vyf Goeie Keisers (Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Antoninus Pius en Marcus Aurelius) wat regeer het tereg. [4]

    Hier is die lys van die top 10 keisers wat ooit in antieke Rome geheers het. [5] Die dood van Domitianus het in elk geval ten minste 'n beter tyd vir Rome beteken, die heerskappy van leiers Machiavelli (!) Wat die vyf goeie keisers genoem is. [6] Ek het 'n paar goeie boeke gelees oor Romeinse leiers/keisers en ek hoop dat julle hier goeie voorstelle kan hê oor Trajanus of die hele 5 goeie keisers. [7] Hadrianus was Romeinse keiser van 117 tot 138 nC en hy staan ​​bekend as die derde van die vyf goeie keisers (Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Antoninus Pius en Marcus Aurelius) wat regverdig regeer het. [4] As die laaste van die vyf goeie keisers, en een van die mees stoïsynse filosowe, het Marcus Aurelius die Romeinse Ryk van 161 tot 180 regeer. [5]

    Nerva was die eerste van die "vyf goeie keisers" en die eerste om 'n erfgenaam aan te neem wat nie deel was van sy biologiese familie nie. [8] Vyf goeie keisers (96-180 nC) By die dood van Domitianus het Nerva (96-98 nC), 'n prominente senator met ordentlike administratiewe ervaring, oorgeneem. [6] Hierdie keisers het bekend gestaan ​​as die vyf goeie keisers vanweë hul politieke en militêre optrede, onder andere deur die eienskappe, maar dit was die prominentste, wat nie openbare of senatoriese sentimente ontstel het nie. [9] Ek voel dat Nerva, as die eerste goeie keiser, die belangrikste was. [9]


    Hy word deur die senaat beroemd verklaar as die beste heerser, optimus princeps, wat 'die beste heerser' beteken, en regeer die ou Rome vanaf 98 nC totdat hy sy laaste asem haal. [5] Hy het begin met die bou van die tempel van vrede, 'n aantal openbare baddens en een van die mees majestueuse strukture in antieke Rome, die Colosseum. [5]

    Alhoewel dit goed sou wees om professor Fagan se TC History of Ancient Rome eerste te neem, is dit nie nodig nie, aangesien hy 'n goeie agtergrond bied oor die tydperk in hierdie kursus. [10] Die Goue Eeu van Rome was 'n bloeitydperk wat onder die "Vyf Goeie Keisers" van die Nerva-Antonine-dinastie geval het: Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Antoninus Pius en Marcus Aurelius. [11] In elk geval, die "vyf goeie keisers" was beter as hul volgelinge-hoofsaaklik omdat Rome deur toenemend vyandige grensstate gekonfronteer is toe dit die 4de eeu binnegekom het. [12]

    Hulle het 5 goeie keisers gehad, want dit is wat 'n 18de -eeuse historikus hulle genoem het. [12] Kan iemand verduidelik waarom dit verbasend sou wees om 5 goeie keisers agtereenvolgens te hê? Ek verstaan ​​dat daar 'n paar slegte dinge was. [12]


    Rated 5 out of 5 by RoyT from Exceeds Expectations! Ek het 'n groot mening van professor Fagan, omdat ek sy TC -kursusse oor die geskiedenis van antieke Rome en die groot gevegte van die antieke wêreld baie geniet het. [10] Nadat hy die plan van die kursus uiteengesit en die Romeinse keiserlike geskiedenis omskryf het, sal professor Fagan die tipes antieke bronne ondersoek wat lig werp op die keisers van Rome. [10] Daar is familiebome om u te help om die verstrengelde verhoudings tussen die ou keisers van antieke Rome te verstaan; daar is illustrasies en beeldhouwerk van keisers, waaronder Augustus, Caligula, Trajanus en Commodus, en daar is kaarte wat wys hoe die grense van Rome uitgebrei en ontwikkel het onder spesifieke keiserlike heerskappy. [10]

    Die ou mense was teenstrydig om keisers as goed of sleg vir hulle te beskryf; 'n element van spin was dikwels betrokke. [10]

    Die heersers wat algemeen bekend staan ​​as die 'Vyf goeie keisers' was Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Antoninus Pius en Marcus Aurelius. [11] "The Antonines" verskyn ook verwisselbaar met "die vyf goeie keisers" om Nerva te benoem deur Marcus Aurelius (maar nie Lucius Verus en Commodus). [13]

    Die volgorde van goeie keisers is beëindig deur die toetreding tot die mag van Marcus Aurelius se onwaardige seun, Commodus (regeer 180-192 nC). [14] Nerva en sy opvolgers wat van 96 tot 180 nC regeer het, staan ​​bekend as die "Five Good Emperors". [14] 'n Reeks leiers, bekend as die Vyf Goeie Keisers, het agtereenvolgens regeer en 'n lang tydperk van vrede en voorspoed gelei. [15] Binne die ryk self was die tydperk van die Flaviane en vyf goeie keisers 'n tydperk van gesonde regering en algemene vrede. [14] Die Vyf Goeie Keisers was vyf opeenvolgende keisers van die Romeinse Ryk wat tydens die Pax Romana van 96 tot 180 nC regeer het. [16] Let daarop dat selfs onder die vyf goeie keisers, die keisers steeds probeer het om die heerskappy binne hul gesinne te behou, ondanks 'n gebrek aan seuns. [12]

    Na die tydperk van die 12 keisers en Flaviane het 'n tyd gekom dat Rome deur vyf goeie keisers in 'n ry regeer is. [17] Tussen 96 en 180 nC is Rome regeer deur wat historici die vyf goeie keisers noem. [18] Wie was Antonius Pius? "Antoninus Pius was een van die" vyf goeie keisers "van Rome, en is vergelyk met die vrome tweede koning van Rome Numa Pompilius. [17]

    Kyk krities na videogrepe en lees die inhoud van die webwerf oor nege keisers om meer te wete te kom oor hul individuele prestasies, persoonlikheid, leierskapstyl en ander belangrike elemente van hul heerskappy oor antieke Rome. [19] In Vespasiaanse Rome het 'n leier gevind wat geen groot breuk met die tradisie gemaak het nie, maar sy vermoë om die ryk te herbou en veral sy bereidheid om die samestelling van die regeringsklas uit te brei, het gehelp om 'n positiewe werksmodel vir die 'goeie keisers' van die tweede eeu. "[17] Die volgende eeu het bekend gestaan ​​as die periode van die" Five Good Emperors ", waarin die opvolgings vreedsaam was en die Ryk voorspoedig was. [20] Die periode van die" Five Good Emperors " ook algemeen beskryf as die Pax Romana, of "Romeinse vrede" is tot 'n einde gekom deur die bewind van Commodus. [20] Marcus Aurelius of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (121 AD - 180 AD), was die Romeinse keiser van 161-180 AD, wat beskou word as die laaste van die vyf goeie keisers. [21] In die begin van die tweede eeu het hierdie sogenaamde goeie keisers die naam gekry: Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius. [22]

    Die laaste 2 van die "Five Good Emperors" en Commodus word ook Antonines genoem. [20]


    Die blywende Romeinse invloed word deurdringend weerspieël in die hedendaagse taal, letterkunde, regskodes, die regering, argitektuur, ingenieurswese, medisyne, sport, kunste, ens. Baie daarvan is so diep ingebed dat ons skaars ons skuld aan antieke Rome raaksien. [20] Hy het selfs die Romeinse burgers geskandeer deur sy perd te benoem as konsul, een van die twee mans aan die hoof van die republikeinse regering in antieke Rome. [17] Die Pax Romana is 'n periode van tweehonderd jaar waartydens antieke Rome sy hoogtepunt bereik het van politieke mag, ekonomiese welvaart en artistieke kreatiwiteit. [18]

    Trajan het wel keiser geword toe Nerva gesterf het, en hy het hom goed van sy taak gekwyt. [23] Marcus Cocceius Nerva, 'n bejaarde senator met 'n duidelike onderskeid, was die keuse van die moordenaars van Domitianus vir keiser en die senaat herken hom dadelik. [2]

    Toe Hadrianus in 134 nC sterf, word sy aangenome seun Antoninus keiser. [23] Die senaat het dus opgehou om 'n regeringsinstrument te wees en het 'n keiserlike eweknie geword, grotendeels saamgestel uit mans wat nie deur die verkiesing tot die quaestorship gekwalifiseer is nie, maar eerder deur die keiser veredel is. [2] Dit was in hierdie tydperk dat die sentralisering van die gesag in die hande van die keiser voltooi is deur die 'dubbele beheer' wat deur Augustus ingestel is, wat in die 1ste eeu onwerklik genoeg was, maar nou, maar nie formeel afgeskaf nie, stelselmatig geïgnoreer in die praktyk. [2] Daar is nog 'n keiser wat ons moet noem, en hy is in die geskiedenis bekend as Commodus. [1] By die troon in 161 nC, het Aurelius en Verus die titel van keiser gedeel. [1]

    Die naam van hierdie man was Nerva, en gelukkig vir die Ryk, hierdie keuse was goed. [1] En miskien my gunsteling: mors nie meer tyd met stry oor wat 'n goeie man moet wees nie. [1]


    Baie van hulle het 'n stabiele heerskappy gehad met aansienlik vreedsame heerskappy, terwyl Rome tydens die krisisse ook 'n enkele jaar gehad het met vier keisers en nog 'n enkele jaar met nie minder nie as ses keisers. [5] Sy gewildheid as keiser word bewys deur die feit dat Hadrianus die grootste deel van sy bewind afwesig was uit Rome. [4] Marcus Cocceius Nerva regeer Rome as keiser van 96-98 nC, na die moord op die baie gehate keiser Domitianus. [8] Nie net was Augustus die eerste nie, maar hy was beslis een van die beste keisers wat Rome ooit gehad het. [5] Hadrianus se diens aan Trajanus is goed gedokumenteer deur die verskillende belangrike posisies wat hy beklee het voordat hy keiser van Rome geword het. [4] Trajan word beskou as die _____ grootste keiser van al die keisers van Rome. [24]

    Keiser Trajanus was die eerste Romeinse heerser van provinsiale oorsprong. [4] Die jaar na Nero se dood (68-69 nC), wat die 'jaar van die vier keisers' genoem word, was selfs erger as enige tydperk wat ek nog in die Romeinse geskiedenis aan u beskryf het. [6] Sy bewind het begin op een van die moeilikste tye in die Romeinse geskiedenis dat die Romeine net herstel het van die manewales van berugte keisers soos Nero en Caligula, en 'n burgeroorlog waarin vier keisers in 'n enkele jaar plaasgevind het. [5]

    Die aangenome seun en opvolger van keiser Hadrianus, Antoninus Pius, het die Romeinse ryk van 138 tot 161 nC regeer. Sy eerste daad as keiser was om eer aan sy aanneemvader Hadrianus te verleen. [5] Die tydperk van die Romeinse Republiek het tot 'n einde gekom met die dood van Julius Caesar en daarna het Augustus die era van die Romeinse ryk gemerk wat van 27 vC tot 476 nC geduur het. Gedurende hierdie periode het 'n aantal keisers die Romeinse ryk regeer met hul reëls wat oor 'n aantal dinastieë verdeel was. [5]

    "" "- Li hm: .3: 8" V Onder die bewind van die vyf goeie 1 "keisers bereik die Romeinse Ryk sy grootste territoriale omvang en die Pax Romana gaan voort. [3] Na die tirannie van Domitianus het die ryk nodig gehad 'n redelike keiser en 'n goeie finansiële beleid sou voer, anders as wat die ryk al jare geteister het. [9]

    Die beroemde keiser, wat die eerste Christelike keiser in die geskiedenis geword het, was 'n heerser van groot historiese belang. die Franke, Alamanni, Gote en Sarmate. [5] Die Romeinse volk beskou hul keisers as ekwivalent van konings, alhoewel die heel eerste keiser Augustus die Grote absoluut geweier het om as monarg aangeneem te word. [5] Elke nuwe keiser na hom is deur die senaat vereer met die wens felicior Augusto, melior Traiano wat beteken "wees gelukkiger dan Augustus en beter dan Trajan". [5] Hadrian, nou goewerneur van Sirië, word keiser, aangesien hy voorheen deur Trajanus aangeneem is. [4] Hy het 'n aantal plekke in Griekeland opgedra aan sy jong geliefde Antinous, wat in 130 nC in die Nyl verdrink het. Hadrianus was diep geheg aan Antinous en die dood van die jong man het die keiser so groot geraak dat hy hom laat vergoddelik het (waaruit die geheimsinnige kultus ter ere van Antinous ontstaan ​​het). [4] Jaar van die vier keisers In die stryd onmiddellik na Nero se dood het 'n man met die naam Galba kort die troon ingeneem, en 'n mens sou gedink het dat dinge dinge kon laat werk. [6] Die gebeure van die volgende 111 jaar (69 n.C.-180 n.C.) het getoon dat die prinsipaal 'n effektiewe regeringsvorm kan wees-as daar net 'n manier gevind kan word om te verseker dat die regte tipe mens keiser word. [6] Nerva, sterf vinnig nadat hy keiser geword het, dien slegs minder as twee jaar en sterf op 27 Januarie 98 n.C. natuurlike seun, en almal het deur die aanneming 'n erfgenaam opgelewer. " [9] Antoninus Pius is as keiser aangewys met die voorreg dat Marcus Aurelius (en sy broer) as die volgende in die ry aangewys sou word. [6] 'n Meerderheid keisers nadat Marcus Aurelius Aurelius as deel van die naam gebruik het, net soos dié nadat Vespasianus geneig was om Flavius ​​op te neem. [5]

    Gedurende sy hele tydperk het die Romeinse ryk 'n aantal keisers gehad wat die bewind oorgeneem het. [5] Namate sy seun Commodus as enigste keiser die troon bestyg en sodoende die tydperk van 'aannemende' gesag beëindig het, sou die stabiliteit en samehang van die vorige era begin ontrafel. [25] Sy eerste militêre diens was as Tribune onder keiser Nerva. [4] Hy word 'n historiese figuur van die Christendom deur die eerste keiser te word wat dit versier het. [5] Suetonius vertel ons dat Hadrianus, nadat hy keiser geword het, die argitek laat laat uitvoer het. [6] Trajanus se vrou, Plotina (wat lief was vir Hadrianus) onderteken die erfpapiere en daar word vermoed dat sy, nie die keiser nie, verantwoordelik was vir die aanneming van Hadrianus as erfgenaam. [4] Hy is later deur Augustus aangeneem as sy erfgenaam, dit is toe hy die naam Tiberius Julius Caesar aangeneem het, 'n naam wat die daaropvolgende keisers dra nadat Tiberius ook sou neem. [5] In 'n poging om 'n burgeroorlog en magsvakuum te stop nadat die oorheersing deur moordenaars gedood is sonder erfgename, maak die senaat _______ hul keiser. [24] Die legitimiteit van 'n keiser se heerskappy was afhanklik van sy beheer oor die weermag en die erkenning deur die senaat sou normaalweg deur sy troepe verkondig word, of belê word in keiserlike titels deur die senaat, of albei. [5] Hy het die steun van die senaat gehad: die senaat het hom na die dood van Nero as keiser genoem. [6] Al die keisers wat hier gelys word, het 'n minimum regeringstyd van elk tien jaar gehad. [5] Daar was geen verband met die gene Flavia nie, net soos met die name van verskillende ander dinastieë wat deur latere keisers aangeneem is. Om te sê dat die meeste moderne mense na hom verwys as Konstantyn asof sy regte naam Aurelius is, is misleidend. [5] Ek is nie almal wat oortuig is van 'n keiserlys wat Konstantyn laer as #2 plaas of Justinianus laer plaas as relatief klein figure soos Antoninus Pius nie. [5] Die Flaviane Maar toe die stof verdwyn het, blyk die nuwe keiser, Vespasianus (69-79 nC), die soort mens te wees wat die Augustaanse stelsel kon laat werk. [6] 'n Beroemde Romeinse keiser, die heerskappy van Vespasianus, duur van 69 na 79 nC. Hy stig die Flaviese dinastie wat 27 jaar lank die Romeinse ryk regeer het. [5] Ek stem heeltemal met jou saam, maar hier praat die skrywer oor die tydperk tussen 27 vC-476 nC (Romeinse Ryk) en Julius Caesar sterf in 44 vC. Verder was Augustus die stigter van die Romeinse ryk en die eerste Romeinse keiser terwyl Julius Caesar die konsul/diktator van die Romeinse Repbulis was en daarom nie in hierdie lys opgeneem kan word nie. [5] Die Romeinse keisers was die aangewese heerser van die Romeinse ryk wat begin het na die einde van die Romeinse republiek: die tydperk van die antieke Romeinse beskawing wat begin het met die einde van die Romeinse koninkryk. [5] Trajanus of Marcus Ulpius Traianus, was Romeinse keiser van 98 tot 117 nC. Sy heerskappy is bekend as 'n welwillende heerser. [4] Lucius Verus was Romeinse keiser van 161 tot 169 nC. Lucius Verus was die aangenome broer en mede-keiser van Marcus Aurelius. [4] Antoninus Pius was Romeinse keiser van 138 tot 161 nC. Toe die Romeinse keiser Hadrianus op 10 Julie 138 CE sterf, het hy vertrek. [4] Heerskappy van die Romeinse keiser Hadrianus wat groot bouprojekte in en om die Agora van Athene ondersteun. [4] Die beroemde Romeinse keiser van 117 tot 138 nC, Hadrianus, is gebore as Publius Aelius Hadrianus uit 'n etnies Italiaanse familie. [5] Die Romeinse keiser van 14 nC tot 37 nC, Tiberius Claudius Nero was die seun van Livia Drusilla, wat later in 39 v.C. met Augustus getroud is, wat hom stiefseun van die Octavianus maak. [5] Alhoewel die Romeinse volk as 'n groep moontlik min relatiewe verskille in die tydperk van Augustus tot Domitianus opgemerk het, bied die '5 goeie keisers' 'n eeu aan konsekwentheid sonder die onderbrekings van Caligula, Nero en die burgeroorlog. [25] Daar word algemeen na die tydperk van Nerva tot Marcus Aurelius verwys as die van die '5 goeie keisers'. Alhoewel die definisie van 'goed' altyd subjektief is, is daar min argument dat hierdie tydperk die grootste deel van ononderbroke mag en voorspoed vir die Romeinse staat gebied het. [25]

    For a good run down check out episodes 78+ of the history of Rome podcast. [7] The fire of AD 64, a fire that might have been stopped, ended up destroying a good part of the city of Rome. [6] The irruption of Vesuvius destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum and a fire destroyed a good part of Rome. [6]

    Despite being limited in comparing the Romans to the human condition only through the 18 century, and lacking the great advancements of the 19th and 20th centuries, Gibbon's words describe 2nd century Rome as perhaps the greatest time of all for humanity. [25] The Senate despised him for this, and told the criticized him to the Roman populace, until he no longer trusted his safety in Rome and left for the island of Capri. [5] He defeated Mark Antony together with the famous Egyptian queen Cleopatra and thereafter, together with the senate of Rome, created a new constitution for the great empire. [5] "In the second century of the Christian Era, the empire of Rome comprehended the fairest part of the earth, and the most civilized portion of mankind. [25] All these innovative steps showed their colors when Rome became a stronger, more consolidated empire. [5]

    He was buried first at Puteoli, on the grounds of the former estate of the Rhetorician Cicero (as homage to Hadrian's love of learning) but when Antoninus Pius completed the great Tomb of Hadrian in Rome the following year, his body was cremated and the ashes interred there with his wife and son. [4] Later biographers would attempt to place the birth of both Trajan and Hadrian in the city of Rome but both were of Hispanic ethnicity and this commonality has been assumed by some to be the reason for Trajan's adoption of Hadrian as his successor (though most scholars dispute this). [4] The great general Trajan followed Nerva and not only re-established Rome as a conquering force, but established his greatness among scholars as perhaps second only to Augustus. [25] Following the death of Domitian, an effective but reviled leader among the aristocracy, Rome was fortunate to find a stabilizing force in Nerva. [25]

    As a young man, Hadrian was well educated in his hometown of Italica Hispania (modern day Seville, Spain) and left for Rome around the age of 14. [4] During their reigns, Rome attained the peak of its power and dominion. [3] It marked the northern boundary of the Roman Empire in Britain but the length and breadth of the project (stretching, as it did, from coast to coast) suggests that the more important purpose of the wall was a show of Rome's power. [4] Trajanone of Rome's greatest generals, under his rule the Roman empire reached its greatest extent. [5]

    The most capable of Rome's military and civilian officials were viewed by Nero with particular suspicion, and Nero was left without anyone but sycophants to help run the government. [6]

    In the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon’s popularized notion of "Five Good Emperors’ Trajan was second. [5] Like Caesar, Hadrian is a controversial character and it's not hard to make the case that his reign wasn't nearly as good as Gibbon thought. [6] Antonius Piusan unremarkable reign, which is a good thing when times are good. [5]

    One of the first Roman emperors to have born outside Italy, his reign lasted from 41 AD to 54 AD. He was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor, and the fact that he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness he was rather unfairly excluded from public office until his consulship by his family. [5] After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus and thus became the first Roman Emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty. [5] Even though his predecessor Trajan never officially designated him as his heir, but Trajan’s wife declared that he had appointed him the heir just before his death, thus paving his path to becoming Roman emperor. [5] "The Roman emperor was the designated ruler of Roman empire that started after the end of Roman kingdom in the archaic period." [5] Over his rule of 10 years, he did all that, sketching his name as one of the greatest Roman emperors. [5] Antoninus was virtually unique among the roman emperors because he dealt with these crises without leaving Italy once during his reign. [5]

    Augustus: Known as Octavian during the long civil wars that extinguished the Roman Republic, he titled himself "Augustus," the first emperor of Rome, after vanquishing all rivals and becoming the undisputed strong man of the sprawling empire. [10] On balance, the emperors of Rome served as a stabilizing influence in a realm that straddled three continents and covered more than 32 modern nation-states, with a population numbering about 60 million souls at the height of Roman prosperity. [10] More than 50 legitimate emperors ruled Rome from the time of Augustus at the turn of the 1st century to the reign of Constantine in the 4th century, which marked the transition to the Middle Ages. [10] Wasn't Hadrian the emperor who decided that Rome would cease expansion? He had a wall built across Britain to fix the northern border-I think he realized that the empire was becoming too large to defend and manage. [12] Emperor Hadrian, among other Nerva-Antonine emperors, patronized the arts, held public festivals, and influenced the culture of Rome and beyond. [11] The first of five lectures on themes relating to the emperors examines their lavish building projects in Rome, such as the complex of public squares and huge bathhouses. [10] Several of the Nerva-Antonine emperors are known for their support of the arts and culture of Rome. [11] Invasions became more frequent, and no emperor was for long able to take his ease in Rome. [14] As the historian Tacitus said, the "secret was out emperors could be made outside Rome". [14] Rome never figured out a way to institutionalize the idea of selecting an Emperor by merit rather than heredity. [12] Even under the worst emperors Rome continued to function, but involvement in public life could become a decidedly dangerous business. [26]

    After Nerva's short rule, his adoptive heir, Trajan, a popular military leader, ruled as emperor from 98-117 CE. Officially declared by the Senate as optimus princeps ("the best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. [11] The second emperor in the dynasty, Trajan, is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, through the Dacian Wars. [11]

    Not a single emperor in recorded Roman history was ousted by popular revolution. [10] From the study of this history we may also learn how a good government is to be established for while all the emperors who succeeded to the throne by birth, except Titus, were bad, all were good who succeeded by adoption, as in the case of the five from Nerva to Marcus. [11] Scholarship on the Antonine era has often focused on the emperors, in part because the biographical Historia Augusta dominates literary historical sources: Hadrian is a modern favorite, Commodus a notorious "bad emperor," and in antiquity Trajan and Marcus Aurelius exemplary "good emperors." [13] Derived from a cognomen of T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (Antoninus Pius), it properly refers to that emperor (r. 138-161 CE ), his adopted successors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus (r. 161-180 co-ruled 161-169), and Marcus Aurelius’s son Commodus (r. 180-192). [13] The Nerva-Antonine Dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire during a period of prosperity from 96 CE to 192 CE. These emperors are Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus. [11] Hadrian was succeeded by Antoninus Pius, who was subsequently succeeded by Marcus Aurelius, who was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 CE. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. [11]

    Hadrian's Wall : A defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in 122 CE during the reign of the emperor Hadrian. [11] Hadrian's Villa : A large Roman archaeological complex at Tivoli, Italy, built by Emperor Hadrian and based on Greek architectural styles. [11] Emperor Hadrian had a major influence on Roman culture through his love of Greek culture. [11]

    It was now plain that the Roman armies were the real source of power in the empire while an emperor retained their loyalty he was virtually unassailable. [14] On the same day, Nerva was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. [11] Nerva, of course, did not inherit the throne either, but was appointed by the senate, and I thought the story was that he had some insight into what had being going wrong (as well as some loyalty to Rome's old republican traditions), and deliberately introduced the system of the Emperor adopting a competent, honest man to be his heir (rather than a son or relative, corrupted by the luxury of being in the Emperor's family). [12] Julius Caesar, dictator perpetuo and considered to be instrumental in the transition from Republic to Empire, adopted Gaius Octavius, who would become Augustus, Rome's first emperor. [11] Vespasian started the first dynasty of emperors who had no family connection to Julius Caesar or Augustus. [10] During the first century of the empire, the emperors were members of what has been called the "Julio-Claudian" dynasty. [14] The first five of the six successions within the Nerva-Antonine Dynasty were notable in that the reigning emperor adopted the candidate of his choice to be his successor, rather than choosing a biological heir. [11] By chance, none of the first four had male children that survived long enough to be considered, so each emperor instead "adopted" an heir who was chosen more for their abilities and the political and military support rather then the chance of their birth. [12] His successor, Nerva, began a new practice: Emperors adopted able army commanders as their heirs. [10] These seven emperors, who together ruled from 96 to 192 CE, are also called the "adoptive emperors" because, other than Nerva and Commodus, they came to power through adoption by the previous emperor. [13] Bust of Hadrian: Bust of the Emperor Hadrian, who ruled from 117-138 CE. [11] Bust of Trajan: Bust of the Emperor Trajan, who ruled from 98-117 CE. [11]

    On his death, Vespasian was succeeded by Titus (the first actual son of an emperor to follow his father on the throne reigned 79-81 CE). [14] Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was the son of the highly able and effective emperor Septimius Severus. [26] Commodus was the son of the philosopher emperor Marcus Aurelius and, although the film’s scene in which Commodus kills his own father is invention, it is true that Commodus was the very opposite of all that his father had stood for. [26] The last of these emperors, Marcus Aurelius, was the final emperor of the Pax Romana. [15] The only dangerous moment was when rumours spread in the east that the emperor Marcus Aurelius had died, and the troops there acclaimed their commander Avidius Cassius as emperor. [14]

    Before there were emperors, there was the Roman Republic, founded in 509 B.C. after a period of autocratic rule by kings. [10] With Commodus' murder in 192, the Nerva-Antonine Dynasty came to an end it was followed by a period of turbulence, known as the Year of the Five Emperors. [11] Three of the five emperors of the Severan period were killed by their own men in the midst of campaigns, Caracalla by a group of senior officers, Macrinus and Alexander Severus by general mutinies. [14] His reign inaugurated the period of the empire's greatest strength and stability, when emperors adopted their successors from among able army commanders. [10] You need to recall that at this point in time and for some significant period of time afterwards constitutional theory was that the Emperor was simply an extraordinary magistrate, and even in practice there were some significant limitations on the Emperors powers. [12] All the emperors devoted much attention to the frontiers of the empire, and spent much of their time there. [14] This lecture surveys the rise to sole rulership of an emperor who would transform the empire and change the course of history: Constantine. [10] Some emperors, like Nero or Domitian, have passed into history as models of erratic, paranoid tyrants others, like Diocletian, were able administrators, providing good government (unless you happened to be a Christian, in which case you were in great peril). [26] As emperor, Nero showed little interest in rule and far more in writing poetry and other diversions. [10]

    Although much of his life remains obscure, Nerva was considered a wise and moderate emperor by ancient historians. [11]

    Presented by noted Roman historian Garrett G. Fagan, whose other Teaching Company courses, The History of Rome and Great Battles of the Ancient World, have brought antiquity vividly to life for spellbound listeners, these 36 lectures show that there is no end of gripping stories. [10] In Lectures 27-31 you take a break from the chronological narrative to examine the emperors' relationships to different parts of Roman society: the city of Rome itself, the provinces of the empire, the elite, the people, and the army. [10] Central questions now include the means and meanings of identity (including gender, discordant identity, and/or "hybridity") among the elite and the 50 to 60 million others in the Antonine Empire, the extent and import of consensus, the ubiquity and conformity of "Roman" material and literary culture in the provinces, the relation of the past and the present, and the processes and depth of cultural diffusion from Rome itself. [13]

    This article covers the history of Rome and its empire from 96 to 192 CE, a period often referred to as that of the "Antonines." [13] Marcus Aurelius was an effective military commander, and Rome enjoyed various military successes against outsiders who were beginning to threaten the Empire. [11]

    The earlier history of Rome its expansion from city-state to world power is dealt with in the article, the Rise of the Roman Empire, while the article, The Late Roman Empire, deals with the later stages of Rome's history. [14] When that step became the new normal, it paved the way for the next step, and so on, until Rome had moved from Augustus, who styled himself the princeps, or "first citizen," to Diocletian and Constantine, who ruled as the domini --lords over slaves. [10] This new triumvirate ruled Rome for a decade, but as happened with the First Triumverate, differences among the leaders eventually emerged. [15]

    The century, reasonably tranquil for Rome apart from the Second and Third Jewish Revolts (115-117 CE 132-135 CE ) and the "Antonine plague" and defensive Marcomannic Wars ( c. 166 and following), abounds in source material. [13] The conclusion of the Dacian Wars marked the beginning of a period of sustained growth and relative peace in Rome. [11] During a period of peace after the Dacian wars, he initiated a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date is unknown). [11] Trajan commemorated the Dacian war by erecting a huge column in a new forum he built in Rome. [14] With Vespasian’s triumph in 69, his eldest son, Titus, who had been left in command against the Jews whilst Vespasian marched on Rome, vigorously prosecuted the war. [14]

    After the murder of Julius Caesar, a period of civil war erupted in Rome. [15]

    I quibble with his review of events for Julius Caesar and Emperor Augustus. [10] He spent some time reviewing the more complex events for Emperor Augustus. [10] Apart from Augustus and Vespasian, both of whom had seized power rather than inheriting it, all the rest of the Emperors up to then, who had inherited power, had been either incompetent or both incompetent and horrible. [12] The civil wars of the Year of the Four Emperors had perhaps underscored for all (except perhaps the most die-hard republicans) where the realities of power now lay. [14] Although the senate still retained important powers, and was required to deliberate on weighty matters, ambitious senators were now dependant upon the princeps for high office. it was natural that they should try to vote strictly according to the wishes of the emperor. [14] Several of the Nerva-Antonine Dynasty emperors were known for their notable military successes. [11] From now on, the emperor would be a military man, occupied with keeping external enemies at bay and staving off internal threats. [10] Dacian Wars : Two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Roman Emperor Trajan's rule. [11] De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors This fabulous resource about the Roman emperors contains an index of all the emperors who ruled during the 1500 years of the Roman Empire, as well as several biographical articles on specific rulers. [15] The fall of the Roman Republic and the rise of the first of the Roman emperors is dealt with in the article on the Rise of the Roman Empire. [14] This occasion marked the first time the Senate elected a Roman Emperor. [11] Trajan : Roman emperor from 98 CE until 117 CE. Officially declared by the Senate as optimus princeps, and known for his bold expansion of Roman borders. [11] Hadrian : Roman Emperor from 117 to 138 CE. Known for his grand building projects and his philhellenism. [11] Marcus Aurelius : Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 CE, as well as a notable Stoic philosopher. [11] It was common for patrician families to adopt, and Roman emperors had adopted heirs in the past Emperor Augustus had adopted Tiberius, and Emperor Claudius had adopted Nero. [11] All Roman emperors before Hadrian, except for Nero (also a great admirer of Greek culture), were clean shaven. [11] From sculptures of Julius Caesar and other Roman emperors to the architecture of the Roman Forum and the Coliseum, take some time to browse through some gorgeous images of Rome's greatness. [15] After Augustus's death in 14 C.E., other Roman emperors ruled with varying effectiveness. [15] Rated 5 out of 5 by alw3726 from Thorough historical review Prof. Fagan does an excellent job reviewing the trends and thoughts on the Roman Emperors. [10]

    They held an empire together for a long time, these 5 couldn't be the only good ones. [12] As each one was competent and honest, and the first 4 of them selected their heirs well, the system worked well until Marcus Aurelius (a competent and honest ruler in himself) got sentimental, and (perhaps the lessons of the Empire's first century having been forgotten after several decades of good rule) passed the throne on to his nasty and incompetent son instead. [12] Titus, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, and Marcus had no need of praetorian cohorts, or of countless legions to guard them, but were defended by their own good lives, the good-will of their subjects, and the attachment of the Senate. [11]

    You will cover scores of other Roman rulers, some of whom lasted only a few weeks before they were done in by rivals for a position that conferred virtual divinity in this life--although the chances that the life would be a long one were not good. [10] Moreover most of the emperors’ generals, governors, ministers and high officials were senators he relied on their loyalty and good service, and he was not often disappointed.The majority of senators gave distinguished service, and even under the worst of rulers the empire continued to run smoothly. [14]

    Diocletian was a good administrator, and managed to hold his divided command structure together at a time when the Roman empire was coming under increasing pressure from its enemies outside its boundaries. [26] Some senators, and not only those from old families with generations of consuls behind them, still hankered after the good old days when the senate had ruled supreme and there was no princeps to dwarf its members in authority and prestige. [14]

    Trajan began extensive building projects and became an honorable civil leader, improving Rome's civic infrastructure, thereby paving the way for internal growth and reinforcement of the empire as a whole. [11] The two wars were notable victories in Rome's extensive expansionist campaigns, gaining Trajan the people's admiration and support. [11]

    It is among the best-preserved of Rome's ancient buildings, and was highly influential to many of the great architects of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods. [11] Rome's borders in the east were indirectly governed through a system of client states for some time, leading to less direct campaigning than in the west in this period. [11]

    As suspicion fell on Nero, he blamed the Christians, starting the long history of Rome's persecution of this sect. [10]

    Did Livia Drusilla really poison or otherwise dispose of all the princes that stood in the way of her son Tiberius's succession to the emperorship after Augustus? The ancient historian Tacitus certainly gives this impression, which is chillingly conveyed by the actress Siân Phillips in the PBS adaptation of Robert Graves's novel I, Claudius. [10]


    Once exiled for falling asleep during one of emperor Neros shows in Greece, Vespasian lead Rome through a chaotic time and saved the empire from financial ruin, he ordered the construction of the colosseum which was finished during the first year of his son Titus reign as emperor. [27] General Trajan followed Nerva and helped re-established Rome as a conquering force, expanding farther east, the empires territory was at its widest during emperor Trajans reign. [27] Appointed by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, Trajan (born Marcus Ulpius Traianus) was the second of the five emperors who led Rome during its Golden Age. [28]

    During his time as emperor, Augustus was idolized by many Romans for his efforts to rebuild much of Rome with projects such as roads, major highways, aqueducts and temples. [28] Augustus who was the great nephew of Julius Caesar is considered to be Romes first emperor. [27] Have students return to The Roman Empire in the First Century and complete the Emperor of Rome Game. [19] Rome had some 16 emperors over the 30 year period in the second half of the third century. [29] For this reason, students of history can benefit greatly from in-depth study of Rome, its emperors and culture, and the ways in which the empire changed the course of human history. [28] Accuracy or completion grades could be given for the Emperors of Rome History Hunt. [19] During the interregnum or time between reigns, there was no reigning emperor in Rome. [29] Domition of Rome " His thigh was deformed as a result of being run over by a chariot driven by Caligua.By the time he became Emperor, Vitellius was a notorious glutton. [17] It was these emperors who revolutionized the Roman Empire and ensured the continued growth and progress of Rome as a cultural and military institution. [28] The Roman Empire continued in the East for another millennium, but is typically referred to as the Byzantine Empire, and the emperors considered the Emperor of the Byzantines, not of Rome. [29] Vespasian, born Titus Flavius Vespasian, was the ninth emperor of Rome and started the Flavian dynasty, which lasted twenty-eight years. [28] Emperor Romulus Augustus reigned during the final fall of Rome in 476. [29] Zenobia was a warrior queen who ruled as emperor of Rome from 267 to 273. [29]

    THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS AUGUSTUS ROME'S PIVOTAL EMPERORS - by Pat Southern: Augustus, Hadrian, Vespasian, Marcus Aurelius, Constantine, Septimus Severus Augustus: A Brief Biography "He subjected the whole wide earth to the rule of the Roman people." [17] Following the rule of Vespasian, there was nearly a century of good and stable rule in Rome, during the reigns of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius and Marcus Aurelius. [29]

    Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than 5 years of Caracalla's rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come." [17] The Empire became gradually less Romanised and increasingly Germanic in nature: although the Empire buckled under Visigothic assault, the overthrow of the last Emperor Romulus Augustus was carried out by federated Germanic troops from within the Roman army rather than by foreign troops. [20] Images of the Wall from the BBC "Hadrian's Wall was a Roman frontier built in the years AD 122-30 by order of the Emperor Hadrian. [17]

    GEREKTEER GESELEKTEERDE BRONNE(29 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


    This conservative shift reflected on the arts, and there was a general turn against literature and stage plays that were deemed subversive. Books were routinely banned, and theaters shut down.

    Despite this oppressive atmosphere, some creative work did gather attention, as with the poetry of Yuan Mei and Cao Xueqin’s novel Dream of the Red Chamber.

    Painting also managed to thrive. Former Ming clan members Zhu Da and Shi Tao became monks to escape governmental roles in Qing rule and became painters.

    Zhu Da embraced silence as he wandered across China and his depictions of nature and landscapes are imbued with manic energy.

    Shi Tao is considered an artistic rule-breaker, with Impressionist-style brush strokes and presentations that predated Surrealism.


    Song -dinastie

    The Northern Song was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, a military general in the Latter Zhou (951 - 960). In 960, Zhao Kuangyin launched a mutiny in Chenqiao county (in current Henan Province).It was not long before the last king of the Latter Zhou was forced to abdicate. Thus a new dynasty - Song was established in Kaifeng. In that period, most part of China's territory was unified. However, in late Northern Song, the political corruption was serious and the regime began to decline. In 1127, it was destroyed by the Jin (1115 - 1234).

    The Southern Song was set up by Zhao Gou, son of the last emperor of Northern Song. After Jin defeated the Northern Song, many imperial clansmen were captured by Jin's army. Fortunately, Zhao Gou had a luck escape. In 1127, he fled to Nanjing Yingtianfu (in current Shangqiu of Henan Province) and established the Southern Song Dynasty there. Later, the capital city was moved to Lin'an (currently Hangzhou City in Zhejiang Province).The Southern Song's regime was subject to the Jin. Many patriotic generals were killed in the late period. In 1279, the army of the Yuan Dynasty captured Lin'an, putting the Southern Song to an end.

    Generally, the Song Dynasty was prosperous in many respects of the society. In agriculture, the productive technology was improved which promoted the output of food in handicraft industry, the division of labor became more detailed which made the handicrafts technology reach an advanced level additionally, the development of the commodity economy exceeded the previous level. Particularly, the earliest paper currency appeared at that period.

    As for the development of science and culture, tremendous achievements were made during this period. Two of China's four great inventions - typography and compass were both invented and the application of gunpowder also developed rapidly. With regard to literature, a large number of outstanding scholars and poets, such as Zhuxi, Ouyang Xiu, Su Shi, Sima Guang and Shen Kuo, emerged and built up the splendid cultural atmosphere of the Song Dynasty.


    Different world

    The proclamation by the army of so many emperors is one aspect of this insecurity. There may have been power-crazed individuals who simply wanted to be emperor. In many cases the prime motive was not the desire to topple the whole Empire but to organise regional self-help.

    Faith in the emperors declined in direct proportion to their inability to protect the provinces, so the soldiers and the provincials turned to other leaders who could provide protection and security.

    The tragedy of the third century is that the chosen leader had to usurp imperial powers to assume the necessary authority instead of acting on behalf of a legitimate emperor who had lost all his credibility.

    That the empire recovered is a tribute to the various emperors who put an end to the chaos.

    The result was constant disunity, forcing the Romans to spend valuable time and resources fighting each other, instead of working together to devote all their energies to solving the social, religious, financial and military issues that beset the empire in this time of crisis.

    The fact that the empire came so close to disintegration, and yet recovered, is a tribute to the various emperors who put an end to the chaos. But in doing so, they created a different world.

    The Roman empire entered the third century in a form that would have been recognisable to Augustus and his successors, but it emerged into the fourth century with all its administrative and military institutions changed, bureaucratic, rigid, and constantly geared for war, with its capital no longer at Rome but in Constantinople.


    The roman empire

    Found Rome a city of clay but left it a city of marble.

    Caesar Augustus

    Lasting more than 500 years, the Roman Empire was, at its peak, the most extensive political and social structure in all of western civilization. Its has shaped almost every aspect of our western culture, and its influence can still be felt strongly to this very day. How and when then, did this mighty empire begin, and what was its ultimate undoing?

    In 43 BC the then Dictator of the Roman Republic, Julius Caesar, was assassinated. In Caesar's will his great nephew Octavian was named as his successor. Instead of following Caesar's example and making himself the next Dictator however, Octavian founded the principate: a system of monarchy headed by an emperor who held power for the duration of his life.

    The Roman Empire therefore, officially began in 31 BC when when Octavian – taking the title Augustus Caesar – became The First Emperor Of Rome. Augustus wrote that he "found Rome a city of clay but left it a city of marble". The Pax Romana which he initiated, was a period of peace and prosperity lasting more than two centuries.

    Emperors Tiberius (called "the gloomiest of men" by Pliny the Elder), Caligula (who claimed to be a living God), Claudius (during whose reign the conquest of Britain began in earnest), and Nero followed. Each, despite the continuing rise of the empire, less successful and beloved than their predecessor. These first five Emperors are now referred to as The Julio-Claudian Dynasty. When the self-indulgent, vicious, and egotistical Emperor Nero committed (assisted) suicide in 64 AD (with the final words “What a talent dies in me!”) he ended the Dynasty and initiated the period of social unrest known as The Year of the Four Emperors.

    In 96 AD Nerva became the first of what we now know as The Five Good Emperors of Rome. He was followed by Trajan (most famous for his military campaign against Dacia, a powerful kingdom north of the Danube in modern Romania), Hadrian (who constructed Hadrian's Wall, marking the northern limit of Britannia), Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius (who was also co-emperor Lucius Verus afterwards). Under their rule the Roman Empire grew and flourished.

    Emperor Septimus Severus (a Romanised African, and Rome's first black Emperor) ruled between 193-211 AD, founding The Severan Dynasty which lasted until the death of Alexander Severus in 235 AD. This was followed by a fifty year period of chaos known as The Crisis of the Third Century.

    By 285 AD the empire had grown so vast and difficult to govern that it was divided into a Western and an Eastern Empire by Emperor Diocletian (the first Emperor to take voluntary abdication, and to die of natural causes in his retirement).

    The western empire officially ended when the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer in 476 AD. The Eastern empire – which became the Byzantine Empire – endured up until the death of Constantine XI and The Fall Of Constantinople in 1453 AD.

    Romulus and Remus – The Founding of Rome

    According to Roman myth, the city of Rome was founded on the 21 st of April, 753 BC after Romulus killed his twin brother Remus. The brothers (sons of princess Rhea Silvia and God of war Mars – or sometimes Hercules) had been abandoned in a basket on the Tiber River as infants, their mother's husband fearing they posed too greater threat to be allowed to live.

    There at the riverside, Romulus and Remus were found by a she-wolf (in some versions of the tale it is the Wolf-Goddess Lupa or Luperca) who protected and suckled the infants. Eventually the boys were found by a shepherd named Faustulus who adopted them. While tending their flocks one day, the brothers came into conflict with the shepherds of King Amulius – the uncle of their true mother. Remus was captured and brought before King Amulius, who discovered his identity. Romulus then mounted a daring rescue with some other shepherds and Amulius was killed. The brothers were offered the right to rule together over the kingdom but they refused, preferring to found their own city. While they both agreed on the general region where the city should be founded (the area where the she-wolf had found and raised them), the brothers could not agree on a specific location.

    After each claiming he had the right to choose, they began to construct city walls in two separate locations. Remus leapt over his brothers wall in an attempt to show him how easily done this was. Romulus took such offence that he slew his brother. So it was that Rome was named after Romulus – its founder and first king.


    Emperor Tianqi (Ruled 1620–1627) - Earthquakes and Famine

    During the early 1600s, there were an unusually large number of earthquakes. From 1621 to 1627, there were two earthquakes above 7 on the Richter scale.

    In the first half of the 1600s, famines became common in northern China because of unusually dry and cold weather that shortened the growing season. The change of climate occurred throughout the world and is called the Little Ice Age.


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