Geskiedenis Podcasts

12 Januarie 1943

12 Januarie 1943

12 Januarie 1943

Januarie 1943

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Oosfront

Sowjette begin probeer om die Duitse beleg van Leningrad te verbreek.

Stille Oseaan

Amerikaanse troepe beset Amchitka (Aleoetiese eilande)

Noord-Afrika

Franse magte onder generaal Leclerc verower Murzuk en Sebha



12 Januarie 1943 - Geskiedenis

Wat word 1943-01-10 omgeskakel in Romeinse syfers? Hierbo is die datum 1-10-1943 omskep in Romeinse syfers.
Bogenoemde datum is geskryf in die tradisionele westelike/Amerikaanse skryfstyl. Geformateer in die volgorde van
Maand dag jaar. As u verkies om die Europese manier om datums te skryf (wat dag-maand-jaar is), word die Romeinse syfers X • I • MCMXLIII geskryf.

Volgende verjaardag aftelling:

Afteller vir 10 Januarie 2022:

Dae Ure Minute Sekondes

Bogenoemde timer is 'n aftellingklok vir u volgende verjaardag! (Gestel jy is gebore op 1943-01-10) Hierdie timer word outomaties bygewerk en is akkuraat tot die naaste sekonde. Kyk hoe jou volgende verjaardag nader en nader reg voor jou oë kom. As u op 10-1943 Januarie gebore is, is u volgende verjaardag slegs 224 dae weg.

Jou verjaardag is op tiende Januarie 1943. Om middel Januarie gebore te wees, sê baie oor jou. Jou sterreteken is Steenbok, jou geboorte-steen is die granaat, en jou geboorteblom is die anjer (wat albei goeie geskenke maak vir iemand met hierdie verjaardag). U is 78 jaar oud en is gebore in die middel van die stille generasie. In watter generasie u gebore is, het 'n groot invloed op u lewe; klik hier om ons interaktiewe tabel te sien en meer te wete te kom. U leef al 28631 dae, of 687144 uur, of 41228640 minute! U volgende verjaardag, wat in 2022 is, is op 'n Maandag.


East Providence, R.I. – 12 Januarie 1943

Om 15:00. op 12 Januarie 1943 keer twee Amerikaanse vloot SBD-4 Dauntless-vliegtuie terug na Quonset Point Naval Air Station na 'n patrollie-/fotografiese vlug toe hulle sneeustorme oor die metropolitaanse gebied van Providence teëkom en noodgedwonge noodgevalle moes maak.

Een vliegtuig (Bnr. 06925) het probeer om te land in 'n veld naby St. Mary ’s Seminary in Pawtucketlaan in East Providence, en het in die proses met 'n boom gebots en omgeslaan. Die vlieënier, vaandrig John Robert Jasper (22) van St. Louis, Missouri, is dood, en sy metgesel, fotograaf 3C, Ollen Amay Stevens (26) van Detroit, Michigan, is ernstig beseer.

St Mary ’s Seminary staan ​​vandag bekend as St. Mary's Bay View Academy in Pawtucket Avenue 3070.

Die tweede vliegtuig het hard geland in 'n ander veld, ongeveer 'n kwartmyl verder. Die vlieënier, vaandrig William E. McCarthy (23) van Mansfield, Mass., En sy metgesel, seeman Edward Goumond (20) van Johnston, R.I., is lig beseer.

Vaandel Jasper het pas op 30 Desember twaalf dae vroeër sy 22ste verjaardag gevier. Sy lyk is na die Quonset Naval Air Station in North Kingstown, Rhode Island, gebring ter voorbereiding op die begrafnis. Hy is begrawe in die Resurrection Cemetery in Afton, Missouri. Om 'n foto van sy graf te sien, gaan na www.findagrave.com en sien Memorial # 47782542.

North Kingstown, Rhode Island, sterfrekords, #43-17

Larry Webster, R. I. Lugvaartargeoloog en historikus

Newport Daily News, “Navy Pilot Killed In Crash Upstate ”, 13 Januarie 1943, bladsy 12


'N Groot aardbewing tref Haïti

Op 12 Januarie 2010 word Haïti verwoes deur 'n massiewe aardbewing. Dit het steun uit die hele wêreld getrek, maar die klein nasie het nog nie heeltemal herstel nie.

Haïti is die armste land in die Westelike Halfrond, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van sy geskiedenis van kolonisasie, besetting en uitbuiting deur Spanje, Frankryk en die Verenigde State. Dit het ook 'n geskiedenis van seismiese aktiwiteit en verwoestende aardbewings is daar aangeteken in 1751, 1770, 1842 en 1946. Die eiland Hispaniola, wat Haïti met die Dominikaanse Republiek deel, lê meestal tussen twee groot tektoniese plate, die Noord -Amerika en die Karibiese Eilande. . Die Haïtiaanse hoofstad Port-au-Prince strek feitlik oor hierdie foutlyn. Ondanks hierdie kennis en waarskuwings van seismoloë dat 'n ander aardbewing in die nabye toekoms waarskynlik sou plaasvind, het armoede in die land beteken dat infrastruktuur en nooddienste nie bereid was om die gevolge van 'n natuurramp te hanteer nie.

Die aardbewing in 2010 het net voor 17:00 plaasgevind. Die bewing voel so ver as Kuba en Venezuela, maar die episentrum van die aardbewing van 7,0 was net 25 km van Port-au-Prince af. Agt naskokke het dieselfde dag gevolg, en ten minste 52 is gedurende die volgende twee weke aangeteken. Die gevolge was katastrofies. Alle hospitale in die hoofstad, asook drie fasiliteite wat deur dokters sonder grense bestuur word, het ernstige skade opgedoen, net soos die lughawe Port-au-Prince en aposs en die hawe wat onbruikbaar was. Telekommunikasiedienste is erg geraak, groot paaie is onbegaanbaar en byna 300 000 geboue, waarvan die meeste koshuise is, is onherstelbaar beskadig. Die gebou van die Nasionale Vergadering en die Port-au-Prince-katedraal is ook vernietig.

Die menslike tol was verskriklik en bly onberekenbaar. Sommige ramings stel die aantal sterftes op ongeveer 40-50,000, terwyl die Haïtiaanse regering beraam het dat meer as 316,000 sterf, maar alle owerhede erken dat die dodetal onmoontlik is om te tel. Iets wat 1 miljoen mense nader, is ontheem.

Nuus en beelde van die aardbewing, insluitend foto's van die swaar beskadigde Nasionale Paleis, het vinnig 'n massiewe humanitêre reaksie geaktiveer. Die Dominikaanse Republiek en die Dominikaanse Rooi Kruis het onmiddellik gereageer met noodvoorrade en lugvragmotors na die Dominikaanse hospitale. Nasies van elke kontinent het geld, voorrade en mannekrag bygedra. Die lughawe Port-au-Prince & aposs het 24 uur per dag gewerk, maar kon nie al die aankomste akkommodeer nie. Buitelandse lugmagte, insluitend die van die Verenigde State en Groot -Brittanje, het oorlewendes na hospitaalskepe voor die kus gebring, en 'n paar voorrade is per valskerm na die eiland gestuur. Die & quotHope for Haiti & quot -teletoon op 22 Januarie het rekords gebreek deur $ 58 miljoen op een dag in te samel.

Alhoewel die humanitêre reaksie onmiddellik en oorweldigend was, het die infrastruktuur van Haïti en Aposs 'n laminaat gemaak om hulp te verleen. Die situasie is ses maande na die aardbewing steeds as 'n noodgeval geklassifiseer. 'N Miljoen mense op die eiland het in tente gewoon, en 'n cholera -epidemie wat in Oktober begin het, het meer as 3,300 lewens geëis. Of Haïti nog heeltemal herstel het of nie, is 'n kwessie van debat, maar die gevolge van die aardbewing was tasbaar vir die volgende dekade.  


12 Januarie 1943 - Geskiedenis

VELDOPSOMMING VAN WORRELDOORLOG 2

ITALIË en die ITALIESE KAMPANJE, insluitend Sicilië, Salerno en Anzio Landings

Elke opsomming is op sy eie volledig. Dieselfde inligting kan dus gevind word in 'n aantal verwante opsommings

(Vir meer inligting oor die skip, gaan na die Naval History -tuisblad en tik die naam in Site Search)

1922 - Benito Mussolini en sy Fascistiese Party het aan bewind gekom in Italië.

1935 - Na grensgeskille tussen Italiaans Somaliland en Abessinië het Italië in Oktober binnegeval. Sanksies van die Volkebond het min gevolge gehad en teen Mei 1936 is die land deur Mussolini se magte oorgeneem.

1936 - Die Spaanse burgeroorlog het in Julie begin, en Italië het met die een kant in lyn gebring en Rusland met die ander

1939 - Italië val Albanië in April in Mei in, Duitsland en Italië het kragte saamgesnoer in die staalverdrag.

Italië - verklaar sy neutraliteit

1940

JUNIE 1940

Italië verklaar oorlog - Italië het op die 10de oorlog teen Brittanje en Frankryk verklaar. Twee weke later was Frankryk uit die oorlog. Nog steeds op die 10de, verklaar Australië, Kanada, Indië, Nieu -Seeland en Suid -Afrika oorlog teen Italië.

Frankryk - Later in die maand het die Italiaanse magte Suid -Frankryk binnegeval, maar met min sukses.

Italië - Op die 12de het die RAF sy eerste aanvalle op Italiaanse vastelandseikens gemaak.

JULIE 1940

Sicilië - Die swaardvis van die karweier "Eagle" val op die 10de Augusta -hawe, Sicilië, aan. Destroyer "Pancaldo" is getorpedeer, maar het later weer gedryf en weer in gebruik geneem.

SEPTEMBER 1940

Asbevoegdhede - Duitsland, Italië en Japan het die drieparty -verdrag in Berlyn op die 27ste onderteken. Hulle het ooreengekom om gesamentlik te staan ​​te staan ​​teen enige land wat by die Geallieerdes aansluit by oorlog - waarmee hulle die Verenigde State bedoel het.

Sardinië - Vliegtuie van Force H se "Ark Royal" het teikens op die Italiaanse eiland Sardinië aangeval.

NOVEMBER 1940

Vlootvliegtuigaanval op Taranto - C arrier "Illustrious" het twee golwe Swordfish biplanes gelanseer, sommige behoort aan "Eagle" teen die suid -Italiaanse vlootbasis van Taranto. Vir die verlies van twee swaardvisse was die Italiaanse slagskepe "CONTE DI CAVOUR", "CAIO DIULIO" en die splinternuwe "LITTORIA" hoog. Al drie sak by hul vasmeerplekke en 'Cavour' is nooit weer in gebruik geneem nie.

DESEMBER 1940

Sicilië - Die X Fliegerkorps van die Duitse Luftwaffe - insluitend Ju87 Stuka -duikbomwerpers - is na Sicilië en Suid -Italië beveel om die Italiaanse lugmag te versterk.

1941

JANUARIE 1941

Lugoorlog - RAF Wellingtons het op Napels toegeslaan en die Italiaanse slagskip "Giulio Cesare" beskadig.

Sicilië - Die aankoms van die Duitse Luftwaffe se X Fliegerkorps het die magsbalans in die sentrale Middellandse See verander. Die eerste slagoffer was die draer "Illustrious" erg beskadig tydens aanvalle op die Malta -konvooi "Excess".

Genua, Italië - Force H se "Ark Royal", "Renown" en "Malaya" seil tot in die Golf van Genua, noordwes van Italië. Die groot skepe het die stad Genua gebombardeer terwyl 'Ark Royal' se vliegtuie Leghorn gebombardeer het en myne van Spezia af gelê het, alles op die 9de. 'N Italiaanse slagveld het gesorteer, maar kon nie kontak maak nie.

Sicilië - Die oordrag van baie Duitse vliegtuie uit Sicilië vir die aanval op Rusland het Malta verligting gebring.

Sicilië - Die Duitsers het weer baie van hul vliegtuie na Rusland oorgeplaas. Dit, tesame met die aankoms van nog meer RAF -vegters, het die las op Malta verlig.

Noord-Afrika - Met die Tweede Slag van El Alamein begin genl Montgomery met die laaste en beslissende Britse veldtog teen Duitse en Italiaanse magte in Egipte. Die stryd is op 4 November gewen

Franse landings in Noord -Afrika: operasie 'fakkel' - Anglo-Amerikaanse landings in Marokko en Algerië het ten doel gehad om uiteindelik met genl Montgomery se magte saam te werk en die Duitsers en Italianers uit Noord-Afrika te verdryf.

Sicilië - Met die nuus van die 'fakkel'-landings, is die eerste Duitse troepe op die 9de van Sicilië na Tunisië gevlieg en binne twee dae 'n groot opbou begin.

Italië - In die eerste aanvalle van USAAF op Italië was die Italiaanse ligte kruiser "ATTENDOLO" onbekend en ander beskadig in Napels op die 4de.

Sardinië - Aan die einde van die maand het die Britse duikboot "P-311" na Maddalena, Sardinië, met menslike torpedo's van Chariot gevaar vir 'n aanval op die kruisers wat daar was. Haar laaste sein was op 31 Desember en sy is vermoedelik verlore op myne in die naderings na die hawe.

Casablanca konferensie - Eerste minister Churchill en president Roosevelt met hul stafhoofde het vir hierdie belangrike konferensie vergader. Belangrike besprekingsgebiede was die Europese inval in 1944, landings in Sicilië en Italië na die Tunisiese veldtog, die bombardement van Duitsland en die voortsetting van die oorlog in Birma en die Stille Oseaan. Verliese as gevolg van U-bote en die tekort aan skeepvaart sou aansienlike beperkings op geallieerde planne wees. Op die oomblik kondig die twee geallieerde leiers 'n beleid aan van onvoorwaardelike oorgawe van die asmagte.

'Die man wat nooit was nie'- Die duikboot "Seraph" het die lyk van 'n vermeende Royal Marine -offisier in Spanje in die see vrygelaat. Sy valse papiere het gehelp om die Duitsers te oortuig dat die volgende geallieerde houe na die verowering van Tunisië op Sardinië en Griekeland sowel as Sicilië sou val.

Noord -Afrika en Tunisië - Die oorgawe van die as kom op die 12de en byna 250 000 Duitsers en Italianers is gevange geneem. Die hele Noord -Afrika - Frans en Italiaans - was ná byna drie jaar se stryd onder geallieerde beheer.

Pantelleria en Lampedusa - Na swaar see- en lugbombardemente het hierdie twee Italiaanse eilande in die noordweste en weste van Malta onderskeidelik op 11 en 12 Junie aan die Geallieerdes oorgegee.

10de - Invasie van Sicilië: Operasie 'Husky'

Die Amerikaners wou nog steeds konsentreer op die kruis-kanaal-inval in Frankryk, maar het tydens die konferensie van Casablanca ietwat onwillig ingestem om met die landing op Sicilië voort te gaan. Onder die voordele is die opening van die Middellandse See vir geallieerde skeepvaart. Die finale plan is middel Mei goedgekeur en nie veel meer as 'n maand later was die eerste Amerikaanse troepekonvooie op pad oor die Atlantiese Oseaan vir 'n operasie wat selfs groter was as die Franse Noord-Afrikaanse landings die vorige November.

Geallieerde opperbevelhebber - Amerikaanse generaal Dwight D. Eisenhower

Geallieerde vlootbevelvoerder se ekspedisiemag - Adm. Sir Andrew Cunningham

'N Totaal van 2,590 Amerikaanse en Britse oorlogskepe (tabel hieronder) - groot en mineur is meestal aan hul eie landingsektore toegewys, maar die Royal Navy -totaal het die dekmag ingesluit teen enige inmenging deur die Italiaanse vloot. Die hoofgroep onder vise-adm. Sir AU Willis van Force H het gevegskepe "Nelson", "Rodney", "Warspite" en "Valiant" en vlootdraers "Formidable" and Indomitable "ingesluit. Sewe Royal Navy-duikbote het as navigasiemerkers van die baie van die troepe wat uit Noord -Afrika en Malta afkomstig was, het onderweg na skepe en vaartuie gegaan, terwyl hulle laat op die 9de in stormagtige weer Sicilië nader met die ander vervoer, het geallieerde landings plaasgevind. Ongelukkig het baie van die Britte sweeftuie het in die see neergestort, deels weens die weer, maar vroeg die volgende dag op die 10de, het die troepe aan wal gegaan onder 'n sambreel van vliegtuie. Die nuwe amfibiese DUKWS (of 'eende') wat deur die Amerikaners ontwikkel is, het 'n belangrike rol gespeel om die manne en voorrade oor die strande te kry

Daar was weinig weerstand deur die Italianers en min Duitsers, en die teenaanvalle wat aangebring is, is gou verdryf. Syracuse is daardie dag gevange geneem en binne drie dae het die Britse agtste leër die suidoostelike hoek van Sicilië skoongemaak. Die Amerikaners het intussen noord en noordwes gedruk en Palermo op die 22ste. Teen daardie tyd is die agtste weermag suid van Catania nagegaan. Nietemin het die Geallieerdes aan die einde van die maand die hele eiland gehou behalwe die noordoostelike deel. Namate die verowering van Sicilië gevorder het, het belangrike politieke ontwikkelings in Italië plaasgevind.

Op die 25ste Mussolini is gearresteer en van al sy mag ontneem. Marshal Badoglio het 'n nuwe regering gevorm wat onmiddellik en in die geheim maniere gesoek het om die oorlog te beëindig. Teen Augustus is met die geallieerde moondhede oor die oorgawe van Italië onderhandel. Duitse en Italiaanse vliegtuie het 'n aantal oorlogskepe en vervoer in die invalgebied gesink en beskadig, waaronder 'n Amerikaanse vernietiger op die 10de. Op die 16de vervoerder "Indomitable" is beskadig deur Italiaanse torpedovliegtuie.

Suid van Syracuse, SE kus

Amerikaanse 7de leër - genl Patton
66 000 troepe

Agtste leër - genl Montgomery
115 000 Britse en Kanadese troepe

Verenigde State, Algerië, Tunisië

Egipte, Libië, Tunisië, Malta Kanadese afdeling uit Brittanje

Westers
Agter-Adm H K Hewitt USN

Oos
Adm. Sir B Ramsey

Britte en geallieerdes
6
2
10
80
26
250
237

As -duikbote het minder suksesse behaal as die aanvallende vliegtuie in en om Sicilië. Twee Britse kruisers is beskadig, maar in ruil daarvoor het 12 van hul getalle gedurende die volgende vier weke begin Augustus verlore gegaan: 11de - "FLUTTO" aan die suidelike punt van die Straat van Messina in 'n hardloopstryd met MTB's 640, 651 en 670. 12de -"U-561" getorpedeer in die Straat van Messina deur MTB-81 Italiaanse "BRONZO" wat Syracuse verower het deur myneveërs "Boston", "Cromarty", "Poole" en "Seaham" "U-409" wat van Algerië afgesink is deur begeleiding vernietiger "Inconstant" toe sy 'n leë konvooi wat terugkeer, aanval. 13de - Die Italiaanse "NEREIDE" is van Augusta af na die vernietigers "Echo" en "llex" en noord van die Straat van Messina is "ACCIAIO" getorpedeer deur die duikboot "Unruly" te patrolleer. 15de - Vervoersduikboot "REMO" tydens die inval deur die Golf van Taranto tydens die inval het verlore gegaan vir duikboot "United". 16de - Cruiser "Cleopatra" is deur die duikboot "Dandolo" getorseer en erg beskadig van Sicilië. 18de - "Remo se" susterboot "ROMOLO" is deur Augusta deur die RAF gesink. 23ste - Cruiser "Newfoundland" is van Syracuse af deur 'n torpedo van "U-407" afgeskrik, en toe die Italiaanse "ASCIANGHI" 'n kruismag aan die suidkus van Sicilië aangeval het, is sy gesink deur die verwoesters "Eclipse" en "Laforey". 29ste - "PIETRO MICCA" sou deur die duikboot "Trooper" by die ingang van die Adriatiese See in die Straat van Otranto gered word. 30ste -'U-375' het in die suide van Sicilië verlore geraak aan 'n Amerikaanse sub-jaer.

Sicilië - Terwyl die Duitsers en Italianers voorberei het om Sicilië oor die Straat van Messina te ontruim, het die Geallieerdes die laaste stoot begin - die Amerikaanse sewende leër langs die noordkus, gehelp deur drie klein amfibiese hop en die agtste weermag aan die oostekant van Catania met een klein landing. Die mans van genl Patton het Messina binnegekom net voor genl Montgomery's op die 17de. Sisilië was nou in geallieerde hande, maar 100 000 as -troepe kon daarin slaag om sonder ernstige inmenging te ontsnap.

Italië - oorgawe en inval

Die Italiaanse oorgawe is op Sicilië onderteken op die 3de, maar eers op die 8ste aangekondig om saam te val met die belangrikste geallieerde landing by Salerno, en in die verlate hoop om die Duitsers te verhinder om die land oor te neem. Kort voor lank het hulle beheer oor Noord- en Sentraal -Italië gehad, veg teen 'n vertragingsaksie in die suide, het hulle Rome beset, hul hoofmagte naby Napels hergroepeer en - dikwels bloedig - Italiaanse magte op die Dodekanesos -eilande en Griekeland ontwapen. Intussen het die inval en besetting van Suid -Italië aan die gang gekom. 'N Begin is gemaak met die 3de toe Britse en Kanadese troepe van genl Montgomery se agtste leër van Sicilië in 300 skepe en landingsvaartuie oor die Straat van Messina (Operasie 'Baytown') oorgaan en noordwaarts deur Calabrië gestoot het, en uiteindelik saamgespan het met magte wat by Salerno geland het. Vroeg op die 9de, in samewerking met hierdie landings, is die eerste lugafdeling van die agtste weermag deur veral Britse oorlogskepe na Taranto vervoer (operasie 'Slapstick'). Kort daarna was die Adriatiese hawens Brindisi en Bari in geallieerde hande. 9de -Omstreeks middernag in die hawe van Taranto het die kruiser-mynlaag "ABDIEL", gelaai met 1ste troepe in die lug, een van die magnetiese myne ontplof wat deur die E-bote "S-54" en "S-61" laat val het toe hulle ontsnap het, en gesink het met swaar lewensverlies.

Aan die weskus van Italië besluit die Duitsers om die meer suidelike eiland Sardinië te ontruim deur middel van Corsica 10de. Franse troepe het in die middel van die maand op Korsika geland, maar vroeg in Oktober was die Duitsers weg. Albei eilande was nou in geallieerde hande. Na die aankondiging van die Italiaanse oorgawe vaar die grootste deel van die Italiaanse vloot na Malta - drie slagskepe, kruisers en vernietigers uit Spezia en Genua, en nog drie slagskepe en ander vaartuie uit Taranto en die Adriatiese See. Namate die eerste groep suid gekom het, is die slagskip "ROMA" deur 'n FX1400-radiobeheerde bom laat sink (onaangedryf in teenstelling met die Hs293-vuurpylversterkte, sweeftuigbom), maar die volgende dag is die oorblywende skepe na Malta begelei deur slagskepe "Warspite" en "Dapper". Meer as 30 duikbote is op pad na geallieerde hawens. Op die 11de, Adm A B Cunningham het gepas die eer gehad om die aankoms van die Italiaanse slagveld in Malta aan die Admiraliteit te kenne te gee. Op die 12de die gearresteerde Benito Mussolini is deur die Duitse kolonel Otto Skorzeny se valskermsoldate uit sy Italiaanse gevangenes in die Abruzzi -berge gered en na Duitsland gevlieg. Later in die maand kondig hy die stigting van die Italiaanse Sosiale Republiek aan.

9 September - Salerno Landings, Operasie 'Avalanche'

Golf van Salerno, S van Napels

Amerikaanse 5de leër - genl Mark Clark
55 000 Britse en Amerikaanse troepe
met 115 000 opvolg

Westers
Viseadministrateur H K Hewitt USN

Suidelike
Agter-Adm J L Hall USN

Naval Assault en opvolgmagte

Troepe, voorraadskepe, LSI's ens

Benewens die totale totaal van 586 geallieerde vlooteenhede wat direk betrokke was by die landings, waarvan die meeste in hul onderskeie Britse of Amerikaanse sektore was, het Adm Cunningham as C-in-C 'n sterk dekmag en ondersteuningsgroep van die Royal Navy verskaf. Die dekmag was weer Force H onder Adm Willis met slagskepe "Nelson", "Rodney", Warspite "," Valiant "en draers" Formidable "en" Illustrious ". Agter-admiraal Vian was bevelvoerder oor die draers met die ligdraer" Unicorn " , escort carriers "Attacker", Battler "," Hunter "en" Stalker ", drie kruisers en vernietigers.

Die meeste van die troepe is via Sicilië na Salerno vervoer in die landingskepe en vaartuie, en het vroeg op die 9de, sonder enige voorlopige lug- of vlootbombardement, te lande gekom te midde van sterk Duitse weerstand. Aan die einde van die dag het beide die Britte en Amerikaners, met die steun van die bedekkende oorlogskepe en draagvliegtuie, brughoofde gevestig, maar 'n gaping tussenin. Oor die volgende paar dae het die Duitsers 'n teenaanval gekry en op die 13de en 14de het dit gevaarlik naby gekom om deur die geallieerde lyne te breek en die strande te bereik. Hulle is aangehou, en 'n groot deel van die krediet gaan na die ondersteunende oorlogskepe, veral 'Warspite' en 'Valiant' wat op die 15de aangekom het. Op die 16de was die dreigement van ontwrigting verby. 13de - Die hele tyd het Duitse Do127 -vliegtuie wat beide tipes geleide bomme gebruik, aanvalle op die geallieerde skeepsvaart van die strande af gedoen. Op die 13de is die vaartuig "Uganda" beskadig toe sy ondersteunende skote verskaf het. 16de - Op die 16de, nadat "Warspite" haar waardevolste werk verrig het, is sy deur drie of vier geleide bomme getref en byna gemis. Beskadig moes sy na Malta gesleep word.

Op die 16de begin die Duitse troepe terugtrek van Salerno in die rigting van die Volturnorivier, noord van Napels. Dieselfde dag het eenhede van die vyfde leër uit Salerno en die agtste leër wat deur Calabrië gekom het, kontak gemaak ten ooste van die landingsgebied. Hulle het albei stadig noordwaarts gegaan - die vyfde leër aan die westekant van Italië en die agtste in die ooste. Aan die einde van die maand het die Geallieerdes Napels genader.

Italië - Britse eenhede van die Amerikaanse vyfde leër het Napels op die eerste ingegaan toe die Duitsers terugval, gereed om die Geallieerdes lank en hard te laat veg vir elke wins in die komende agt maande. Hulle hou die lyn van die Volturnorivier in die weste en die Bifernorivier in die ooste. Intussen het hulle hul belangrikste verdediging voorberei - die Gustav Line - langs die riviere Garigliano en Rapido onder Monte Cassino, en verder na Ortona aan die Adriatiese kus. Op die wes, Het die vyfde leër van genl Mark Clark daarin geslaag om teen die middel van die maand oor die Volturno te veg en toe teen die ontsaglike verdediging te staan ​​gekom voor die belangrikste Gustav -lyn. Op die oos, Genl Montgomery se agtste leër moes 'n aantal goed verdedigde riviere oorsteek voordat hy die lyn bereik het. Aan die einde van die maand was hy oor die Biferno en het hy die Trigno begin oorsteek. Terwyl die stryd voortduur, Italië oorlog verklaar Duitsland op die 13de.

Italië - In die wes, Vyfde leër het gesukkel om vordering te maak in die rigting van die hoof Gustav -lyn, maar was nog steeds kort van die Garigliano -rivier en Cassino. Na die oos, Agtste leër was oor die Trigno en berei voor om nuwe Duitse posisies agter die Sangro -rivier aan te val. 'N Groot offensief is op die 28ste geloods onder leiding van Britse en Nieu -Seelandse troepe met die doel om deur die East End van die Gustav Line te breek en Ortona te neem. Luftwaffe -veldmaarskalk Kesselring het bevel gekry oor alle Duitse magte in Italië. Tot einde 1944 was hy verantwoordelik vir die hardnekkige en bekwame verdediging van die land teen sterk Geallieerde aanvalle

Italië - Vyfde leër het sy bloedige stryd in die wes van die land in die rigting van die Gustav -lyn, maar het pas die Garigliano -rivier bereik en was nog steeds kort van Cassino en die Rapidorivier. Intussen het die agtste weermag die lyn in die oos en die Kanadese het Ortona ingeneem, waar die Geallieerdes tot Junie 1944 gebly het. Gen Montgomery, die agtste leërbevelvoerder, keer nou terug na Engeland om hom voor te berei vir sy aandeel in die inval in Normandië. Genl Eisenhower is ook op pad na Engeland en genl sir Henry Maitland Wilson volg hom op as die opperste geallieerde bevelvoerder van die Middellandse See. Later, in November 1944, het veldmaarskalk Alexander hierdie pos oorgeneem.

Oorlog op see - Met die oorgawe van die Italiaanse vloot, is die groot skepe van die Royal Navy vrygelaat vir die Oostelike Vloot en om voor te berei op die landings in Normandië. Die oorblywende kleiner vaartuie het voortgegaan om die konvooie te begelei wat nodig was om die geallieerde magte in Italië te voorsien, en om beide die vyfde en die agtste leër op hul seeflanke te ondersteun. Die RN het ook oorgegaan na die offensief teen Duitsland se aanbodverkeer langs die weskus van Italië en ook vanuit die noordooste deur die Adriatiese See na Joegoslavië. Van basisse soos Korsika en Bari het ligte en kusmagte gereeld op die skeepvaart, en ook op landdoelwitte langs die kus van Joego -Slawië, getref ter ondersteuning van Tito se partydige leërs. 'N Groot ramp het hierdie suksesse op die 2de belemmer toe 'n lugaanval plaasvind Bari 'n ammunisie skip opgeblaas, met nog 16 handelaars wat verlore geraak het in die gevolglike brande.

Italië - Vier maande na die landing van Salerno het die Geallieerdes slegs 'n verdere 70 kilometer noordwaarts beweeg en was dit nog baie minder as Rome. Sowel die vyfde as die agtste weermag het swaar gely, en in 'n poging om die dooie punt te breek, is besluit om voort te gaan met die landings by Anzio om saam te val met nuwe aanvalle op die Gustav Line en Monte Cassino. Toe die landings aan die gang kom, het Britse eenhede van die vyfde leër in die wes daarin geslaag om oor dele van die Garigliano -rivier en die Franse oor die Rapido te kom, maar in die sentrum in die Eerste Slag van Cassino, Amerikaanse troepe is erg geteister. Die Duitsers het alle aanvalle gehou.

22 Januarie - Anzio Landings, operasie 'Shingle'

N en S van die stad Anzio

Amerikaanse 6de korps - genl Lucas
50 000 Britse en Amerikaanse troepe
met 115 000 opvolg


White Rose History: Januarie 1933 – Oktober 1943

Lêer nr .: 8J 35/43.

Scholl Hans 22 September 1918, Ingersheim.

Die hoofaanklaer van die Ryk, volkshof, staatsaanklaer se kantoor, Berlyn .

Met betrekking tot: Uitvoering van die doodvonnis opgelê deur die spesiale volkshof in Berlyn op 22 Februarie 1943 aan Hans SCHOLL, enkellopende man uit Ingersheim.

Ryksaanklaer WEYERSBERG, as opsiener van die teregstelling.

Werknemer van die departement van justisie Max HUBER van die kantoor van die staatsprokureur -generaal München I, as hofklerk van die kantoor van die prokureur -generaal.

Om 17:00 op vandag se datum, het die bogenoemde amptenare van die kantoor van die staatsprokureur-generaal na die ommuurde, bedekte kamer in die Stadelheim-gevangenis in München gegaan wat opsy gesit is vir die uitvoering van die doodstraf.

Die volgende persone het reeds daar vergader: die gevangenisbewaarder en senior regeringsamptenaar dr KOCH, die gevangenisarts en senior regeringsmediese amptenaar dr GRÜBER, en die beul Reichhart saam met sy assistente, sowel as die gevangenispersoneel wat absoluut noodsaaklik was vir die uitvoering van die uitvoering.

Die teregstellingskamer was ten volle beveilig teen die visuele toegang en toegang van nie-deelnemers. Die guillotine is voorberei vir gebruik en is met 'n swart gordyn verberg.

Om 17:02 is die veroordeelde deur twee manlike gevangenisbeamptes na vore gebring. Die opsiener van die teregstelling het geverifieer dat die voorgestelde persoon identies was aan die veroordeelde. Die veroordeelde is toe aan die laksman oorhandig. Die assistent van die laksman het hom na die guillotine gelei, en hy is onder die lem van die guillotine beweeg. Beul Reichhart het daarna die lem losgemaak, wat die kop van die veroordeelde onmiddellik van sy kattebak afgesny het. Die gevangenisdokter het bevestig dat die dood plaasgevind het.

Die veroordeelde was kalm en versamel. Sy laaste woorde was 'Lank lewe die vryheid'.

Tyd verloop tussen die oordrag na die laksman en die val van die lem: 7 sekondes.

Die hele teregstellingsproses, wat sonder enige ander voorval plaasgevind het, het 0 minute, 52 sekondes, geduur vanaf die tyd dat die sel verlaat is.

Nadat die stam en die hoof van die veroordeelde uit die guillotine verwyder is, is hulle in 'n beskikbare kis neergelê en na die polisiekantoor in München vervoer vir vervoer na die Perlacher -begraafplaas.


White Rose History: Januarie 1933 – Oktober 1943

Geheime Staatspolisie [Gestapo]
Staatspolisiehoofkwartier München

II A/Sond./Ma. [Spesiale Kommissie – Mahler] – München, 20 Februarie 1943.

In 'n daaropvolgende ondervraging het die enkellopende, mediese student

gebore op 22 September 1918 in Ingersheim, het die volgende stellings gemaak:

My mees onlangse stellings stem in wese ooreen met die waarheid [van die saak]. Ek is egter nou bereid om bykomende verklarings te maak oor die besonderhede van die saak, aangesien dit by my opkom.

Ek ken prof. Karl Mut, woonagtig te München-Solln, Dittlerstraat 10, sedert einde Oktober 1941. My suster Inge Scholl het hom by my aanbeveel. In 'n brief van 24 Oktober 1941 vra hy my om sy privaat biblioteek te katalogiseer.

Prof Muth is tans 76 jaar oud. Hy was die hoofredakteur en uitgewer van die maandbladHoogland”Wat deur Kösel en Bustek Publishing House in München gepubliseer is. Ek het nooit politieke vrae met prof. Muth bespreek nie. Ons gemeenskaplike belange was rondom literêre aangeleenthede. Ek het nooit met hom gepraat oor die strategiese situasie van die oorlog nie.

Van Oktober 1941 tot Junie 1942 was ek gereeld in sy huis, 2 - 4 keer per week. Die enigste uitsonderings was 'n paar langer pouses, soos Nuwejaar en Paasfees. Meestal het ek in sy biblioteek gewerk.

Sedert ek teruggekeer het uit Rusland (12 November 1942), het ek hierdie werk nie hervat nie, omdat die biblioteek gedeeltelik gestoor is as gevolg van die dreigement van lugaanval. Nietemin het ek verskeie kere met prof. Muth vergader, onlangs twee weke gelede. Gedurende die tyd (dat ek aan sy biblioteek gewerk het), het prof. Muth my ongeveer 300 punte gegee om $ 2,400,00 vir my boeke te koop. Dit was nie 'n betaling vir dienste gelewer nie, dit was 'n geskenk, want ek het belowe om die werk gratis te doen, bloot omdat dit my interesseer. Sedert Junie 1942 het ek geen bykomende geskenke van prof. Muth ontvang nie.

Ek het geen geldgeskenke van enige ander persoon ontvang nie. Ek wil hier noem dat ek in die winter van 1939/1940 vir 'n paar weke as deeltydse student by die München Streetcar [Company] gewerk het. Ek verdien 70 Pfennig [$ 5,60] per uur.

Sedert November 1942, Ek het die lesings van prof. Huber, Kurt, ek glo in Gräfelfing. Hy hou hierdie lesings aan die universiteit in München, departement filosofie. Na een van sy lesings was ek onduidelik oor een van die punte wat hy aangeraak het met betrekking tot Leibnitz. Ek het hom gevra om my 'n meer uitgebreide verduideliking oor die onderwerp te gee as wat hy in sy lesing gegee het. Dit is met betrekking tot Leibnitz se teodisee. Ek was naamlik onduidelik oor sy verduideliking oor die oorsprong van die bose of eerder Leibnitz se verduideliking van erfsonde. Ek het nie die antwoord wat prof. Huber my gegee het, heeltemal verstaan ​​nie.

Aangesien prof. Huber noue kontak met sy leerlinge behou [Nota 1] en hulle af en toe na sy huis nooi, het hy my ook kort voor Kersfees na sy huis genooi. In sy woonstel het ek sy vrou en albei sy kinders ontmoet. Ons het lekker gekuier oor 'n koppie tee. Die gesprek is op 'n maklike [Nota 2] lighartige manier gevoer, en die kinders het ons dapper gehelp. Sy vrou het my raad gevra oor hierdie kindersiekte en die ander, en ek het haar gewilliglik my raad gegee. Destyds het die jongste kind kinkhoes gehad.

Ek kan die volgende sê oor die politieke sienings van prof. Huber: Hy is 'n groot nasionalis. Hy beskou bolsjewisme as die vernietiger van die Europese kultuur. Hy het sterk antisemitiese standpunte. Daarna ontmoet ek by verskeie geleenthede prof. Huber. Ons gesprekke het hoofsaaklik gedraai oor die volgende onderwerp: Hoe kan 'n nuwe universalisme ontstaan ​​uit die chaos van wetenskaplike spesialisasie? Die materialistiese Natuurwetenskappe van die afgelope eeu is vandag nie meer voldoende vir ons nie. A longing to find the true basis for things rises up in revolt of all that materialism – a materialism that undoubtedly finds its reason for existence within the Natural Sciences.

There is therefore a demand for metaphysics. I myself view medicine as the way to approach these pressing issues, because spirit and substance come together in a single object, namely mankind. Prof. Huber is likewise of the opinion that philosophy and Natural Sciences must be reunified.

Regarding the religious views of Prof. Huber, I can only say that he sharply criticizes the conduct of the Catholic Church and represents the point of view that strict separation of church and state is necessary. I have not received any sort of financial support from Prof. Huber. Prof. Huber certainly knew nothing of my political views and activities.

I do not know a man named Paul Voreck, residing in Munich, Nymphenburg Str. 139 / Fourth Floor, rear entrance. I have never had anything to do with this man.

After my first leaflet operation that was carried out by Schmorell and me in Munich in the night of January 28/29, 1943, I could not see that these leaflets had any effect whatsoever. I saw no response of any kind from anyone following this operation. I therefore thought about what avenues of propaganda remained at my disposal. I hit upon the idee of writing slogans on the walls of houses.

Gedurende die first few days in February 1943, I told Schmorell that now we would make propaganda by writing slogans. I commissioned him to create a template with the text “Down with Hitler”, also with a crossed-out swastika. Schmorell created the template in his residence. I myself was not present. I only know about this, because he told me.

Schmorell also procured paint and paint brushes. I do not know where he purchased these items. I never asked him. The idea that a professional created the template in question is simply incorrect. Schmorell is a very good craftsman and he most certainly created this template himself. For the time being, we had no intentions of making other templates with similar texts.

As we had previously arranged, Schmorell and I met the evening of February 3, 1943 in my apartment. Schmorell brought the template, paint, and paint brushes. Shortly after midnight, we left my apartment with these things, intending to use the template to paint [our graffiti] in every suitable place. That night, we used black tar-based paint. I do not remember what path we took. We did not have any specific plan regarding which houses or places we wanted to paint [the graffiti]. Occasionally we would test the plaster to see whether it were suited for the graffiti.

We did not initially intend to paint inflammatory words on the university [building]. Daardie gedink crossed our minds on the way home, namely at a point in time when we considered the night’s operation complete. Nevertheless, we did in fact paint numerous things there. We did in fact paint graffiti on all the above-mentioned [Note 3] houses, but it is incorrect to say that we also painted graffiti on the “Brown House” [Note 4].

We did paint graffiti on a building that had something to do with Reich administration. I do not recall what street it was on, wherever it was, we turned left off of Kaufinger Street. I remember precisely that we painted the graffiti on a sign where we saw the words “Reich Administration”. I do not remember how many times we painted the graffiti.

The next day, I was able to determine that the words were still present on a barricade at the corner of Ludwig and Von-Der-Tann Streets. I also saw that several of the places where we had painted graffiti had been covered up. We painted the graffiti from around midnight to about 3:30 am. That night, the moon did not rise till about 3:30 am.

At the beginning of the evening, it was raining a little. I can not say that it was particularly bright that evening. After the operation, Schmorell spent the night at my apartment. My sister Sofie Scholl certainly had no knowledge of this operation. She had already gone to bed when we left the apartment. I had told her that I had to go to the Women’s Clinic on Mai Street to help deliver a baby.

During this operation, Schmorell and I were wearing civvies. I would like to expressly say that my sister also did not see the template, paint, and paint brushes that Schmorell brought with him, since he brought them all packed up. That same night, I also painted the word “Freedom” on the right- and left-hand sides of the entrance to the university two three four times. I used the same black tar-based paint, but painted in very large letters without the use of a template. Schmorell was standing next to me while I did this. He did not help me.

While Schmorell and I painted our graffiti, no one defaced property [Note 5], because I thought that was completely superfluous. I would also like to anticipate [your next question] and state for the record that I only worked with black tar-based paint and green oil-based paint. We did not use any other colors, nor did we use white chalk. We also only painted the words “Freedom” and “Down with Hitler”. If other smear campaigns took place in Munich recently, they did not originate with Schmorell and me. If they had, I would be more than willing to admit this to you today.

Aan February 8, 1943, Schmorell and I left my apartment at about 11:30 pm. We intended to refresh the graffiti at the university. We used green oil-based paint to paint graffiti on the university in several places, namely using the template that you already know about. In addition, I wrote the word “Freedom” on the wall five times and on the outside staircase [Note 6]. I also did not use a template on this occasion.

Schmorell watched me do this. We did not paint anything else in any other place on this night. My sister Sofie Scholl knew nothing about the operation on this night as well, since we did not take her into our confidence. I did not wish to burden [Note 7] her with this matter.

The piece of paper that I was just shown that bears the words “Down With Hitler” etc. concerns a test imprint I made using the template. I did this the night of February 3/4, 1943 on Ludwig Street. The words “Down With Hitler” that were painted on the Dresdner Bank building with red paint the night of February 3/4, 1943 were not painted by Schmorell and me. The “Down with Hitler” graffiti that was discovered on February 8, 1943 on the premises of Herzog-Spital Street 15 probably was done by Schmorell and me, but if so, most certainly on the night of February 3/4, 1943. I remember precisely that we were on Herzog-Spital Street that night, but not the night of February 7/8, 1943. The night of February 7/8, 1943 was a brightly moonlit night, so that if any guards had been posted at the building opposite [where we painted], we would have been observed.

The night of February 15/16, 1943, we painted the words “Down with Hitler” – again using the templatein several places on the way back from the telegraph office, where we had deposited the last of our leaflet mailing. We used black paint black tar-based paint to do so. This was the same paint we had used for the first night of the operation. We painted the graffiti – using the template – in the streets named [above] or rather on houses located there (see note dated February 16, 1943).

Without using a template, we painted the words “Down with Hitler” en “Hitler, the Mass Murderer” on the wall between the glass windows of the Hugendubel Company [Note 8]. Schmorell wrote the first, and I the second. That night, it was also very bright. No one stood watch for us. My sister was at home this night as well, and she only knew that we were taking the leaflets to the post office.

When we were painting the graffiti or disseminating the leaflets, we never carried a pistol or any other defensive weapon with us. We had agreed that if the police or any other person should try to detain us, that we would immediately run away from the scene. We were of the opinion that this would be better than raising any kind of a ruckus.

It was probably January 24, 1943 – or it could have been one or two days earlier – that I purchased postage stamps at the Post Offices in area [Note 9] 23 and the main post office. I bought 2000 8-Pfennig stamps at Post Office 23, and 2000 8-Pfennig and 300 12-Pfennig stamps at the main post office [Note 10]. These postage stamps were to be used to mail the leaflets to Salzburg, Linz, Vienna, Augsburg, Stuttgart, and Frankfurt/Main. We did not mail the leaflets to Frankfurt/Main from Munich, because we wanted to mislead the police. We had calculated that it was cheaper to put 12-Pfennig stamps on letters than it would be to travel by train to Frankfurt to post the letters [Note 11]. That is why Schmorell mailed them from Vienna. As already stated, I purchased an additional 1200 8-Pfennig stamps from Post Office 23 on Leopold Street. The stamps were used to mail the leaflets entitled “Fellow Students!”

I got the Remington typewriter that was used to type the leaflets from Schmorell at the beginning of January 1943. I had asked him to procure a typewriter for me. It took him at most one week to procure the typewriter. I do not recall that he ever told me where or from whom he got the typewriter. And I never asked him about it, either. I do not think that it was his own typewriter, since if I recall correctly, he told me he believed he could procure one.

I learned about the “White Rose” leaflet for the first time through the poet Dr. Schwarz, who lives in Solln. He received this anonymously through the mail and turned it over to the Secret State Police [Gestapo] when he received it. I do not recall any specifics regarding the content of the leaflet. I believe this has to do with the first leaflet, in case he received the second one as well. To this day, I do not know whether he received a second leaflet as well.

I heard about the dissemination of this leaflet from a colleague, Jörgen [sic] Wittenstein, currently in the Student Company at the Bergmannschule. As far as I know, my colleague Hubert Furtwängler, currently in the Student Company at the Bergmannschule, has also heard about this leaflet. If I am now being accused of having been shown such a leaflet by the female student Traude Lafrenz, residing in Munich at Steinsdorf Str. 7, I will admit that it is possible that this happened, but I cannot recall that event at this time. It is also possible that I – along with several other persons – read this leaflet in a corridor of the university. I cannot recall anything further today.

[Note 12 The accused was confronted with the fact that it had been possible to determine that the same person wrote the leaflets of “the White Rose” and the leaflets of the Resistance Movement “Call to All Germans” and “Fellow Students!”. He was shown that on the one hand, both [sic] leaflets had been typed on the same typewriter and on the other, that the political concepts of all the leaflets were the same, leading to the compelling conclusion that the accused had also written the leaflet [Note 13] of the “White Rose”. Once he was confronted with these facts, he declared that he was [now] willing to make a candid and complete confession.

I am of the opinion that it was not the majority of the German people who misluk politically in the time between 1918 – 1933, and above all in 1933. Rather it was that class of people in a nation that should lead a nation politically, [namely] the intelligentsia. Although a class of educated persons and specialists – in all spheres of intellectual life – was evolving into full bloom, it was precisely these people who were incapable of answering even the simplest political questions. This is the only way to explain that mass movements with their simple slogans were able to out-shout every deeper philosophical undertaking.

I felt that it was high time to seriously point out the national-political duties that this part of middle-class [Germany] was obligated to. Whom If the development of foreign policy had initially taken a more peaceable course, I perhaps would not have been faced with the alternative: Should I commit high treason or not? Rather, I would have attempted to mobilize die positive forces within the this nation in such a manner that they would have outflanked [Note 14] everything negative and led [Note 15] to a national form that would be worth striving for.

I procured the duplicating machine shortly before the publication of the first leaflet, namely from the Beierle Corporation. It was a Greif duplicating machine with a hand crank, and it cost 32 Marks [$256.00] . As best as I can recall, I bought paper and stencils from Kaut and Bullinger Company. Alexander Schmorell furnished me with a typewriter without knowing anything about my plans. I do not know where he got the typewriter. Despite repeated remonstrances, I cannot make any other statements with regards to this matter.

The draft of the leaflets – as well as their implementation and mailing – originated with me. I carried out this work in the little room at Athener Platz 4, where I resided at the time. At that time, I was living alone, ie, my sister was not yet studying in Munich. I published around 100 copies each of every leaflet of the “White Rose”, sealed them up in envelopes, and sent them to specific addresses that I got out of the Munich telephone directory. In total, there were four numbered leaflets (I – IV).

The motivation for my actions explains the criterion for choosing specific addresses. I wanted to call out the intelligentsia and therefore directed my energies to academicians etc. I also addressed the leaflets to several innkeepers in Munich. I wanted the leaflets to become popular, because I hoped that the innkeepers would tell their guests about them. The telephone directory used for these mailings had been procured specifically for this purpose by me [Note 16]. I destroyed it when I moved.

As I stated in one of the leaflets, I did not note the names of the people to whom I sent the leaflets. That is why not everyone who received a leaflet received all of them, although that was in fact my original intention. Especially for the later editions, I really do not recall who got a copy. I did not know most of the people who were sent copies of the leaflets. There were indeed several – few – professors whom I knew from their lectures, and two or three acquaintances.

I can recall only two of the acquaintances: The innkeeper Josef Poschenrieder in [Bad] Tölz, whom I know only as an innkeeper and the poet Hermann Claudias (sic – should be Claudius), whose daughter Ursula was one of my girlfriends for a long time. I wanted to annoy Claudias with the leaflet, because he is disposed towards National Socialism. I am aware that he read his poetry aloud quite a while ago, namely within the scope of Strength Through Joy meetings. I know nothing about possible poetry readings that he could have given to students. I certainly did not ask him to do so. I am aware of the status of Claudias’ health.

Shortly following the France campaign, I corresponded briefly with the writer Benno von Mechow, residing in Brannenburg. We corresponded regarding one of his novellas that was published around that time in the Frankfurter Zeitung [newspaper]. I do not recall the title at present. Now I remember what it was: Novella to Sicily. I also briefly met the doctor of veterinary medicine, Josef Schneider, residing in [Bad] Tölz at Bahnhof Str. 13. I sent him editions I, II, and III of the leaflets. I never sent leaflets to police headquarters in Munich. If I am told that these leaflets were sent by “registered mail,” I can only reply that I most certainly did not do so. I suspect that someone to whom I sent the leaflets got rid of them in this manner. I happened upon the name of Franz Monheim in Aachen because I got to know his son in a field hospital. I also sent several leaflets to Zell near Ruhpolding. The addressees were either café owners or shopkeepers whom I had gotten to know when I stayed there.

When I was sent to Russia on July 20, 1942, I was prevented from publishing more of these leaflets. If I had not [been sent to Russia], I do not know whether I would have published and disseminated more of these leaflets, because at the time, I was doubtful that this was the right way to proceed.

I sold the duplicating machine that had been used in the production of these mass leaflets back to the Bayerle [sic] Company. I think I got 15 or 20 Marks [$120.00 or $160.00] for it. I gave the typewriter back to Alexander Schmorell. When asked, I will once again repeat that Schmorell had nothing to do with the production and distribution of these leaflets and did not even know about them. Certainly he learned about the leaflets later, but not from me, from other students. I wisely refrained from telling other students that I was the producer and distributor of these leaflets. I never showed the leaflets to other students or to bystanders. Neither my sisters nor other family members knew anything about this activity of mine.

I had nothing to do with the document I was just shown, “Victory at Any Price.” I will also say that I have heard nothing concerning the production and distribution of this leaflet. I would admit it had I produced and distributed this leaflet.

The same is true of the leaflet I was just shown, “January 30, 1933 – 10 Years of National Socialism! – January 30, 1943 [Note 17]”. I knew nothing of the existence of this leaflet. I do not have any connections to the Bavarian Motor Works [BMW], I was never in their offices, and I know none of their workers or employees.

During some conversation or the other, I learned that the sermons of the bishop in Münster, Count von Galen, had been duplicated and distributed. I can no longer recall what the occasion was or when I heard of this. But I never saw a copy of this document.

When asked, I will expressly state that except for the graffiti and propaganda operations to which I have already confessed, I did not carry out any others. I never affixed any sort of notices to placards and similar items.

I have heard nothing of the “V Propaganda” [Note 18] that has allegedly taken place in Munich and have no connection at all to it.

Coming back to my leaflet “The White Rose”: When asked why precisely this name was given to the leaflet, I will explain it as follows. The name “The White Rose” [Note 19] was randomly chosen. I acted on the assumption that certain concrete concepts must be present in effective propaganda – the concepts would mean nothing in and of themselves, but would sound good and would give the impression that there was an agenda to [the propaganda].

It is possible that I chose the name on an emotional basis because at the time, I was under the influence of Brentano’s Spanish ballad [Note 20] “Die Rosa Blanca”. There is no connection to the “White Rose” [Note 21] in English history. I also was unaware that there had been a girls’ organization of that name. The typewritten leaflets that had the same content as those of the “White Rose” did not originate with me.

I quickly abandoned thoughts of creating an effective organization, because such an undertaking was not possible due to time constraints. These thoughts only fleetingly crossed my mind at the beginning of January 1943. I did not talk to anyone else about it, nor did I make even the slightest effort to form such an organization.

In December 1942, I purchased the duplicating machine that was used for the operation in January and February 1943 from the Bayerle Company. This was a used “Roto Preziosa” machine, model no. 13 101. It cost 240 Marks [$1,920.00]. Schmorell and I paid for it, since Schmorell had given me about 500 Marks [$4,000.00]. When we purchased it, I was in uniform (Sergeant). When the sales clerk asked why I needed it, I briefly told him that we needed it for our work as students.

When painting “Down with Hitler,” Schmorell and I took turns. Therefore Schmorell carried the bucket of paint for a while and I used the paint brush, and vice versa.

I did nie send any of the leaflets that I produced to soldiers who are serving on the front lines. I distanced myself from such action for fundamental reasons, because I know the psychological state of mind of a soldier on the front lines from firsthand experience, and I am convinced that one should not do such things to the front lines.

With regards to the literary letters that I wrote, this is about a newsletter entitled “Storm Lantern”. These letters were sent to a former circle of friends from Ulm, a circle that has been torn apart by the war. It was a means of building an intellectual bridge. [The newsletter] was apolitical and is in no way connected with the leaflets. One issue of the newsletter contained several essays written by my sister Inge Scholl, Otto Aicher and myself. I can remember that the addressees included the following names:

Sergeant Major Ernst Reden, killed in action
Captain Fritz Hartnagel (Stalingrad)
Lance Corporal Werner Scholl (brother), and
Lance Corporal Wilhelm Habermann.

I believe this newsletter was sent to only 8 people. My sister Inge Scholl in Ulm typed these letters in Spring 1942 in Ulm.

I disobeyed the orders given in my unit (Student Company) and did not participate in the student assembly at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, following which a demonstration broke out, because I was not interested in the Gauleiter’s speech. I likewise did not participate in the above-mentioned demonstration and only learned about it after the fact from various students.

I never set out leaflets at the main post office, and specifically, I never had a run-in with a member of the armed forces in so doing. Nor do I know anyone who matches the description in question.

I never carried the .08-pistol that was found in my apartment when I carried out our night-time operations. I acquired the pistol in Russia.

Recorded by: /Signature: Mahler/ Crim. Secr.

Read and signed by: /Signature: Hans Scholl/

Note 1: By German standards not to be mistaken for camaraderie between students and professors often found on American campuses. Also interesting to note that Hans Scholl used the word Schüler (pupil) instead of Student (university student).

Note 2: The word “easy” was repeated in the original document, likely a typo.

Note 3: There are no “above-mentioned” houses.

Note 4: Hitler’s residence in Munich – equivalent to the White House in Washington, DC.

Note 5: Schmieren literally means “smear” – such as wildly extravagant graffiti, or smearing substances other than paint, e.g. grease, on a surface.

Note 6: Freitreppe can also mean front steps.

Note 7: Not merely in the sense of “bother”, but also to make her an accomplice.

Note 8: Hugendubel was and is a large book store (chain).

Note 9: Like a zip code. “Munich 23” denoted the part of the city where the post office was located, just as e.g. Houston, 55 Texas denoted the Spring Branch area of Houston until ZIP codes were introduced in the USA.

Note 10: A handwritten note in the margins calculates amount: “320 + 36 = 356!” This was $2,848 in postage.

Note 11: 1937 Baedeker’s explains that postage for letters up to 20 grams (approximately 1 oz.) was 12-Pfennig [.96], but the “Urban Rate” – i.e., for letters “dispatched and delivered” within the same town – was 8-Pfennig [.64].

Note 12: There are no grammatical indications – e.g., quotation marks or special offset of the paragraph – to prepare the ‘reader’ for the transition from first-person confession to third-person accusation. Same with next paragraph.

Note 14: Specifically uses the military term.

Note 15: Uses a medies term that can also be translated “transfuse”.

Note 16: Grammatical construction of this sentence is equally awkward in the original.

Note 17: January 30, 1933 was the date that Hitler came to power. January 30, 1943 was the date of the defeat at Stalingrad.

Note 18: No explanation given. Possibly refers to above paragraph, since “notices” is Vermerken in the original.

Note 19: Typo in original renders it “The Wise Rose” (Die Weise Rose in plaas van Die Weiβe Rose).

Note 20: Romanze is a poetic ballad not a Roman or novel.

Note 21: Another typo – this time the original document says “Weisse Roe”.


San Antonio Register (San Antonio, Tex.), Vol. 12, No. 50, Ed. 1 Friday, January 15, 1943

Weekly newspaper from San Antonio, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Fisiese beskrywing

eight pages : ill. page 20 x 15 in. Digitized from 35 mm. mikrofilm.

Skeppingsinligting

Konteks

Hierdie koerant is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the UT San Antonio Libraries Special Collections to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 255 times. Meer inligting oor hierdie kwessie kan hieronder besigtig word.

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UT San Antonio Libraries Special Collections

UTSA Libraries Special Collections seeks to build, preserve and provide access to our distinctive research collections documenting the diverse histories and development of San Antonio and South Texas. Our collecting priorities include the history of women and gender in Texas, the history of Mexican Americans, activists/activism, the history of the African American and LGBTQ communities in our region, the Tex-Mex food industry, and urban planning.


The Soviet advance to the Oder, January–February 1945

At the end of 1944 the Germans still held the western half of Poland, and their front was still 200 miles east of where it had been at the start of the war in 1939. The Germans had checked the Soviets’ summer offensive and had established a firm line along the Narew and Vistula rivers southward to the Carpathians, and in October they repelled the Red Army’s attempted thrust into East Prussia. Meanwhile, however, the Soviet left, moving up from the eastern Balkans, had been gradually pushing around through Hungary and Yugoslavia in a vast flanking movement and the absorption of German forces in opposing this side-door approach detracted considerably from the Germans’ capacity to maintain their main Eastern and Western fronts.

The Soviet high command was now ready to exploit the fundamental weaknesses of the German situation. Abundant supplies for their armies had been accumulated at the railheads. The mounting stream of American-supplied trucks had by this time enabled the Soviets to motorize a much larger proportion of their infantry brigades and thus, with the increasing production of their own tanks, to multiply the number of armoured and mobile corps for a successful breakthrough.

Before the end of December ominous reports were received by Guderian—who, in this desperately late period of the war, had been made chief of the German general staff. German Army intelligence reported that 225 Soviet infantry divisions and 22 armoured corps had been identified on the front between the Baltic and the Carpathians, assembled to attack. But when Guderian presented the report of these massive Soviet offensive preparations, Hitler refused to believe it, exclaiming: “It’s the biggest imposture since Genghis Khan! Who is responsible for producing all this rubbish?”

If Hitler had been willing to stop the Ardennes counteroffensive in the west, troops could have been transferred to the Eastern Front but he refused to do so. At the same time he refused Guderian’s renewed request that the 30 German divisions now isolated in Courland (on the Baltic seacoast in Lithuania) should be evacuated by sea and brought back to reinforce the gateways into Germany. As a consequence, Guderian was left with a mobile reserve of only 12 armoured divisions to back up the 50 weak infantry divisions stretched out over the 700 miles of the main front.

The Soviet offensive opened on January 12, 1945, when Konev’s armies were launched against the German front in southern Poland, starting from their bridgehead over the Vistula River near Sandomierz. After it had pierced the German defense and produced a flanking menace to the central sector, Zhukov’s armies in the centre of the front bounded forward from their bridgeheads nearer Warsaw. That same day, January 14, Rokossovsky’s armies also joined in the offensive, striking from the Narew River north of Warsaw and breaking through the defenses covering this flank approach to East Prussia. The breach in the German front was now 200 miles wide.

On January 17, 1945, Warsaw was captured by Zhukov, after it had been surrounded and on January 19 his armoured spearheads drove into Łódź. That same day Konev’s spearheads reached the Silesian frontier of prewar Germany. Thus, at the end of the first week the offensive had been carried 100 miles deep and was 400 miles wide—far too wide to be filled by such scanty reinforcements as were belatedly provided.

The crisis made Hitler renounce any idea of pursuing his offensive in the west but, despite Guderian’s advice, he switched the 6th Panzer Army not to Poland but to Hungary in an attempt to relieve Budapest. The Soviets could thus continue their advance through Poland for two more weeks. While Konev’s spearheads crossed the Oder River in the vicinity of Breslau (Wrocław) and thus cut Silesia’s important mineral resources off from Germany, Zhukov made a sweeping advance in the centre by driving forward from Warsaw, past Poznań, Bydgoszcz, and Toruń, to the frontiers of Brandenburg and of Pomerania. At the same time Rokossovsky pushed on, through Allenstein (Olsztyn), to the Gulf of Danzig, thus cutting off the 25 German divisions in East Prussia. To defend the yawning gap in the centre of the front, Hitler created a new army group and put Heinrich Himmler in command of it with a staff of favoured SS officers. Their fumbling helped to clear the path for Zhukov, whose mechanized forces by January 31, 1945, were at Küstrin, on the lower Oder, only 40 miles from Berlin.

Zhukov’s advance now came to a halt. Konev, however, could still make a northwesterly sweep down the left bank of the middle Oder, reaching Sommerfeld, 80 miles from Berlin, on February 13, and the Neisse River two days later. The Germans’ defense benefited from being driven back to the straight and shortened line formed by the Oder and Neisse rivers. This front, extending from the Baltic coast to the Bohemian frontier, was less than 200 miles long. The menace of the Soviets’ imminent approach to Berlin led Hitler to decide that most of his fresh drafts of troops must be sent to reinforce the Oder the way was thus eased for the crossing of the Rhine River by the American and British armies.

On February 13, 1945, the Soviets took Budapest, the defense of which had entailed the Germans’ loss of Silesia.


Slagoffers

The SS and police deported approximately 42,000 Warsaw ghetto survivors who were captured during the uprising. These people were sent to the forced-labor camps at Poniatowa and Trawniki, and to the Lublin/Majdanek concentration camp. Most of them would be murdered at these camps in November 1943 in a two-day shooting operation known as Operation Harvest Festival ( Erntefest ).

At least 7,000 Jews died fighting or in hiding in the ghetto. Approximately 7,000 Jews were captured by the SS and police at the end of the fighting. These Jews were deported to the Treblinka killing center where they were murdered.

For months after the liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto, individual Jews continued to hide in the ruins of the ghetto. On occasion, they attacked German police officials on patrol. After the ghetto was liquidated, perhaps as many as 20,000 Warsaw Jews continued to live in hiding on the so-called Aryan side of Warsaw.