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Ringgold DD- 89 - Geskiedenis

Ringgold DD- 89 - Geskiedenis


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Ringgold I

(DD-89: dp. 1,060; 1, 315'5 "; b. 31'8"; dr. 9'10 "; s. 35 k .;
kpl. 134; a. 4 4 ", 2 1-par, 12 21" tt .; kl. Wiekes)

Die eerste Ringgold, 'n tweelingskroef, spoeldek-vernietiger, is op 14 April 1918 gelanseer deur Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Kalifornië, geborg deur mev David W. Farquhar; en in opdrag van 2 November 1918 by Mare Island Navy Yard Comdr. Louis P. Davis in bevel.

Ringgold het 18 November 1918 by Mare Island Navy Yard vertrek om by die Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet, aan te sluit. Nadat sy deur die Panamakanaal gegaan het, het Ringgold na Guantanamo Bay, Kuba, gebel voordat sy op 5 Desember 1918 by Hampton Roads, Va., Aangekom het. Sy het langs die Amerikaanse ooskus gery tot in 1922, in die algemeen uit Newport, RI, en Ringgold het in Philadelphia Navy Yard gesit 5 April 1922 waar sy op 17 Junie 1922 uit diens gestel is en in reserwe geplaas is.

Nadat hy vir bykans twee dekades onaktief gebly het, het Ringgold op 23 Augustus 1940 die erts weer in gebruik geneem om saam met 49 ander ou spoel-deekers wat nodig was om Duitse duikbootaanvalle te beveg, na Groot-Brittanje te gaan. Ringgold is formeel oorgeplaas na Groot -Brittanje op 26 November 1940 in Halifax, Nova Seotia, en herdoop Newark ter ere van dorpe in sowel Groot -Brittanje as die Verenigde State. Sy is van die Amerikaanse vlootlys verwyder 8 Januarie 1941. Hoewel aanvanklik beman deur 'n Roval Canadian Navy eare and maintenance party, is Newark in opdrag van die Royal Navy -diens op 5 Desember 1940, maar luitenant Comdr. R. H. W. Atkins, RN, in bevel.

Newark is beskadig in 'n botsing met haar suster Newmarket op 9 Desember 1940, wat herstelwerk nodig gehad het wat haar vertrek na die Britse waters vertraag het. Opgestaan ​​uit Halifax 4 Februarie 1941 in geselskap met H.M.S. Wells het 'n hewige stormwind teëgekom en daarna motorprobleme opgedoen. Teruggesleep na Halifax, vertrek Newark weer 26 Februarie 1941 en arriveer op 5 Maart Belfast en Plymouth, Engeland, 9 Maart 1941.

Newark, toegewys aan die 17de Destroyer Division, het deelgeneem aan begeleiding vir die ist Minelayinv -afdeling wat in die Ierse See en die veerboot Ieeland werk. Sy het in die nag van 4-5 Mei 1941 geringe bomskade opgedoen tydens 'n lugaanval by Belfast, maar het in Augustus weer sy diens begin doen. Terwyl hy saam met H.M.S. Southern Prince 25 Augustus 1941, Newark is deur 'n torpedo vorentoe getref en moes na Belfast begelei word. Nadat die herstelwerk in Mei 1942 voltooi is, het Newark weer by die 17de Destroyer Division aangesluit. Sy beskadig waarskynlik 'n Duitse suhmarine op 31 Mei 1942 terwyl sy suid van Ysland vaar en help H.M.S. Castelton op die redding van oorlewendes van die Duitse duikboot U-464 op 20 Augustus 1942.

Newark is gedurende 1944 oorgeplaas na die Rosyth Escort Force, wat in die Noordsee en in waters noord van die Britse Eilande op antisubmarine diens werk. In Januarie 1945 word sy 'n vliegtuigdoelskip onder bevel van die Admiraal, Noordelike Lugstasies. Nework is op 18 Februarie 1947 by Botness geskrap.


Die werk van die advokaat van die N.C. -geskiedenis het die lewe van slawe aan die lig gebring

Dorothy Spruill Redford se groot-groot-grootouers, Elsie en Peter Littlejohn, was veldhande by Somerset Place.

Honderde slawe het die 125 000 hektaar van die antebellum -plantasie bewerk en geswoeg en gesweet van die vroeë oggenddonker tot 10 in die nag, met take wat asemrowend en hartverskeurend was.

Die familiehuis van die plantasie -eienaars, die Collins -familie, is deel van die perseel wat nou aan die staat behoort. Sedert 1988 is Redford uitvoerende direkteur van die staat se historiese terrein.

Na 20 jaar tree sy op 1 September terug as die dryfveer wat verseker dat die eiendomme wat vroeër verwaarloos is, 'n indrukwekkende aantrekkingskrag van historiese belang is.

Karen Moore Hayes van Weeksville, wat 11 jaar by Somerset gewerk het, as assistent -direkteur vir 10, sal oorneem. Sy het 'n graad in sakebestuur aan die Elizabeth City State University.

Redford het gesê dat 'n belangrike kwalifikasie 'vir al die jare saam met my werk'. Die aankondiging is Saterdag gemaak tydens 'n seremonie ter ere van Redford.

Voordat Redford die roer aangeneem het, het besoekers baie min gesien, baie min geleer. Die Collins -gesinshuis was die enigste gebou wat oop was vir die publiek.

Nou is nege geboue oop, waaronder "drie taamlik indrukwekkende en indrukwekkende heropbougeboue in die voormalige slawe -gemeenskap," het sy gesê.

"U sien nie die oorspronklike slawekwartiere nie, selfs nie in Monticello nie. Hulle word uitgewis, maar die (plantasie) huise is verlaat," het die senaatspresident, pro Tem Sen. Marc Basnight, D-Dare, in 'n telefoniese onderhoud gesê.

Die pogings om die ware geskiedenis op Somerset te toon, het 'n redelike bedrag geld gekos. Die staat begroot $ 200 000 vir Somerset se jaarlikse onderhoud.

"Sy was altyd vriendelik, sag, omgee en liefdevol - altyd besorg oor ander. Sy is 'n reus van 'n persoon, 'n wonderlike mens," het Basnight oor Redford gesê. 'Dit was maklik om letterlik vir haar te gaan werk.'

Somerset lok jaarliks ​​ongeveer 30 000 besoekers, waarvan 5 000 skoolkinders, hoewel Redford gesê het dat min mense die onmiddellike omgewing verteenwoordig.

"Ek aftree 'n baie dankbare vrou. Ek is dankbaar vir die wetgewende ondersteuning en net so dankbaar vir die ondersteuning van die gemeenskap, historici, afstammelinge en personeel wat die suksesvolle transformasie van Somerset Place onderlê het," het sy gesê.

Redford praat met trots oor die werk wat gedoen is. Voordat sy op die toneel gekom het, was slegs die plantasiehuis oop, en besoekers het min geleer van 'n eensame houtbordjie met die opmerking: "plek van slawekwartiere".

'In 1988 was daar niks oor die webwerf wat sedert 1939 aan al die belastingbetalers in die staat behoort het nie, wat daarop dui dat slawe ooit op die terrein gewoon het, en niemand het van slawe aan die besoekende publiek gepraat nie,' het sy gesê.

'N Kombuis/wassery, rookhuis, seilhuis en melkery word gebruik om hul daaglikse lewens te interpreteer. Op die webwerf is ook rekonstruksies van twee voorbeelde van die soorte huise waarin slawe mense gewoon het.

'Ons het ook nou die enigste plantasiehospitaal van ongeveer 1840 in die land,' het Redford gesê en omgee dat die gesondheid van die slawe nie 'n menslike gebaar was nie. 'Hulle het hul gesondheid beskerm omdat dit verstandig was vir die besigheid.'

Die Collins -gesin het ook 'n kapel vir slawe gebou. 'Die fokus op die preke was gehoorsaamheid,' het sy gesê. "Dit het die slawe -eienaars geestelike beheer gegee."

Redford het die plantasiegeskiedenis in besonderhede ingegaan in haar boek uit 1988, "Somerset Homecoming." Dit is saam met Mike D'Orso, 'n voormalige verslaggewer van Virginian-Pilot, geskryf.

"Gedurende die volgende vier maande sal ek 'n boek oor vryheidsoekers voltooi - mense wat slawerny op Somerset Place verset het deur weg te hardloop. Dit is 'n bykomende bundel vir 'Somerset Place' wat opgeneem word in die National Park Service National Underground Railroad Network Vryheidsprogram. "

Redford skryf geskiedenis en praat geskiedenis. "As ek uitgenooi word, sal ek voortgaan om lesings te gee oor onderwerpe wat wissel van Afro -Amerikaanse genealogie, insluitende voorstellings van geskiedenis op historiese plekke, antebellum -vrouegeskiedenis en ander verwante onderwerpe."

Sy het hard gewerk om na haar eie familie se geskiedenis te kyk, maar sy het 'n keerpunt gehad.

'Ek stel nie daarin belang om my wortels na Afrika te spoor nie,' het sy gesê. "Ek is Afrikaans. Ek is ook Amerikaans. Ek het my versameling in Amerika gedokumenteer."

Baie van haar dokumentasie kom uit haar versameling verhale wat gebaseer is op onderhoude met die kleinkinders wat grootgemaak is deur oud-slawe-grootouers, herinnerings aan vier geslagte wat ongeveer 80 jaar lank bestaan.


Die natuurlike geskiedenis en kliniese eienskappe van aspirien-verergerde respiratoriese siektes

Agtergrond: Aspirien-verergerde respiratoriese siekte (AERD) is 'n kliniese sindroom wat gekenmerk word deur chroniese rinitis, neus poliepe, asma en neerslag van asma en rinitis aanvalle na inname van aspirien (ASA) en die meeste nie-steroïdale anti-inflammatoriese middels (NSAID's). Die meeste inligting oor die siekte in die Verenigde State kom uit klein monsters van pasiënte.

Doel: Die doel van hierdie studie was om die natuurlike geskiedenis en kliniese kenmerke van 300 AERD -pasiënte, wat na ons instansie verwys is, te ondersoek vir desensibilisering van aspirien.

Metodes: Alle potensiële AERD -pasiënte is geëvalueer met behulp van 'n standaard vraelys wat inligting bevat oor kliniese eienskappe en natuurlike vordering van hul siekte, vorige geskiedenis van reaksies op ASA en ander NSAID's, huidige gebruik van medisyne en etniese agtergronde. Alle pasiënte het mondelinge ASA -uitdagings ondergaan om te bewys dat hulle AERD het.

Resultate: Uit die geskiedenis van pasiënte het ons gevind dat die gemiddelde ouderdom by aanvang van AERD 34 jaar was, en dat 57% vroulik was. As ASA as 'n NSAID beskou, het 33% voorheen by twee geleenthede op NSAID's gereageer en 36% meer as drie keer op NSAID's, terwyl slegs 27% op een NSAID gereageer het voordat hulle vir evaluering na ons toe gekom het. Ons pasiënte het gemiddeld 5.5 episodes van sinusitis per jaar gehad. Daar was geen beduidende verskille in die kliniese eienskappe of die gebruik van medisyne tussen geslagte nie. Etnisiteit was by die meeste deelnemers heterogeen.

Gevolgtrekkings: AERD begin in die derde dekade van die lewe en by beide geslagte. Die siekte vorder oor die 13 jaar tussen die historiese aanvang en die huidige evaluering, met meer sinusitis en die behoefte aan kontroleerdermedisyne oor tyd. Daar was geen etniese of familiale verspreiding van AERD nie.


AOp die 7 April 2008, jaarlikse stadsvergadering, het die artikel oor gemeenskapsbewaring die jaarlikse bewaringsprojek vir dorpsverslag befonds. Hierdie projek bied die meganisme om alle jaarlikse stadsverslae van 1860 tot hede beskikbaar te stel. Die inhoud van elke verslag is gemikrofilm, per jaar geïndekseer in 'n PDF -formaat, en dan op CD's verbrand. Hierdie jaarlikse stadsverslae is nou aanlyn beskikbaar.

TDie jaarlikse dorpsverslae is 'n waardevolle hulpmiddel vir historiese navorsers, genealoë, stadsamptenare en departemente en die inwoners van ons gemeenskap. Finansiële dokumente en ouditslyste en verslae van verskillende rade, departemente en komitees historiese en lewensbelangrike gebeure, waarby die stad vergader, optrede en verkiesingsuitslae is almal met 'n vingerafdruk deursoekbaar.

AHierdie projek verseker ook dat die geskiedenis van Kingston vir geslagte lank permanent bewaar sal word. Papierdokumente sal minder gereeld hanteer word en die verslagvolumes word beskerm teen verdere vernietiging van die omgewing. Mikrofilm is die voorkeurmetode vir die rugsteun van rekords wat permanente bewaring vereis.

Tsy projek is tydens die jaarlikse stadsvergadering van 2008 gestem en is befonds deur die Gemeenskap Bewaringsfonds. Harde eksemplare is beskikbaar vir lees in die Kingston Public Library, Local History Room en die Stadsklerk se kantoor.

Sspesiale dank aan die Gemeenskapsbewaringskomitee, biblioteekdirekteur Sia Stewart en biblioteekargivaris Susan Aprill vir hul hulp om hierdie projek moontlik te maak.


Alles om te weet oor temperature onder-nul in die geskiedenis van Cleveland, die koudste, mees onlangse, hoe algemeen

Nee, ondanks verskeie ongemaklike warm dae, lyk dit nie asof dit een van die winters sal wees as ons die temperatuur onder nul bereik nie. Maar sonder 'n drastiese verandering in die weerpatrone, gaan dit ook nie een van ons koudste winters wees nie.

Om te lees hoe ongewoon-of algemeen-temperature onder-nul aan die noordkus van Amerika is, het cleveland.com deur die jare in die daaglikse rekords van die National Weather Service gegrawe.

Om die belangrikste vraag uit die weg te ruim, is die rekord in Cleveland 20 grade onder nul, op 19 Januarie 1994.

Hier is 'n paar van die ander dinge wat ons oor die koudste dae gevind het, met die fokus op die winters sedert 1938. Dit is toe die ligging wat vir die amptelike Cleveland -rekords gebruik is, van naby die meer na die sentrum na die huidige Cleveland Hopkins Internasionale Lughawe verhuis het.

Ysbedekte Cuyahoga-rivier gedurende die winter van 2013-2014. (Rich Exner, cleveland.com)

Hoe gereeld is dae onder nul?

Ten spyte van die afgelope paar jaar, val die temperatuur gewoonlik elke winter onder nul.

Dit het 58 van die 79 winters gebeur sedert die amptelike opnamestasie vir Cleveland in 1938 na die lughawe verskuif is.

Verlede winter het ons drie dae se temperatuur onder-nul gehad.

Maar daar was geen temperature onder-nul gedurende die winters van 2016-2017 en 2015-2016 nie.


'N 89-jarige oorlewende van die Holocaust is bekommerd: wat gebeur as ons almal weg is?

PARIS - Kort voor lank is hulle almal weg. Oorlewendes, daders en omstanders, die generasie wat een van die grootste gruwels in die moderne geskiedenis beleef het, is besig om uit te sterf.

Die Holocaust - die uitwissing van 6 miljoen Jode en vele ander gedurende die Tweede Wêreldwêreld - was dekades lank Europa se verwysingspunt. Dit is die regverdiging vir 'n 'steeds nader' Europese Unie en 'n goeie argument vir die handhawing van die politieke status quo, hoe gebrekkig dit ook al is. 'Nooit weer nie', lui die gesegde, sou die vasteland neerkom op rassisme en stelselmatige moord deur die staat.

Selfs as die credo nie daarin kon slaag om ander volksmoorde te voorkom nie, wat gebeur as daar niemand meer in Europa is wat die Holocaust regtig onthou nie? In die skemer van hul lewens is sommige oorlewendes al hoe meer angstig oor die wêreld wat hulle sal agterlaat, selfs met gedenktekens en museums ter wêreld ter herdenking van die slagting. Baie regse bewegings is volgens baie nie meer net oorblyfsels nie, en antisemitisme het teruggekeer met 'n krag wat min verwag word, veral in Europa.

'Ek is baie bekommerd', sê Marceline Loridan-Ivens, 'n vlamhaar 89-jarige filmmaker, skrywer en oorlewende van die Slagting wat 'n openbare gewete geword het in Frankryk, waar haar memoires onmiddellik topverkopers is. Die jongste aflewering, "L'Amour après" ("Love After"), wat hierdie maand gepubliseer is, vertel van haar ervaring in en na die Auschwitz-Birkenau-konsentrasiekamp, ​​waarheen sy in 1944 gestuur is.

'Al wat ek kan sê, is dat alles wat ek kan skryf, alles wat ek kan onthul-dit is my taak om dit te doen,' het sy in haar woonstel op die boonste verdieping van 'n ou gebou in die tony-woonbuurt in Saint-Germain gesê. des-Pres.

Terselfdertyd, het sy gesê, is sy nie bedrieglik oor die mag van openbare getuienis om 'n ander ramp te weerstaan ​​nie, veral in 'n land waar 34 persent van die kiesers in die laaste presidentsverkiesing uiteindelik 'n party ondersteun het wat deur 'n veroordeelde Holocaust gestig is ontkener en waar voorvalle van antisemitiese geweld algemeen voorkom.

Net hierdie maand, in Parys, word 'n kosher supermark geblokkeer. Verlede jaar is 'n Ortodokse Joodse vrou in haar bed dood deur 'n buurvrou wat haar lyk van die balkon op die derde verdieping van haar woonstel in Parys geslinger het. Aanklaers het geëis dat die moord as 'n antisemitiese daad erken word.

'Niks beskerm ons nie,' het Loridan-Ivens gesê.

Sosioloë en historici is dit eens en merk op dat die getuienisse van lewende oorlewendes van die Holocaust nie eens kon voorkom dat die volksmoord in Europa herhaal word nie, in die vorm van die etniese suiwering wat die Bosniese Oorlog in die vroeë 1990's vergesel het, nog minder nêrens anders nie. In die woorde van die skrywer David Rieff: "Sedert 1945 beteken 'nooit weer' in wese 'Nooit weer sal Duitsers Jode in Europa in die veertigerjare doodmaak'. "

Tog is die afsterwe van soveel oorlewendes-en oortreders-'n groot verskuiwing in die openbare bewussyn van Europa, sê Michel Wieviorka, 'n Franse sosioloog wat oor rassisme en antisemitisme geskryf het. Wieviorka se oupa, die in Pools gebore skrywer Wolf Wieviorka, is in Auschwitz oorlede.

'' N Blad draai om, 'het hy gesê. "Die verdwyning van diegene wat in Auschwitz gewoon het, is nie te sê dat die geheue nie sal voortduur nie - dit sal voortgaan, net in verskillende vorme. Geheue, wat wissel en soms verander, sal binnekort geskiedenis word. Terselfdertyd, ons verloor iets kragtig - die krag van oorreding in hedendaagse debatte. "

Oorlewendes van die Holocaust, wat op hul ervarings gebaseer is, kon gereeld ingryp in ander politieke en sosiale debatte, wat soms daarin kon slaag om die openbare mening te verander.


Memories of El Monte: A Brief History of Frank Zappa, The Penguins, and Art Laboe

Sodra die doo-wop-liedjie "Memories of El Monte" uit die 1960's begin speel, kan 'n bekende harmonie gehoor word voordat Cleveland "Cleve" Duncan verkondig: "Ek is alleen, voel so blou / dink aan jou / ... bring die herinneringe terug / van El Monte. ”

Die jaar was 1963. Die Los Angeles -groep The Penguins het pas 'n liedjie met die titel "Memories of El Monte" op Art Laboe se oorspronklike klankplate -etiket daardie lente vrygestel.

Die lirieke van 'Memories of f El Monte' herinner nostalgies aan die danse - en die herinneringe aan liefde - wat eens in die danssaal van die El Monte Legion -stadion in El Monte, CA gehou is.

Die American Legion -stadion in El Monte was reeds bekend vir die huisvesting van weeklikse danse, Laboe se radiouitsending, die Olimpiese Spele in die 1930's, optredes van Ritchie Valens en Jerry Lee Lewis, en kort na 'n regstreekse uitsending van die Beatles se optrede in Washington DC, lewendige optredes deur die Grateful Dead, en selfs Big Brother en die Holding Company.

In 1963 is Frank Zappa, Ray Collins en die Penguins se "Memories of El Monte" by die lys gevoeg. Die titel vir die liedjie "Memories of El Monte" is klaarblyklik geïnspireer deur Art Laboe se eie 1960 -samestelling van liedjies met die titel Herinneringe aan El Monte.

Laboe was 'n radio -jockey en promotor, wat vanaf die 1950's danse gehou het en regstreekse radio -uitsendings direk vanaf die El Monte Legion -stadion uitgesaai het.

Die liedjies verskyn op die Herinneringe aan El Monte die versamelingsalbum was van groepe wat gereeld by die lokaal in El Monte opgetree is. Aan die einde van "Memories of El Monte" kan Duncan gehoor word wat verwys na sommige van die ander Original Sound -orkes wat op die oorspronklike verskyn het Herinneringe aan El Monte versamelingsalbum, sing: 'Ek weet waar ek jou kan vind / En al my ou vriende / The Shields sing /' You cheat. Jy het gelieg.'"

Laboe het sy radio -uitsendings en danse oorspronklik na die stad El Monte, minder as 20 kilometer oos van Los Angeles, verskuif om beperkings deur die stad Los Angeles op minderjarige mense wat konserte en danse bywoon, te vermy, sê Matt Garcia in "The" Chicano "Dansesaal: die herontwerp van die openbare ruimte in die na-Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Groter Los Angeles." Die El Monte Legion -stadion was een van die enigste plekke in die omgewing waar Laboe rock and roll shows en danse kon aanhou.

Maar Laboe se verhuising na El Monte het ook gehelp om 'n baie unieke omgewing binne die mure van die Legion -stadion te skep. Gedurende die 1950's en 1960's het die El Monte Legion-stadion een van die enigste danssale in die San Gabriel-vallei geword wat jongmense van meer as een ras uit Los Angeles County moontlik gemaak het om met mekaar te gesels sonder om te skei of geweld te voer, beweer Garcia.

'Memories of El Monte' is geskryf deur 'n 22-jarige Frank Zappa en 27-jarige Ray Collins. Dit was nog 'n paar jaar voordat die Mothers of Invention gestig is - die groep van Zappa en Collins - en voordat Zappa sy eerste studio -album vrygestel het. En dit was net ses jaar voor Zappa se bekroonde vrystelling van 1969 Warm rotte.

Die liedjie is opgeneem in Paul Buff se Pal Recording Studio in Rancho Cucamonga in 1963, dieselfde jaar as wat dit vrygestel is. Alhoewel dit as 'n Penguins -liedjie vrygestel is, was die enigste oorspronklike lid van die groep wat deel was van die opname van 'Memories of El Monte' in die ateljee, die hoofsanger Cleve Duncan, wat die groep onlangs hervorm het met 'n nuwe reeks.

Pal Recording Studio was geleë op 8040 Archibald Ave. 'n Paar stede oos van Pomona, en oos van die San Gabriel -vallei. Zappa werk sedert hy ongeveer 20 jaar by die ateljee was.

In 1963, dieselfde jaar wat "Memories of El Monte" vrygestel word, verhuis Zappa na Pal Recording Studio. Zappa het die ateljee van Bluff gekoop en die jaar daarna die naam Studio Z herdoop.

Gedurende sy kort ampstermyn as eienaar en inwoner van Studio Z, is Zappa gearresteer op die beskuldiging dat hy saamgesweer het om 'n pornografiese film te verfilm. Hy was tien dae in 'n gevangenis in San Bernardino.

Kort daarna is Zappa uit die gebou geskop en Studio Z is deur die stad Rancho Cucamonga gesloop om Archibald Ave te verbreed.

In latere jare is 'Memories of El Monte' vrygestel op die daaropvolgende weergawes van Laboe se 'oldies but goodies' samestelling Herinneringe aan El Monte. 'N Frank Zappa -omslag van "Memories of El Monte" saam met die Mothers of Invention, van die Whiskey a Go Go in 1968 is ook vrygestel in Klankbaan van die Zappa -rolprent.

Die bekende harmonie wat Duncan sing tydens die opname van "Memories of El Monte" in 1963 herinner aan die pikkewyne se suksesvolste enkelsnit "Earth Angel." Die liedjie "Earth Angel" is amper 'n dekade vroeër in 1954 vrygestel en is onmiddellik gedek deur verskillende kunstenaars van die tyd.

Namate doo-wop-musiek in die vroeë vyftigerjare begin gewild raak het, was 'Earth Angel' een van die aanvanklike treffers wat nou die radio was. In die vroeë 1960's het "Memories of El Monte" die era van die melodiese doo-wop-klank oënskynlik afgesluit, aangesien rock and roll en surf rock hoofstroom geword het.

Die Beatles was op die punt om in die VSA aan te kom, en die opkoms van metal en harde rock was net aan die ander kant van 1970. Zappa was ook op die punt om een ​​van die grootste kunstenaars van die 20ste eeu te word.

Die pikkewyne kon nooit dieselfde sukses behaal as met "Earth Angel" nie. Maar 'Memories of El Monte' was net so 'n sukses, al was dit net plaaslik as gevolg van wat dit vir die groter El Monte -inwoners beteken en steeds beteken.

'' Earth Angel / Earth Angel / Will you be mine? ' / At El Monte,' sing Duncan in een van die laaste Penguins -opnames terwyl 'Memories of El Monte' die einde bereik, en Duncan se nostalgiese sang oor 'n ver geheue - nou nog verder verby - vervaag.

Hierdie verhaal is oorspronklik in El Monte in Time gepubliseer. Dit is deel van 'n versameling verhale oor die El Monte Legion -stadion in El Monte, CA.


Ringgold DD- 89 - Geskiedenis

Pennsylvania in die burgeroorlog

1ste Pennsylvania Kavalerie / 44ste Regiment Pennsylvania Vrywilligers
- Veld- en personeelbeamptes
- Maatskappy A - Juniata County
- Maatskappy B - Athensville, Montgomery County
- Maatskappy C - Mifflin County
- Maatskappy D - Lock Haven, Clinton County, en Cameron en Clinton Counties
- Maatskappy E - Center, Clinton en Clearfield Counties
- Maatskappy F - Carmichael's, Greene County
- Maatskappy G - Harrisburg, Dauphin County en Blair County
- Maatskappy H - Fayette County
- Maatskappy I - Washington County
- Maatskappy K - Allegheny en Washington Counties
- Maatskappy L - Berks, Libanon en Lancaster Counties
- Maatskappy M - Berks County
- Ongekende mans
- Verwysings
- Ontvangers van Medal of Honor

Falls, R. J. 'n Brief ontvang van majoor. deur die voorsitter van die First Penna. Cavalry Association, and Read at the First Reunion of the Regiment, Held at Lewistown, Pa., 14 en 15 Oktober 1886 ,. NY: Polhemus, 1887.

Lloyd, William P. Geskiedenis van die Eerste Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry, From its Organization, August, l86l, to September, l864, Met 'n lys van name van alle amptenare en ingeroepte mans wat ooit by die regiment behoort het, en opmerkings wat by elke naam aangeheg is, met verandering in ag geneem. Philadelphia: King & Baird, 1864. (Library of Congress)

Scott, James K., kolonel. 1ste Pennsylvania Kavalerie. Die verhaal van die gevegte op Gettysburg.Harrisburg: Telegraph Press, 1927

Kol. James K. Scott, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. Die verhaal van die gevegte op Gettysburg. Harrisburg: Telegraph Press, 1927

1ste Voorlopige Kavalerie
Georganiseer by Cloud's Mills, Va., 17 Junie 1865, deur konsolidasie van die 2de en 20ste Pennsylvania Cavalry. Diens by Cloud's Mills tot Julie. Op 13 Julie 1865 ontbreek
- Lys van amptenare

1ste Bataljon Militie Kavallerie
Georganiseer te Harrisburg, Pa., 13 Julie 1863. Aangeheg by Dept van die Susquehanna. Op 21 Augustus 1863 ontbreek

2de Pennsylvania Kavallerie/59ste Regiment Vrywilligers
2de Pennsylvania Kavallerie/59ste Regiment Vrywilligers
- Veld- en personeelbeamptes
- Maatskappy A - Phildelphia
- Maatskappy B - Phildelphia
- Maatskappy C - Phildelphia
- Maatskappy D - Lancaster County
- Maatskappy E - Phildelphia
- Maatskappy F - Center County
- Maatskappy G - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy H - Northampton County
- Maatskappy I - Crawford County
- Maatskappy K - Philadelphia en Berks Counties
- Maatskappy L - Tioga County
- Maatskappy M - Armstrong County
- Maatskappy M - Armstrong County
- Ongekende mans
- Verwysings

Van die National Tribune, 2 Oktober 1924, bladsy 7, kolom 6: "Wm. H. Bartholomew, Company F, 2d Pennsylvania Cavalry, Center Hall, Pa., Sê dat die Center County Pennsylvania Veteran's Association die beste reünie gehad het wat ooit op 3 September gehou is. Daar was 83 veterane, wie se ouderdomme wissel van 76 tot 91 jaar en gemiddeld 81. "

2de Voorlopige Kavalerie
Georganiseer by Cloud's Mills, Va., 17 Junie 1865, deur konsolidasie van 1ste, 6de en 17de Pennsylvania Cavalry. Ontmoet in Libanon, Ky., 7 Augustus 1865
- Lys van amptenare

3de Pennsylvania Kavalerie / 60ste Regiment (Young's Kentucky Light Cavalry)
- Veld- en personeelbeamptes
- Maatskappy A - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy B - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy C - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy D - Washington, DC
- Maatskappy E - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy F - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy G - Pittsburg

- Maatskappy H - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy I - Cumberland County
- Maatskappy K - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy L - Schuykill County
- Maatskappy M - Philadelphia
- Ongekende mans
- Verwysings
- Monument op Gettysburg

Rawle, William Brooke, kaptein, 3de Pennsylvania Cavalry. Geskiedenis van die Derde Pennsylvania Cavalry, Sixtieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, in die Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog, 1861-1865. Philadelphia, 1905.

William Brooke Rawle, kaptein, 3de Pennsylvania Kavalerie. Die regterflank op Gettysburg. Olde Soldaat Boeke. 'N Oorsig van die bedrywighede van Gregg's Cavalry.

3de Voorlopige Kavallerie
Georganiseer in Cumberland, Md., 24 Junie 1865, deur konsolidasie van die 18de en 22ste Pennsylvania Cavalry. Diens te Clarksburg, W. Va., Tot Oktober 1865. Ontleed 31 Oktober 1865
- Lys van amptenare

Doster, William E. 'N Kort geskiedenis van die vierde Pennsylvania Veteran Cavalry. Longstreet House, 1997. Herdruk van 1891 -uitgawe.

Hyndman, William. Geskiedenis van 'n Kavallerie Kompanjie: 'n Volledige verslag van Kompanie A, 4de Pennsylvania . Longstreet House, 1997, herdruk van 1870 -uitgawe.

5de Pennsylvania Kavalerie/65ste Vrywilligers (Cameron Dragoons)
- Veld- en personeelbeamptes
- Regimentale orkes
- Maatskappy A - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy B - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy C - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy D - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy E - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy F - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy G - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy H - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy I - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy K - Lycoming en Philadelphia Counties
- Maatskappy L - Allegheny County
- Maatskappy M - Allegheny en Venango Counties
- Ongekende mans
- Verwysings
- Ontvangers van Medal of Honor

Gracey, Samuel L. Annale van die Sesde Pennsylvania Kavalerie Vanberg Uitgewery. Herdruk van oorspronklike 1868. Nuwe inleiding deur Eric Wittenberg.

Smith, Thomas W. & Wittenberg, Eric J. We have it Damn Hard Out Here: The Civil War Letters van sersant Thomas W. Smith, 6de Pennsylvania Cavalry, Kent State University Press. ISBN# 087338623X

Wittenberg, Eric J. Rush's Lancers: Die sesde Pennsylvania -kavallerie in die burgeroorlog. Westholme Publishing, November 2006. ISBN: 1594160325

7de Pennsylvania Kavallerie/80ste Regiment Vrywilligers
- Veld- en personeelbeamptes
- Maatskappy A - Schukyll County
- Maatskappy B - Lycoming en Tioga Counties
- Maatskappy C - Bradford en Tioga Counties
- Maatskappy D - Provinsies Bradford en Tioga
- Maatskappy E - Center en Clinton Counties
- Maatskappy F - Philadelphia en Schukyll County
- Maatskappy G - Chester, Lycoming en Tioga Counties
- Maatskappy H - Allegheny, Chester en Montour Counties
- Maatskappy I - Dauphin en Lycoming Counties
- Maatskappy K - Cumberland en Fayette Counties
- Maatskappy L - Berks en Northumberland Counties
- Maatskappy M - Allegheny County
- Ongekende mans
- Verwysings
- Ontvanger van die erepenning

Burgeroorlogbriewe van Jacob Sigmund, 1st Lt., Company E

Dornblaser, Thomas F., sersant, 7de Pennsylvania Cavalry. Sabre Strokes of the Pennsylania Dragoons in die oorlog van 1861-1865. Philadelphia, 1884.

Sipes, William B. The Sabre Regiment: History of the 7th Pennsylania Volunteer Cavalry. Blou Acorn. Herdruk van 1905 Oorspronklik

Sipes, William B. Die sewende Pennsylania Veterane Volunteer Cavalry, sy rekord, herinnerings en rooster. Pottsville, 1905.

Vale, Joseph. Minty and the Cavalry: A History of the Cavalry Campaigns in the Western Army, Harrisburg, Pennyslvania. 1886

8ste Pennsylania Kavallerie/89ste Regiment Vrywilligers
- Veld- en personeelbeamptes
- Maatskappy A - Chester County
- Maatskappy B - Lycoming County
- Maatskappy C - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy D - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy E - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy F - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy G - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy H - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy I - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy K - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy L - Philadelphia
- Maatskappy M - Bucks, Montgomery en Philadelphia Counties
- Ongekende mans
- Verwysings
- Ontvangers van Medal of Honor

Timmerman, J. Edward. 'N Lys met die gevegte, verlowings, aksies en belangrike skermutselinge waaraan die agtste Pennsylvania-kavallerie tydens die oorlog van 1861-1865 deelgeneem het, Philadelphia: Allen, Lane & Scott's Printing House, 1866.

Huey, Pennock. 'N Ware geskiedenis van die aanklag van die agtste Pennsylvnaia -kavallerie in Chancellorsville, Philadelphia, 1885.

9de Pennsylvania Cavalry/92d Regiment (Lochiel Cavalry)
- Veld- en personeelbeamptes
- Regimentale orkes
- Maatskappy A - Perry County
- Maatskappy B - Dauphin County
- Maatskappy C - Harrisburg
- Maatskappy D - Luzerne County
- Maatskappy E - Dauphin en Susquehanna Counties
- Maatskappy F - Lancaster County
- Maatskappy G - Lancaster County
- Maatskappy H - Cumberland County
- Maatskappy I - Cumberland County
- Maatskappy K - Dauphin en Luzerne Counties
- Maatskappy L - Luzerne, Mifflin en Northampton Counties
- Maatskappy M - Huntingdon County
- Ongekende mans
- Verwysings
- 9de Kavalerie in stukke gesny, 10 Julie 1862
- 'n Verkenner na Oos -Tennessee, 20 Desember 1862

Rowell, John W. Yankee Cavalrymen: Deur die Burgeroorlog met die negende Pennsylvania Cavalry. Universiteit van Tennessee, 1971.

Sluier, Charles Henry. (Geredigeer deur Henman Viola) Memoirs of Charles Henry Veil: A Soldier's Recollections of the Civil War and the Arizona Territory, New York: Orion, 1993.

10de Pennsylvania Kavalerie
Organisasie nie voltooi nie.

Geskiedenis van die elfde Pennsylvania -vrywillige kavallerie, Saam met 'n volledige rooster van die regiment en regimentbeamptes, Philadelphia: Franklin Printing Company, 1902.

Guss, Abraham Lincoln, 11de Pennsylvania Cavalry. Die Coward's Curse en die Patriot's Duty, Carlisle, Pa .: Gedruk by die "Herald" -kantoor, 1861.

Maier, Larry B. Leer en staal: die 12de Pennsylvania -kavallerie in die burgeroorlog. Wit maanhare.

13de Pennsylvania Kavalerie/117ste Regiment (The Irish Dragoons)

- Veld- en personeelbeamptes
- Maatskappy A - Werf 'n kamp Frankford
- Maatskappy B - Werf 'n kamp Frankford
- Maatskappy C - Werf 'n kamp Frankford
- Maatskappy D - Werf 'n kamp Frankford
- Maatskappy E - Pittsburg
- Maatskappy F - Cumberland County
- Maatskappy G - Lycoming County
- Maatskappy H - Kamp Frankford
- Maatskappy I - Kamp Frankford
- Maatskappy K - Kamp Frankford
- Maatskappy L - Pike en Wayne Counties
- Maatskappy M - Philadelphia
- Ongekende mans
- Verwysings
- Ontvangers van Medal of Honor

Hand, Harold (Sonny), Jr. Een goeie regiment. Victoria, BC, Canada & Oxford, UK: Trafford Publishing, 2000. 320 pages. ISBN 1-55212-460-6. A history of the 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry (117th Pennsylvania Volunteers). Available from Amazon.com, Barnes & Noble, or the author at [email protected]

The 14th Pa. Volunteer Cavalry in the Civil War by Rev. Wm. Slease, 1915(Reprint), plus muster rolls added by Ron Gancus, 1999. Order from Mechling Bookbindery.

Kirk, Charles H. 1st Lieutenant, Company E. History of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry Known as the Anderson Cavalry in the Rebellion of 1861-1865. Philadelphia, 1906.

17th Pennsylvania Cavalry /162nd Regiment
- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A - Beaver County
- Company B - Susquehanna County
- Company C - Lancaster County
- Company D - Bradford County
- Company E - Lebanon County
- Company F - Cumberland County
- Company G - Franklin County
- Company H - Schuylkill County
- Company I - Perry County and the City of Philadelphia
- Company K - Luzerne County
- Company L - Montgomery and Chester Counties
- Company M - Wayne County
- Unassigned Men
- Medal of Honor Recipient
- Verwysings
- Certificate of Diability for Discharge
(William G. Gayley)

Moyer, Henry P. History of the Seventeenth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry. Lebanon, PA, 1911.

Bean, Theodore W. The Roll of Honor of the Seventeenth (17th) Pennsylvania Cavalry or One Hundred, Sixty-Second of the Line, Pennsylvania Volunteers, J. S. Claxton, 1865, 85 pages.

Rodenbough, Theodore. History of the Eighteenth Regiment of Cavalry Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1862-1865, New York: Wynkoop Crawford, 1909 .

19th Pennsylvania Cavalry/ 180th Regiment
- Field and Staff Officers
- Company A
- Company B
- Company C
- Company D
- Company E
- Company F
- Company G
- Company H
- Company I
- Company K
- Company L
- Company M
- References
- Unassigned Men

Six Months Service:
- Company A - York County
- Company B - Adams County
- Company C - Lancaster County
- Company D - Franklin County
- Company E - Bedford County
- Company F - Cambria County
- Company G - Lancaster County
- Company H - Franklin County
- Company I - Franklin County
- Company K - Franklin County
- Company L - Franklin County
- Company M - Franklin County


19 - Trade Unions

This chapter will consider three phases in the history of African trade unions. The first is the organizational antecedents of trade unions. The second is unions structured along the lines of the formations in industrial societies. Unions began largely through the activities of expatriate or racial minorities, such as Greeks in Egypt, Indians in Kenya or white immigrants in South Africa. However, the native workforce learned from this model and became interested in this form of social force. In the conjuncture of the years just after the Second World War, large, territory-wide, union-led strikes exploded in many colonies (Nigeria, the Gold Coast, Tanganyika, the Rhodesias, French West Africa), not to speak of South Africa. Unions were inevitably linked to burgeoning nationalist movements.

After independence, the militancy of unions worked against the ambitions of new governments, which no longer favoured insurgency and were hostile to an autonomous modern civil society. Typically, unions were reorganized as bureaucratic structures responsible to the state, leaders were bought off or persecuted and growing economic problems undermined initial attempts by the state to reward wage workers. However, despite this, the struggle for union independence often continued under the surface and tended to become more effective with time.

In fact, this relatively quiescent phase was succeeded by a third phase, linked to grassroots movements calling for political democracy and the end to dictatorships or one-party rule in many countries. Trade unionism was critical in bringing about the end of apartheid in South Africa. This new phase has continued all the way to the Arab Spring in very recent years. Trade unions continue to throw up politically significant leaders and now function as a salient part of civil society. However, their importance in the success of democracy movements does not mean that they succeed, or know how to succeed, in turning such movements into government policy to the advantage of organized workers.

CONTEXTUALIZING AFRICAN TRADE UNIONS

In very different kinds of work situations where there is a sharp divide between workers and management, workers will organize, withhold their labour as a bargaining tool and turn into a collective force in particular situations in more or less every part of the world.


Ringgold DD- 89 - History

by Lt Cdr Geoffrey B Mason RN (Rtd) (c) 2001

HMCS IROQUOIS (G 89) - Tribal-class Destroyer
including Convoy Escort Movements

TRIBAL-Class Fleet destroyer ordered from Vickers Armstrong, Newcastle on 5th April 1940 with three others of the same Class for service in the Royal Canadian Navy. The ship intended to be named ATHABASKAN was laid down on 19th September 1940 after delays due to air raid damage in the shipyard, to the increased load on repair facilities in British shipyards after the disastrous operations of Norway and the evacuations from ports in Holland, Belgium and France. The ship was launched as HMCS IROQUOIS on 23rd September 1941, the name of a Canadian Tribe. During build radar outfits for warning of surface targets and for fire-control were installed. She was the first of the four RCN TRIBAL Class destroyers to enter service and ship commissioned in November 1943 before completion of her build on 10th December 1942.

B a t t l e H o n o u r s

ATLANTIC 1943 - ARCTIC 1943-45 - BISCAY 1944 - KOREA 1952-3

None is recorded in the official Record of Heraldic Crests

for the Royal Navy as this ship belonged to Canada.

D e t a i l s o f W a r S e r v i c e

(Vir meer inligting oor die skip, gaan na die Naval History -tuisblad en tik die naam in Site Search)

30th - Commissioned for service in Home Fleet.

12th - Build completion and commenced Acceptance trials.

Defects found during Acceptance trials made good.

30th - On completion took passage to Scapa Flow.

Sustained significant structural damage in adverse weather conditions during work-up and took passage to build shipyard for additional stiffening and damage repair.

Nominated for passage to Canada for inspection by Royal Canadian Navy Constructors and shipyard representatives. Sustained further structural damage during passage to Halifax. Taken in hand and docked for repair work and inspections. (Note: The need for additional stiffening in future warship construction by Canadian shipyards was made evident during the examinations.)

T ook return passage to UK for operational service. Nominated for service in Plymouth Command.

24th - Sustained further weather damage.

On arrival taken in hand for repair by HM Dockyard Devonport.

Under repair. On completion deployed for convoy defence on UK-Gibraltar route.

Deployed based at Plymouth for anti-submarine operations in Bay of Biscay (Operation MUSKETRY. Note: Ship was part of a Support Group for these operations with HMCS ATHABASKAN, and Polish destroyer ORP ORKAN as screen for HM Escort Aircraft Carrier ARCHER to provide cover against attacks by German destroyers during MUSKETRY.

9th - Deployed with HM Destroyer DOUGLAS and HM Frigate MOYOLA as escort for troopship convoy during passage to Gibraltar. (Note: It may be assumed that ship was detached from MUSKETRY for this duty, or that she detached from support duties for escort of these ships.)

11th - Under air attacks by He177 aircraft using Hs293 Radio Controlled bombs (but see following) which hit ss CALIFORNIA and ss DUCHESS OF YORK in position 41.18N 41.24W, 300 miles of Vigo, Spain despite AA defence from the escorts. Both ships ships sank after extensive fires. A third ship mv PORT NAPIER survived the attacks. Took part in rescue of 628 men from the two troopships.

12th - Passage to Casablanca with mv PORT FAIRY which was damaged in further air attacks.

Update on this Attack, with thanks to Tim Gates, 4 Apr 2012:

The convoy, consisting of the troopships SS DUCHESS OF YORK and SS CALIFORNIA, plus the merchant vessel MV PORT FAIRY, left the Clyde at 0800 hrs on July 8th 1943. At the Orsay rendezvous they were joined by DOUGLAS and MOYOLA. On the morning of the 10th July IROQUOIS (ex Plymouth) joined the escort 350 miles SW of the Scillies.

All went well till the evening of the 11th July when, 350 nautical miles W of Porto in Portugal and commencing at 2110 hrs, the convoy was attacked by three FW200 Condors based at Merignac near Bordeaux. Only conventional high-explosive bombs were used in the attack which lasted 30 minutes. The story that He177 aircraft deploying Hs292 radio-controlled bombs were used in this attack is supported by absolutely no contemporary or other evidence but has proved very persistent despite this. All those who were there speak only of 3 x FW200 aircraft. This is corroborated by contemporary Luftwaffe records which have been investigated by Chris Goss, a serving RAF officer and well known historian of wartime avaiation - I could even tell you the names of the German crew of the FW aircraft that were involved.

Several hours after the attack, CALIFORNIA and DUCHESS OF YORK, both blazing fiercely, were sunk by torpedoes fired by DOUGLAS. PORT FAIRY was unscathed and headed for Casablanca (though she was attacked next day - but that is another story). Survivors from CALIFORNIA and DUCHESS OF YORK were picked up by escort vessels and taken to Casablanca where they arrived on the morning of 13th July. At the start of the air attack on the evening of the 11th, Gibraltar dispatched HMS SWALE to give help. She arrived on the scene at 2235 hrs, ie after the attack had finished, and was ordered to escort PORT FAIRY to Casablaca after helping to pick up survivors.

15th - Rescued an officer and five ratings, sole survivors from U506 which had been sunk by US LIBERATOR aircraft on 12th July. (Note: During return passage to Plymouth an insignia from the officers uniform was stolen which resulted in disciplinary action. Stoppage of shore leave after arrival caused significant disorder and the commanding officer had a heart attack and was taken ashore. See AFRIDI TO NIZAM by J English and U-BOATS DESTROYED by P Kemp.)

19th - Carried out support of anti-submarine operations with Polish destroyer ORP ORKAN and HMCS ATHABASKAN and sailed from Plymouth for anti-submarine operations after the disorder problems resolved. (See above Note.)

After return transferred to Scapa Flow for Home Fleet screening duties. Involved in collision with HM Trawler KINGSTON BERYL in Irish Sea during passage to Scapa Flow. Repair of damage arranged in commercial shipyard at Troon, Ayrshire.

2nd - Taken in hand for repair.

25th - On completion resumed passage to rejoin Home Fleet.

26th - On arrival nominated for work-up prior to deployment in defence of Russian convoy.

Work-up in continuation. On completion resumed operational service with Home Fleet for local escort and patrol duties.

1st - Deployed with HM Destroyers ONSLAUGHT and HURON (RCN) to take replenishment stores and mail to North Russia for warships which had been based there during summer months (Operation HOLDER).

11th - Returned to Scapa Flow from Kola Inlet..

14th - Joined HM Destroyers JANUS, VIGILANT, HARDY, HAIDA (RCN) and US destroyer USS CORRY as escort for HM Battleship ANSON to provide cover for replenishment of Spitzbergen garrison (Home Fleet Operation FQ).

16th - On completion of FQ provided cover for passage of five minesweepers and six motor launches to North Russia. (Home Fleet Operation FR. Note: HM Cruiser LONDON and US Cruiser AUGUSTA were also deployed in covering force. These Lease Lend warships were destined for service with the Russian Northern Fleet and manned by Russian crews. Close Escort was provided by nine Home Fleet destroyers.)

23rd - Detached and returned to Scapa Flow.

Home Fleet duties in continuation.

18th - Deployed with HM Destroyers IMPULSIVE, ONSLAUGHT, ONSLOW, ORWELL, OBEDIENT HURON (RCN) and HAIDA (RCN) as Ocean Escort for Convoy JW54A during passage to Kola Inlet.

19th - HMS OBEDIENT withdrawn from Close Escort due to defect and returned to Scapa Flow.

24th - Detached from JW54A with Close Escort on arrival.

26th - Joined return Convoy RA54B with same ships as Close Escort for passage to UK. (Note: For details of all Russian Convoy operations see CONVOYS TO RUSSIA by R. A. Ruegg, THE RUSSIAN CONVOYS by B Schoefield, ARCTIC CONVOYS by R. Woodman and CONVOY! by R Woodman.)

5th - Detached from RA54B and returned to Scapa Flow with Close Escort.

22nd - Deployed with HM Destroyers IMPULSIVE, ONSLAUGHT, ONSLOW, ORWELL, SCOURGE, HMCS HURON and HMCS HAIDA as escort for Russian Convoy JW55 during passage to Kola Inlet.

25th - Close Escort reinforced by HM Destroyers MATCHLESS, MUSKETEER, OPPORTUNE and VIRAGO in view of the threat of attack by German Battleship SCHARNHORST. See above references. (Note: German warship was engaged and sunk by ships of Home Fleet providing cover for passage of this convoy and two others in the Arctic.)

Under sustained attacks by aircraft and submarines

29th - Detached with ships of Close Escort on arrival of JW55B at Kola inlet.

31st - Deployed as Close Escort for passage of return Convoy RA55B to UK with same ships.

3rd - Under submarine attacks.

7th - Detached from RA55B with Close Escort and returned to Scapa Flow.

10th - Transferred with HMCS HAIDA for detached service and took passage to Plymouth to join Plymouth Command for duty in English Channel.

13th - Deployed at Plymouth.

19th - Carried out patrol off French coast for interception of coastal convoy traffic (Operation TUNNEL Series.)

20th - Returned to Plymouth.

Nominated for return to Canada for refit.

2nd - Carried out further TUNNEL Operation.

3rd - Returned to Plymouth.

4th - Recalled for duty in Home Fleet and took passage to Scapa Flow with sister ships HMCS HAIDA and HMCS ATHABASKAN .

5th - Arrived at Scapa Flow for Home Fleet screening duties.

10th - Deployed with HMCS HAIDA and HMCS ATHABASKAN as part of destroyer screen for HM Battleship ANSON and French battleship RICHELIEU, HM Cruisers BELFAST and HMS NIGERIA during anti-shipping strike off Norwegian coast (Operation POST HORN)

12th - Returned to Scapa Flow after only secondary shore targets had been attacked by aircraft.

13th - Released from Home Fleet duties and returned to Plymouth

15th - On arrival at Plymouth joined HM Destroyers TARTAR and HMS ASHANTI of 10th Destroyer Flotilla with HMCS HAIDA and HMCS ATHABASKAN. (Note: This Flotilla was deployed as Force 26.)

18th - Under torpedo attack by submarine which was avoided by prompt action after sonar detection.

19th - On return to Plymouth replaced by HMCS HURON in Flotilla and took passage to Canada

26th - Arrived at Halifax and taken in hand for refit.

Under refit (Note: Lattice foremast was fitted to replace original tripod type for installation of aerial outfit for new radar installation of new radar on return to UK before resuming service. )

On completion of Post Refit Trials took passage to Liverpool for fit of centimetric warning radar outfit. (Note: This was probably Type 276, later changed to Type 293 when new aerial was available. Ship did not therefore take part in support operations during allied landings in Normandy. See LANDINGS IN NORMANDY (HMSO).)

8th - Arrived at Liverpool and taken in hand for fit of radar.

30th - On completion sailed from Liverpool to Scapa Flow.

Deployed at Scapa Flow for trials.

17th - Commenced work-up for operational service with Home Fleet ships at Scapa Flow.

30th - Took passage to Plymouth to rejoin 10th Destroyer Flotilla for patrol duties in Bay of Biscay and Channel.

5th - Deployed with HM Cruiser BELLONA, HMS TARTAR, HMS ASHANTI and HMCS HAIDA for interception patrol in Bay of Biscay as Force 26.

6th - Intercepted evacuation convoy with several escorts near Ile d'Yeux. (Note: In this action German minesweepers M286 and M486, Patrol Boat V414 and a launch were sunk. Many hundreds of soldiers being evacuated lost their lives. Whilst taking part in this engagement there was an accident in HMCS HAIDA but despite this serious incident that ship remained with Force 26.) Took part in an attack on a second convoy between Bellisle and Quiberon Bay the result of which was inconclusive. Force 26 ordered to withdraw before daylight and return to Plymouth

8th - Flotilla deployment for interception operations in continuation.

14th - Deployed with HM Cruiser MAURITIUS and HM Destroyer URSA for offensive patrol off coast of Brittany as Force 27.

15th - Carried out attack on convoy off Sables d'Olonne with ships of Force during which German Minesweeper M385 was hit and became a total loss after being beached. A Sperrbrecher (157), Torpedo Boat T24, Minesweeper M275 and a coaster were also damaged. (Note: The enemy ships included an aircraft repair Ship (RICHTOFEN).). Took passage to Plymouth after the action.

23rd - During later patrol off Audierne with same ships carried out attack on coastal convoy sinking patrol boats V702, V717, V720, V729 and V730 (Note: These ships were identified by post-war analysis.)

30th - Deployed with HMCS HAIDA for escort of French cruiser JEANNE D ARC for passage in SW Approaches from Algiers to Cherbourg.

31st - Met JEANNE D ARC which had members of the French Provisional Government on board and escorted ship to her destination.

5th - Arrived at Cherbourg with French cruiser

8th - Deployed as escort for rms QUEEN MARY taking Prime Minister to Quebec Conference with US President during Atlantic passage. (Note: Detached later near Azores and returned to Plymouth for routine Boiler Cleaning.)

On completion resumed Channel duties based at Plymouth.

Transferred to Scapa Flow for Home Fleet screening duties.

Resumed service in Channel based at Plymouth for interception patrols and convoy escort.

Western Approaches duties in continuation.

Rejoined Flotilla for Home Fleet duties.

19th - Deployed with HM Destroyers ONSLOW, SERAPIS, ZEST and HAIDA (RCN) as screen for HM Escort Aircraft Carriers PREMIER, SEARCHER, QUEEN and HM Cruiser BELLONA deployed as Force 1 to cover air minelaying off the coast of Norway (Operation CUPOLA See Naval Staff History (Mining).)

21st - Returned to Scapa Flow with ships of Force 1 on completion.

24th - Joined HM Destroyers ONSLOW, SERAPIS, CARYSFORT, ZEALOUS and HAIDA (RCN) as screen for HM Escort Aircraft Carriers SEARCHER, NAIRANA, QUEEN and PUNCHER deployed as Force Two for air strikes on shipping off the coast of Norway (Operation PREFIX I) .

26th - In absence of shipping aircraft carried out attacks on shore targets.

28th - Attacks made on shipping by carrier aircraft which destroyed two Me109 for the loss of a BARRACUDA from HMS PUNCHER (Operation PREFIX II).

29th - Returned to Scapa Flow with ships of Force Two.

Home Fleet deployment with Flotilla in continuation.

3rd - Deployed with HM Destroyers ZEALOUS and ZEST as screen for HM Cruiser DIDO for attacks on Norwegian coast shipping and identified as Force 3 (Operation FOX CHASE).

4th - Took part in attacks on convoy with ships of Force. (Note: Some sources describe result as indeterminate but post war records suggest two of the mercantiles were damaged.)

15th - Deployed with HM Destroyers ZEPHYR, ZODIAC, ZEALOUS, ZEST, OFFA HURON (RCN), HAIDA (RCN) and Norwegian destroyer STORD as escort for JW66 with HM Cruiser BELLONA, HM Escort Aircraft Carriers VINDEX and NAIRANA. In addition, HM Sloop CYGNET, HM Corvettes ALNWICK CASTLE, BAMBOROUGH CASTLE, FARNHAM CASTLE, HONEYSUCKLE, LOTUS and OXLIP of 7th Escort Group were also part of Close escort with Frigates of 19th Support Group in support for anti--submarine operations.

25th - Detached from JW66 with Close Escort on arrival at Kola Inlet. (Note: Ships of escort carried out anti-submarine attacks in entrance to Kola Inlet to ensure safety of convoy.)

29th - Joined return convoy RA66 on departure from Kola Inlet. (Note: During anti-submarine operations outside Kola Inlet before departure of RA66, U 307 and U286 were sunk by ships of 19th Support Group, but HM Frigate GOODALL was torpedoed and sunk by U968, although some survivors were rescued. See above references for details.

After departure came under torpedo attack by U427 which missed. (See HITLER'S U-BOAT WAR, Vol II by C Blair.)

Nominated for return to Canada on release from service with RN.

8th - Detached from RA66 on arrival in Clyde and returned to Scapa Flow with Home Fleet ships.

12th - Joined HM Cruisers DEVONSHIRE, ARIADNE and APOLLO with HM Destroyers SAVAGE, SCOURGE AND Norwegian ARENDAL as escort during passage to Oslo. (Note: Crown Prince Olaf of Norway was embarked in HMS APOLLO for his return to Norway.)

13th - Arrived in Oslo with same ships and took passage to Copenhagen with HMS DEVONSHIRE and HMS SAVAGE to relieve HM Cruiser BIRMINGHAM, HM Destroyers ZEST and ZEPHYR as Guardships following German surrender.

24th - Passage from Copenhagen to Wilhemshaven with HM Cruiser DIDO, HMS DEVONSHIRE and HMS SAVAGE as escort for German cruisers PRINZ EUGEN and NURNBERG. (Note: The two German ships had formally surrendered to the Royal Navy on 22nd May.)

30th - Passage to Greenock to join HMCS HAIDA and HMS HURON

At Greenock preparing for return to Canada.

4th - Took passage from Greenock for Halifax with her two sister ships .

10th - Arrived at Halifax to a resounding welcome.

Under refit including tropicalisation to suit service in the Pacific.

After VJ Day ship was nominated for reduction to Reserve status.

HMCS IROQUOIS did not complete her full refit and was used as a Depot Ship for RCN ships in Reserve paid-off on 22nd February 1946. Before recommissioning she was refitted and in June 1949 recommissioned for use as a Cadet Training Ship until again going into Reserve in September that year. She selected for conversion to an A/S Escort and on completion in October 1951 recommissioned. After preparation for operational service she was deployed with the Commonwealth contribution to the UN naval forces and completed two tours of duty in the Far East. the last of which ended in March 1955. Apart from periods under refit she remained part of the Active Fleet and took part in NATO Exercises until Paid-off at Halifax in October 1962. She was retained in Operational Reserve before being put on the Disposal List and sold to a Spanish shipbreaker for demolition at Bilbao in 1966..

More information, especially in respect of design and build of this Class is given in AFRIDI TO NIZAM by J English.