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Derawar -fort: wat bly oor van 'n eens bloeiende woestynbeskawing?

Derawar -fort: wat bly oor van 'n eens bloeiende woestynbeskawing?

Derawar Fort is 'n vesting in die huidige Bahawalpur, in die Pakistaanse provinsie Punjab. Die fort dateer uit die geskiedenis tot in die 9de eeu nC, hoewel daar bygevoeg kan word dat dit eers 'n paar eeue later, gedurende die 18de eeu, sy huidige voorkoms gekry het.

Beskerming van reisigers

Die Derawar -fort is een van die vestings in die Cholistan -woestyn (plaaslik bekend as Rohi), wat grens aan die westelike deel van die Thar -woestyn. Argeologiese bewyse dui daarop dat hierdie woestyn eens deur die Hakra -rivier besproei is, waarvan die bedding nog in die woestynlandskap gesien kan word. Nedersettings, insluitend dié van die Indusvallei -beskawing, het eens in die streek floreer. Omstreeks 600 vC verander die rivier egter sy loop en verdwyn dan ondergronds, en verander die landskap in 'n dorre woestyn wat nie geskik is vir menslike bewoning nie.

Die Cholistan -woestyn.

Alhoewel die gebied nie meer menslike nedersetting ondersteun het nie, het dit uiteindelik deel geword van die handelsroete wat Sentraal -Asië met die Indiese subkontinent verbind het, sowel as 'n deel van die pelgrimsroete tussen die Islamitiese heilige stad Mekka en Indië. Daarom is vestings soos die Derawar -vesting in die woestyn van Cholistan gevestig om handelaars en pelgrims wat op die roete reis, te beskerm en as waterpunte vir hierdie reisigers te dien.

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Die geskiedenis van die fort

Afgesien van die Derawar -fort, sluit ander vestings in hierdie netwerk van forte wat oor die Cholistanwoestyn strek, die Marotgarh -fort, die Khangarh -fort en die Islamgarh -fort in. Sommige van hierdie strukture staan ​​vandag nog, hoewel ander in puin gelê het. Derawar -fort word beskou as die beste voorbeeld in hierdie groep woestynforte.

Derawar Fort. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Derawar -fort is blykbaar gedurende die 9de eeu nC gebou deur Rai Jajja Bhatti, 'n Rajput -heerser van die Bhatti -stam. 'N Ander bron sê egter dat die fort gebou is deur Rawal Deoraj, 'n Bhatti Rajput van Jaisalmir, wat die gebied tydens die 800's nC verower het. As 'n huldeblyk aan homself het die Rajput -heerser verskeie strukture laat bou, waaronder die Derawar -fort. Die fort se naam was aanvanklik Dera Rawal ter ere van die seëvierende koning. Met verloop van tyd verander die naam van die fort na Dera Rawar, en uiteindelik na die moderne naam Derawar.

Die Derawar -fort gebou deur 'n Hindoe -dinastie van Bhatti Rajputs.

Bo -aan die Bahawalpur -heersers

Desondanks het Derawar Fort in die hande van die Bhatti Rajputs gebly tot in die 18de eeu, toe dit in die hande van die Abbasis geval het, 'n stam wat afstammeling van die Abbasidiese kaliefe beweer. In 1733 is die fort verower deur Amir Sadeq Mohammad Khan I, die stigter van die prinsstaat Bahawalpur. Alhoewel die Abbasis die fort in 1747 verloor het, is dit in 1804 herower.

Die fort het tot in die sewentigerjare gebly as die woestynwoning van die Bahawalpur -heersers (wat later die titel Nawab aangeneem het). Die fort is nog steeds in besit van daardie gesin, en besoekers wat van plan is om die fort te betree, sal 'n spesiale toestemming van die Amir (die titel wat aangeneem is na die afskaffing van die titel Nawab) van Bahawalpur nodig het om dit te doen.

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Derawar Fort in die nag. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Dit was die eerste Abbasi -heerser van Bahawalpur wat Derawar Fort sy huidige voorkoms gegee het. Nadat ek hierdie vesting van die Rajputs vasgelê het, het Amir Sadeq Mohammad Khan I dit laat herbou. Hierdie nuwe fort is gebou uit kleibakstene, met 'n kring van mure van 1,5 km (0,93 myl) en styg tot 'n hoogte van 30 m (98,43 voet)

Elke vierkant van die baan het 10 sirkelvormige bastions, almal versier met ingewikkelde patrone wat in die baksteen gesny is. Hierdie mure en bastions is van ver af sigbaar en bied die fort 'n indrukwekkende teenwoordigheid in die woestynlandskap. Die binnekant van die Derawar -fort is egter vandag minder skouspelagtig, aangesien die struktuur verwaarloos is en agtergelaat is. Boonop bestaan ​​die risiko dat die monument in puin val, as daar nie in die nabye toekoms bewarings- en bewaringswerk gedoen word nie.

Voorgestelde foto: Uitsig op Derawar -fort. Foto bron: ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )


  • Fort Lahore
  • Baltit Fort
  • Rohtas Fort
  • Ranikot Fort
  • Derawar Fort

Kyk na die geskiedenis, argitektuur, interieur, sowel as kaartjiepryse en tydsberekening van hierdie ou forte in Pakistan.

Fort Lahore

Lahore Fort bly een van die belangrikste toeriste -aantreklikhede in die ‘City of Gardens ’

As u ooit in Lahore was, is die kans goed dat u alreeds die pragtige Lahore -fort in die ommuurde stad besoek het. Hierdie ou fort in Pakistan, ook bekend as Shahi Qila, is ook een van die gewildste historiese plekke in Punjab.

Geskiedenis van Lahore Fort

Alhoewel die basis van die moderne fort Lahore in 1566 nC gelê is tydens die bewind van die keiser Akbar van Mughal, beweer historici dat die terrein meer as 500 jaar tevore deur 'n versterkte struktuur beset was. Trouens, die Iraanse geleerde en polimaat Al-Biruni noem die fort in sy geskrifte gedurende die 11de eeu. In die middel van die 13de eeu het die Mongoolse indringers die struktuur vernietig, wat later deur die sultan van Delhi Ghiyas ud din Balban herbou is, volgens sommige historiese berigte. Sowat 150 jaar later het die sultan Mubarak Shah van die Sayyid -dinastie die kasteel in rooi modder herbou na die verwoesting wat veroorsaak is deur die leër van die Persiese veroweraar Amir Timur.

Terwyl koning Akbar die fort Lahore gebou het soos ons dit vandag ken, het sy opvolgers tydens hul bewind ook 'n aantal veranderinge aan die kasteel aangebring. Na die val van die Mughal -ryk in Indië, het die stigter van die Sikh -ryk, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, egter die fort as sy woning gebruik. Dit is later deur die Britse magte oorgeneem. Teen die tyd dat Pakistan gestig is, het Lahore Fort 'n ernstige opknapping nodig gehad.

In 1981 verklaar die Verenigde Nasies hierdie historiese fort in Pakistan as 'n UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied.

Boonop is hierdie beroemde fort in Pakistan bekend om sy unieke argitektuur en ontwerp, aangesien dit Islamitiese en Hindoe -motiewe bevat. Die hele struktuur versprei oor 'n gebied van meer as 400 kanale en is een van die mees ikoniese oomblikke uit die glorieryke Mughal -era.

Die belangrikste strukture in Shahi Qila in Lahore sluit in die weelderige wit marmerstruktuur genaamd Naulakha Pavilion, wat gedien het as die persoonlike kamers van keiser Shah Jahan. Verder is die Sheesh Mahal van Lahore Fort nog 'n gewilde toeriste -aantreklikheid in die kompleks. Alhoewel dit in opdrag van Shah Jahan was, is hierdie ingewikkelde marmerpaviljoen met duisende spieëls gebou tydens die bewind van Mughal Rule Jahangir. 'N Gedeelte van 350 voet lank en 50 voet lank van Lahore Fort's Picture Wall, nog 'n gewilde toeriste-aantreklikheid in Pakistan, word tans opgeknap.

Tydsberekening van Lahore Fort: 08:30 tot 17:00

Inskrywingsfooi vir Lahore Fort: PKR 30

(Besoekers wat Sheesh Mahal wil besoek, moet bo en behalwe die kaartjieprys van Lahore Fort 100 PKR betaal.)

Baltit Fort

Moenie vergeet om hierdie historiese fort te besoek tydens u reis na Gilgit-Baltistan nie

Die antieke Baltit -fort, wat uitkyk oor die pragtige stad Karimabad in die skilderagtige Hunza -vallei, is gebou as deel van die bruidskat van 'n prinses uit Baltistan wat met 'n plaaslike prins getroud is.

Geskiedenis van Baltit Fort

Beïnvloed deur die ou Tibetaanse argitektoniese styl, dateer die Baltit Fort in Gilgit-Baltistan uit die 16de eeu.

Deur die jare is meer ruimte en geriewe bygevoeg tot die indrukwekkende struktuur op die heuwel. Trouens, tot 1945 was hierdie historiese fort in Pakistan die primêre woning van die Mirs van Hunza. Hulle het egter later na nog 'n skouspelagtige kasteel in die heuwel ingetrek oor die kommer dat die fort begin verval het.

Kort daarna het die Royal Geographical Society of London begin met 'n herstelprogram om een ​​van die historiese kastele in Pakistan met sy hulp van Aga Khan Trust for Culture Historic Cities Support Program te herstel. Die opknapping is in 1996 voltooi en Baltit Fort is onder toesig van die Baltit Heritage Trust in 'n erfenismuseum verander. Dit word nou beskou as een van die belangrikste toeriste -aantreklikhede in Pakistan.

Die klip- en houtstruktuur van Baltit Fort bevat pragtige kerfwerk en metselwerk in die tradisionele styl. Die meeste kamers in die kasteel is enkelverdieping, wyd en goed geventileer. Die trappe is ook van klip gemaak.

Besoekers kan ook die ou, handgemaakte kookgerei sien wat deur die koninklikes van die Baltistan -streke in die geboë koninklike kombuis gebruik is, terwyl die buitenste binnehof muurkoppe van verskeie diere bevat, waaronder die skaars Marco Polo -skape en steenbokke.

Omdat Baltit Fort op 'n heuwel geleë is, moet besoekers 'n steil klippad stap om by die ingang te kom. Alhoewel die wandeling lank kan duur en vir sommige vermoeiend kan lyk, is die boeiende uitsig vanuit die fort beslis die moeite werd.

Baltit Fort Tydsberekening: 09:00 tot 17:50 uur

Inskrywingsfooi vir Baltit Fort: 200 PKR

(Die kaartjieprys sluit 'n gedetailleerde begeleide toer in.)

Rohtas Fort

Rohtas -fort word beskou as 'n toonbeeld van militêre versterkings in die streek

Een van die beroemdste forte in Pakistan, Rohtas Fort, is gebou deur generaal Sher Shah Suri, die stigter van die kortstondige Suri-dinastie in die Indiese subkontinent.

Hierdie formidabele vesting is tussen 1541 en 1548 gebou en is naby die stad Dina in die distrik Jhelum geleë.

Geskiedenis van Rohtas Fort

Sher Shah Suri het die uitgestrekte kasteel gebou na die historiese Slag van Chausa, waar die Mughal -keiser Humayun 'n nederlaag ondervind het deur die Pashtun -heersers. As u ooit die pragtige stad Jhelum in Punjab besoek, moet u Rohtas -fort by u reisplan insluit.

As u wonder wat so spesiaal is aan die Rohtas -fort, Wel, om mee te begin, is dit nog nooit deur geweld binnegeval of oorwin nie. Dit word trouens beskou as 'n toonbeeld van militêre versterkings in Suid -Asië. Afgesien van die feit dat hierdie historiese fort in Pakistan tot 30 000 weermagpersoneel tegelyk kon huisves, het Suri 'n verhewe heuwel op die Pothohar -plato gekies om hierdie kasteel te bou, sodat sy magte 'n oog op die gang na die streek kon hou. Hierdie militêre vesting was slegs bedoel om die Mughal -magte weg te hou, maar ook om die plaaslike Ghakkar -stam te monitor.

Wat verdedigingsmeganismes betref, omring Rohtas -fort amper vier kilometer versterkte mure. Die struktuur het 68 bastionstorings en 12 hekke. Die binnekompleks het 'n klein dorpie gehuisves wat nog bestaan.

In 1997 verklaar UNESCO hierdie ondeurdringbare vesting tot sy lys van wêrelderfenisgebiede in Pakistan. Die organisasie beskryf Rohtas -fort as 'n 'uitsonderlike voorbeeld van die Moslem -militêre argitektuur van Sentraal- en Suid -Asië.'

Besoekers word aangeraai om die dienste van 'n plaaslike gids te bekom tydens hul reis na een van die mees historiese forte in Pakistan, aangesien daar baie verhale aan die kasteel is wat u besoek nog onvergeetliker sal maak.

Rohtas Fort Tydsberekening: 08:00 tot 21:00

Toegangsgeld vir Fort Rohtas: PKR 20

(Buitelanders moet moontlik 'n sekere fooi betaal of hul paspoort wys om die fort binne te gaan.)

Ranikot Fort

Hierdie uitgestrekte fort het vanaf Karachi 'n gewilde daguitstappie geword

Ranikot -fort word nie net beskou as een van die grootste historiese forte in Sindh nie, maar miskien as die hele wêreld. Ranikot -fort, ook bekend as 'The Great Wall of Sindh', is naby die stad San in die distrik Jamshoro geleë en het 'n omtrek van ongeveer 32 kilometer. Diegene wat vanaf Karachi reis, kan maklik die fort bereik via die National Highway. Dit sal ongeveer 'n uur neem om Sann vanaf Karachi te bereik en daarna nog 30 tot 40 minute om die ou fort in Pakistan te bereik. U kan ook aansluit by een van die vele toergroepe wat Ranikot Fort -reise vanaf Karachi aanbied.

Geskiedenis van Ranikot Fort

Die vervalle Ranikot -fort, wat geleidelik een van die gewilde toeriste -aantreklikhede in Pakistan word, is aan die begin van die 19de eeu gebou. Die uitgestrekte fortkompleks is op 'n heuwelagtige gebied geleë en het verskeie hekke, waarvan sommige nog in 'n goeie toestand is. As u die fort deur die San -poort binnegaan, kan u selfs teen die historiese klip- en kalkmuur klim vir 'n panoramiese uitsig oor die hele omgewing.

Afgesien van die groot versterkte muur rondom die Ranikot-fort aan die drie kante, kan reisigers ook Meeri besoek, 'n klein kasteelagtige struktuur in die fort wat vroeër die koninklike Mir-gesin gehuisves het. Daar is ook 'n ander vesting genaamd Shergah in die berge, maar u moet 'n hele dag daaraan bestee om die struktuur alleen te verken en te verken.

Tydens u besoek aan hierdie historiese fort in Pakistan, moet u nie vergeet om van die afleiding na Meeri te ry nie en dan 'n entjie na Mohan -poort te stap.

Saam met die ingewikkelde kerfwerk en tradisionele blommontwerpe aan die muur, kan besoekers ook verkrummel bastions, wagtorings en kleiner vestings in die Ranikot -kompleks sien. Daar is ook drie ou begraafplase in die omgewing. Volgens die plaaslike bevolking kan 'n paar prehistoriese fossiele en diere geraamtes op hierdie heuwels gevind word.

Ranikot Fort Tydsberekening: 24 uur oop

Inskrywingsgeld vir Ranikot Fort: Geen

Derawar Fort

Die groot vierkantige vesting dateer uit die 9de eeu

U kan nie 'n lys van historiese forte in Pakistan opstel sonder om die skilderagtige Derawar -fort selfs een keer te noem nie. Hierdie skouspelagtige baken in die woestyn van Cholistan dateer ongeveer 100 kilometer suid van die stad Bahawalpur in Ahmedpur -Oos, en dateer uit die 9de eeu.

Geskiedenis van Derawar Fort

Derawar Fort is gebou deur 'n Hindoe -heerser uit die Indiese staat Rajasthan as 'n huldeblyk aan Rawal Deoraj Bhatti, die soewereine koning van die Jaisalmer- en Bahawalpur -streek. Geskiedkundiges stel voor dat die groot vierkantige vesting aanvanklik Dera Rawal genoem is, wat later na Dera Rawar en dan Derawar gegaan het.

In 1733 het Nawab van Bahawalpur Sadeq Mohammad Khan I die fort oorgeneem en herbou soos dit vandag lyk. Byna 15 jaar later het die Nawab die Derawar -fort verloor. Nawab Mubarak Khan het dit egter in 1804 teruggeneem voordat die Britse magte dit binnegeval en gevange geneem het.

Die vervalle rooi baksteen fort, wat kilometers ver in die uitgestrekte Cholistanwoestyn sigbaar is, word omring deur bastions van 30 meter hoog saam met mure van meer as 1,5 kilometer. Boonop kan die oorsprong van sommige van die argeologiese terreine rondom die fort teruggevoer word na die Indusvallei -beskawing. Die inwoners beweer dat een van die getunnelde paadjies in die fort na 'n ondergrondse spoorwegtunnel lei wat die pragtige Sadiq Garh -paleis in Bahawalpur met Derawar verbind.

Die fort het die afgelope paar jaar bekendheid verwerf omdat kampeer in die Cholistan taamlik gewild geword het onder avontuurlustiges. Hierdie toere bied nie net mense slaap onder die sterre naby die mure van Derawar Fort nie, maar geniet ook die plaaslike kookkuns en kultuur.

Derawar Fort Tydsberekening: 24 uur oop

Toegangsgeld vir Derawar Fort: Geen

Om meer te lees oor die historiese plekke in Pakistan, besoek Zameen Blog, die toonaangewende leefstylblog in Pakistan.


Derawar -fort: wat bly oor van 'n eens bloeiende woestynbeskawing? - Geskiedenis

Cholistan woestyn

Baie van ons het moontlik gehoor van die woestyn van Cholistan en die omliggende gebiede, maar weens 'n gebrek aan kennis weet ons niks van hierdie verre gebied van Pakistan nie. Cholistan is 'n woestyn en strek amper oor 'n oppervlakte van 26300 vierkante kilometer. Dit is ook verbind met die Thar -woestyn wat na Sindh en dan na Indië uitgebrei word. Cholistan is die enigste woestyn wat in Pakistan en Indië bestaan.

Die betekenis van Cholistan is Land of the Desert omdat die woord “CHOL ” afgelei is van die Turkse taal wat woestyn beteken. Die lewenswyse van Cholistanse mense is ietwat van nomadiese of semi-nomadiese aard; hulle beweeg altyd van die een plek na die ander en hul verblyf word verleng as hulle water en weiding in oorvloed vir hul diere vind.

Die kultuur van die woestyn van Cholistan is so anders en mooi dat dit heeltemal opval. Mans dra helderkleurige tulbande en die vroue dra helderkleurige klere met 'n baie diskrete borduurwerk, wat basies die spesialiteit van hierdie gebied is. Die grootste bron van inkomste is slegs veeteelt en verwante ondernemings. Die vraag na melk, botter en dierlike vette word uit hierdie bron bevredig. Ongeveer 1,6 miljoen beeste word in die omgewing aangetref en dit kan maklik tot 'n groot vlak verhoog word as die regering net spesiale pogings aanwend om die produktiwiteit van hierdie gebied op te gradeer. In die winters, aangesien diere minder is en die weer taai word, skakel hulle oor na verskillende kunsvlyt, soos weefwerk, pottebakkery en leerwerk. Die aardewerkbedryf floreer hier vanweë die ryk grond en verskillende produkte soos kruik, Surahies, glase en piyalas.

'N Super kwaliteit tapytwol word in die omgewing vervaardig. Daar word pragtige matte, matte en ander winterartikels gemaak. Komberse word ook gemaak om aan die behoefte van strawwe winter te voldoen, aangesien die temperatuur tot onder vriespunt daal. Die wol van skape word verkoop om die inkomste te verdien. Daar word verskillende soorte tekstielprodukte in die streek vervaardig, byvoorbeeld Khaddar -weefsels en khaddar -beddegoed van goeie gehalte word hier gemaak.

Die Seraiki -taal is daar oorheersend, wat 'n smaak is van die Lahnda -dialek of die Lahnda -taalgroepering. Baie soefiedigters en heiliges behoort aan hierdie streek, soos Khawaja Ghulam Farid wat baie poësie in die Seraiki -taal geskryf het en die kultuur van hierdie plek gehelp het om te koester.

Drawar Fort is die belangrikste landmerk van die Cholistan -woestyn, 48 kilometer van Dera Nawab Sahib (eens hoofkwartier en setel van die heersers van die staat Bahawalpur). Die gebied was eens goed natgemaak deur die rivier Ghaggar, wat nou in Pakistan die Hakra genoem word en in Vediese tye bekend was as die Sarasvati. Langs die 500 km opgedroogde rivier is meer as 400 argeologiese terreine, wat dateer uit die Indus-beskawing 4500 jaar gelede en rondom die Drawar-fort gegroepeer is. Die woestyn het 'n gemiddelde reënval van 5 duim per jaar en daar word baie min verbou. Die Drawar -fort is 'n groot toeriste -aantreklikheid en lok baie buitelanders vanweë die erfenis en die bande met die oudste beskawings in die geskiedenis van die wêreld, die Indus -beskawing. Voordat dit 'n toeriste -aantreklikheid geword het, was die Drawar -fort die woning van die Nawab van Bahawalpur en daar is nog oorblyfsels van die woonwoorde van Nawab in die Drawar -fort.

Die een kom op 'n ketting forte, wat met 29 km tussenposes gebou is tydens die reis in die Cholistan Desrt, wat waarskynlik gedien het as wagposte vir die kameelkaravaanroetes. Daar was drie rye van hierdie forte. die eerste lyn van forte begin vanaf Phulra en eindig in Lera, die tweede van Rukhanpur na Islamgarh, en die derde van Bilcaner na Khaploo. Hulle is nou almal in puin, en jy kan sien dat dit gebou is met dubbele mure van gipsblokke en modder. Sommige van hulle dateer uit 1000 vC en is baie keer vernietig en herbou.

Naby die Drawar -fort word die TDCP Cholistan Jeep Rally jaarliks ​​sedert 2005 gereël. Meer as 100 opgeleide woestynbestuurders met gemodifiseerde motors ding mee in hierdie saamtrek en honderde duisende mense van regoor die wêreld kom dit sien. Dit was 'n wonderlike inisiatief van 'n deel van die regering van Pakistan, en hierdie stap het hierdie land eintlik as deel van Pakistan bekendgestel en 'n eie kultuur gehad.

Pakistan is uiters geseënd met betrekking tot die aardrykskunde. Pakistan is een van die min lande ter wêreld met bergtoppe, 'n groot deel van die oseaan, wat die hele jaar deur toegang tot warm water en woestyne in 'n relatief klein gebied het. Met al hierdie seëninge, is Pakistan nog steeds deel van die derde wêreld, en al die eerste wêreldlande het, ondanks soveel gebied, baie minder as dit. Ons unieke erfenis en veral die kultuur en lewenstyl van die woestyne kan 'n baie unieke verkoopvoorstel vir Pakistan wees, en die Pakistaanse mense kan baie inkomste verdien slegs deur toerisme op hierdie plekke te bevorder.


Derawar Fort, Cholistan, Pakistan - Maart 2008

Ten suidooste van Dera Nawab, aan die rand van die Cholistan -woestyn, maak 'n opwindende daguitstappie van óf Ahmadpur -Oos óf Bahawalpur. Die massiewe fort torings oor die omliggende halfwoestyn en is sigbaar van kilometers ver af. Die groot mure, ondersteun deur enorme ronde steunpunte, is 40 meter hoog en het 'n omtrek van 1,5 kilometer.

Die rit, slegs vir vierwielaangedrewe voertuie, neem een ​​tot twee uur van Ahmadpur-Oos, afhangende van die toestand van die pad en die roete wat u gids vir u gekies het. Die laaste 25 kilometer (15 myl) is oor woestyn.

Daar was minstens 5 000 jaar lank 'n fort by Derawar, deel van 'n lang ketting wat die ou handelsroete van Sentraal -Asië na die Indiese subkontinent beskerm het. Die fort is in 1733 deur die Abassi -gesin van Raja Rawal Singh van Jaisalmar ingeneem, toe die huidige fort gebou is. Die hele gebied rondom Derawar was eens goed natgemaak deur die Ghaggar -rivier (nou in Pakistan die Hakra genoem, en in die ou Vediese tyd bekend as die Sarasvati). Langs die 500 kilometer (300 myl) van die droë rivierbedding is meer as 400 argeologiese terreine, waarvan die meeste uit die Indus -beskawing dateer. In die 18de eeu het 12 000 mense in die stad onder die fortmure gewoon. Tot 1960 word Derawar deur 'n kanaal natgemaak, maar later, onder die nuwe internasionale ooreenkoms, word water uit die Sutlej -rivier na Indië gelei en Derawar is laat vaar. Die ou kanaal word skoongemaak en nuwe kanale gegrawe om die gebied weer te besproei, binnekort sal besproeiingsgrond Derawar weer omring, en 'n geplaveide pad verbind dit met Ahmadpur-Oos.

Die fort is indrukwekkender van buite as van binne. Begin u toer met 'n rit of kameelrit om die buitekant van die mure, ondersteun deur 40 enorme steunpunte, tien aan elke kant. Buite die noordoostelike hoek is 'n put en twee watertenks waar Rohilas (Nomads) van myl af kom om hul kamele nat te maak en hul bokswatersakke vol te maak. Die ingang van die fort is in die ooste en is verdedig deur 'n groot toring met geweerplekke tydens die oorlog in 1965 met Indië. In hierdie tyd is baie van die geboue in die fort verwyder om plek te maak vir opleiding en parade. In die middel van die paradegrond staan ​​twee kanonne en 'n seleksie ysterkanonbolletjies en klipslingerskote. Die oorblywende geboue, al die 19de eeu, is in 1920 deur die familie van die nawab ontruim en is nou verlate. Al wat oorbly, is die nawab -kwartiere, 'n lang gang met kamers aan weerskante van die damesgedeelte, agter 'n geslote deur en hoë muur en 'n paar soldate se kaserne. Soos met die meeste sub -kontinentale forte, is die binnehof binne die mure bo -op 'n doolhof van ondergrondse kelders en kerkers gebou. Aan die een kant van die paradegrond lei trappe en 'n trollie op relings na die gewelfde kelders, en as u oor die borsteling aan die suidwand kyk, kan u die luggate sien wat na die kerke lei.

Die aangenaamste plek in die fort, 'n geverfde paviljoen bo -op die noordoostelike toring en met 'n vlagpaal. Dit is die beste plek vir 'n piekniek, want dit is gemaklik. Skaduwee en koel, en kyk oor die twee groot watertenks buite en is rooi, blou, geel en groen geverf.

Die wit marmer -moskee voor die fort is in 1849 gebou vir die persoonlike heilige man van die nawab, Pir Ghulam Farid, wie se naam deur magie (en moontlik met behulp van enkele druppels suur) die marmer- en blou teëlgrafte van die nawabs en hul gesinne lê 'n paar honderd meter oos van die fort. Toeriste word nie toegelaat om die kompleks binne te gaan nie, maar daar is 'n goeie uitsig oor die muur van die pragtig versierde langwerpige graf van die nawabs en agt koepelgrafte van ander familielede en vroue, insluitend die elegant koepelmarmergraf van die laaste nawab se Engelse vrou.


Fort Derawar (Cholistan) – deur Ijaz Baloch


Ten suidooste van Dera Nawab, aan die rand van die Cholistan -woestyn, maak 'n opwindende daguitstappie van óf Ahmadpur -Oos óf Bahawalpur. Die massiewe fort torings oor die omliggende halfwoestyn en is sigbaar van kilometers ver af. Die groot mure, ondersteun deur enorme ronde steunpunte, is 40 meter hoog en het 'n omtrek van 1,5 kilometer.

Die rit, slegs vir vierwielaangedrewe voertuie, neem een ​​tot twee uur van Ahmadpur-Oos, afhangende van die toestand van die pad en die roete wat u gids vir u gekies het. Die laaste 25 kilometer (15 myl) is oor woestyn.

Daar was minstens 5 000 jaar lank 'n fort by Derawar, deel van 'n lang ketting wat die ou handelsroete van Sentraal -Asië na die Indiese subkontinent beskerm het. Die fort is in 1733 deur die Abassi -gesin van Raja Rawal Singh van Jaisalmar ingeneem, toe die huidige fort gebou is. Die hele gebied rondom Derawar was eens goed natgemaak deur die Ghaggar -rivier (nou in Pakistan die Hakra genoem, en in die ou Vediese tyd bekend as die Sarasvati). Langs die 500 kilometer (300 myl) van die droë rivierbedding is meer as 400 argeologiese terreine, waarvan die meeste uit die Indus -beskawing dateer. In die 18de eeu het 12 000 mense in die stad onder die fortmure gewoon. Tot 1960 word Derawar deur 'n kanaal natgemaak, maar later, onder die nuwe internasionale ooreenkoms, word water uit die Sutlej -rivier na Indië gelei en Derawar is laat vaar. Die ou kanaal word skoongemaak en nuwe kanale gegrawe om die gebied weer te besproei, binnekort sal besproeiingsgrond Derawar weer omring, en 'n geplaveide pad verbind dit met Ahmadpur-Oos.

Die fort is indrukwekkender van buite as van binne. Begin u toer met 'n rit of kameelrit om die buitekant van die mure, ondersteun deur 40 enorme steunpunte, tien aan elke kant. Buite die noordoostelike hoek is 'n put en twee watertenks waar Rohilas (Nomads) kilometers ver kom om hul kamele nat te maak en hul bokswatersakke vol te maak. Die ingang van die fort is in die ooste en word verdedig deur 'n groot toring met geweerplekke tydens die 1965 -oorlog met Indië. In hierdie tyd is baie van die geboue in die fort verwyder om plek te maak vir opleiding en parade. In die middel van die paradegrond staan ​​twee kanonne en 'n seleksie ysterkanonbolletjies en klipslingerskote. Die oorblywende geboue, almal in die 19de eeu, is in 1920 deur die familie van die nawab ontruim en is nou verlate. Al wat oorbly, is die nawab -kwartiere, 'n lang gang met kamers aan weerskante van die damesgedeelte, agter 'n geslote deur en hoë muur en 'n paar soldate se kaserne. Soos met die meeste sub -kontinentale forte, is die binnehof binne die mure bo -op 'n doolhof van ondergrondse kelders en kerkers gebou. Aan die een kant van die paradegrond lei trappe en 'n trollie op relings na die gewelfde kelders, en as u oor die borsteling aan die suidwand kyk, kan u die luggate sien wat na die kerke lei.

Die aangenaamste plek in die fort, 'n geverfde paviljoen bo -op die noordoostelike toring en met 'n vlagpaal. Dit is die beste plek vir 'n piekniek, want dit is gemaklik. Skaduwee en koel, en kyk oor die twee groot watertenks buite en is rooi, blou, geel en groen geverf.

Die wit marmer -moskee voor die fort is in 1849 gebou vir die persoonlike heilige man van die nawab, Pir Ghulam Farid, wie se naam deur magie (en moontlik met behulp van enkele druppels suur) die marmer- en blou teëlgrafte van die nawabs en hul gesinne lê 'n paar honderd meter oos van die fort. Toeriste word nie toegelaat om die kompleks binne te gaan nie, maar daar is 'n goeie uitsig oor die muur van die pragtig versierde langwerpige graf van die nawabs en agt koepelgrafte van ander familielede en vroue, insluitend die elegant koepelmarmergraf van die laaste nawab se Engelse vrou.


Bewaringsgeskiedenis: Harappa, Fort Derawar -terreine moet bewaar word

Die Punjab -argeologiese afdeling het bykans 38 persent van die werk aan die bou van 'n grens, opgraderingsfasiliteite en bewaringswerk van die Harappa -argeologiese terrein voltooi, het die afdelingsbeampte van die argeologie, Ghulam Muhammad, Dinsdag gesê.

Die SDO het gesê dat die bou van die terrein se grensmuur al dekades lank hangende was omdat die departement nie wettige besit het van uitgegrawe grond wat aan die museum geheg is nie. Die probleem is opgelos nadat die federale en die Punjab -regerings byna R194 miljoen vrygestel het om die grond te bekom, het hy gesê.

Ghulam Muhammad het gesê R85 miljoen is toegewys vir die bou van 'n heining van ses voet en 'n 3,5 kilometer lange grensmuur vir die terrein. Die 1,3 kilometer lange paadjie by die argeologiese heuwel is herstel en harde teëls is gebruik om die gebied voor die Harappa Museum te plavei.

Die SDO het gesê R33 miljoen word bestee aan die bewaring en herstel van argeologiese oorblyfsels, 'n uitbreiding van die museumgalery, instandhouding en nivellering van grasperke, installering van veiligheidsligte op museumterreine, borde vir plaaslike en buitelandse toeriste, voorsiening van veilige drinkwater en banke, verbetering van toilette en waskamers, om 'n kantine te bou en om meubels vir die rushuis aan te skaf.

Ghulam Muhammad het gesê dat die Harrapa -werf 175 hektaar beslaan en byna 50 000 mense elke maand besoek het.

Hy het gesê minister van toerisme, Rana Mashhood, het die departement opdrag gegee om 'n spesiale ingangshek te installeer met motiewe en kenmerke van sommige van die antieke hekke wat van die terrein uitgegrawe is. Hy het gesê dat twee groot eenhoringbeelde ook op die terrein geplaas sal word.

Die Harappa -terrein in die Sahiwal -distrik het oorblyfsels uit die Bronstydperk opgelewer. Die eens versterkte stad was deel van die Indus Valley Civilization, gesentreer in Sindh en die Punjab. Daar word geglo dat die stad soveel as 23.500 inwoners gehad het en gedurende die volwasse Harappan-fase (2600-1900 v.C.) ongeveer 150 hektaar beset het.

Fort Derwar

Amptenare van die Departement Argeologie het gesê onder 'n bewaringsprojek van R6 miljoen sal 'n deel van die grensmuur van 19 voet en die bastion van 62 voet van die Derawar-fort tot 'n hoogte van 75 voet herstel word.

Hulle het gesê dat die bedrag aan die departement argeologie bekend gemaak is. Na die tegniese goedkeuring van die skema, sal die tenderproses begin, het hulle gesê. Bewaringswerk moet hopelik binne 30 of 45 dae begin, het die amptenare gesê.

They said three bastions and two segments of the fort’s 80-feet high and 8-9 feet thick boundary wall had been badly damaged due to extreme weather and time. Though the damage had been reported a while back, funds were hard to come by, they said.

The Bahawalpur Archaeology SDO said that the east-south bastion, a 32-foot long portion of one of the walls, a 19-foot long portion of another wall along Derawar Fort were in desperate need of restoration work.

“A portion of the wall will be renovated with the funds released recently and the remaining work will be put off for when we get funds again,” the official said.

The fort is located at the edge of Cholistan desert in Bahawalpur district. A report of the Punjab Archaeology Department says there has been a fort at Derawar for nearly 5,000 years to protect the trade route from central Asia to the subcontinent. The fort, as it exists today, was captured by the Abassi family from Raja Rawal Singh of Jaisalmer in 1733 – around the time the fort was built, the report says.

The fort is supported by 39 enormous buttresses (bastions), with four on each corner, nine on three sides – West, South and North – and eight on the eastern side. The fort is now a tourist attraction and is a nice place for a picnic.


Derawar Fort: What Remains from a Once Thriving Desert Civilization? - Geskiedenis

Thomas Jefferson has some merits when he said “I like the dreams of the future better than the history of the past” but David McCullough was spot on with, “History is Who we are and Why we are the way We are”.

I think the inspiration we get from our past, guides us to build not only our today but also shapes our future as well. So is the case with Pakistan, marching forward to its bright Future on the heals of its glorious Past.

Pakistan is a treasure house of ancient heritage. Some of these sites are well preserved and remaining are just piles of old dirt and histories, but our archaeologist are trying hard to stabilize and conserve these treasure coves so that they can survive for some more centuries..

Today I am going to uncover some of the interesting facts about history of Pakistan which I personally feel have a common interest for the people of Asia and it has the power to bind them in cohesion and friendship…

Pakistan, though young in the comity of nations, has a rich and varied history spanning a period of over 9000s years. The people of Pakistan have been around for a long time, much before the Partition, much before the Medieval Mughuls, much before Muhammad bin Qasim, much before Islam, and much before the emanation of Vedic cultures. Pakistan has a history of over 9000 years, all of which have a unique link with the Indus River Balochistan’s Mehrgarh (7000 BC), Khyber Pakthunkhwa’s Rehman Dheri (4000 BC), Punjab’s Harappa (3000 BC) and Sindh’s Mohenjodaro (2500 BC) combined have more than 50,000 rock carvings and over 10,000 inscriptions. Many other heritage sites ranging from the Neolithic period in present-day Gilgit Baltistan and the the ancient Sharda University in Azad Jammu & Kashmir are also worth mentioning the generations that have thrived on this soil and left their footsteps for generations to come.

There are a number of sites in Pakistan that were once home to great and ancient civilizations. This blog is first part of “Glorious Past Series” that will cover the most important ancient civilizations… So lets start with some of Gems from the Past:

Taxila is the main site to Buddhism. The budda himself spent 40 years of his life travelling and teaching in this part of northern Pakistan and many say that it is from here where modern budhism takes his routes. The greeks came to Pakistan under conquerer Alexander the great.

They built taxillas first city the Sirkap. This city was built according to the ancient capital of Athens. Sirkaps history spans about 1000 years and different empires conquered and rebuilt it. This city was a home to greatest university for law,medicine and history on the Subcontinent. This city has such a beautiful architectural plan that was so ahead of its time that it was copied and put to use when Islamabad was built.

The remains of this city are located in Balochistan Pakistan.It is the earliest known farming settlement in Southasia and also has earliest evidence of pottery.The people here lived in organized houses of red mud and raised domesticated farming animals. But later on because of water drying in rivers the people move to other areas like Mohenjodaro and Harrapa.the indus valley civilization has its roots here as the archelogists have linked Harrapans genesis to Mehrgarh.

Around 3500-3000 B.C, another civilization came into being while the Indus Valley Civilization was just underway. Located about 22 km south of Khairpur in the Sindh of province, Pakistan, the Kot Dijli site is some 60 km away from Mohenjo-daro.
Excavated in 1955, the site’s culture is characterized by the use of the red-slipped globular jar with a short neck painted with a black band. During the peak of this civilization, the region was divided into two the citadel and the lower town.

MOHENJODARO:

The ancient city of Mohenjodaro is one of the first urban centers in human history.It lies in the southern Pakistan indus valley and is the best preserved city of indus civilization.It was built in 2500 B.C and it spanned about 500 acres.It was divided into two districts the citedal and the lower town. The citadel is home to the city exceptional monuments including the great bath. Mohenjodaro has a sophisticated water system baths and toilet systems and the town has an elaborate sewage system and it also had fresh water in 700 wells. The lower town demonstrated the egalitarian structure.It had a population between 20,000 and 40,000.After 600 years the city collapsed. This city was rediscoverd in 1911.

Harappa is situated 35 km from Sahiwal and around 250 km from Lahore in the province of Punjab. It was from here that the remains of the Indus Valley Civilization were first discovered that eventually led archaeologists to Mohenjodaro. Though some of the remains of Harappa were destroyed, several cemeteries have been excavated to reveal much about the Harappan culture.
There seem to be have been a series of cities. With a similar layout and designs of citadel and granaries, Harappa looks like Mohenjodaro and appears to have been most populated around in 2000 to 1700 B.C. ook. The economy appears to have been agriculture and trade oriented.
Many of the dead were buried wearing a variety of jewelry and other ornaments, such as rings, along with earrings and bangles. Some of the females had anklets of tiny beads and girdles studded with semi-precious stones.

REHMAN DHERI:

It is a pre-Harappan site, and dated about 4000 B.C. It is located 22 km away from Dera Ismail Khan in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province. It is considered to be one of the oldest urbanized centers in South Asia that we know of.
It appears to have once been a large walled rectangular city with a grid iron network. The location of a number of small-scale industrial areas can be seen occupied by eroding kilns and scatters of slag. .
There are not many remains at Rehman Dheri except for thousands of broken utensil bits and stone. It seems to have been left by its inhabitants in the middle of the third millennium B.C. The plan of the Early Harappan settlement is therefore completely undisturbed by later developments in civilization that took place at the other sites and hence represents the beginning of urbanization in South Asia.

It is comparatively a new civilization, the regions comprising Northern Punjab, Peshawar valley and Eastern Afghanistan was known as Gandhara. For a long time it remained the meeting place of various ancient cultures, as it was rule by many rulers. A distinctive art which is known as Gandhara Art took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era. Thousands monasteries and stupas were widely here Buddha’s figures, shapes and monasteries all made prominent features of Gandhara Arts.

ROHTAS FORT:

Rohtas is a historical fort in the Potohar region. It is located at a distance of 16kms from Jhelum city. It was constructed on a hillock where Kahan river meets to an another rainy stream Parnal Khas. The fort is about 300 feet above its surroundings.It is 2660 feet above sea level and covers an area of 12.63 acres. It was build by Sher Shah Suri, due to the rebellious tribes of the northern Punjab region in the 16 th century. It took 8 years to built the Rohtas Fort but it was recaptured by local tribes and then it become the capital of Gakhars.It was captured by Mughal emperor Humayun in 1555. Rohtas Fort is an outstanding example early Muslim military architecture in the South Asia. Also have a profound influence on the development of architectural styles in the Mughal Empire.

DERAWAR FORT:

Derawar fort is a large square fort which is located in Ahmadpur East Tehsil,Punjab.It is approximately 100km south from the city of Bahawalpur.The Derawar fort is visible for many miles in the Cholistan Desert. The fort was built by Rai Jajja Bhatti, which is a Rajput ruler of the Bhatti clan. This fort was constructed in the 9 th century A.D as a tribute to Rawal Deoraj Bhatti. In the 18 th century, the fort was taken over by the Muslim nawabs of Bahawalpur. It was later renovated by the Abbasi rulers. This historical fort is presents at an enormous and impressive structure in the heart o Cholistan desert, but it needs immediate preventive measures for preservation.

NOOR MAHAL AND GULZAR MAHAL:

Noor and Gulzar Mahal are the most elegant buildings in Bahawalpur which is built in the Italian style. Noor Mahal, is a five star luxury hotel, and is inspired by India’s rich heritage and shows the royality created by Indian Maharajas over the centuries.Noor Mahal is one of the hidden gems of Bahawalpur, due to the lack of publicity.But now this palace is open to public and is under the control of Pakistan Army and is used as a guest house and attending meetings with foreign delegations.The construction of Noor palace was undertaken by Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan. Mr.Heenan. an Englishman was the state engineer. The foundation of Noor palace was laid in 1872.

HIRAN MINAR SHEIKHUPURA PUNJAB:

Hiran minar is located near Lahore in Sheikhupura, Pakistan. It was constructed by the Emperor Jahangir as a monument to Mansraj. The structure consists of large, almost square water tank with an octagonal pavilion in its center and was built during the era of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. Another feature of Hiran Minar is its location and environment. The top of the minar is the best place in the Punjab province to get the feel for the broader landscape and its relationship to the Mughal site. To the north of the minar, one can see a patch of forest which is similar tp the forests in the Mughal times.

It is located just outside of Thatta. Makli Hill is the greatest Muslim structure existing today. It is the site of Sindh province and has a golden era which lasted across four centuries from 14 th to 18 th . There is evidence of extreme grandeur style, with colorful mosaic detailing and decorative patterns carved into the stone. Approximately half a million tombs and graves are dotted within this six square mile site.

RANIKOT FORT:

Ranikot fort is a historical fort in Sindh province of Pakistan. It is also known as great wall of Sindh and is the world’s largest fort with the circumference of approximately 26km or 16 miles. Fort is located in Lakki mountains of the Kirthar region to the West of river Indus. The main purpose and architects of Ranikot Fort are still not found. Some archaeologists attribute it to Arabs or it can possibly built by Persion noble under the Abbasides by Imran Bin Musa Barmaki who was the Governor of Sindh in 836.

SHALIMAR GARDEN:

It was sometimes written as Shalamar Garden, It was a Pakistani garden and was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore. The project management was carried out under the superintendence of Khalilullah khan, in cooperation with Ali Mardan khan. It is located near Baghbanpura along the Grand trunk road some 5 kilometers from main city of Lahore. Shalimar Gardens draws inspiration from Central Asia, Kashmir and West Punjab. The site of Shalimar Garden was originally belonged to one of the noble Zaildar families in the region, well known as Arain Mian family, Baghbanpura.

WAZIR KHAN MOSQUE:

Wazir khan mosque is located in Lahore, Pakistan and is famous for extensive title work.It has been described as a mole on the cheek of Lahore. It was built in seven years starting around 1634-1635 AD, during the era of Mughal emperor. This mosque was built by Hakim Shah Ilm-ud –din Ansari, a native of Chiniot, who was the court physician to Shah Jahan and a governor of Lahore. He was commonly known as Wazir khan.This mosque is located in the inner Lahore and is accessible from Delhi gate.This mosque gives some of the finest examples of Qashani title workfrom the Mughal period. Inside the mosque lies the tomb of Syed Muhammad Ishaq, who is also known as Miran badshah, who migrated from Iran and then settled in Lahore.

ANARKALI TOMB:

The tomb of Anarkali is located on the grounds of Lahore’s Punjab Civil Secretariat complex near the British-era Mall, southwest of the Walled City of Lahore. It is considered to be one of the earliest Mughal tombs still in existence, and is considered to be one of the most significant buildings of the early Mughal period. [1] The building is currently used as the Punjab Archives, and public access is limited. Construction of the tomb dates to either 1599 C.E., or 1615 C.E. [2]

The tomb was said to be built by the Mughal Emperor Jehangir for his love Anarkali, who as per legend, was caught by Emperor Akbar for exchanging glances with Jehangir, at the time known as Prince Saleem. Anarkali was reportedly a concubine of Emperor Akbar, and this action reportedly enraged the Emperor Akbar so much, that he had Anarkali interred alive in a wall. When Prince Saleem ascended the throne and took the name “Jehangir,” he is reported to have ordered the construction of a tomb over the site of the wall in which Anarkali was reportedly buried. [3]

Eighteenth-century historian Abdullah Chagatai reported that the tomb was not the resting place for Anarkali, but instead for Jehangir’s beloved wife Sahib-i-Jamal Begum. [4] Many modern historians accept the credulity of this account. [5] The building is currently used as the Punjab Archives, so access to the public is limited.

and the list goes on… Exploring the rich heritage of Pakistan requires some dedicated time and passionate.. So go ahead and customize your tour with us so that we can take you to the forgotten world

(All pictures are attributed to lawful owners, distributed under creative common agreement by Wikipedia)


These 6 forts of Pakistan are a must visit once in your lifetime

There are many locations in each province of the country which are relatively unknown.

As the weather is changing and the pleasant atmosphere demands traveling to wonderful outdoor places. Apart from northern areas, Here were are guiding you with the list of these castles and forts of Pakistan.

You will love visiting these sites with your loved ones:

Baltit Fort:

located in the scenic Hunza Valley, Baltit Fort was built in the 8th CE, it has been on the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative list since 2004.

Derawar Fort:

Qilla Derawar is a magnificent beauty in the Cholistan Desert. It is located 130 km south of the city of Bahawalpur. The best time to see it is in February during the famous jeep rally. This fort is a beauty in the mighty desert.

Ranikot Fort :

Sindh too has its own share of fort glory in the form of Ranikot Fort which is located near Sann in Jamshoro District. It is also known as known as "The Great Wall of Sindh" and is believed to be the largest fort in the whole world.

Lahore Fort :

This is a citadel in the city of Lahore, located at the northern end of the famous walled city. It is spread more than 20 hectares and is a remarkable reminder of the glory and downfall of the Mughal empire.


Discover Hidden History at these 8 Archaeological Discoveries In Idaho

While Idaho’s ruins and ancient artifacts are no match for the behemoth figures of the Eastern Hemisphere, our archaeological finds are impressive in their own regard. Tools, artwork, and fragmented remains gradually reveal our state’s primitive, ancient, and Native American histories, inciting curiosity with every new piece of the puzzle. While too vast and numerous to list below, many of these discoveries (and thousands more) are preserved at the Idaho Museum of Natural History for your in-person viewing and educational pleasure. These archaeological discoveries in Idaho incite curiosity about the Gem State’s ancient history and role in the development of civilization.

Pictographs are a type of aboriginal artwork made on rock surfaces with colors most commonly obtained from vegetable dyes. These priceless images are scattered throughout Idaho, but are found primarily north of the Snake River -- the most infamous being the large Priest Lake Indian Pictographs which can be toured by boat. Thought to have been made by the Kalispel tribe, legend has it that a young priest intervened to prevent bloodshed between two quarreling Indians and was thrown from the cliff. His death is said to be recorded in the painting shown above.

These images are of vast historical significance due to their evolutionary recording of local eating habits, tribe interactions, and hunting practices. The Priest Lake Historical Photograph Collection offer a glimpse into another era.

In 1889, Nampa became the center of controversy when drill workers discovered a small clay figurine in sediments brought up from 300 feet below the surface. The figure, later called the "Nampa Image" or "Nampa Figurine," measures 48 mm long and is modeled in the shape of a human with a visible head and appendages. Some claim it to be the most important discovery in the Northwest to date, while skeptics have considered the figurine a hoax -- its depth and formation suggests an ancient civilization far more advanced than previously thought possible. Today the miniature is a historical curiosity.

For more information, check out the Smithsonian's Bureau of American Ethnology. Archaeology World explores the idea of relic vs. hoax and what’s the most credible explanation.

Ongelooflik! Idaho’s history is just beneath the surface (and sometimes above it), but it’s always amazing when something is revealed that raises new possibilities and questions about our past. These archaeological discoveries in Idaho are fascinating relics of our wonderful state’s past.

How many of Idaho’s museums have you been to? Do you have a favorite exhibit or archaeological piece? Laat weet ons in die kommentaar hieronder!

If you’re looking to learn more about Idaho’s great history, then you need to check out these 10 Unique Historical Places You Absolutely Must Visit In Idaho.


Top Tourist Attractions in Punjab

These are some of the some popular as well as historical places to visit in Punjab. So, if you love travelling, make sure to add these tourist attractions to your travel bucket list.

  • Badshahi Mosque
  • Lahore Fort
  • Minar-e-Pakistan
  • Shalimar Gardens
  • Katas Raj Temple
  • Noor Mahal
  • Derawar Fort
  • Rohtas Fort
  • Khewra Salt Mine
  • Hiran Minar

Let’s take a further look at each of these famous places in Punjab.

Badshahi Mosque

Badshahi Mosque is one of the biggest and oldest mosques in Pakistan

When it comes to the most renowned historical places in Punjab, Badshahi Mosque is probably the first name that pops into your mind, right? Located in the Walled City of Lahore, the majestic Badshahi Mosque is considered one of the largest mosques in Pakistan with the capacity to accommodate about 1 lakh people at the same time.

The stunning mosque was constructed during the rule of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and was connected to the magnificent Lahore Fort through its Alamgiri Gate.

The structure of the Badshahi Mosque reminds one of the splendour and craftsmanship of the Mughal architecture in the subcontinent. Situated atop an elevated platform, the imperial mosque features symmetrical design and boasts four tall minarets flanking the main prayer hall with four additional minarets surrounding the sprawling courtyard. The beautiful embellishments on the walls and ceilings of the mosque, the intricate mosaic art, extravagant hand-painted murals as well as gorgeous stone and marble work illustrate the splendour of the Mughal Empire.

Though Badshahi Mosque suffered major damage during the British rule, it underwent an extensive renovation in the 1960s and is now known as one of the top tourist attractions in Punjab.

Plek: Walled City of Lahore, Lahore

Timings: 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM

Entry Fee: Geen

Lahore Fort

Lahore Fort is one of the top tourist destinations in Punjab

If you have ever visited Lahore, there is a good chance that you have already taken a trip to the centuries-old Lahore Fort located in the Walled City next to Badshahi Mosque. More popularly known as Shahi Qila, it is one of the most historic forts in Pakistan. It also enjoys the status of being one of the six UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Pakistan.

As the history books suggest, the site where this fort is located once housed a fortified structure that was mentioned in the writings of Iranian scholar and polymath Al-Biruni back in the 11 th century. Some 200 years later, after the Mongol armies invaded the area and destroyed the stronghold, Sultan of Delhi Ghiyas ud din Balban rebuilt it. However, the structure was damaged yet again during the invasion of Persian Conqueror Amir Timur. Historians claim Sultan Mubarak Shah of the Sayyid Dynasty rebuilt it.

However, it was Mughal Emperor Akbar who laid the foundation of the modern Lahore Fort in 1566 AD. The fort, as we know it today, went through major modifications under the rule of King Akbar’s successors. After the downfall of the Mughal Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire lived in this fort before it was taken over by the British Armies. Following the creation of Pakistan, Lahore Fort underwent major restoration work and was later declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The most prominent features of this iconic fort include the lavish personal chambers of Emperor Shah Jahan called Naulakha Pavilion, the intricately designed Sheesh Mahal, and the famous Picture Wall.

Ligging: Walled City, Lahore

Timings: 08:30 AM to 05:00 PM

Inskrywingsfooi: PKR 30 + PKR 100 Sheesh Mahal

Minar-e-Pakistan

Minar-e-Pakistan commemorates the historic signing of Pakistan Resolution in 1940

Minar-e-Pakistan is one of the most important and historically significant places to visit in Lahore. Standing tall at approximately 230 feet, this stunning tower is situated in the beautiful Iqbal Park – formerly known as Minto Park – in the heart of Lahore. Also known as the ‘Tower of Pakistan,’ this landmark commemorates the momentous occasion when the Pakistan Resolution (Qarardad-e-Pakistan) was signed on March 23 rd , 1940, during a session of All India Muslim League. This historic resolution led to the creation of Pakistan and is celebrated each year as ‘Pakistan Day.’

Minar-e-Pakistan was designed by Naseer-ud-din Murat Khan and represents a brilliant fusion of traditional Islamic architecture and contemporary design. The minaret has a star-shaped base built approximately 26 feet above the ground with a sky-high 203-feet tall structure situated on top of it. The tower has a diameter of about 32 feet.

The bottom part of Minar-e-Pakistan is shaped like the blossoming petals of a flower. The base of the tower comprises four platforms depicting different phases of the creation of Pakistan, while the stone walls of Minar-e-Pakistan feature verses from the Holy Quran, the 99 attributes of Allah, the text of the historic Pakistan Resolution as well as works of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah and national poet Allama Iqbal.

Ligging: Iqbal Park, Lahore.

Timings: 8:00 AM to 9:00 PM

Inskrywingsfooi: None

Shalimar Gardens

Shalimar Gardens are among the only surviving garden complexes built during the Mughal era

One of the only remaining gardens built during the Mughal reign in the once-imperial city of Lahore, Shalimar Gardens were added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981 along with Lahore Fort. It was commissioned by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the 17 th century and is considered one of the top tourist attractions in Punjab. The design of these gardens, also known as Shalimar Bagh among the locals, was heavily influenced by the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir, which were constructed by Emperor Jahangir, Shah Jahan’s processor and father.

The beautiful garden, which is among the most popular picnic places in Lahore, is located nearly 5 kilometer away from the Walled City of Lahore. The site of the gardens originally belonged to the Arain Mian family, who were granted the custodianship of the beautiful imperial garden by the emperor. Shalimar Gardens remained under the governance of Arain Mian family for over 350 years before it was nationalized in 1962 by General Ayub Khan.

Shalimar Gardens in Lahore are one of the most exquisite examples of landscaping, craftsmanship and engineering from the Mughal era. It is spread over 16 hectares of land and built in the style of Persian paradise gardens, considered a “microcosm of an earthly utopia” as per the historians. The gardens feature several levels, which each of them approximately 13 to 15 feet higher than the previous one.

The top terrace is shaped like a square and is called Bagh-e-Farah Baksh and features 105 fountains. The second and third terraces are known as the Bagh-e-Faiz Baksh, comprising 152 and 153 fountains respectively. The second terrace is shaped like a narrow rectangle while the third terrace mirrors the uppermost in its shape.

Plek: Shalimar Chowk, G. T. Road, Shalimar Town, Lahore.

Timings: 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM

Inskrywingsfooi: PKR 20

Katas Raj Temple

The picturesque Katas Raj Temple complex was built around 1500 years ago

Katas Raj is a complex of seven ancient temples surrounding a pond considered sacred by Hindus. It is believed to have been constructed some 1500 years ago.

Located near Chakwal, these temples are located a little over a two-hour drive away from Islamabad, covering around 260 kanal of land. Until a few years ago, this site represented just another forgotten piece of history, though it started to gain traction over the past few years and is now considered one of the top one-day trip places in Punjab, especially among photographers and history-lovers.

The Katas Raj Temples hold immense significance in the Hindu mythology, as it is believed the bluish-green water of the pond, formed by the tears of Lord Shiva, which he shed following the death of his wife, washes away one’s sins. The remains of a Buddhist stupa can also be seen in the area along with some newly built structures.

Although the dilapidating and vastly ignored temple complex is being restored, the heavy vegetation around the temples and the tranquillity of the area makes it one of the most renowned tourist destinations in Punjab.

Moreover, this conglomeration of temples is one of the largest sacred sites for the followers of Hindu religion in Punjab.

Plek: Kalar Kahar Road, Katas, Chakwal

Timings: Open 24 hours

Inskrywingsfooi: None

Noor Mahal

Noor Mahal in Bahawalpur is also called ‘Palace of Lights’

Standing proudly in the middle of a well-landscaped garden, the spectacular Noor Mahal is one of the most stunning reminders of the affluence of the Nawabs of Bahawalpur. Also known as the ‘Palace of Lights,’ this palatial building is situated a 3-hour drive away from Lahore in the once-princely state of Bahawalpur. The awe-inspiring Italian-style royal palace, which is presently being managed by the Pakistan Army, is one of the most noteworthy cultural heritage sites in Punjab.

The foundation for Noor Mahal was laid by Nawab of Bahawalpur Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV in 1872. It was completed in 1875 and cost around PKR 12 lakh at the time. As the story goes, the nawab, who was also known as the ‘Shah Jahan of Bahawalpur’ for his interest in architecture, had built this lavish double-storey palace for his wife. However, after she refused to live there due to the close-by Basti Maluk Graveyard, Noor Mahal served as a guest house for other members of the royal family of Bahawalpur, dignitaries and other prominent personalities. Occasionally, Noor Mahal was also used as a State Court.

The luxurious Noor Mahal, one of the most renowned historical buildings in Punjab, covers an area of 8 kanal and comprises two floors and a basement. The palace has 32 rooms in total, each of them boasting an extremely lavish décor, beautiful carpets, extravagant curtains, gorgeous ornaments and other fixtures. The architecture of the building features design elements from both the traditional Islamic architecture and the Corinthian order.

Plek: Bahawalpur Cantt, Bahawalpur.

Timings: 9:00 AM to 9:00 PM. Moreover, a light show at Noor Mahal is usually held around 7:30 PM every Saturday and Sunday.

Entry Fee: Geen

Derawar Fort

Derawar Fort is one of the oldest forts in Pakistan

The sprawling Derawar Fort located about 100 kilometres south of Bahawalpur in Ahmedpur East is one of the oldest forts in Pakistan, dating all the way back to the 9 th century. Situated in the picturesque Cholistan Desert, this fort is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Punjab.

Visible for miles in the vast desert, this fort may appear as a dilapidating red-bricked structure at a first glance, but it boasts a rather long and interesting history. According to the experts, Derawar Fort was constructed back in the 9 th century as a tribute to King of Jaisalmer and Bahawalpur Rawal Deoraj Bhatti. Initially, it was called Dera Rawal, which gradually became Derawar. Then, in 1733, Nawab of Bahawalpur Sadeq Mohammad Khan I restored the fort to its current state before losing it. In 1804, Nawab Mubarak Khan reclaimed Derawar Fort, though it soon fell into the hands of the British army.

In 1733, Nawab of Bahawalpur Sadeq Mohammad Khan I took over and rebuilt the fort to how it looks like today. Nearly 15 years later, the Nawab lost Derawar Fort. However, Nawab Mubarak Khan reclaimed it in 1804 before the British forces invaded and captured it.

It is important to note that the fort is surrounded by brick walls spanning over an area of 1.5 kilometres with 30-metre-high bastions. Moreover, as per the archaeologists, the origin of some of the sites surrounding the fort have been traced to the Indus Valley Civilization.

Plek: Derawar Fort Road, Derawar, Bahawalpur.

Timings: Open 24 hours

Inskrywingsfooi: None

Rohtas Fort

Built by Sher Shah Suri, Rohtas Fort is considered one of the best examples of Islamic military architecture in the region

Yet another UNESCO World Heritage Site in Pakistan, the formidable Rohtas Fort is considered an epitome of military fortifications in the sub-continent. This virtually impenetrable fortress was built near the city of Dina in Jhelum District in 1541 under the orders of Pashtun King Sher Shah Suri, the founder of short-lived Suri dynasty.

This remarkably intact Rohtas Fort was constructed with an aim to prevent Mughal Emperor Humayun from invading the region following the Battle of Chausa, which he had famously lost. Owing to the fortress’ location atop an elevated hill on the Pothohar Plateau, the soldiers stationed there had a clear view of the passageway while allowing them to monitor the local Ghakkar tribe that was loyal to the Mughals.

The fortress, which has become a popular tourist attraction in Punjab, houses a small village that dates back to the era of the Suri Empire. The main complex is surrounded by four kilometres of fortified walls with 68 bastion towers and 12 gates. Also, it could hold up to 30,000 soldiers at a time.

UNESCO added Rohtas Fort to the list of World Heritage Sites in 1997 and described it as an “exceptional example of the Muslim military architecture of Central and South Asia.”

If you ever visit Jhelum, don’t forget to take a day trip to Rohtas Fort.

Plek: Rohtas Fort Road, Rohtas, Jhelum.

Timings: 08:00 AM to 09:00 PM

Inskrywingsfooi: PKR 20

Khewra Salt Mines

It is the second-largest reserve of edible salt in the world

Located in the city of Khewra, near Pind Dadan Khan, Khewra Salt Mines are among the most renowned tourist destinations in Pakistan, famous among both domestic and foreign travellers alike. Along with being the largest reserve of edible salt in Pakistan, it also enjoys the status of being the oldest as well as the second-largest salt mine in the world and attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors every year. It was discovered by the troops of Alexander the Great in 320 BC.

The Khewra Mines, which are famous for the production of pink Himalayan salt, is situated at an altitude of 288 meters and comprise more than 40 kilometres of tunnels. Moreover, the site has 19 levels, with only seven located above the ground and the rest below the surface.

To make the trip to Khewra Mines convenient for the visitors, the authorities have installed an electric mining train that transports one from the entrance of the mines to its main hall. The site also features impressive carvings of important landmarks, including the stunning replicas of Minar-e-Pakistan, the Great Wall of China, Badshahi Mosque and Sheesh Mahal, among others.

Owing to the fact that a lot of students and families with children visit the mines, a cafeteria has also been established on the premises. An Asthma Resort has also been set up there by the PMDC.

Plek: Khewra, Jhelum.

Timings: 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM

Entry Fee: PKR 200

Hiran Minar

Hiran Minar is one of the most famous picnic spots in Punjab

One of the most popular picnic places in Punjab, the spectacular Hiran Minar is located in the suburbs of Sheikhupura. Also known as the ‘Deer Tower,’ this vast complex was once served as a hunting retreat for Mughal Emperor Jahangir. It was constructed in 1606 in the memory of the king’s favourite pet antelope, Mansraj. Given its proximity to the then-imperial city of Lahore, the lush green surroundings of Hiran Minar provided the royals and noblemen with an opportunity to the sport of hunting without having to travel too far.

The tower itself is about 100 feet tall with 214 holes on its outer surface, where the king’s hunting trophies once used to hang. The outer walls of the structure also bear intricate calligraphy praising the pet antelope. Furthermore, there is an enormous water tank right in front of Hiran Minar, from where a stone pathway connects the land to a lavish hunting pavilion called “baradari,” which was built for the emperor and his guests to rest during the excursion.

Meanwhile, the green belt surrounding the game-reserve was used as a hunting ground. To this day, Hiran Minar is one of the most peaceful tourist destinations in Punjab owing to its landscape and the thinly populated area.

Plek: Hiran Minar Park Road, Sheikhupura

Timings: 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM

Inskrywingsfooi: None

So, which of these tourist attractions in Punjab are you planning to visit next?


Kyk die video: YARA KOLO YAR GAWCHUIN (Januarie 2022).