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Paasfees tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was 'Hitler -eiers' met snorre

Paasfees tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was 'Hitler -eiers' met snorre


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Teen Paasfees 1941 begin nuusberig in die Verenigde State die onheilspellende slag van oorlog weerspieël wat nader aan die land kom. Die tradisionele Paasfeesvieringe - die Paasparade van die 5th Avenue in New York, besoeke aan die bloeiende kersiebome in DC, en die dekking van die Paasfeeswaarnemings en die styl van die president en presidentsvrou - het moontlik soos gewoonlik verloop, maar weerklink die terreur die wêreld in die gesig staar, kan gesien word in dinge wat net so klein was soos paaseierversierings daardie jaar. Selfs in 'n neutrale VS sou niemand die kans om 'n hardgekookte Hitler te verslaan, prysgee nie!

Paramount News, die media -organisasie wat verantwoordelik was vir hierdie Paasfeesverslag van 1941, sou uiteindelik 'n beroep doen op die nasionale oorlogspoging. Hulle het hul talente geleen aan die Office of War Information, wat in die somer van 1942 gestig is en verantwoordelik was vir alle internasionale en binnelandse propaganda tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Maar tot dan het hulle voortgegaan om hul eie dekking oor wêreldgebeure bekend te maak, of die in die regering daarvan hou of nie.

Paramount neem op die nuus Biz

In 1927 spring Paramount Pictures in die wêreld van joernalistiek deur 'n nuusafdeling te skep. Vir die drie dekades wat dit bestaan ​​het, sou Paramount News twee -weeklikse nuusberigte soos hierdie verslag oor Paasfees in 1941 lewer, wat dikwels in die bioskope vertoon is voordat die gereelde vermaak begin.

Terwyl Paramount met die regering sou saamwerk om binnelandse oorlogspropaganda en versendings uit die voorste linies te produseer, was nie elke politikus opgewonde oor hul nuusdekking in die aanloop tot oorlog nie. In 1940 het senator Burton Wheeler van Montana die rolprentbedryf daarvan beskuldig dat hy hom vir oorlog beywer.

Volgens 'n artikel van die New York Times op 15 Januarie 1941 skryf die redakteur van Paramount News 'n brief aan Wheeler waarin hy die beskuldigings betwis en skryf: "Ek staan ​​op ons rekord. Paramount News het voortdurend beide kante van alle omstrede onderwerpe wat van belang is vir die belange van die Amerikaanse bevolking, aangebied en sal voortgaan. Mag ek u herinner aan ons behandeling van die kontroversie van die Hooggeregshof van twee jaar gelede, waarin u in ons skermverslaggewing verskyn het? Dit is slegs een voorbeeld, kenmerkend van ons beleid. ”

'N Mandjie Paasfees tradisies

Selfs as daar oorlog op die horison was, het kundige paaseierversierers die waaksaamheid oorgedra wat hul vak betref, soos gesien in die eiers van Hitler en die Amerikaanse vloot in hierdie nuusberig. Terwyl geleerdes debatteer oor presies wanneer die eier verband hou met die Christelike vakansiedag, is die wortels van die dood van paaseiers 'n bietjie duideliker. Sommige van die vroegste bewyse kan so vroeg as 1290 teruggevoer word toe koning Edward I lede van sy koninklike hof gekleurde eiers (insluitend 'n paar in goudblaar versier) as 'n Paasgeskenk gegee het.

Die tradisie is daarvandaan voortgesit en uitgebrei. Gedurende die volgende paar eeue sou die boereklas eiers aan die kerk en hul here gee, en hulle sou dikwels eers rooi sterf. Gedurende die Victoriaanse era het die kragdinamika van paaseiers verskuif, en dit het 'n plesier vir kinders geword. Maar dit was in 1885 dat die tradisie nuwe hoogtes van weelderigheid bereik het. In daardie jaar het 'n Russiese juwelier met die naam Peter Carl Fabergé begin om ingewikkelde, goud-en-juweel-eiers vir die koninklike familie van Rusland, die Romanovs, te maak, wat die gewildste geword het-om nie te praat van duur nie-paaseiers wat ooit gemaak is .

LEES MEER: Die geheimsinnige lot van die geprysde paaseierversameling van die Romanov -gesin

Oor die kersiebome

As die Japannese kersiebome in DC begin blom, is dit 'n seker teken dat die lente amptelik aangebreek het. Maar die pad na die bereiking van hierdie pragtige agtergrond vir ons land se hoofstad was alles behalwe moeiteloos.

Die idee om kersiebome in DC te plant, is ontstaan ​​deur twee verskillende mense: Eliza Scidmore was die eerste vroulike skrywer vir National Geographic aan die einde van die 19de eeu, en sy is geïnspireer om kersiebome na die VS te bring na 'n besoek aan Japan; Dr David Fairchild was 'n werknemer van die Amerikaanse departement van landbou, en hy het die eerste kersiebome ingevoer om mee te eksperimenteer op sy eie eiendom. Na suksesvolle lobby - en nadat hulle die goedkeuring van First Lady Taft gekry het - het die twee toegewydes in 1909 die groen lig gekry om voort te gaan met die bring van kersiebome na DC. Operasie Cherry Tree was nie net aan die gang nie, maar die Japanners het die plan goed ingelig en aangebied om 2 000 bome aan die stad te skenk.

Maar hierdie eerste poging sou nie wees nie. Toe die bome aan die begin van 1910 in DC aankom, het die owerhede ontdek dat hulle deur 'n boomagtige siekte geteister word. Die bome moes verbrand word om besmetting van die Amerikaanse landbou te voorkom. Die groot vlamme het niks gedoen om die vriendskap van die twee lande te stuit nie. Japan het 'n nuwe geskenk aangebied, hierdie keer van 3020 bome, as 'n plaasvervanger. Op 27 Maart 1912 vergader die eerste dames uit albei nasies aan die oewer van die Gety Basin en plant hulle twee Japannese kersiebome in Washington, DC

Daardie bome het moontlik die grondslag gelê vir die kersiebloeisels wat elke lente steeds die hoofstad geniet, maar dit het nie so goed voorspel vir diplomatieke betrekkinge nie. Minder as drie dekades later sou die vriendskap tussen die twee nasies vinnig ontbind, en die VSA en Japan sou aan weerskante van 'n dodelike oorlog beland.

LEES MEER: Die drama agter 100 jaar van Washington se kersiebloeisels


Hitler Wat die Führer vandag vir Duitsers beteken

IN DUITSLAND, soos in die res van Europa, verval kopiereg sewe dekades na die dood van die skrywer. Dit geld selfs wanneer die skrywer Adolf Hitler is en die werk 'Mein Kampf' is. Sedert 1945 besit die deelstaat Beiere die Duitstalige regte van die boek en het dit geweier om die herpublikasie daarvan toe te laat. Duitse biblioteke het ou eksemplare, en dit kan gekoop en verkoop word. Maar vanaf 1 Januarie is geen toestemming nodig om dit te herdruk nie.

Diegene wat buite Duitsland woon, begryp moontlik nie onmiddellik die betekenis van die oomblik nie. 'Mein Kampf' was nog altyd in vertaling beskikbaar en is nou net 'n klik aanlyn. Maar dit is nie die punt nie. Vir die Duitsers het die verstryking van die outeursreg met die hand gewring en omstredenheid veroorsaak. Die vraag, soos hulle in die nuwe jaar lui, is nie wat u moet doen met 'Mein Kampf' as dit in die openbare domein tree nie. Dit is eerder wat Hitler vandag vir Duitsland beteken.

'Mein Kampf' is 'n mengsel van outobiografie en manifes wat Hitler begin skryf het tydens 'n redelik gemaklike gevangenisverblyf na sy mislukte putsch van 1923. Dit is die eerste keer in 1925 en 1926 in twee volumes gepubliseer. Die titel beteken 'My stryd' en Hitler sukkel beslis met sintaksis, grammatika en styl. Een kontemporêre resensent het dit bespot as "Mein Krampf" (My Cramp). Baie daarvan is vandag vaal of onbegryplik. Sommige frases vereis parodie: "Columbus se eiers lê by die honderde duisende, maar Columbusse word minder gereeld ontmoet."

In die prosa is 'n kru sosiale darwinisme en antisemitisme ingebed, wat selfs buite Duitsland aanklank vind, sowel as wenke oor die moordende potensiaal van die skrywer. Nadat hy deur die Britte in die eerste wêreldoorlog vergas is, skryf Hitler: as sommige van die “Hebreeuse korrupteerders van die mense onder gifgas gehou was, soos met honderde duisende van ons heel beste Duitse werkers in die veld gebeur het, die offer van miljoene aan die voorkant sou nie tevergeefs gewees het nie. ”

Dit is nie duidelik hoeveel Duitsers die boek gelees het nie. Maar ná 1933, toe Hitler die mag gryp, het dit 'n topverkoper geword. Vanaf 1936 het sommige munisipaliteite dit na hul geloftes aan pasgetroudes gegee, en teen die einde van die tweede wêreldoorlog was ongeveer 13 miljoen eksemplare in druk.

Na die oorlog het die Amerikaners besluit om te besluit wat hulle aan die boek moet doen, want Hitler se laaste privaat adres, in München, was in hul sektor. Die Derde Ryk was weg en die Bondsrepubliek Duitsland sou eers in 1949 gebore word. Die Amerikaners het dus die regte aan die regering van Beiere oorgedra. Dit het die druk van die boek verbied.

Hierdie benadering weerspieël die eerste naoorlogse fase in die Duitse behandeling van Hitler se nalatenskap. Die idee was om alles te onderdruk wat die Duitsers kan versoek om terug te val onder sy betowering. Die Geallieerdes en die nuwe Duitse regering het 'n "de-nazification" -beleid gevolg, waaronder bekende Nazi's uit belangrike posisies verbied is. Maar namate die koue oorlog ontvou, was Wes -Duitsland as bondgenoot nodig. By gebrek aan alternatiewe het ministeries, hofsale en skole weer voormalige Nazi's in diens geneem.

Aan die einde van die veertiger- en vyftigerjare het Duitsers vermy om Hitler te bespreek. Baie mans het uit ballingskap teruggekeer. Baie vroue is verkrag. Mense is verplaas, wees of weduwee. Duitsers was sowel oortreders as slagoffers, en het geen woorde oor hul gemoedstoestand nie. Baie was getraumatiseer en kon dit nie verdra om oor hul ervarings te praat nie. Hulle het dit sielkundig makliker gevind om in die hede te woon en besig te bly met die Wirtschaftswunder, die na-oorlogse "ekonomiese wonderwerk". Baie het steeds die volle omvang van die Holocaust ontken. Volgens Thomas Sandkühler, skrywer van "Adolf H.", 'n onlangse biografie, het 'n peiling in die 1950's bevind dat byna die helfte van die Wes -Duitsers gedink het dat Hitler 'een van die grootste Duitse staatsmanne' sou gewees het as hy nie met die oorlog begin het nie.

Duitsers was vasgenael in die verhoor van Eichmann. Die besonderhede van die Holocaust het gesplete gesinne onthul

'N Nuwe fase begin in die sestigerjare, nadat die Israeliete Adolf Eichmann, 'n leidende Nazi, gevange geneem, probeer en tereggestel het. Dit het meer besonderhede oor die Holocaust openbaar gemaak. Vanaf 1963 is 22 voormalige SS -mans in Frankfurt vervolg vir hul misdade in Auschwitz. Die Duitsers was vasgenael in hierdie sake: 20 000 mense het tydens die sittings na die hofsaal in Frankfurt gegaan. Vir die eerste keer Vergangenheitsbewältigung (“Omgaan met die verlede”) kom by kombuistafels, waar dit gesinne verdeel het.

Seuns en dogters beskuldig hul ouers en professore van medepligtigheid en rebelleer tuis en op die kampus. Hulle oudstes het teruggegaan in ontsmette verhale oor wat hulle gedoen of beleef het. 'N Man-en-vrou-span sielkundiges, Alexander en Margarete Mitscherlich, noem hierdie patologie' die onvermoë om te treur 'in 'n boek met die titel wat in 1967 gepubliseer is.

Amptelike Duitsland het twee antwoorde gevind. Oos -Duitsland het die fiksie aanvaar dat sy regverdige kommuniste die "fasciste" die hele tyd weerstaan ​​het. Dit het in werklikheid nooit met die verlede gereken nie. Maar Wes -Duitsland het sy skuld aanvaar en in die openbaar versoening gedoen. Dit het 'n pasifistiese samelewing geword, wat dikwels 'post-heroïes' genoem word, in teenstelling met die krygerskulture van die Geallieerdes. Dit het ook 'post-nasionaal' geword: Wes-Duitsers het selde met hul vlag geswaai en hul liedjie skaars gefluister by sportbyeenkomste. Die jongmense soek óf sub-nasionaal (soos Swabiërs of Beiers), óf supra-nasionaal, as goeie Europeërs.

Maar in die sewentigerjare begin 'n opgehoopte fassinasie met Hitler weer na vore kom. Twee biografieë en 'n dokumentêr verskyn, en in 1979 het Duitsland 'Holocaust', 'n Amerikaanse televisiereeks, uitgesaai wat Duitsers in 'n nuwe ronde sielondersoek geskok het. Baie het hul opvattings verander op 'n manier wat Richard von Weizsäcker, destydse president van Wes -Duitsland, in 'n historiese toespraak in 1985 uitgespreek het op die 40ste herdenking van die oorgawe van Duitsland. 8 Mei 1945 was nie die datum van die nederlaag en ineenstorting van Duitsland nie, het hy gesê, maar van die bevryding daarvan.

Na hereniging in 1990-die formele einde van die naoorlogse era-het die Duitse publiek ywerig geraak vir meer navorsing. Der Spiegel, 'n weeklikse nuusblad, het Hitler gedurende die negentigerjare 16 keer op die voorblad verskyn. 'N Boek van 'n Amerikaanse historikus, Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, waarin hy beweer dat gewone Duitsers' Hitler's Willing Executioners 'was, het 'n treffer geword. 'N Museumuitstalling oor die Wehrmacht, Duitsland se oorlogsleër, het aangevoer dat gewone soldate (eerder as net die SS) aan die Holocaust deelgeneem het. Duitsers het om die blok in die tou gestaan ​​om dit te sien.

Maar daar was 'n parallelle neiging na wat Duitsers 'Hitler -porno' en 'Hitler -kitsch' noem. Die Führer het 'n bemarkingsinstrument geword. Dit het in die 1980's begin toe Stern, 'n tydskrif, gepubliseer wat volgens hom Hitler se dagboek was, 'n sensasie wat vals blyk te wees. Sedert die negentigerjare het die geskiedenisskanaal op Duitse televisie byna elke aand dokumentêre films oor Hitler se vroue, trawante, kwale, tafelsilwer of Duitse herdershond (genoem Blondi) uitgesaai. Enige beeldmateriaal van die klein man met die tandeborselsnor trek 'n gehoor. Op hierdie manier het Hitler soos seks en geweld geword: aas om kopieë te verkoop of aandag te trek.

Maar hierdie bekoring dui ook op 'n nuwe afstand. Die meeste van die gehoor het immers nou geen persoonlike herinnering aan Hitler nie. Dit verklaar 'n ander genre: satire. Gedurende sy leeftyd was dit die vyande van Duitsland wat Hitler geparodieer het, soos in Charlie Chaplin se film van 1940, "The Great Dictator". Maar in 1998 word Walter Moers die eerste Duitse satirikus wat 'n treffer met 'n strokiesprent "Adolf, die Nazi-Sau" ("Adolf, die Nazi-vark") behaal het. Sy vervaardiger noem die karakter "die grootste popster wat ons ooit geskep het".

Die nuutste topverkoper is "Look Who's Back" deur Timur Vermes, wat vanjaar in Engels vertaal is. Hitler word wakker in die huidige Berlyn naby sy ou bunker. Eers gedisoriënteerd vermaak hy almal wat hy teëkom, so ook sy Turkse droogskoonmaker, dat hy 'n meteoriese loopbaan as komediant begin. Sy hip-kollegas is oortuig dat hy 'n volmaakte "messed ekta" (Berlynse-Engelse metodespeler) is wat 'n subtiele kritiek op die moderne mediakultuur lewer.

Vir jong Duitsers het die Führer dus ver genoeg teruggekeer in die verlede om vreemd en vreemd te lyk eerder as moontlik verleidelik. In "Kyk wie is terug" herhaal hy dwase frases uit "Mein Kampf", soos: "Die meisie soek die meis, die vink die vink, die ooievaar die ooievaar, die veldmuis die veldmuis ..." Maar die woorde en die diksie, met sy beroemde "r", het geen ander effek as grappigheid nie.

Vir die Wêreldbeker-sokkertoernooi in 2006 het die swart-rooi-en-goud oral uitgekom

Een vir een verdwyn die naoorlogse taboes wat met Hitler verband hou. Vlagwaai is een. 'N Deurbraak het plaasgevind in 2006, toe Duitsland die Wêreldbeker -sokkertoernooi aangebied het. Vir die eerste keer sedert die oorlog het die swart-rooi-en-goud oral uitgekom, met balkonne, waentjies, motors en bikini's. Maar so ook die vlae van die besoekende lande, en Duitsland het in een groot straatpartytjie verander. Gasheer en besoekers beskou dit as niks anders as pret nie.

In 'n peiling deur YouGov vanjaar is Duitsers gevra watter persoon of ding hulle met Duitsland assosieer. Hulle noem Volkswagen eerste (ongemaklik, in die lig van die onthullings van sy bedrog). Toe kom Goethe en Angela Merkel, die kanselier, langs die volkslied, die nasionale sokkerspan en Willy Brandt, 'n voormalige kanselier. Hitler was 'n verre sewende op 25%. In dieselfde peiling het 70% van die Duitsers gesê dat hulle trots is op hul land. Ongeveer soveel mense het gedink dat Duitsland 'n model van verdraagsaamheid en demokrasie is, en dat dit tyd is om op te hou om skuld en skaamte te voel.


“Die Grootste Amerikaanse Slag van die Oorlog ” – 'n Besoek van diegene wat daar was

Daar moet sorg gedra word om ons trotse verhaal te vertel om nie 'n onnodige aandeel vir die Britse leër te eis nie, wat ongetwyfeld die grootste Amerikaanse oorlog van die oorlog is, en ek glo dit sal as 'n beroemde Amerikaanse oorwinning beskou word.Sir Winston Churchill, wat op 18 Januarie 1945 die Laerhuis toegespreek het

Ter herdenking van 'n triomf van moed wat 74 jaar gelede plaasgevind het, het 55 Battle of the Bulge veterane, vriende en familielede hierdie week in Washington, DC, vergader om ou vriende te sien, stories te ruil en hul gevalle kamerade te onthou. Spesiale gaste was soldate van die Amerikaanse weermag se militêre distrik Washington, wat hul voorgangers vereer het met 'n kranslegging, asook buitelandse hooggeplaastes. Die ambassadeur van Luxemburg en ambassadeur van België het die groep getoon deur hul enorme dankbaarheid te demonstreer deur persoonlike verhale te deel van die dapper Amerikaanse soldate wat hul gesinne gehelp en hul lande bevry het. Soos met baie van die lede van die Grootste Generasie, het hierdie mans en vroue die waardering afgetrek met die volgende eenvoudige stelling: “I was just done my job. ”

As ek terugkyk op hul jeug, kon hierdie veterane hul rol nooit voorspel het in een van die belangrikste gevegte wat die Amerikaanse weermag tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gevoer het nie. In die nasleep van die D-Day-inval in Normandië, het GI's geglo dat die oorlog teen Kersfees verby sou wees. Adolf Hitler het egter ander planne gehad. Die Duitsers het 'n laaste keer met dobbelstene gewerp en 'n laaste teen-offensief geloods wat bedoel was om die swak verdedigde Ardenne-woud van België, Frankryk en Luxemburg uit te buit, wat verrassend en uiteindelik deur die Geallieerde magte sny.

Die ontstellende winterweer het die Duitse opmars gehelp. Vir grondtroepe, ysige reën en temperature onder nul het veroorsaak dat vlieëniers bevries word, digte mis het enige hoop op geallieerde lugondersteuning weerhou. Dit was die ergste winter in dekades, en soos James Langford in 'n mondelinge geskiedenisopname gesê het, was die eerste ding waaroor enige Bulge Veteraan jou sal vertel:

…die koue. Dit was ongelooflik. Die weer was die koudste wat dit in 50 jaar in daardie gebied was.

Benewens die koue, het die Duitsers die element van verrassing gehad. Op 16 Desember 1944 val hulle strategies 'n gedeelte van die Amerikaanse linies aan wat deur pas opgedaagde troepe van die 106de infanteriedivisie bewaak word. Baie Amerikaanse eenhede wat in St. Vith, België, gestasioneer is, is oorval of gedwing om oor te gee.

Brief van die krygsgevangene. 10 Januarie 1945. Leipzig, Duitsland. Henry Wittenberg -versameling.AFC2001001.102926

Een van die “ Golden Lions, ” een-en-twintigjarige pa en inwoner van Wisconsin Henry “Red ” Wittenberg, is gevange geneem en in die krygsgevangenekamp (POW) opgesluit Stalag IVB naby Leipzig, Duitsland. Na 40 jaar waarin hy sy verhaal vertel het, het hy sy buitengewone ervarings gedeel in 'n mondelinge geskiedenisopname deur sy seun, James. Sy versameling bevat ook 'n deurdagte brief wat hy as 'n krygsgevangene geskryf het aan sy vrou, wat hy aangespreek het as “ Darling Shirley, ” en dogter Judy wat 'n paar benodigdhede aangevra het.

Wittenberg se briewe en foto's is tydens 'n onlangse geleentheid vir Battle of the Bulge, veterane, vriende en familielede, vertoon om die verhaal van die Amerikaanse soldate uit eie oog te sien wat dikwels geïsoleer en onbewus was van wat nog sou gebeur.

Veterane van Eliot Annable en Alvin Sussman met die 106th Infantry Division hersien 'n kaart van die Malmedy -bloedbad, 17 Desember 2018. Foto deur Shawn Miller.

By die uitstallings van die Veterans History Project was materiaal van die afdeling Geografie en kaarte van die Library ’, sowel as die afdeling Prints and Photographs. Die veteraan van die Battle of the Bulge Joe Landry herinner aan sy rol as personeel- en toerustingvervoerspesialis tydens die geveg. Terwyl hy kaarte saam met Ed Redmond en Kathy Hart van die afdeling Geografie en kaarte van die Library ’ hersien het, wys hy op die roetes wat hy deurgemaak het, bespreek die nagevolge van die Malmedy -bloedbad en beskryf koeëls wat deur sy voorruit brul tydens 'n nabye oproep.

Jonathan Eaker en Joe Landry bespreek foto's en Landry se ervaring met die Battle of the Bulge, 17 Desember 2018. Foto deur Shawn Miller.

Na die vertoning van die biblioteek se afdrukke en foto's, het Landry se verhaal voortgegaan terwyl hy met Jonathan Eaker gedeel het oor 'n toeval tydens die geveg wat hom in staat gestel het om sy broer 'n geleentheid te sien wat hom nie gegun is nie vir meer as twee jaar.

Toe St. Vith val, vorder die Duitsers op die kruispad Bastogne en die laaste struikelblok in hul pad. Teen 22 Desember het die Duitse weermag Bastogne omsingel. Die Duitsers was lig verdedig deur die 101ste lugafdeling, sowel as elemente van die 9de en 10de pantserdivisie, en het 'n afvaardiging gestuur wat die Amerikaners wou oorgee. Generaal Anthony McAuliffe ’s van die 101ste Airborne het 'n eenvoudige, maar effektiewe antwoord van vier letters uitgereik: “Nuts! ”

Die morele hupstoot van generaal McAuliffe, tesame met die opruiming van die lug, het die geveg gety. Bastogne het tot 26 Desember gehou toe generaal Patton se derde leër die gevegte Screaming Eagles verlig het. Die Amerikaanse teenoffensief het 'n aansienlike hoeveelheid verlore grond teruggekry en deur Januarie gedruk, toe die voorkant herstel is en die stadium gereed was vir hul stoot na Duitsland. Teen 25 Januarie het die geallieerde magte die oorhand gekry en Duitsland het 'n strategiese nederlaag gely. Die koste was egter groot. Die Verenigde State het meer as 75,000 slagoffers gely, die grootste Amerikaanse verliese van 'n geveg aan die Westelike Front. Europa was verby.

Vir die Bulge -veterane wat voorheen gegaan het en vir diegene wat nog steeds by ons is, bedank ons ​​u en eer u u uitstekende diens.

Die Veterans History Project wens die wense vir die vakansieseisoen en die komende jaar baie sterk toe, veral vir dienspligtiges en vroue wat weg van hul vriende, familie en gewone vakansietradisies dien -net soos hierdie soldate in 1944 gedoen het.

Battle of the Bulge Associations vergader voor die Library of Congress -kersboom, 17 Desember 2018. Foto deur Shawn Miller.

Wil u meer leer oor militêre diens gedurende die vakansie?

Op 20 Desember om 14:00 bied die Veterans History Project Information Center (kamer LJ-G51) 'n pop-up-uitstalling aan met vakansie-items uit VHP ’s-versamelings, wat wissel van 100-jarige wenskaart tot kontemporêre foto's. Kom meer te wete oor die versamelings wat hier verskyn en nog vele meer van die skrywer self. RSVP en kry meer besonderhede op Facebook.

3 Opmerkings

Absoluut ongelooflike storie. Ek het die Slag om die bult baie keer bestudeer, en dit verbaas my nooit nie. Die dapperheid wat hierdie manne getoon het. Hulle is werklik die grootste geslag.

Dankie dat u die blog gelees en kommentaar gelewer het. Ons hoop dat u dit oorweeg om 'n onderhoud met die veterane in u lewe te voer vir die Veterans History Project.

Dankie dat u my oupa se verhaal en brief aan my ouma en ma gedeel het !! Oupa was 'n wonderlike man, ons mis hom almal.

Lewer kommentaar

Hierdie blog word beheer deur die algemene reëls van respekvolle burgerlike diskoers. U is ten volle verantwoordelik vir alles wat u plaas. Die inhoud van alle opmerkings word in die publieke domein vrygestel, tensy duidelik anders vermeld. Die Library of Congress beheer nie die inhoud wat geplaas word nie. Tog kan die Library of Congress enige inhoud wat deur die gebruiker gegenereer word, monitor, en behou hom die reg voor om inhoud om enige rede te verwyder, sonder toestemming. Gretige skakels na webwerwe word as strooipos beskou en kan tot verwyderde kommentaar lei. Ons behou verder die reg voor om, na ons goeddunke, die voorreg van 'n gebruiker om inhoud op die biblioteek te plaas, te verwyder. Lees ons kommentaar- en plasingsbeleid.


Inhoud

Oorsprong

Daffy verskyn die eerste keer in Porky se eendjag, vrygestel op 17 April 1937. [4] Die tekenprent is geregisseer deur Tex Avery en geanimeer deur Bob Clampett. Porky se eendjag is 'n standaard jagter/prooi -paring, maar Daffy (skaars meer as 'n naamlose byspeler in hierdie kort) was iets nuuts vir filmgangers: 'n selfgeldende, heeltemal onbeperkte, veglustige protagonis. Clampett onthou later:

"Destyds was die gehoor nie gewoond daaraan om 'n tekenprentkarakter te sien doen nie. En toe dit die teaters tref, was dit 'n ontploffing. Mense sou die teaters verlaat om te praat oor hierdie moerse eend." [5]

Hierdie vroeë Daffy is minder antropomorf en lyk soos 'n normale swart eend. Die enigste aspekte van die karakter wat deur die jare konsekwent gebly het, is sy stemkarakterisering deur Mel Blanc en sy swart vere met 'n wit nekring. Blanc se karakterisering van Daffy het eens die wêreldrekord gehou vir die langste karakterisering van een geanimeerde karakter deur hul oorspronklike akteur: 52 jaar.

Die oorsprong van Daffy se stem, met sy laterale lisp, is 'n kwessie van debat. 'N "Amptelike" storie wat gereeld herhaal word, is dat dit na die vervaardiger Leon Schlesinger se neiging om te fluit, geskoei is. In die outobiografie van Mel Blanc, Dit is nie alle mense nie!, weerspreek hy die konvensionele oortuiging en skryf: "Dit het vir my gelyk asof so 'n uitgebreide onderkaak sy spraak sou belemmer, veral op woorde wat 'n s klank. So het 'veragtelike' 'des' gewordth-beeldskoon. '"

Daffy se luiheid, oordrewe lisp is mettertyd ontwikkel, en dit is skaars merkbaar in die vroeë tekenprente. In Daffy Duck & amp Egghead, Daffy suis glad nie, behalwe in die afsonderlik getekende stel van Daffy wat sing "The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down" waarin slegs 'n effense geluid gehoor kan word.

In Die Scarlet Pumpernickel (1950), het Daffy 'n middelnaam, Dumas as die skrywer van 'n deurmekaar skrif, 'n knik vir Alexandre Dumas. Ook in die Baby Looney Tunes episode "The Tattletale", spreek Ouma Daffy toe as "Daffy Horatio Tiberius Duck". In Die Looney Tunes Show (2011) word die grap middelname "Armando" en "Sheldon" gebruik.

Goue Eeu Jare

Daffy se vroeë jare, 1937–1940

Tex Avery en Bob Clampett het die oorspronklike weergawe van Daffy in 1937 geskep. Daffy het sy status gevestig deur in die water te spring, rond te spring en te skree: "Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo! Woo-hoo! ! " Animator Bob Clampett het dadelik die Daffy Duck -karakter aangegryp en in die 1930's en 1940's in 'n reeks tekenprente gegooi. Die vroeë Daffy is 'n wilde en wankelrige skroefbal wat voortdurend om die skerm spring met 'n geskreeu van "Ho-ho-ho! -Ho-ho!" (In sy outobiografie het Mel Blanc gesê dat die gedugte houding geïnspireer is deur Hugh Herbert se uitdrukking, wat vir Daffy tot 'n wilde uiterste geneem is.)

Tweede Wêreldoorlog Daffy, 1941–45

Daffy sou ook tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in verskeie kortbroeke met oorlogstema verskyn, getrou aan sy ongebreidelde aard. Hy beveg 'n Nazi -bok wat daarop gemik was om Daffy se skroot in te eet Afval Happy Daffy (1943), slaan Adolf Hitler se kop met 'n reuse hamer in Daffy the Commando (1943) en uitoorlê op Hitler, Goebbels en Goering Vliegtuig Daffy (1944). Eienaardig genoeg was dit eers na hierdie ontsnappings in die oorlog dat Daffy eintlik dienspligtig is in die diens, in die vorm van "die mannetjie uit die konsepbord", waarin hy probeer ontwyk Draftee Daffy (1945). In die regte wêreld is Daffy inderdaad 'opgestel' as 'n gelukbringer vir die 600ste Bombardement Squadron. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Daffy 1946–1952

Vir Daffy Doodles (sy eerste Looney tunes tekenprent as regisseur), Robert McKimson het Daffy 'n bietjie getem en hom weer herontwerp om ronder en minder elasties te wees. Die ateljee het ook 'n paar van Bugs Bunny se vaardighede in die eend ingeboesem, wat hom net so briljant met sy mond gemaak het as met sy strydlustigheid. Daffy het saamgewerk met Porky Pig, die eend se mededinger van die eend het sy reguit man geword. Arthur Davis, wat aan die einde van die veertigerjare 'n paar jaar lank regisseur was vir Warner Bros., 'n paar jaar lank, totdat die hoër bestuur besluit het dat daar slegs drie eenhede moet wees (McKimson, Friz Freleng en Jones), 'n Daffy wat soortgelyk is aan McKimson. McKimson word aangewys as die laaste van die drie eenhede om sy Daffy -uniform met Jones te maak, met selfs laat kortbroeke, soos Moenie my byt nie (1958), met kenmerke van die "screwball" Daffy. Begin in Jy was nog nooit laf nie, Het die persoonlikheid van Daffy ontwikkel om minder lojaal en gulsiger te wees.

Daffy 1953–1964

Terwyl Daffy se looney dae verby was, het McKimson hom steeds so sleg of goed gemaak soos sy verskillende rolle hom vereis het. McKimson sou hierdie Daffy van 1946 tot 1961 gebruik. Friz Freleng se weergawe het 'n wenk van Chuck Jones geneem om die eend meer simpatiek te maak, soos in 1957 Wys Biz Bugs. Hier is Daffy te emosioneel en jaloers op Bugs, maar tog het hy ware talent wat deur die teaterbestuurder en die skare geïgnoreer word. Hierdie spotprent eindig met 'n volgorde waarin Daffy probeer om die Bugs-besete gehoor te verwonder met 'n daad waarin hy petrol drink en nitrogliserien, kruit en uraan-238 (in 'n groenerige oplossing) insluk, op en af ​​spring om 'goed te skud' "en sluk uiteindelik 'n aangesteekte vuurhoutjie wat die hele onwaarskynlike mengsel laat ontplof. As Bugs vir Daffy vertel dat die gehoor dol is op die daad en meer wil hê, sê Daffy, nou 'n spook wat opwaarts dryf (vermoedelik hemel toe), dat hy die daad net een keer kan doen. Sommige TV -stasies, en in die 1990's, die kabelnetwerk TNT, het die gevaarlike daad geredigeer, bang vir nabootsing deur jong kinders.

Paring van Daffy en Porky in parodieë van gewilde films, 1951–1965

Terwyl Bugs Bunny Warner Bros. geword het. ' Die gewildste karakter, die regisseurs het nog steeds baie gebruik vir Daffy gevind. Verskeie tekenprente plaas hom in parodieë op gewilde films en radio -reekse. Porky Pig was gewoonlik 'n komiese verligter. Byvoorbeeld, Daffy in Die Great Piggy Bank -roof (1946) as "Duck Twacy" (Dick Tracy) deur Bob Clampett in Die Scarlet Pumpernickel (1950), Daffy was die held en Porky Pig was die skurk. In Drip-Along Daffy (1951), vernoem na die Hopalong Cassidy-karakter, gooi Daffy in 'n Western saam met hom met die naam 'Western-Type Hero' en Porky Pig met die etiket 'Comedy Relief'. In Duck Dodgers in die 24½ eeu (1953), 'n parodie van Buck Rogers, Daffy verhandel hakies (en koeëls) met Marvin the Marsian, terwyl Porky Pig die rol van Daffy se sidekick behou. In Rocket Squad (1956), 'n parodie van Dragnet en Racket Squad, Daffy en Porky Pig pas weer. Daffy het ook gespeel Stupor Eend, 'n parodie op die Avonture van Superman televisiereekse. Robin Hood Daffy (1958) gooi die eend in die rol van die legendariese outlaw Robin Hood met Porky Pig as Friar Tuck. Behalwe dat hy parodieë speel, speel Daffy ook 'n verkoopsman-wat 'n potensiële klant voortdurend irriteer om iets te koop: in Dwase dekking, Daffy slaag eintlik daarin om Porky Pig 'n ongelukspolis van $ 1.000.000 te verkoop wat slegs onder onmoontlike omstandighede werk-ongelukkig gebeur dit vir Daffy!

Pairing of Bugs and Daffy, 1951–1964

Bugs se styging in sterre het ook die animators van Warner Bros aangespoor om Daffy as mededinger van die haas te heroorweeg, intens jaloers, onseker en vasbeslote om die kollig terug te steel, terwyl Bugs óf koelkop bly, maar effens geamuseerd en/of onverskillig is vir die eend se jaloesie en /of dit tot sy voordeel gebruik het. Daffy se begeerte om byna elke prys ster te bereik, is al in 1940 in Freleng's ondersoek U behoort op foto's te wees, maar die idee is die suksesvolste gebruik deur Chuck Jones, wat die eend weereens herontwerp het, wat hom skraler en skerper gemaak het. In Jones se "Hunting Trilogy" (of "Duck Season/Rabbit Season Trilogy") van Konynvuur, Konyn geurmiddels en Eend! Konyn, Eend! (elk onderskeidelik in 1951, 1952 en 1953 van stapel gestuur), bied Daffy se aandag treffende maniere en opgewondenheid die perfekte geleentheid om die ongelukkige Elmer Fudd te mislei om die eend se rekening herhaaldelik af te skiet. Hierdie tekenprente onthul ook die slagspreuk van Daffy: 'U is ongelooflik!' Jones se Daffy beskou homself as selfbehoudend, nie selfsugtig nie. Hierdie Daffy kan egter niks doen wat hom nie weerlê nie, meer geneig om sy stertvere sowel as sy ego en trots te sing as enigiets anders. [6] Daar word vermoed dat Chuck Jones die nuwe persoonlikheid van Daffy Duck gebaseer het op sy mede-animator Bob Clampett, wat net soos Daffy bekend was as 'n luidrugtige selfpromotor. In Boontjierankie Daffy, Bugs en Elmer word weer saamgespan in 'n parodie van Jack and the Beanstalk (met Elmer as die reus) in 'N Ster is verveeld Daffy tries to upstage Bugs Bunny while in the spoofs of the TV shows The Millionaire en Dit is jou lewe, The Million Hare Daffy tries to defeat his arch-rival Bugs Bunny for a $1,000,000.00 prize given out by his favorite TV show and This Is a Life? Daffy tries to upstage Bugs Bunny in order to be the guest of honor on the show in all four of these cartoons Daffy ends up a loser because of his own overemotional personality (which impairs Daffy's common sense and reasoning ability) and his craving for attention.

Solo Daffy

Film critic Steve Schneider calls Jones' version of Daffy "a kind of unleashed id." [7] Jones said that his version of the character "expresses all of the things we're afraid to express." [7] This is evident in Jones' Duck Amuck (1953), "one of the few unarguable masterpieces of American animation" according to Schneider. [8] In the episode, Daffy is plagued by a godlike animator whose malicious paintbrush alters the setting, soundtrack, and even Daffy. When Daffy demands to know who is responsible for the changes, the camera pulls back to reveal none other than Bugs Bunny. Duck Amuck is widely heralded as a classic of filmmaking for its illustration that a character's personality can be recognized independently of appearance, setting, voice, and plot. [8] In 1999, the short was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.

Daffy's pairing with Speedy in 1965–68

When the Warner Bros. animation studio briefly outsourced cartoon production to DePatie-Freleng Enterprises (DFE) in the 1960s, Daffy Duck became an antagonist in several cartoons opposite Speedy Gonzales, who refers to Daffy as "the loco duck." In Well Worn Daffy (1965), Daffy is determined to keep the mice away from a desperately needed well seemingly for no other motive than pure maliciousness. Furthermore, when he draws all the water he wants, Daffy then attempts to destroy the well in spite of the vicious pointlessness of the act, forcing Speedy to stop him. The Warner Bros. studio was entering its twilight years, and even Daffy had to stretch for humor in the period. In many of the later DFE cartoons, such as Feather Finger en Daffy's Diner, Daffy is portrayed as a more sympathetic character (often forced to turn against Speedy at the behest of a common enemy) rather than the full-blown villain he is in cartoons like Well Worn Daffy en Assault and Peppered. The last cartoon featuring Daffy and Speedy is See Ya Later Gladiator, in what animation fans call the worst cartoon made by Warner Bros. [9]

The Daffy Duck Show

In light of the longstanding popularity of The Bugs Bunny Show and its various incarnations on CBS and ABC, NBC commissioned their own half-hour series, The Daffy Duck Show, which began airing in the fall of 1978. While some well-known titles were included in the program, most of the cartoons featured on the series were from the late '60s Depatie-Freleng run. [10] The program ran on NBC for two years, then in 1981 was rechristened The Daffy/Speedy Show and ran for another two years. [11] Eventually, NBC cancelled the series, and many of the cartoons were reintegrated into the lineups for the respective CBS and ABC Bugs Bunny shows.

More recent years

Daffy appeared in later cartoons. He was one of many Looney Tunes characters licensed by Warner Bros. to appear in the 1988 Disney/Amblin film Who Framed Roger Rabbit. In the film, Daffy (utilizing his original, wacky characterization) shares a scene with his Disney counterpart Donald Duck whilst performing in a piano duel. In 1987, to celebrate Daffy's 50th anniversary, Warner Bros. released "The Duxorcist" as its first theatrical Looney Tunes short in two decades. Daffy Duck also appeared in several feature-film compilations, including two films centering on Daffy. The first was released in 1983, Daffy Duck's Fantastic Island the second came in 1988, Daffy Duck's Quackbusters, which is considered one of the Looney Tunes' best compilation films and featured another new theatrical short, "The Night of the Living Duck". Daffy has also had major roles in films such as Space Jam in 1996 and Looney Tunes: Back in Action in 2003. The latter film does much to flesh out his character, even going so far as to cast a sympathetic light on Daffy's glory-seeking ways in one scene, where he complains that he works tirelessly without achieving what Bugs does without even trying. That same year, Warner Bros. cast him in a brand-new Duck Dodgers reeks. (It should be stressed that in this show, Duck Dodgers actually is Daffy Duck due to him being frozen in suspended animation in some unknown incident.) He had a cameo appearance in The Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries episode "When Granny Ruled the Earth", first airing on March 27, 1999. Daffy has also been featured in several webtoons, which can be viewed online.

Daffy has also made appearances on numerous television series. In Tiny Toon Adventures, Daffy is a teacher at Acme Looniversity, where he is the hero and mentor of student Plucky Duck. Daffy is shown as a baby in Baby Looney Tunes and appears to have a similar personality to some of his earlier years with him being a rival of Bugs and saying Woo-hoo! baie. show and made occasional cameo appearances on Animaniacs en Histeria!. In Loonatics Unleashed, his descendant is Danger Duck (voiced by Jason Marsden), who is also lame and unpopular to his teammates. A majority of these appearances try to emulate Chuck Jones of the characters.

Daffy has also been given larger roles in more recent Looney Tunes films and series. Volg Looney Tunes: Back in Action, Warner Bros. has slowly moved the spotlight away from Bugs and more towards Daffy, as shown in the 2006 direct-to-video movie Bah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes Christmas, where Daffy plays the lead, while Bugs appears in a minor supporting role.

However, more recent merchandise of the duck, as well as that featured on the official website, have been shown to incorporate elements of the zanier, more light-hearted Daffy of the 1930s and 1940s. Producer Larry Doyle noted that recent theatrical cartoons were planned that would portray a more diverse Daffy closer to that of Robert McKimson's design however, due to the box office bomb of Looney Tunes: Back in Action, these new films ceased production. [12]

Daffy returned to Cartoon Network in The Looney Tunes Show, voiced by Jeff Bergman. [ aanhaling nodig ] His characterization here seems to incorporate some elements of Clampett's and Jones' designs while giving him an overall cheery if dimwitted personality. In the show, he has moved out of the forest and shares Bugs's house with him. Unlike Bugs and their neighbors, Daffy has no way of earning money and relies on Bugs for food and shelter. He tried on numerous occasions to get rich quick, but ended up failing repeatedly. Daffy's one possession he is proud of is his paper-mache parade float, constructed on top of a flatbed truck, which is his main means of transportation. While Daffy's greed and jealousy of Bugs remains, he appears to be less antagonistic in this show, as Bugs even tells Daffy in spite of his faults, he is Bugs' best friend and vice versa. Daffy serves as a sort of mentor to Gossamer. Daffy has difficulty telling fiction from reality he often confuses television shows for his own life, believes Bugs is Superman, and at one point hallucinates he is a wizard.

Daffy starred in the 3-D short Daffy's Rhapsody with Elmer Fudd that was originally set to premiere before Happy Feet Two but instead debuted prior to Journey 2: The Mysterious Island. The short features Daffy and Elmer in the first CG or 3-D depiction of these specific Looney Tunes characters. According to Matthew O’Callaghan, who directed the short, the audio comes from a 1950s recording for a children's album. [13] Daffy is performing in a hunting musical, when Elmer, who is in the audience, pursues him. Daffy is initially unaware of the danger, but quickly realizes the threat Elmer poses and outwits him by using the props against him.

Daffy appeared in the 2015 DTV movie Looney Tunes: Rabbits Run.

Daffy appears in the Cartoon Network series New Looney Tunes where he is voiced by Dee Bradley Baker. Daffy is often paired with Porky where Daffy will annoy and bedevil the pig, though occasionally Porky one ups Daffy.

Daffy appears in Looney Tunes Cartoons, where he is voiced by Eric Bauza.

Daffy will appear in the preschool series Bugs Bunny Builders which will air on Cartoon Network's Cartoonito block and HBO Max. [14]

Dell Comics published several Daffy Duck comic books, beginning in Four Color Comics #457, #536, and #615 and then continuing as Daffy #4-17 (1956–59), then as Daffy Duck #18-30 (1959–62). The comic book series was subsequently continued in Gold Key Comics Daffy Duck #31-127 (1962–79). This run was in turn continued under the Whitman Comics imprint until the company completely ceased comic book publication in 1984. In 1994, corporate cousin DC Comics became the publisher for comics featuring all the classic Warner Bros. cartoon characters, and while not getting his own title, Daffy has appeared in many issues of Looney Tunes.


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Crazy, right? Anyway, we see some of Zola’s next evolution in Captain America: The Winter Soldier. Also, if you squint, you can spot designs for his robotic body in the blueprints in the laboratory.

– In that lab, Red Skull can be seen looking at a book that shows an old-fashioned illustration of the Norse “nine realms,” one of which is “our” world, Midgard, and of course, there is Asgard.

– Peggy Carter first appeared in Verhale van spanning#77 (1966) and was created by (who else?) Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. Trust us, the Peggy Carter of the screen is a veel more interesting character than the Peggy Carter of the page. Needless to say, the original Peggy Carter is an important part of Cap’s history, even if she wasn’t always quite the badass that Hayley Atwell gave us. We have much more on Peggy’s comic history right here, if you’re interested.

– Enlisted douchebag Gilmore Hodge appeared in that excellent Cap origin story I mentioned above, The Adventures of Captain America. In that series, it was revealed that Steve was part of a program of guys who competed for the role. The Hodge of the comics was even more insufferable than the jerk on screen, if you can believe that.

– Sgt. Duffy is a favorite of mine, mostly because he’s played to such perfection by Damon Driver. Duffy dates back to Cap’s first appearance in Captain America Comics #1. Part of Steve Rogers’ cover when he was at Camp Lehigh had to be that he was kind of a big, dumb, lummox…and thus, poor Sgt. Duffy, who wasn’t in on the truth often found his blood pressure rising because of Rogers and his “goldbricking.”

– Colonel Chester Phillips didn’t make his way into the comics until the 1965 re-telling of Captain America’s origin in the pages of Verhale van spanning #65. Needless to say, Tommy Lee Jones is more fun on screen than the comic book version of Phillips ever was on the page. His little speech about “super soldiers” to the folks at Camp Lehigh refers to how Captain America was referred to in his early days, and the name of the serum that would grant him his abilities.


1946 and Beyond

Easter Sunday, April 21, found a world at peace–well, at least relatively. Blasted, blombed and burned, Europe was rebuilding. Demobilization of U.S. troops continued, though some would be needed for the occupation of Germany and Japan. Rationing in America was nearing an end– Britain wouldn’t see the last rationing restrictions gone until the 50’s.

Tomorrow is coming quickly, and while it will still be a strange Easter, looking back and then recalling all that I have makes me so thankful– plentiful food, a safe home, and the opportunity to still remember, though with a smaller group, the blessings of Easter that don’t change, even in strange times.

Photo by Aaron Burden, courtesy of Unsplash.com

Thank you so much for stopping by, Readers and Writers. How are you doing? I’m praying that you all have a joyful, safe, and healthy Easter.


Brach’s Candy Factory

The monumental Brach’s candy factory in Chicago is a crumbling shrine to “The World’s Candy Capital.” Perhaps more appropriately though, the colossal factory is a tombstone marking the agonizing death of the American Dream. The factory is a well-known urbex location in the greater Chicago area. It was a great thrill to finally get to explore it physically. Before I delve into that let’s explore the factory intellectually.

German immigrant Emil J. Brach was an ambitious 22 year-old when he came to Chicago in 1881 to work for the Bunte Brothers & Spoehr candy manufacturers. The spendthrift Brach saved $15,000, which he invested into a candy company that quickly went under. Learning from his mistakes Brach rolled up his sleeves and took matters into his own hands. In 1904 the 45 year-old Brach invested $1000 and opened his own “Palace of Sweets” at the corner of North Avenue and Towne Street. With the help of sons Edwin and Frank, Brach attracted locals by making the delicious sweets in a single kettle in the rear of the store and placing them in attractive displays in the front. Customers craved Brach’s popular caramel in particular, which at 20 cents per pound was much cheaper than retailers’ 50-60 cents per pound. To keep up with demand Frank Brach delivered sweets to local department stores for customer convenience.

Photo: The beautiful terrra cotta Brach’s logo outside the abandoned factory.

The Brach’s company would move three more times between 1906 and 1913 to keep up the rapid expansion of their operations. Shipping was vital to their ever growing business. The company dispatched candy via horse, vehicle, mail-order and even by rail. The company’s widening markets expanded along with their burgeoning product line. Within that early growth period Brach’s added hard candies, ice cream, chocolates and nut products to their repertoire. In 1923 Brach consolidated operations into a $5 million facility designed by architect Alfred Alschuler at the intersection of Kilpatrick, Ferdinand, and the Beltline railroad tracks. At that time the company produced over 250 candy variations at about 4 million pounds per week. During the boom years Brach hired workers of all ethnic backgrounds. For years company notices were printed in multiple languages.

Photo (source): A Brach’s employee overlooks the panning procedure that gives hard candy its lustre.

Managing Brach’s reputation for quality was a top priority for the company. They were the first candy producer to implement a “Laboratory for Control” to inspect products. All candies came with a 30-day money-back guarantee and were shipped in special containers to assure freshness.

At the height of the Great Depression Brach’s was able to post a net income of $175,000 even with a dismal $1.27 million in sales, all while keeping more than 1000 people employed. The company was the first to grant employees raises during the severe economic downturn. They also served meals at cost to keep their employees well fed and motivated. During World War II the company was given the Army & Navy Production Award for the high-quality rations produced for the troops. 327 Brach’s employees served in the Armed Forces during the war effort and eight made the ultimate sacrifice for their country. On September 7, 1948 an electrical spark ignited corn starch and caused an explosion on the third floor. The explosion destroyed much of the north side of the factory. The disaster injured 18 and killed 11 employees, but occurred before the day shift before 2,400 employees began.

Photo (robert_g_gigliotti): Smokestack at the top of the factory bearing the Brach name.

Emil J. Brach worked vigorously until the day he died in 1947 at age 88. By that time Emil positioned Brach’s as the #1 bulk producer of candy in the US. Sons Edwin and Frank took over operations after their father’s passing. They tapped into the exploding middle-class market by positioning attractive candy displays in groceries and purchasing ads on television. The Brach brothers didn’t lose their nostalgia for their old shop either. In 1958 they introduced the signature “Pick-A-Mix” kiosks which are still present in modern supermarkets. Edwin passed away at the age of 70 in 1965 leaving his brother Frank in charge. By the 1960’s Brach’s produced over 500 individual types of candies. Unable to keep pace on his own, an aging 75 year-old Frank Brach put the company up for sale in 1966 and it was purchased by American Home Products.

Photo: One of the few remaining markers identifying the building owner.

Frank’s death in 1970 left wife Helen at the helm of the Brach’s candy fortune. Helen Brach visited the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota on February 17, 1977 and was never heard from again. Investigations into the millionaire’s disappearance failed to yield any conclusive evidence as to her whereabouts and she was officially declared dead in 1984. It wasn’t until 1989 that a federal investigation into horse racketeering turned the focus to her then lover Richard Bailey. Bailey had conned Brach into investing in horses and their relationship soured when Helen discovered the scam. Bailey was eventually convicted in 1994 of multiple counts of fraud and conspiracy to commit murder in connection with Helen’s disappearance. In 2005 accomplice Joe Plemmons came forward to authorities describing his role in the crime. According to Plemmons, he fired two rounds rounds into the visibly beaten body of Helen Brach. Plemmons then escorted two accomplices to an active steel mill off of Interstate 65. Two steel mill employees held blast furnace doors open when Helen Brach’s corpse was fed into a trough and incinerated.

Acquisition of the Brach’s brand traded hands over the past few decades. In 1987 American Home Products sold Brach’s to european candy and coffee producer James Suchard. Principle stockholder Klaus J. Jacobs sold Suchard off to Philip-Morris in 1990, but retained ownership of the Brach’s business units. In 1994 Jacobs merged Brach’s with another property he purchased, Brock Candy Company, to form Brach & Brock Confections, Inc. Ownership changed hands again in 2003 when Brach & Brock Confections, Inc. was sold to the world’s largest chocolate manufacturer Barry-Callebaut headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland.

Photo (akagoldfish): The abandoned factory as seen from the cracking parking lot.

The Chicago factory fell on hard times in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. Artificially inflated domestic sugar costs and strict import quotas put in place by the US Department of Agriculture made operating costs in Chicago difficult for Brach’s. (These policies have essentially crippled candy production throughout the United States.) High labor costs also exacerbated the situation to the point where the owners decided to shutter the aging plant. Brach’s began laying off employees in 2001 and gradually continued until 2003. After 76 years in operation the “Palace of Sweets” closed its doors. Production of Brach’s candies resumed in Mexico where labor and sugar are more cost effective.

Video: Amateur video of the Brach’s administration building demolition.

Photo: Scene from The Dark Knight. Copyright Warner Brothers.

In August of 2007 the location was used as a set for filming The Dark Knight. The former parking deck was completely demolished in the scene in which the Joker destroys Gotham General Hospital. The factory can also be seen in the shot (far left), which was also rigged to fire explosives from the windows. The final scene from the Dark Knight can be viewed here.

Photo: A lone sign warns factory explorers of the dangerous wet floor.

Soon after filming occurred Brach’s Confections was sold to current owners Farley & Sathers for an undisclosed sum in November 2007. The sale includes current manufacturing facilities located in Chattanooga, Tennessee Winona, Minnesota and Linares, Mexico. After four years without a tenant ML Realty Partners, LLC purchased the vacated Chicago factory in 2008 for redevelopment into a warehouse. Visible progress on that project has not materialized.

Photo: The Chicago skyline can be seen in the background of the factory.

The abandoned Brach’s candy factory, much like the Barber-Colman plant, impressed me with its sheer magnitude. We were there for four hours before recognizing the time. Even after all that exploring we still failed to traverse much of the factory. Despite the immense size of the factory most areas were barren or cloaked in darkness enitrely. Almost every possible surface has been covered by taggers in a bid for some kind of street-cred. The upper floors in one of the larger towers are all but inaccessible without the aid of proper climbing equipment. The exteriors are perhaps the most visually engaging elements of the factory. If you are looking for photographic gems the total number of opportunities are sparse. In my opinion the Brach’s factory has a sweeter history than adventure potential. I’m quite satisfied, however, that I checked this off my urbex list before it disappears entirely.

Charley Project – Article details the Helen Brach disappearance.

Chicago Business – 2008 article describes potential investment opportunity for the factory.

Chicago Tribune – 2001 article discussing the shutting down of the plant.

Chicago Tribune – 2001 article discussing some of the workers’ reactions to the closing.

Chicago Tribune – 2005 article on Joe Plemmons involvement in Helen Brach’s disappearance.

Christian Science Monitor – 2001 article on high sugar prices killing US competition.

Google Books – 1948 The Billboard news snippet on the explosion that killed 11 and injured 18.

Google Books – 1952 Popular Mechanics article “They Make Candy by the Ton” with great color photos.

Monster – Company Profile for Brach’s, which has some historical information.

Reference for Business – Brach’s Confections corporate history and other information.

Unknown Chicago – Brief article on Helen Brach’s disappearance.

Wikipedia – Entry for missing Brach’s heiress Helen Brach.

Editor’s Note: The following biographical information about Emil J. Brach cannot be confirmed by legitimate academic resources. This excerpt from the 1996 book “Germans are Bad-Ass: A Compendium of Bad-Assery Throughout History Minus Hitler” is considered to be a complete fabrication.

Brach’s candy is synonymous with joyfully delicious candy, but few are aware of Emil J. Brach’s sinister motives for creating sugary sweets. As a German, Brach’s love for fine chocolate was surpassed only by Schadenfreude. Emil had a troubled upbringing as a child. His father Augustus was a dentist obsessed with hygiene, but is also described by sources as a vitriolic alcoholic with foul temperament. Brach’s mother Gerta was a strict Protestant who severely punished young Emil for the slightest infraction. In her mid-40’s Gerta was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, which up until the 1930’s was considered a death sentence. The diagnosis crushed Augustus and sent him into a sustained alcohol-fueled depression. Emil took great pleasure in seeing his oppressive mother robbed of her strength, particularly after she ate her secret stash of chocolate sweets. Gerta eventually slipped into a coma and passed away after a lengthy ordeal. The next day Augustus was struck by a carriage and passed away from the sustained injuries. With his parents out of the way, Emil vowed to immigrate to the land of opportunity to exact Schadenfreude from dentists and diabetics by carefully crafting a seemingly benevolent sweets empire.


The White Wolf returns

Just before Bucky Barnes and Sam attempt to jump the Flag Smashers, the two have one of many hilarious exchanges in an abandoned warehouse. Bucky's stealthy behavior prompts Sam to call him the White Panther as a joke, referencing the time Bucky spent in Wakanda after the events of "Captain America: Civil War." Bucky quickly corrects him, saying, "It's actually White Wolf." This confuses Sam for a moment, but the scene moves on without further discussion.

We first see Bucky referred to as the White Wolf in the second post-credits scene from "Black Panther." Some village children refer to Bucky by this name while he is residing in Wakanda under the watch of Shuri (Letitia Wright) and T'Challa (Chadwick Boseman). T'Challa later calls Bucky this name during "Avengers: Infinity War," before giving him a new vibranium arm for the impending battle against Thanos' army. "The Falcon and the Winter Soldier" marks the first time we've heard Bucky refer to himself as the White Wolf.

In the comics, the Winter Soldier and the White Wolf aren't actually related. According to Marvel, the White Wolf is Hunter, T'Challa's adopted white brother. King T'Chaka takes Hunter in as an infant after he crash-lands in Wakanda with his parents, who don't make it out of the wreckage alive. He eventually becomes the leader of the Wakandan secret police, and takes on the White Wolf moniker.


Inhoud

When first manufactured in 1907, Hershey's Kisses were wrapped by hand. In 1921, a machine was used so the Kisses would be wrapped automatically. This machinery also added the paper plume or paper strip flag to the aluminum foil wrapper to identify Hershey's Kisses, replacing the original small square of printed tissue that was inside the foil wrapper. [2]

In 1924, Milton S. Hershey received a registered design trademark (Reg. 0186828) for "foil wrapped conical configuration with plume" which included the paper plume sticking out from the top of the aluminum foil wrapper. [3] In 1976, Hershey received a registered trademark for the Hershey's Kisses foil wrapper.

During 1942, production of Hershey's Kisses was briefly interrupted due to the rationing of aluminum foil. Instead, the machines were re-purposed to create military chocolate D ration bars for the soldiers in World War II. According to military historians, these chocolate D rations served two purposes: as a morale boost, and as a high-energy, pocket-sized emergency ration. The ingredients of these four-ounce bars were a blend of chocolate, sugar, cocoa butter, skim milk powder, and oat flour, containing 600 calories. The specification for the D ration chocolate bars was that it had to taste "a little better than a boiled potato" so troops would only use them for emergencies. [4] By the end of World War II, Hershey's had produced more than 3 billion D ration chocolate bars. [5]

Kisses are one of the most popular brands of candies in the US. In 1989, the chocolate drops were the 5th most popular chocolate brand in the United States, spawning sales that topped $400 million. More than 70 million Hershey's Kisses chocolates are produced each day [6] at the company's two factories. Today's Kisses brand chocolates use Hershey's original milk chocolate formula.

In 2005, Hershey's Kissables were introduced as a smaller candy-coated version of Kisses chocolates. They were discontinued in 2009.

Though originally made of solely milk chocolate, many variations of the Kisses brand of chocolates and candies have since been introduced. Hershey introduces and discontinues new Kisses flavors constantly as part of its standard Kisses offering, including holidays. [7] In addition to the standard milk chocolate, varieties include caramel-filled, Special Dark, and hazelnut.

When introduced in 1907, Hershey's Kisses chocolates originally were wrapped by hand. The automated wrapping machinery was introduced in 1921.

The original wrapper was silver-colored foil and Hershey's Kisses were only available in this single color for decades. In 1962, Hershey became one of the first companies to change its wrappers for seasonal sales. [8] That was the first year that Kisses chocolates were available in different colored foil wrappers: red, green, and silver-wrapped candies were manufactured to coincide with the Christmas season. This idea was the suggestion of John Figi, owner of Figi's "Gifts in Good Taste"—a mail-order food gifts company based in Marshfield, Wisconsin. The green and red colored wrapped chocolates were featured for the first time in the Figi's Christmas catalog.

In 1968, pastel blue, pink, and green wrappers were introduced for Easter, and in 1986, Valentine's Day-themed wrappers of red and silver were introduced. Xs and Os have also appeared on pink and red wrappers as well as little red hearts on silver wrappers for Valentine's Day. "Fall Harvest" colors were introduced in 1991. Independence Day has silver with red stripes and blue-starred wrappers. Pink wrappers with "ribbons" on them to support breast cancer research have also appeared. Camouflage wrappers are also available, primarily on military bases. Kisses Dark Chocolates come in a deep purple wrapper. The Halloween themed Kisses Candy Corn candies come in a wrapper whose colors imitate the color of a candy corn with yellow, white and orange stripes swirling around the candy.

In 2016 four limited Holiday wrapper varieties were released: Santa hats, Kissmas sweaters that resemble knit Christmas sweaters, Kissmas Trees with plumes that read "Fa La La", and "Kissmas" Presents with plumes that read from me to you. The Christmas themed Kisses Candy Cane candies also come in a wrapper whose colors imitate the color pattern (red stripes and white chocolate). The original silver (for regular) and gold (for almonds) wrappers are available year-round.

All Kisses wrappers have the paper strip called a plume as an identification tag sticking from the top of the foil wrapper. [9] When the paper plume was added to the Kisses wrapper in 1921, originally it was a flag for the "Hershey's" brand, distinguishing Hershey's Kisses from its competitors. [10] A few years later in 1924, Hershey received a registered US trademark for its wrapper design, consisting of the conical foil wrapper plus the paper plume.

Later "KISSES" was printed on the paper plume, as well as other Kisses flavors. The company has also added special variety plumes (such as "cheesecake"). Special messages have been available for various occasions, including "Happy Halloween" and "Love is in the air".

"Christmas Bells" is a commercial in which Hershey's Kisses, fashioned as a handbell choir, perform the Christmas carol "We Wish You a Merry Christmas". It premiered in 1989 and has run each holiday season since in the United States it is the longest-running television commercial for the Hershey brand. [11] In 2020, Hershey's introduced a new "Bells to Blossoms" version of the ad, but was criticized for changing a 30-year running iconic holiday tradition. The company made the decision to air both the "classic" and newer versions of the holiday ad throughout the holiday season. [12]

Beginning with its own consumer research into product information, in 2015 Hershey led the SmartLabel initiative. [13] Hershey's was the first brand to adopt this Grocery Manufacturers Association mobile-scannable packaging standard. [14]

Kisses ingredients are cane sugar, milk, chocolate, cocoa butter, milk fat, lecithin, and natural flavor. A 1.45-ounce serving of Hershey's Kisses consists of seven Kisses pieces. [15] Kisses has the following nutrition information: [16]

  • 200 Calories
  • Total fat 12g
  • Saturated fat 7g
  • Trans fat 0g
  • Cholesterol 10 mg
  • Sodium 35 mg
  • Total carbohydrate 25g
  • Dietary fiber 1g
  • Total sugars 23g
  • Protein 3g
  • Vitamin D 25.8 iu
  • Calcium 80.8 mg
  • Iron 1.4 mg
  • Potassium 147.7 mg

Additives Edit

Hershey's Hugs and Hershey's Kisses Cookies 'N' Creme are made with the ingredient PGPR (Polyglycerol polyricinoleate, E476), [17] which is used as a cheaper replacement for cocoa butter. [18]

On December 9, 2018, a member of the Wedding Cookie Table Community on Facebook posted a picture of a tip-less Kiss, wondering “Do this year’s Kisses look like this for you? Or are the tops broken off?” [19] Other members of the group began to check their Kisses and as a result, dozens of others posted in the group that many, but not all, of them were found to be missing their tips. [20] Twitter users soon picked up on the controversy and began to post pictures of Kisses that were also tip-less.

Hershey representatives had responded to the group's messages. At first, customer service told consumers that it was deliberate so the pieces did not fall off after production, but later on, they said the company was looking into the cause. [21] In a statement, Jeff Beckman, a Hershey spokesman, said, "We love our Kisses as much as our consumers. We make more than 70 million Kisses a day here in Hershey, PA, and we want each of them looking as great as they taste. The iconic, conical shape is one of the reasons families have loved Kisses for generations. We shape the tip on our classic, solid Milk and Dark Chocolate Kisses to create that iconic appearance. And while there has always been some variability in that process, we are working to improve the appearance because it's as important to us as it is to our fans." [22]


Rupert Murdoch’s “Deadpool 2” Has a Hidden Karl Marx Easter Egg & a Cut Scene of Baby Hitler Being Murdered

Deadpool 2 is a movie based on an antihero named Deadpool from the Marvel comic book universe. The film is a sequel and was released on May 18, 2018 (United States). There are 600 Easter Eggs, references & cameos in this movie. There is even a hidden Easter Egg of the hack writer Karl Marx, credited with penning the Communist Manifesto. Check out the 1 minute mark in this video to see what I am talking about.

The film was distributed by Rupert Murdoch’s 20th Century Fox along with Pedo-Bryan Singer’s modern X-Men movies. Singer is still producing Dark Phoenix (2019) despite being outed as a pedophile.

Die oorspronklike Deadpool film racked up an astonishing $132 million over the three-day weekend, making it the biggest R-rated opening ever and the biggest opener in the history of 20th Century Fox.

Fox is Rupert Murdoch’s Empire, and part of his empire is FOXnews. To most Evangelical Christians the FOXnews is the torch bearer for their good, ethical, Jew worshiping values. The dots don’t seem to connect in the minds of Evangelical Christians, and they cannot see that Murdoch is a Communist like all other of the “Liberal” Media Moguls (a code word for Jew). If Murdoch was steadfast in his beliefs of GOP conservatism, why would he make seemingly anti-GOP protest films like David Cameron’s Avatar?

“Avatar helps Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp boost Quarterly Profits To £554m” by Andrew Clark (The Guardian), reported on May 4, 2010:

Avatar, a saga of colonialism and environmental destruction on a distant planet named Pandora, has raked in record box-office takings of $2.7bn. It sent profits rocketing by 76% to $497m at News Corp’s Hollywood studio, Twentieth Century Fox.

In die boek National Security Cinema: The Shocking New Evidence of Government Control in Hollywood written on June 27, 2017 by Matthew Alford and Tom Secker, Pg 62:

..the first comments by Rupert Murdoch himself upon watching Avatar were not about the film’s politics, but rather about how exciting it would be to use its 3-D technology when screening Premiership football.

Murdoch is only interested in his profit margin and the power of perception he will wield over the dumbass masses, with CGI technology being more cutting edge with every blockbuster film. Before the masses know it, they will not be able to tell flesh and blood from CGI. This would come in handy if you want to make staged events to manipulate public opinion.

It’s the Bolshevik way — to manipulate the masses with controlled opposition to lead them closer to Judeo-Communism. Murdoch is following in the footsteps of Lenin, the sick White-butchering bastard himself.

“Five Myths About Rupert Murdoch” By David Folkenflik (Washington Post) November 8, 2013:

Fox News serves up some of the most conservative voices active in American politics…And yet, this is a guy (Murdoch) who kept a bust of Lenin in his student chambers at Oxford University.

Since the Disney and Fox merger, many Marvel fans have been wondering whether Marvel Cinematic Universe or Marvel Entertainment characters can make cameos in each others movies despite the politics involved with a major business merger of this magnitude.

Deadpool (the original) pokes fun of the backwards politics of “artistic films” when it comes to bottom-line money men like Murdoch. Deadpool (Ryan Reynolds) says “the studio couldn’t afford another X Man” as the Deadpool franchise only has the rights to portray LBGTQ Marvel character Negasonic Teenage Warhead and an overtly “Russian” Communist silver plated X-Man named (Conrad) Colossus.

In Deadpool 2, Deadpool makes a similar joke about the lack of X Men involvement in his film, but moves on with excitement with news from Conrad Colossus that he has been selected to be a trainee at the X-Men academy. Reynolds begins to display homoerotic behavior by groping his new partner’s “organic steel” butt.

In the background of the grope scene in the grand staircase of the X-Mansion there is a portrait of Karl Marx in a spot reserved for such figures such as Abraham Lincoln. At the moment that Deadpool decides to be a hero, Karl Marx, the founder of modern Communism, is present.

During the red carpet premiere of Deadpool 2 in New York, writers Paul Wernick and Rhett Reese confirmed that they had cut a post credit scene where Deadpool went back in time to murder Adolf Hitler as a baby in order to preemptively correct the course of World War II. Wernick and Reese probably knew this would be Murdoch’s wet dream, but it was a no-go because it would interfere with his profits.

The film’s director, David Leitch, teased Deadpool fans that a deleted scene might end up on the eventual Blu-ray release. According to Vulture, “in an early cut of the film, Leitch tells Esquire that there was a post-credits sequence in which good old DP traveled back in time to kill baby Hitler.”

“We sort of leave it open to the audience,” says the Leitch. “And that’s what I love about that scene is, because it really makes you think about the character and who Deadpool is, and what was the moral of the story we just told you. And now we’re applying it to this crazy situation. And here we are standing with the potential to change history and it’s like, How are we going to change it?”

Since Soviet Russia and ZOG-American have won the 2nd world war, they have been running the world into the ground. To add insult to injury, they (the International Jew) are joking about killing Hitler as an innocent child. It’s as if they did not murder enough innocent life during and after the war (watch Hellstorm).

Children are being trained subconsciously via video games (eg, Call of Duty) to reflexively want to kill Germans as a knee jerk reaction. The gamer assassins many grow into adults who become military personnel, and they do not distinguish between Na-zees and Germans. Actually, anyone who our overlords label a “Nazi” is fair game.


Kyk die video: die Kerk. Oordenking. Doen dit Dinsdag. Mylpale (Julie 2022).


Kommentaar:

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  2. Raymil

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  8. Wat

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