Geskiedenis Podcasts

Frans Stel Mirage bekend - Geskiedenis

Frans Stel Mirage bekend - Geskiedenis

Marcel Dassaul onthul sy geveerde vleuelvegter, die Mirage, in 1955. Die Mirage was in staat om vinniger te wees as Mach 2 en kon tot 57.000 voet klim. Die Mirage is waarskynlik die bekendste vanweë sy sukses, aangesien die Israeliese weermagvliegtuig van 1967 wat die Arabies-Israeliete aangeval het.


Dassault Mirage III

Geskryf deur: Staff Writer | Laaste wysiging: 30/05/2021 | Inhoud en kopie www.MilitaryFactory.com | Die volgende teks is eksklusief vir hierdie webwerf.

Die supersoniese vegvliegtuiglyn Mirage III was 'n gewilde produk gedurende die dekades van die Koue Oorlog, waar Mach 2-travel 'n belangrike eienskap van baie vliegtuie was. Uiteindelik is meer as 1 400 van die tipe in Frankryk en in die buiteland vervaardig, en baie subvariante en toetsplatforms is gebore uit dieselfde oorspronklike ontwerp. Die delta-vleuelpresteerder was vir sy tyd 'n baanbrekersisteem en word steeds meer gewild gemaak deur sy gevegsoptrede in Israeliese hande tydens die Sesdaagse Oorlog van 1967. Terwyl hy van die meeste groot lugmagte ter wêreld afgetree het, behou die Mirage III nog steeds 'n klein voetspoor in voorraad van 'n paar uitgesoekte lugmagte vandag (2013).

Die Dassault Aviation-onderneming, wat in 1929 gestig is deur Marcel Dassault (gebore as Marcel Bloch) en gevestig in Parys, Frankryk, het ontstaan ​​uit die verwoesting van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-1935) om een ​​van die voorste lugvaartondernemings van Europa te word. In 1952 het die Franse regering 'n nuwe, liggewig supersoniese onderskepper benodig om die bedreiging van Sowjet-bomwerpers en -vegters te weerstaan. Dassault reageer met hul "Mystere-Delta 550" (M.D.550) -konsep, wat gebruik is van 'n enkel-sitplek, tweemotorige, dubbelvlerk-planvorm met 'n enkele vertikale stertvin. Die krag van die vliegtuig is bedien deur 2 x Britse Armstrong Siddeley MD30R Viper -naverbrande turbo -enjins wat deur 'n vuurpylstuurrak ondersteun word. Die M.D.550 het die eerste vlug op 25 Junie 1955 behaal.

Die M.D.550 -produk het daarna ontwikkel tot die konsep "Mirage I" met 'n hersiene vleueloppervlak. Hierdie model het die eerste vlug in November 1956 behaal en 'n maksimumsnelheid van Mach 1.6 gestel. Terwyl die Mirage I belowend was uit 'n prestasie-oogpunt, was dit nie 'n realistiese militêre produk wat bedoel was om interne kanonne, 'n nuttige brandstofopslag, aanboordradar en eksterne missiele aan boord te dra nie. As sodanig het Dassault oorgegaan tot die effens groter "Mirage II" -konsep, hoewel dit uiteindelik ten goede opgegee is met die dimensioneel groter "Mirage III" -ontwerp wat verder gevorder word.

Op grond van die Duitse BMW 003-reeks turbojet uit die oorlog, het die Franse vervaardiger SNECMA sy interne Atar 101G-1 turbojet ontwikkel en 'n enkele installasie van hierdie stelsel sou die nuwe Mirage III-vliegtuigraamwerk aandryf. Die vliegtuigraamwerk behou die delta-vleuel-planvorm wat in vorige prototipes gesien is en die enkele vertikale stertvin met sitplek vir een vlieënier. Die romp was baie skraal en pylagtig in sy ontwerpbenadering, en maak maksimum gebruik van aërodinamika om die geprojekteerde Mach 2-snelhede vir die Franse afsneller te bereik. Die Atar -enjin het 'n stootkrag van 9 700 pond opgebou en naverbranding aangebied vir kort sarsies gekonsentreerde spoed. Die eerste vlug van 'n Mirage III -prototipe is op 17 November 1956 geëis, terwyl 'n tiende toetsvlug 'n maksimum snelheid van Mach 1.5 behaal het. Die toets dui op onstuimige lugvloei langs die twee halfmaanopnames wat die Atar-enjin inasem, sodat aan elke opening verstelbare skokkegels aangebring is. In hierdie hersiene konfigurasie het die Mirage III 'n snelheid van Mach 1.8 bereik.

Onder die indruk van die nuwe Dassault -produk, het die Franse regering voortgegaan om die tipe diens te bestel, en dit was die naam van die "Mirage IIIA" voorproduksie -aanwysing. Vliegtuie is toegerus met die SNECMA Atar 09B -turbojet -enjin van 13,228 lbs. Die romp is effens uitgebrei om die Thomson Cyrano -lugafsnyradarsisteem te huisves, en 'n sleepbuis is bygevoeg om die rol van die aanloopbaan by die landing te verminder. Die eerste vlug van 'n Mirage IIIA -vliegtuig was in Mei 1958 en die model het uiteindelik 'n maksimum snelheid van Mach 2.2 behaal - wat aan die Franse regering se hoëspoedaanvraag voldoen het, terwyl dit ook die eerste Europese vliegtuig was wat Mach 2 in vlugvlug oorskry het.

Na aanleiding van die beperkte hoeveelheid voorproduksie was Mirage IIIAs die gevegsgeskikte "Mirage IIIC". Dit was 'n enkele-sitplek-afweer wat vir die eerste keer in Oktober 1960 in prototipe vorm gevlieg het en was gewapen met 2 x 30mm DEFA interne kanonne, toegerus met die Cyrano-afsnyradar en vir lug-tot-lug missiele. Die Franse lugmag het dit in getalle bestel en die tipe aangevul deur die 'Mirage IIIB' tweesitplek-afrigter. Mirage IIIB -modelle bevat 'n tweede kajuit vir die instrukteur, sonder 'n radarinstallasie en interne kanonne en 'n verlengde romp. Aflewerings van Mirage IIIC -onderskepers aan Franse eenhede het in Julie 1961 plaasgevind, met bevele wat Israel (Mirage IIICJ) en Suid -Afrika (Mirage IIICZ) teen hierdie tyd ook gelewer het. Mirage IIIB -afrigters was ook in gebruik by die magte van Israel, Libanon, Suid -Afrika en Switserland.

Selfs toe die Mirage IIIC-onderskepermontering in die Franse lugdiens gevestig geraak het, het Dassault 'n langafstand-lugweer-/strydvegter (multirole) variant van die ontwerp as die "Mirage IIIE" bevorder. Die prototipe het die eerste keer op 1 April 1961 gevlieg en bevat 'n verlengde romp met verhoogde lugvaart en brandstof, 'n Marconi-navigasieradar, Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) en Cyrano II-reeks lug-grondradar. Die Mirage IIIE was toegerus met die SNECMA Atar 09C -reeks naverbrande turbojet -enjin en 'n totaal van drie prototipes het die strewe bevorder voor produksie. Na die aanneming deur die Franse lugmag, is die IIIE ook gelisensieer-vervaardig in die lande Australië, België en Switserland, terwyl dit deur die magte van Argentinië, Brasilië, Libanon, Pakistan, Suid-Afrika, Spanje en Venezuela onder verskillende uitvoerbenamings uitgevoer is. By die Mirage IIIE-model is die nodige Mirage IIID-tweesitplek-afrigtervorm gevoeg, wat ook deur Pakistan, Spanje, Suid-Afrika, Switserland en Venezuela gekoop is. Die Franse lugmag Mirage IIIE -modelle is skoongemaak vir kernwapens.

Net soos met ander interceptor-vliegtuie van die tydperk, het 'n toegewyde vorm van verkenningsgerigte spoed na vore gekom as die "Mirage IIIR". Hierdie variant bied die grondaanvalrame van die Mirage IIIE -modelle met die avionika -suite van die Mirage IIIC -interceptor. Hulle het nie 'n radar onder die neuskegel gehad nie en het veelvuldige kameras gehuisves vir fotoverkennings. Die Mirage IIIR is daarna verbeter deur die "Mirage IIIRD" -inisiatief. Verkenningstipes is buite Frankryk aangeneem deur die magte van Israel, Pakistan, Suid -Afrika en Switserland.

Die Mirage 5 was 'n verwante uitloop van die Mirage IIIE-reeks en is ontwikkel deur Dassault om aan 'n vereiste vir duidelik weer/grondaanval vir Israel te voldoen. Die prototipe is op 19 Mei 1967 in die lug, met sy verlengde neuskegel (met 'n vereenvoudigde radarinstallasie) as 'n enkel-sitplek, toegewyde stakingsplatform vir alle weersomstandighede. Uiteindelik is 582 van die tipe vervaardig en voorbeelde van Frankryk, België, Egipte, Pakistan en verskeie ander. As gevolg van die Franse politiek wat die Mirage 5 na Israel blokkeer, is Israeliese Mirage III's intern ontwikkel tot die uitstekende "Kfir". In die Franse lugmagdiens was die Mirage 5 die Mirage 5F. Belgiese Mirage 5's is plaaslik vervaardig en baie Mirage 5-kliënte het uiteindelik gemoderniseerde lugvaartkundiges bekendgestel.

Die Mirage 50 het 'n multi-rol-variant geword wat toegerus was met die SNECMA Atar 9K-50-enjin tydens die herkonstruksie van die Mirage 5-vliegtuigraamwerk. 'N Prototipe is in 1979 in die lug en het die ontwerpklank bewys. Die sleutel tot die model was die integrasie van 'n Head-Up Display (HUD), gevorderde radarstelsel en verbeterde vliegdinamika (soos die gebruik van kanards). Die reeks is in 'n gemoderniseerde vorm aangebied deur die Mirage 50M -benaming.

Die Mirage IIIV was 'n ander Mirage III-vorm wat ontwikkel is as 'n sterk hersiene variant om as 'n VTOL-vegter vir vertikale opstyg en landing (NAVO) te dien. Die tipe is egter nooit in die NAVO -diens aangeneem nie en twee is vervaardig, die eerste wat in Februarie 1965 gevlieg het.

Huidige Mirage III -operateurs sluit in Argentinië en Pakistan. Lande soos Frankryk, Australië, Egipte en Venezuela het sedertdien die Mirage III prysgegee ten gunste van meer moderne alternatiewe of weens gedwonge begrotingsverlagings. Suid -Afrika het die Franse ontwerp ontwikkel tot die Atlas Denel "Cheetah". Belgiese Mirage III's was bekend as SABCA "Elkan".

Een van die belangrikste redes vir die wêreldwye sukses van die Mirage III -lyn was die gebruik daarvan deur Israeliese magte tydens die Sesdaagse Oorlog van 1967, waar dit 'n gesertifiseerde gevegsplatform geword het. Israeliese sukses teen vyandige MiG's is baie bekend gemaak en het die status van die tipe op die wêreldmark versterk, wat die verkope vir Dassault op sy beurt gedryf het. Terwyl die tipe delta-vleuelkonfigurasie haar traag laat draai het, het die vegter uitgeblink op ander belangrike gebiede wat hulle van onskatbare waarde gemaak het in die voorraad van die Israeliese lugmag van die tydperk.


Duitsers stel gifgas bekend

Op 22 April 1915 skok Duitse magte Geallieerde soldate langs die westelike front deur meer as 150 ton dodelike chloorgas teen twee Franse koloniale afdelings in Ieper, België, af te vuur. Dit was die eerste groot gasaanval deur die Duitsers, en dit het die Geallieerde lyn verwoes.

Giftige rook word sedert antieke tye soms in oorlogvoering gebruik, en in 1912 gebruik die Franse klein hoeveelhede traangas in polisie -operasies. By die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die Duitsers aktief begin met die ontwikkeling van chemiese wapens. In Oktober 1914 het die Duitsers 'n paar klein traangashouers in skulpe geplaas wat op Neuve Chapelle, Frankryk, afgevuur is, maar die geallieerde troepe is nie blootgestel nie. In Januarie 1915 het die Duitsers skulpe gelaai met xylylbromied, 'n meer dodelike gas, op Russiese troepe op Bolimov aan die oostelike front afgevuur. As gevolg van die winterkoue, het die meeste gas gevries, maar die Russe het nietemin gerapporteer dat meer as 1 000 doodgemaak is as gevolg van die nuwe wapen.

Op 22 April 1915 het die Duitsers hul eerste en enigste offensief van die jaar geloods. Die offensief, bekend as die Tweede Slag van Ieper, het begin met die gewone artillerie -bombardement van die vyandelike lyn. Toe die beskieting verdwyn, het die geallieerde verdedigers gewag vir die eerste golf Duitse aanvalstroepe, maar in plaas daarvan het hulle in paniek geraak toe chloorgas oor niemandsland en in hul loopgrawe waai. Die Duitsers het vier myl van die voorkant met die windblaas gifgas geteiken en twee afdelings Franse en Algerynse koloniale troepe uitgeskakel. Die lyn van die Geallieerdes is verbreek, maar die Duitsers, miskien net so geskok soos die Geallieerdes oor die verwoestende gevolge van die gifgas, kon nie die volle voordeel trek nie, en die Geallieerdes het die meeste van hul posisies beklee.

'N Tweede gasaanval, teen 'n Kanadese afdeling, op 24 April, het die Geallieerdes verder teruggedryf, en teen Mei het hulle teruggetrek na die stad Ieper. Die Tweede Slag van Ieper het op 25 Mei geëindig, met onbeduidende winste vir die Duitsers. Die bekendstelling van gifgas sou egter groot betekenis in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog hê.

Onmiddellik na die Duitse gasaanval in Ieper het Frankryk en Brittanje hul eie chemiese wapens en gasmaskers begin ontwikkel. Terwyl die Duitsers die leiding geneem het, besoedel 'n groot aantal projektiele gevul met dodelike stowwe die loopgrawe van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Mosterdgas, wat deur die Duitsers in 1917 bekendgestel is, het die vel, oë en longe geblaas en duisende doodgemaak. Militêre strateë verdedig die gebruik van gifgas deur te sê dat dit die vyand se vermoë om te reageer verminder, en sodoende lewens in aanvalle gered het. In werklikheid het verdediging teen gifgas gewoonlik tred gehou met aanvallende ontwikkelings, en beide kante gebruik gesofistikeerde gasmaskers en beskermende klere wat die strategiese belangrikheid van chemiese wapens in wese ontken het.

Die Verenigde State, wat die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in 1917 betree het, het ook chemiese wapens ontwikkel en gebruik. Die toekomstige president, Harry S. Truman, was die kaptein van 'n Amerikaanse veldartillerie -eenheid wat in 1918 gifgas teen die Duitsers afgevuur het. In totaal is meer as 100,000 ton chemiese wapens in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gebruik, ongeveer 500,000 troepe is beseer en byna 30 000 is dood, waaronder 2 000 Amerikaners.

In die jare na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het Brittanje, Frankryk en Spanje chemiese wapens in verskillende koloniale stryd gebruik, ondanks toenemende internasionale kritiek op chemiese oorlogvoering. In 1925 verbied die Geneefse protokol van 1925 die gebruik van chemiese wapens in oorlog, maar verbied dit nie om hul ontwikkeling of opberging te stoor nie. Die meeste groot moondhede het aansienlike chemiese wapenreserwes opgebou. In die dertigerjare het Italië chemiese wapens teen Ethiopië gebruik, en Japan het dit teen China gebruik.  

In die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het chemiese oorlogvoering nie plaasgevind nie, hoofsaaklik omdat al die groot oorlogvoerders oor sowel chemiese wapens as die verdediging beskik het, soos gasmaskers, beskermende klere en detektore wat dit ondoeltreffend gemaak het. Boonop het strateë in 'n oorlog wat gekenmerk word deur blitsige militêre beweging, gekant teen die gebruik van enigiets wat die operasies sou vertraag. Duitsland het egter wel gifgas gebruik om miljoene in sy uitwissingskampe te vermoor.

Sedert die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is chemiese wapens slegs gebruik in 'n handjievol konflikte en die Jemenitiese konflik van 1966-67, die Iran-Irak-oorlog van 1980-88 – en altyd teen magte sonder gasmaskers of ander eenvoudige verdediging. In 1990 het die Verenigde State en die Sowjetunie 'n ooreenkoms onderteken om hul wapens vir chemiese wapens met 80 persent te sny in 'n poging om kleiner nasies te ontmoedig om die wapens op te slaan. In 1993 is 'n internasionale verdrag onderteken wat die produksie, opberging (na 2007) en die gebruik van chemiese wapens verbied. Dit het in 1997 in werking getree.


Frans Stel Mirage bekend - Geskiedenis

1901
26 Augustus, Gentullio (Tullio) Campagnolo word gebore vir Valentino Campagnolo en Elisa Paiusco in Vicenza.

1922
Tullio Campagnolo begin sy amateurrenloopbaan (met Veloce Club Vicenza op 'n Cicli Aliprandi) wat tot 1930 duur.

1927
Op 11 November kan die bevrore hande van Tullio Campagnolo nie die vleuelmoere van sy wiel losmaak om dit na 'n ander tandwiel om te draai tydens die Gran Premio della Vittoria -wedloop oor die besneeuwde Croce d'Aune -pas nie (hy eindig vierde). & quotBisogna cambi & agrave qualcossa de drio. & quot. "Daar moet iets aan die agterkant verander word." Hy belowe om 'n produk uit te vind wat hierdie probleem sal uitskakel: die skepping van galletti automatici. outomatiese vleuelneute, of, soos ons dit nou ken, die vinnige vrystelling.

1930
Op 8 Februarie word die snelvryhub gepatenteer, die eerste van meer as 135 patente vir Tullio Campagnolo.

1933
Nadat hy dele in die agterkamer van die hardewarewinkel van sy vader vervaardig het (Corsa Padova 101, Vincenza), begin Tullio Campagnolo, S.r.l. met die vervaardiging van die snelvryhub. Die skuifnaaf, dubbele sitplekstangbediende rugpedaalspeler (cambio -prototipe) word op 4 Mei gepatenteer en in Augustus bekendgestel. Die stukke van die prototipe derailleur is almal met die hand gemaak en verg baie tyd en moeite. Fratelli Brivio van Brescia (F.B.) word die onderaannemer vir die onderdele en verskaffer van die driestuk (staalvat met aluminium flense) hubs. Later word die amptelike korporatiewe naam Campagnolo Brevetti Internazionali SpA (vertaling: Campagnolo International Patents Incorporated).

1934
Cambio a bacchetta (vertaling: staafwisselaar) of Cambio & quotCAMPAGNOLO & quot; is die naam wat gebruik word vir skuifnaaf, dubbele sitplekstangbediende, agterpedaalspeler. Die slagspreuk word & quotSenza attriti e senza rumore & quot (dws wrywing-vry en geraasvry). Die eerste advertensie vir die Cambio & quotCAMPAGNOLO & quot verskyn in Gazzetta dello Sport.

1940
Tullio Campagnolo huur sy eerste voltydse werknemer, Enrico Piccolo.

1941
'N Enkele bladsy -strooibiljet word gedruk.

1942
Die eerste amptelike Campagnolo -logo: die gevleuelde wiel wat die vinnige vrylating beklemtoon, 'n komponent wat vandag die universele standaard bly.

1946
Die Cambio Corsa (vertaling: renwisselaar) is die nuwe naam vir skuifnaaf, dubbele sitplekstangbediende, agterpedaalspoorder wat later in Italiaans na verwys word as die due leve (vertaling: twee hefboom) wanneer die una leve (vertaling: enkelhefboom) renwisselaar word in 1949 bekendgestel. Twee weergawes van die Cambio Corsa -derailleur is beskikbaar: die kort hefboom Corsa en die langhefboom Sport. Die snelvrye moer is die oorspronklike afgeronde skroefkopweergawe. Op 12 Januarie is die Campagnolo -gevleuelde wiel met 'n vinnige vrystelling -logo met die woorde "Cambio Campagnolo" geregistreer.

1947
Die begin van die uitvoer van onderdele. Foto van die onderneming se uitstappie (maatskappy se piekniek?) Foto's van 37 werknemers.

1948
Campagnolo se eerste buitelandse fabriek (montering en afwerking) word in Cognin, Frankryk, gebou. F.B. en Campagnolo het in 1948 'n klein produksiefasiliteit in Cognin, Frankryk, gedeel om die Franse mark te bedien, met inagneming van destydse invoertariewe. Die logo van die onderneming, die gevleuelde wiel, word aangepas deur 'cambio' (vertaling: wisselaar) te laat val en die vleuel te herontwerp en vinnig los te maak.
Gino Bartali wen die Tour de France in 1948 in Julie met 'n Cambio Corsa -derailleur.

1949
Die Tipo Paris-Roubaix-skuifhub, enkele sitplekstangbediende ruglepelspoor, word oorspronklik in Italiaans bekendgestel as die & quotuna leva & quot; vertaling: enkelhefboom) totdat dit herdoop is ter ere van Coppi se Paris-Roubaix-oorwinning in April 1950. Die snelvrye moer is nou die ovaalringweergawe. Die prototipe van die Gran Sport -tweekabel, parallelogram agterspoorder, word in die herfs op die skou van Milaan gewys. Daar word geglo dat tien prototipes gemaak is.

1950
Campagnolo het 123 werkers in diens. Die Gran Sport -enkelkabel, parallelogram -agterspoorder -prototipe word op die valbeurse getoon.
Fausto Coppi wen Paris-Roubaix in April met behulp van die Paris-Roubaix-derailleur.

1951
Die Gran Sport-enkelkabel, parallelogram-agterspoorder (verchroomde brons, groot verchroomde bevestigingsbout en draaibout en gate in katrolle, stel skroefkabelklem en 'B' stelskroef vir die verandering van die derailleur-monteerhoek wat die volgende jaar uitgeskakel word ) gekombineer met skuifhefbome (verchroomde brons, dan aluminium) sonder rubberdeksels en Gran Sport-skuifstang, word 'n kabelbediende voorspeler ingebring, saam met konvensionele drie-delige nawe van klein flense (legeringsflense op 'n staalvat en D -tipe snelvrye neute). 'N Gesmede uitval met 'n integrale Gran Sport -derailleurhanger word ingebring wat 6 mm dik is met 'n 4 mm -stelskroef en 'n derailleur -stop om 4 uur, wat maklik herken kan word deur 'n bult wat rondom die stelskroef gevorm word. Later dieselfde jaar word 'n nuwe vervalste uitval bekendgestel wat 7 mm dik is met 'n stelskroef van 4 mm en omskakelaar om 7 uur (geen Sport -derailleur -veergat).
Hugo Koblet wen die Tour de France in 1951 in Julie met behulp van Gran Sport-derailleurs, gekombineer met Gran Sport bar-end shifters. Fausto Coppi en Gino Bartali jaag ook met dieselfde opset (slegs ses Gran Sport -derailleurs beskikbaar vir hul TdF -debuut).

1951
Katalogus, nie-genommer. Het beide Cognin, Frankryk en Vincenza, Italië adresse op voorblad. Gedruk vir beurse aan die einde van die jaar. Die ingesluit is die Cambio Corsa, Tipo Paris-Roubaix, Gran Sport voor- en agterspoorders, Sport-derailleur voor (geen agteruitvoering), stangkragskakelaars (geen rubberdeksels) en skuifhendels (onderbuisklem) lengte kabelbehuizing en soldeer in weergawe getoon), klein flens driedelige nawe (legeringsflense op 'n staalvat gedruk, QR's met & quotD & quot-ring), Cambio Corsa/ Paris-Roubaix getande uitval, Cambio Corsa/ Paris-Roubaix met integrale derailleurhanger , Gran Sport -uitval met verstelaars, Sportuitvalle, & quotH & quot -gereedskap, skottelgoedwasser, vrywielverwyderaar, keëltangleutels en 'n toebehore wat die getande uitval akkuraat kan opspoor tydens raambou.

1952
Die Gran Sport Extra agterspoorder word ingevoer (verander liggaam, groot verchroomde bevestigingsbout en draaibout, gate in katrolle, uitgebreide horingvorm aan die buitekatrolraam en hersiene kabelklem) saam met die agterspoorder van die enkel -katrol agter. Die Gran Sport-hubs in drie dele (staalvat met aluminium flense) word nou gemaak deur Campagnolo in plaas van F.B. (Fratelli Brivio), herkenbaar aan geboë flenspunte in plaas van die vorige plat flenspunte wat FB gebruik het. Die Gran Sport-onderbuis-skuifhefbome word verander na 'n enkelbandklem met platkopskroefwrywingsregelaars, oop kabel sonder omhulsel (& quotD & quot ringwrywingsverstelskroef word as opsie aangebied). 'N Nuwe gesmede uitval word bekendgestel wat 7 mm dik is met 'n 3 mm -stelskroef, 'n derailleur -stop om 7 uur en 'n veergat om die Sport -derailleur te monteer.
Fausto Coppi wen die Giro d'Italia en Tour de France in 1952 met Gran Sport Extra -derailleur.

1952
Katalogus, nie-genommer. Gedruk vir beurse aan die einde van die jaar. Soos per 1951 -katalogus met die toevoeging van die Gran Sport Extra -agterderailleur en die agter -derailleur van die enkel -katrol.

1953
Groot flens, 3-delige spoornawe met vinnige vrystellings met geboë hefboom, wat in die 25 Julie-uitgawe van die tydskrif Le Cycle verskyn.

1953
In Augustus word die definitiewe Gran Sport-agterspoorder (derde generasie Gran Sport) bekendgestel: veranderende bak, katrolkooi keer terug na die eerste weergawe, geen gate in katrolle, kleiner swartoksied-bevestigingsbout en draaibout, 5 mm veerkap (was 3,5 mm ) en agterkant van die liggaam gemerk "14-26 denti" wat die bruikbare vrywielgrootte aandui. Groot flens-driedelige nawe (legeringsflense wat op 'n staalvat vasgedruk word) word ingebring. Die beroemde Campagnolo -skrif oor die wêreld logo wat uit die veertigerjare dateer, is geregistreer.
Fausto Coppi wen die 1953 Lugano World Professional Road Race met Gran Sport -derailleurs.

1953
Katalogus #12. Eerste genommerde katalogus. Gedruk vir die beurse aan die einde van die jaar. Ingesluit is die Cambio Corsa, Paris-Roubaix, Gran Sport en Sport agterspoorders, Gran Sport en Sport voorspoorders, staafskakelaars met rubberdeksels, onderbuisverskuiwers (enkelband en soldeerversies), remkabelklemme, nawe (klein en groot flens driedelige, QR's met & quotD & quot ring), Gran Sport dropouts met verstelaars, Sport dropouts, Cambio Corsa/Paris-Roubaix getande dropouts, Cambio Corsa/Paris-Roubaix getande dropouts met integrale derailleurhanger, pompkoppe en houer, & quotH & quot gereedskap, skottelgoedwasser, vrywielverwyderaar en keëlmoersleutels.

1955
Die laekoste-derailleur van die kompetisie word op die beurs aan die einde van die jaar in Milaan bekendgestel.

1955
Katalogus #13. Gedruk vir die beurse aan die einde van die jaar. Volgens katalogus #12 met die toevoeging van die & quotT & quot-moersleutel, derailleurhanger-uitlijngereedskap en 'n soldeerbare agterspoorder-kabelgeleier ( #663) vir die onderbeugelskulp. Let daarop dat daar tot 1968 geen ooreenstemmende voorleiding vir die derailleurkabel is nie.

1955
Op die beurs aan die einde van die jaar in Milaan word 'n mikro-verstelbare sitplekpaal met twee boute (staalpaal en kop vasgesoldeer) met 'n nul-offset-kop getoon. Aangesien dit die ore aan die voor- en agterkant van die pos het, kan ons dit die Alfred E. Newman -sitplekpaal noem. Binne 'n paar maande word dit vervang met die ikoniese tweebout-sitplekpaal (aparte staalpaal en kop wat aanmekaar gesweis is) met die offsetkop.

1956
Die Gran Sport -pedaal het 'n staalpen met 'n bandlus en 'n klein driehoekige uitsny aan die einde van die veer, 'n draad van 10 mm vir staalkrukke en 'O' -ring. Daniel Rebour, 'n ontploffing van die headset, verskyn in Julie TdF-uitgawe van die tydskrif Le Cycle. In Julie word 'n koptelefoon en 'n mikro-verstelbare sitplekpaal met twee boute (staalpaal en kop aanmekaar gesoldeer), saam met 'n sitplekposisie-/nivelleringsinstrument (handhaaf die posisie van die saal by die verandering van die stoel) bekendgestel, gevolg in Augustus deur die Gran Sport agterspoorder met die onderlyf en die buitenste hok hersien (verwydering van drie van die oorspronklike ses verstelgate vir die veerspanning) en 'n veerbedekking van 8 mm (was 5 mm).

1957
Die driehoekige uitsny van die Gran Sport -pedaal in die veerkant word uitgeskakel.

1958
Die ikoniese Record 5-pen kruklose krukas word ingebring met 'n boutsirkel van 151 mm, 'n minimum kettingblad van 44 tande, stofdoppies in die pedaalgat, 'n verligte spinnekop en 'n verhoogde pedaallip. Die Gran Sport "con denti" (met tande) spoorpedaal is ingeboude aluminiumhokplate, 10 mm lengte draad vir staalkrukke en rubber "O" -ring. Die Record-legering in een stuk, klein en groot flensnawe (ovaalgate in flense, oliegate-klem en oop & quotC & quot op snelvryhefboom) word ook bekendgestel, en die sitplekpaal wat in 1956 bekendgestel is, het nou 'n smal wiegweergawe om saam met die Brooks te werk B17 "Mod. Campagnolo" saal met smal rails wat twee keer groter is as die voor- en agterverstelbaarheid. 'N Patent word verleen op hol kettingboute met inbussleutelgat en krukboutdeksel met inbussleutelgat.

1959
Rekord kruk pedaal gat stofdop word uitgeskakel en Gran Sport pad en baan pedaal draad lengte verander na 12mm vir aluminium krukies van 10mm vir staal kruk, rubber "O" ring vervang deur geweer op as.

1960
'N Tydperk van groot uitbreiding vir Campagnolo! Campagnolo het 300 werknemers in diens. Die uitvinding en patentering van motor- en motorfietshidroliese en kabel -aangedrewe skyfremkomponente word onderneem. Die Record-parallelogram-voorspeler word ingebring (die arms is verchroomd brons wat later in aluminium verander is). Rondom hierdie tyd word die verstelschroef van die kabelspanning van die Gran Sport -agterspeler uitgeskakel en word die katrolstopskroef in die onderlyf versink. Die verligte spinnekop van die rekordkruk word uitgeskakel. Lae koste staalpedaal (rebranded Way-Assauto mod. Zenith Corsa 18 Extra Lusso).

1960
Katalogus #14. Gedruk vir die beurse aan die einde van die jaar. Ingesluit is die Record-pad- en baangroepe wat bestaan ​​uit Record kruklose krukas (151 mm bout sirkel) en Gran Sport onderbeugel, klein en groot flens Record legering eendelige hubs, sitplekpaal (nou allooi), Gran Sport headset, Record voor derailleur, Gran Sport agterspoorder, Gran Sport pedale. Ook in die katalogus is die Gran Sport-groep (insluitend Record-voorspeler), Sport Group, Gran Sport-onderbeugel (let op dat daar geen gepaardgaande krukas is nie), Gran Sport-trappedaal met en sonder tande, 'n gereedskapstel in houtkas, die Saddle-Line-belyningsinstrument en die Acciaio (staal) klein flensnawe.

1961
Strada triple- en Cyclocross-krukas, Sportman-laekoste-agterspeler en Sportman-mediumflensnaaf met ronde gate word bekendgestel. In Julie word 'n hersiene Gran Sport-agterspoorder bekendgestel met 'n veerbedekking van 10 mm (was 8 mm) om die skuif op sesgang-vrywiele te verbeter. Let op dat sesspoed-vrywiele eers in die middel van die sewentigerjare algemeen is! Campagnolo open 'n fabriek in Bologna vir die vervaardiging van superlichte magnesiumwiele vir motors en motorfietse, sowel as ligte militêre en lugvaartonderdele. Campagnolo word die eerste onderneming ter wêreld wat magnesiumdruk met lae druk gebruik, wat 'n omwenteling in die gebruik van hierdie materiaal veroorsaak.

1962
Die laer koste-agterspoorder van Turismo word identies ingebring as die vroeëre Gran Sport-agterspoorder, maar met 'n goedkoper katrolhouer met gestempelde staal vervang deur die oorspronklike katrolhouer van gegote staal. Die verhoogde lip om die pedaalgat van die Record-kruk word uitgeskakel. Campagnolo vervaardig Bivalent-naaf vir Cino Cinelli (gepatenteer deur Petrosemolo en Rimedio), die eerste weergawe is in 'n 'driedelige' styl met staalvat en legeringsflense en 'n ingeskroefde staalring met spline wat ooreenstem met 'n bypassende spinaal Regina-vrywiel wat aan die raam wanneer die wiel verwyder word. Die Bivalent -naaf toegeruste wiel kan gebruik word om voor of agter te plaas.

1963
110 uit 130 fietsryers in die 1963 Tour de France is toegerus met 'n Campagnolo -derailleur.

1963
In Oktober word die Record -agterspoorder (verchroomde brons) bekendgestel. Dit het 'n hersiene hokvorm, met die draaipunt agter en nader aan die katrol en middelste klinknagels, dit is ontwerp om die nuwe sesgang-Regina-vrywiel te laat skuif en die agterkant van die bak is gemerk "13-36" vir bruikbare vrywielgrootte (in werklikheid is 'n 13-28 vrywiel die maksimum). Let op dat sesgang-vrywiele eers in die middel van die sewentigerjare algemeen gebruik word. Teken die onderbeugel gemerk "CON SFERE DA 3/16" aan met 3/16 "balle in plaas van tipiese 1/4" balle. Die wedrenne word eerder op die as gedruk as nie direk op die as self nie. Nie die koppies of die as is uitruilbaar met onderbeugelkomponente wat ontwerp is vir 1/4 "balle nie. Gemaak vir een jaar. 'N Nuwe breër basisklemontwerp vir die kabelgeleiers en onderbuisverskuiwers, saam met dikker skuifhefbome met oop buise met oop & quotC & quot verander na geslote & quotC & quot cost & quotCAMPAGNOLO & quot model derailleur, 'n ekonomiese weergawe van die Gran Sport derailleur (kadmiumplaatbak en swartoksiedafwerking op katrolhok met die woord & quotCAMPAGNOLO & quot op bak), en ook die laekoste Sportman agterspoorder word bekendgestel. Rekordvoorspoorder het gleuf bygevoeg na kabelstop.

1964
Die Valentino-laekoste-agterspoorder word bekendgestel saam met die Valentino-laekoste-voorspeler en obskure groot flensspoornawe met geboë hefbome. Geboë QR -hefboom verskyn eers elf jaar vroeër terwyl Daniel Rebour in 'n uitgawe van die tydskrif Le Cycle op 25 Julie 1953 teken!

1965
Die Record-agterspoorder (verchroomde brons) het die tandvaste staal katrolle met kogellagers vervang met plastiek katrolle met tien tande en gewone brons mou laers.

1966
Die rekord -krukas word verander na 'n boutsirkel van 144 mm (minimum 41 kettingring) van die vorige boutsirkel van 151 mm (minimum kettingblad met 44 tande). Die Sport-laekoste-hubstel (groot en klein flens-staalnaaf) word in Januarie bekendgestel. Patent verleen vir self-sentrerende wynbottelopener in die vorm van 'n klok (hefbome is die gepatenteerde hol kettingboute).

1967
Nuovo Record legering agterspoorder (tien tand katrolle en later nege tand katrolle) word bekendgestel, tesame met 'n nuwe styl vasgeklemde kabelgids (oop kabelloop na voorspoorder) en kabelhuisstop wat uit Record voorspoorder verwyder word (chroom- vergulde brons arms en dan aluminium arms).

1967
Katalogus #15. Gedruk vir die beurse aan die einde van die jaar. Ingesluit vir die Record -groep is die agterderailleur van die Nuovo Record -allooi (tien tand katrolle en dan later, nege tand katrolle) en die Nuovo Record onderbeugel (geweeropeningkoppies met geweer). Ook die drievoudige kettingring en cyclocross-flens met kettingring, die Nuovo Tipo klein en groot flensnawe (ronde gate in flense, geen oliegat en gestampte staalwedrenne), Rekordpedale (naamsverandering), 'n nuwe Record-headset, die Valentino-groep , pedaal-moersleutel (15-16-17 mm meervoudige kop), draagbare herstelstaander en die obskure groot flensspoornawe met geboë hefbome. Die goedkoop derailleurs van Valentino Super en Nuovo Sport word bekendgestel. 'N Nuwe styl kabelgids van die onderste hakie (oop kabelloop na die voorspoorder) en die stop van die kabelbehuizing word uit die voorste derailleur van Record verwyder (verchroomde bronsarms en dan aluminiumarms).

1967/68
Campagnolo manufactures Bivalent hub (second version) for Cino Cinelli, a one-piece alloy shell with threaded-on steel cap with splines instead of threaded-on steel ring with spines for engaging the splined freewheel is produced in a limited run of one or two years.

1968
The Record brakeset, Superleggeri pedals (non-anodized aluminum cages, later to be black anodized) and Valentino Extra low-cost rear derailleur are introduced at the Paris trade show in October.

1969
Catalog #16. Printed for the year-end trade shows. As per Catalog #15, but with the addition of the Record brakeset (making a complete group for the first time), Record crankset with 144mm bolt circle (previously 151mm bolt circle), Sport Extra low-cost rear derailleur and elimination of Record "con denti" track pedals with teeth. Braze-on front derailleur cable guide (#626/B) is paired with the braze-on rear derailleur cable guide (#663) that was introduced in 1955.

1970
The steel Gran Turismo rear derailleur is introduced. Record headset lower cup stamped with C in diamond shape the stamped C disappears in mid-1970s. Campagnolo manufactures Cinelli Mod. M71 clipless pedal for Cino Cinelli.

1971
Catalog #16 Supplement. Printed in November for the year-end trade shows. Included are the Superleggeri pedals (black anodized aluminum cages), Superleggero seat post (no fluting, thinner wall, aluminum support cradle, drilled pivot, originally with engraved graduated scale), dropouts without eyelets and plastic Superleggeri pumphead are introduced. Also the patented toothed washer (rondella dentata) for the Record sidepull brakes, along with the steel Gran Turismo rear derailleur, Velox low-cost derailleur, Elefante control lever, the steel three-pin Sport cotterless crankset, Sport headset (only two wrench flats) and Allen seatbinder bolt.

1972
Record front derailleur clamp modified in area of pivot posts first with no circlip on upper pivot post and later with circlip added to upper pivot post. Special Nuovo Tipo hubs made for Motobecane with oval, kidney-shaped holes instead of the normal round holes used as original equipment on the 1972/3 Motobecane Le Champion model. Hugo Rickert (Rickert Cycles - Dortmund, W. Germany) orders 300 HiLo hubs (large flange on drive side, small flange on non drive side) to be custom-made by Campagnolo in 1972 and builds the wheels for the West German National Team for the 1972 Munich Olympic Games.

1973
The last year that the Record rear derailleur is available. The large chainring has a tiny post added at the crank arm location so an unshipped chain can't get jammed in the space between the crank and the chainring. The Nuovo Record derailleur has a plastic bushing added to the lower pivot bolt. The Super Record rear derailleur is introduced.

1974
Catalog #17. Printed for the year-end trade shows. Included are the Super Record Road and Track groups with titanium axle for the bottom bracket, titanium spindles for the hubs (dropped soon after their introduction) and pedals, rear derailleur with black anodizing and titanium bolts, chainrings with inner web eliminated, alloy headset, brake levers with holes, short reach brake calipers with small rubber frame bumper on front caliper, 144mm bolt circle for track crankset and fluted two-bolt seat post are introduced. The Rally rear derailleur, Nuovo Gran Sport group (alloy 3-pin crankset and Nuovo Gran Sport low-cost front and rear derailleurs), nutcracker and Cavaturaccioli (corkscrew) are introduced. Brake cable clips are now made of stainless steel instead of chrome plated steel and toe strap loops on outside edge of steel Record pedals are eliminated. Note: O.M.A.S. (Officina Meccanica Armando Simoni) supplied the titanium bolts and ti pedal and BB axles for the Super Record group. The titanium tests out as 6AL-4V, a.k.a. Grade 5 or "6/4 Ti."

1974
Special Catalog. Printed by Olympic Resources, Inc., Houston, Texas. Included are all items in Catalog #17 with the addition of the Special "T" wrench. Note that the illustrations for the Super Record chainrings, headset and seat post saddle cradles show the black anodized versions that were never released.

1977
Catalog #17a. Printed for the year-end trade shows. As per Catalog #17. The word "Brev." is changed to "Patent" on the brake centerbolts.
Tullio Campagnolo is awarded the "Design and Application Award" by the International Magnesium Association.

1977
Chain holder (Portacatena) with accompanying control lever and trigger and short Nuovo Record dropouts drilled and tapped for chain holder shown at Milan Trade Show at the end of the year.

1978
C.P.S.C. (Consumer Product Safety Commission) mandates changes to NR/SR. Included are a front derailleur lip, 2.5 mm increase in spacing between crank spider and arm to clear the front derailleur lip with corresponding increase in bottom bracket axle length, a curved quick release lever and ball-end added to quick release conical adjuster, dome-shape added to quick release cam lever on brake calipers, plastic covering added to the wheel guides on the brake shoes, and plastic safety-shields added to rear derailleur screws. The word "Patent" is changed to "Brev." on the chainring, chainring bolts and crank dust caps. Down tube shifters with bumpy edges and raised letters changed to thicker, smooth edged levers with sunken letters.
Tullio Campagnolo is bestowed with the Stella D'Oro (Golden Star) award by the C.O.N.I. (Italian National Olympic organization) for his contributions to sport.

1978
Catalog #17a Supplement. Printed for the year-end trade shows. Included are a revised Super Record derailleur with script logo and different cage geometry (28 tooth capacity), single bolt Nuovo Super Record seat post, Record front derailleur has straight band and four holes in cage (changed the following year to the more traditional pointed-band clamp and three hole cage), short Nuovo Record dropouts without eyelets (drilled and tapped for chain holder), chain holder (Portacatena) with accompanying control lever and trigger, and fixing shoe plate for pedals. Gran Sport front derailleur (Record-style plain cage with lip stamped with Globe logo), Gran Sport crank (flat bottom fluting, 170mm length), Gran Sport pedal (stamped steel races and engraved "Gran Sport" on barrel), Gran Sport brakeset (different adjuster and engraved "Gran Sport" on caliper black brake hoods with Globe logo). Nuovo Valentino front derailleur (flat arms, Record-style plain cage with lip, stamped with Winged QR logo).

1979
Bernard Hinault (Team Renault-Gitane-Campagnolo) is set up with prototype Record downtube shift levers with the retrofriction clutch for his Gitane Profil Aero Time Trial TdF bike. These retrofriction clutch Record shift levers were in response to the Simplex Retrofriction shift levers and were never in the catalog and were never offered to the public at the time. The retrofriction clutch was first offered for sale as C-Record in the No.18 bis catalog (December, 1986). The Super Record rear derailleur has aluminum pivot bolts substituted for its titanium pivot bolts this one year, apparently because of a titanium shortage.
Tullio Campagnolo is appointed to the Cavaliere del Lavoro (Italy's highest honor to a businessman) by the President of the Italian republic.

1980
Development starts on the Campagnolo freewheel, a combination of aluminum, titanium, and steel with a three-pawl ratchet system the last project that Tullio personally oversaw. The 980 low-cost rear derailleur (26 tooth capacity) is introduced (9 80 = September 1980), BMX components, toe clips in aluminum and steel, and bronze colored belt buckle (made for Campagnolo USA by True Distance Inc. of Houston, Texas).

1982
Record Pista hubs with oiler holes and clips made from 1980-87.

1982
The winged wheel logo is updated by stylizing the rim, the wings and quick-release (shield added the next year). Bernard Hinault (Team Renault-Gitane-Campagnolo) is set up with prototype aero Record brake levers with aero cable routing for his Gitane Profil Aero Time Trial TdF bike. These aero Record brake levers with aero cable routing were never in the catalog and were never offered to the public.

1982
Olympic Catalog. Printed for the year-end trade shows. Included are the Campagnolo freewheel and wood boxed freewheel tool set along with the Super Record front derailleur with black anodized arms, three hole cage, pointed-band clamp and braze on fitting option (parts drawing shows black anodized arms, four hole cage and straight-band clamp), Record down tube shift levers with sunken letters instead of previous raised letters (previous flat spring washer and slightly domed pressure washer changed to the domed plastic friction washer and conical steel outer washer), the HiLo Record rear hub, toe clips in both steel and alloy versions, the revised version of the Super Record titanium bottom bracket axle (solid instead of hollow, with nuts rather than bolts), the low-cost 980 rear derailleur (26 tooth capacity), Gran Sport Rally rear derailleur (32 tooth capacity), Gran Sport touring crankset (flat bottom fluting, 116mm bolt pattern, double or triple, 35 to 43 teeth, and 50 to 53 teeth) and BMX crankset (gold, blue, or silver anodized 170mm arms and 42 to 46 teeth chainrings silver 175mm arms), BMX pedals (gold, blue or black double sided saw tooth aluminum quill), and BMX large or small flanged nutted hubs (gold, blue or silver). Also a series of promotional items are offered: corkscrew, nutcracker, a limited edition belt buckle set, an Olympic lapel pin set, a folding disposable razor, a travel bag, and various Campagnolo window and frame stickers. Also shown is the "Super Record Road Steel group" also called "Super Record Reduced group" (SL pedals replacing the SR pedals and the NR bottom bracket replacing the SR bottom bracket).

1983
February 3rd, Tullio Campagnolo dies in Vicenza.

1983
Shield added to winged wheel logo to celebrate the company's fifty years in business. 50th Anniversary group is released. Gruppo Number 0002 is presented to the Pope, John Paul II in a private audience for a delegation of Italian cycling enthusiasts on June 15.

1983
Introduction of Super Record brake calipers with triangular cross section (as per Anniversary caliper), Campagnolo script logo, conical-shaped nuts for center bolt lock nut and cam lock nut, and also around this time an Alleggerita Nuovo Record headset (alleggerita meaning lightened) a steel Record headset with holes in the spigots. Shield logo replaces Globe logo on brake hoods.

1984
Introduction of Record Corsa and Record Pista groups at the year-end trade shows. Usually referred to as "C-Record" (C = Corsa) and not available for sale until around 1986 C-Record is not shown in the 12/1985 catalog No. 18, but is shown in the 12/1986 catalog No. 18 bis.

1985
Catalog #18. Printed for the year-end trade shows (print code 12/85). As per Olympic Catalog, but the Super Record titanium bottom bracket axle has been dropped. A seven-speed standard spaced freewheel is introduced (requires 130mm rear dropout spacing). Note that C-Record is not shown.

1985
Super Record cranks without milled flutes (first produced with engraved logo and later with laser-etched logo) derived from the 1983 Anniversary group cranks and Super Record seat post without milled flutes to match new Super Record cranks.

1986
A seven-speed "compact" spaced freewheel is introduced.

1987
The last year of production of Super Record components. A final short production run of Record hubs is made utilizing surplus parts. Also some C-Record front hubs are made utilizing surplus Record front hub 7/32" bearings, cones and races. Normally C-Record front hubs use 3/16" bearings and both Record and C-Record rear hubs use 1/4" bearings. Both the Record and C-Record hubs are marked "S - U" on the hub barrel.

NOTAS:
Typically the development of Campagnolo parts was carried out with the help of professional road and track riders on teams sponsored by Campagnolo. Consequently, Campagnolo parts were in use one or more years before they were ever offered for sale to the public. Campagnolo parts could appear in stores or on bikes before ever appearing in a catalog or, on the other hand, were not necessarily available at the time a catalog was issued. The catalogs were typically printed for the trade shows which occurred late in the year (the Milan bicycle trade show was held biannually, odd numbered years). For these reasons, all dates in the Timeline are approximate.

Some Campagnolo parts can be dated by codes or patent dates. For example, the Nuovo Record rear derailleur has a patent date that corresponds to its manufacturing date starting in 1970 (example "PAT. 70") marked "PATENT" without a date before 1970. The lock nut on the hub axle typically is stamped with "CAM. 60" or some other number denoting the last two digits of the year of manufacture. The word "RECORD" was added to the hub barrels around 1963. The original "Open C" style Campagnolo logotype (imagine a U turned on its side) on the Q.R. levers was changed to a "closed C" in 1958 with the introduction of the one-piece alloy Record hubs and a little later to the shift levers. Starting in 1973 the crank arms have a code consisting of a diamond (1970's) or circle (1980's) with a number in the center denoting the last digit of the year of manufacture, and then in 1985-9 with square and number in the center: 11 = 1985, 21 = 1986, 31 = 1987, 41 = 1988, 51 = 1989 plus some other examples.

CREDITS:
The original Campagnolo Timeline first appeared in a 1995 series of articles in the AEoleus Butterfly 'zine printed by Gabe Konrad. The original contributors were Gabe Konrad, Frank Berto, Ron Sheperd, Dale Brown, and Chuck Schmidt. In 1998 it was taken over by Chuck Schmidt and added to the Velo-Retro website. Since then, many people have made contributions to the Timeline: Hilary Stone, Peter Johnson, Richard Sachs, Dave Walker, John Barron, Dan Ulwelling, Tom Dalton, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Satoru Masada, Dr. Akihiko Amaki, Steven Maasland, Jan Heine, Marc Borel, Corey Mihailiuk, John Pergolizzi, David Weddington, Ted Ernst and Renato Baccanelli of the Velocipede Museum among others.

I would greatly appreciate any assistance you the reader can offer in updating this timeline as this is the only way the accuracy of this timeline can be improved. Chuck Schmidt


History: Arrows to Women in the French Army

After a battles, anciently arrows were gathered by the winners so that they could be used again. By the age of the longbow, arrows were designed in such a way to make retrieval easier.

Arrows were expensive. The most expensive part of the arrow was not the arrowhead, but the shaft. Arrow shafts were not turned-down from larger pieces of wood, but were derived from coppice.

The coppice trees here are overgrown and have not been managed in some time.

Coppicing is a woodland management practice that goes back until at least the Iron Age. Young trees are cut down to the stump, and the fresh growth trained and managed until they reached the correct diameter for their intended purpose. Coppice was used for, notably, wattle and stave construction, production of charcoal and of course arrow shafts.

It could take 5–7 years for a coppice to produce serviceable arrow dowels, and more could not be easily procured.

Arrowheads, conversely, may have been one of the earliest products to be mass-produced. Forensic analysis of arrowheads recovered from Agincourt in France suggested they had been made in two halves using a form and then soldered together. The level of simplicity needed to do this, as opposed to a fully forged arrowhead, is such that it could be accomplished by blacksmiths using portable forges in the army’s baggage train.

The arrowheads were attached to the shafts using pitch. This, you may think, is a terrible idea – pitch isn’t going to hold the arrowhead on very securely. You are quite right, nor was it intended to. The use of pitch meant that the arrow could be retrieved from where it struck (the ground, a body) by simply pulling sharply. The head would break away but the shaft (the expensive part) wouldn’t bend or break.

These recovered shafts could then be fitted with cheap new heads and fired again. Sometime the goose feathers (fletching/flights) needed to be replaced as well, and trained archers knew how to do that.

They were Crap – But they worked.

Designed by Georgi Shpagin in the USSR c.1941 and manufactured in large quantities well into the 1960′s. 7,62x25mm Tokarev 71-round drum magazine or 35-round stick magazine, blowback select fire with selector switch located in front of the trigger. With 6 million guns rolling out during WW2, the PPSh-41 smg was one of the work horses of the Soviet Union infantry.

It’s easy to criticize these weapons, but they were able to put ordnance on target (ok, spray and pray – but sometimes prayers are answered).

Female Participation

Cuirassiers and lancers of the line, chasseurs a pied of the imperial guard. Note the emphasis put on the waistline in these uniforms. Vivandière or cantinières were women given special permits to act within the French army as kitchen workers but also wine and liquor sellers attached to a specific regiment, of which they would share the uniform.

This practice died out progressively as their numbers were reduced (pregnancy took a heavy toll), and their uniforms replaced by civilian clothes with an armband. It was completely phased out in 1905, when the cantinières were replaced by male equivalents recruited from old veterans.

In the space of the 35 years between the introduction of the new system and its disbanding in 1940, the general appreciation of the cantinière by the troops changed from selfless, motherly or sisterly to cowardly and selfish. I feel like, facts aside, that says a lot about French psyche.

Cuirassiers of Napoleon III’s Imperial Guard

The steel blue, madder red and white colors of the cuirassiers remained relatively unchanged from Napoleon the Great to the Great War. Their steel cuirass was impervious to handgun fire, cuts or thrusts from melee weapons of the day. The use of a war horse went far beyond mere transportation. Their ability to use their weight, hooves and teeth against an enemy can’t be emphasized enough.

Russian Air Force Mil Mi-24

According to Russian sources, 74 helicopters were lost in Afghanistan, including 27 shot down by Stinger and two by Redeye. In many cases, however, the helicopters, thanks to their armor and the durability of construction, withstood significant damage and were able to return to base.


On the whole, French immigrants have been highly successful and have made a lasting impact in the United States. Volgens We the People, the French immigrants who remained in the United Stated tended to be "less traditional and more enterprising, ambitious, and forward-looking" individuals who typically "adjusted without much apparent stress to American ways." In contrast to other immigrant groups, only 12 percent of French Americans were farmers. Instead, French immigrants most often worked as professionals, clerical workers, cooks, waiters, artists, and managers.

Specific French immigration waves contributed different labor practices to American society. For example, the Huguenots introduced a number of skilled crafts to the United States, including sophisticated techniques of weaving, leather dressing, lace making, and felt manufacture. Some historians claim that the Huguenots' stylish ways helped transform crude frontier settlements into civilized cities and towns. Refugees from the French Revolution and the fall of Napoleon who came to the United States tended to be former army officers or aristocrats. These educated individuals often taught the French language or such elite activities as fencing and dancing. A number of French chefs, hairdressers, dress designers, and perfumers accompanied the wave of aristocrats and introduced French cuisine and fashion to America.


Ohio Republicans Introduce Bill to Ban Critical Race Theory in Schools

(Getty Images)

Ohio is the latest state considering legislation to prohibit public schools from teaching critical race theory, which views racism as systemic in the nation’s institutions and promotes race-based reverse discrimination to achieve equity.

On Tuesday, state representative Don Jones, introduced House Bill 322, which amends the state’s academic standards from kindergarten through 12 th grade. Among its provisions, Jones’s bill would prohibit schools from teaching that one race or sex is inherently superior that “an individual, by virtue of the individual’s race or sex, bears responsibility for actions committed in the past by other members of the same race or sex” or that anyone should feel “discomfort, guilt or anguish” based on their race or sex.

The text of the bill does not mention critical race theory by name, though Jones specifically said in a written statement that that’s exactly what he’s taking aim at with his bill.

“Critical race theory is a dangerous and flat-out wrong theory,” Jones wrote. “It is designed to look at everything from a ‘race first’ lens, which is the very definition of racism. CRT claiming to fight racism is laughable. Students should not be asked to ‘examine their whiteness’ or ‘check their privilege.”

Jones’s bill states that slavery and racism are “deviations from, betrayals of, or failures to live up the authentic founding principles of the United States, which include liberty and equality.”

The bill, which already has 27 House cosponsors, would prohibit school administrators from requiring teachers to discuss current events, but if they do, they should “strive to explore such issues from diverse and contending perspectives.” It also would prohibit teachers from awarding course credit to students for lobbying for legislation or for public policy advocacy.

The Republican governors of Idaho and Oklahoma have already signed laws that would prohibit the teaching of critical race theory in their states. Several other states are crafting their own versions. Jones’s bill uses much of the same language a bill nearing the finish line in Texas.

Proponents of the bills say they are necessary to stop the spread of neo-racism in their schools. Critics say the legislation will have a chilling effect on classroom lessons.

Kimberlé Crenshaw, a UCLA and Columbia University critical race theorist, told The Columbus Dispatch that CRT is the understanding that people who have racial biases – even unconscious biases – can’t create unbiased systems and laws.

State representative Erica Crawley, a Democrat from Columbus, told the paper that CRT doesn’t teach that “every white person is inherently bad.” Rather, she said, it teaches that racism can show up in unexpected places, like home loans, algorithms, and school discipline.

“We cannot address it if we don’t even identify it and discuss how it has show up in our history,” Crawley told the paper. “But I get that they want to be comfortable and not address it.”

Is your school implementing a ‘woke’ curriculum that emphasizes immutable characteristics over character? National Review would like to hear your story.


Dassault Mirage F1

Geskryf deur: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/30/2021 | Inhoud en kopie www.MilitaryFactory.com | Die volgende teks is eksklusief vir hierdie webwerf.

The Dassault Mirage F1 was designed to replace the successful Dassault Mirage III series. With a host of new features added to this new aircraft, the Mirage F1 would be a substantial upgrade to the whole Mirage family that would continue in service well into the new millennium. The Mirage F1 was built with capability and a multi-role perspective in mind. The aircraft was designed for high-speed handling with low or high-altitude performance, multi-faceted capabilities in the fighter or strike aircraft role and provide the pilot with some minor conveniences for long sorties requiring short turnaround times. The Mirage F1 served with distinction, particularly in the Greek Hellenic Air Force, where her arrival proved a deterrent to Turkish air space incursions for some 28 years. Over 720 Mirage F1 examples have been produced. The F1 remains one of the most battle-tested aircraft systems of the Cold War.

The F1 first flew in a Dassault-funded prototype form on December 23rd, 1966, intended as a replacement for the aging Mirage III and Mirage 5 models. Unlike previous Dassault offerings, the F1 did away with the traditional low-mounted, delta-wing configuration and instead was fitted with a high-mounted, swept wing arrangement. The French Air Force liked what it saw in the promising design and selected it for further development in the form of additional prototypes in May of 1967. The French Air Force envisioned the type as an all-weather interceptor capable of handling any of the new generation threats available. The resulting design proved a far better product than the aircraft the F1 was intended on replacing, sporting high-performance, sleek lines and a powerful Cyrano radar system. Production inevitably commenced and full operational status was achieved in May 1973.

The single engine, high-mounted swept-wing aircraft was powered by a single SNECMA Atar 9K-50 afterburning turbojet 15,785lb engine fed by two side-mounted intakes. The F1 sported a single-seat cockpit positioned in the forward portion of the streamlined fuselage. Amenities such as a self-starter, shaded canopy glass and pressured refueling system provided operators of the aircraft with the advantage of a low maintenance, highly capable aircraft. Further developments (beginning with the Mirage F1C-200) went on to integrate an in-flight refueling probe to which the combat radius was increased substantially. The unique high-mounted swept-wing design coupled with the single vertical tail fin afforded the aircraft the ability to take off and land with a minimal use of runway.

Standard armament were twin 30mm cannons along with 2 x Matra R530 series medium-range air-to-air missiles. Missiles were initially held under the wings though wingtip rails were later added for the use of Matra R550 Magic and AIM-9 Sidewinder short-range air-to-air missiles, the latter at the behest of the American-friendly Hellenic Air Force of Greece (operating Mirage F1CG models of their own).

The base F1 fighter was exported as the F1CE (Spain), F1CG (Greece), F1CH (Morocco), F1CJ (Jordan), F1CK (Kuwait), F1CK-2 (Kuwait - follow-up order) and F1CZ (South Africa) with orders totaling some 175 exported aircraft. The two-seat F1B trainer was marketed overseas as well along with the F1A single-seat ground-attack fighter. The F1E became an all-weather, multi-role fighter and ground-attack variant. The Mirage F1D was a two-seat trainer spawned from the F1E multi-role, ground-attack fighter model. The Mirage F1CR was a dedicated reconnaissance model. The Mirage F1CT became a tactical ground attack variant based on the Mirage F1C-200. F1AZ and F1CZ were South African exports of ground-attack and radar-equipped models respectively. The Mirage F1CG were Greek-operated single-seat fighters, amounting over 100,000 thousand hours of flight time over water with little structural stress to show for it. The Mirage F1M-53 was a developmental Mirage F1 meant to compete in NATO trials for replacing the Lockheed F-104 Starfighters then in service (the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon eventually won out).

The aircraft became a highly regarded interceptor - one of the best at the time of its inception - based on capabilities and its powerful nose-mounted radar. The system could track and engage multiple targets at any altitude all at the discretion of the pilot. The integrated weapon system could go so far as to select the appropriate weapon based on circumstance and fire the weapon when the target achieved an in optimal range.

In terms of combat exposure (the sure testing grounds of any aircraft design) the F1 was at the fore-front of several Cold War-era conflicts the world over. Mirages participated with the South African Air Force in their Border War. Morocco utilized the type to combat local rebels. Ecuador fielded the aircraft in their Paquisha War and follow-up Cenepa War against Peru. France got a chance to check out the F1's lethality in its actions against Libyan rebels operating against Chad. Spain operated their F1's in varying forms for over three decades before replacing them with Eurofighter Typhoons.

Iraq was a highly-publicized user of F1's. They sported the type in their war with Iran with moderate success in anti-shipping, interception and strike roles. Overall, inferior pilot training and lack of combat experience led to the F1 underachieving for the most part. Similarly in the 1991 Gulf War, Mirage F1's were wholly outclassed by Coalition forces, though, again not due to a lack of capability on the part of the aircraft.

More recently (2007), France has fielded some F1's in actions covering Southern Afghanistan. As of this writing, Greece, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar and South Africa no longer employ the services of Mirage F1's.

In the end, the F1 series proved a welcomed addition to the Mirage family line. Modernization programs and updates to the avionics and weapon systems have ensured that the Mirage F1 will stay airborne for several more years. Undoubtedly, the system will continue to see service in Third World countries far longer than that. The French Air Force operated F1's until their displacement by the newer Mirage 2000 series. A major consideration to the F1 as a whole is its longevity after decades of consistent (and heavy-duty) use - no doubt a testament to a winning design.

November 2019 - Mirage F1s have seen extended service lives as a stock have been refurbished back to flying shape to serve the United States Air Force as commercially-owned/-operated aggressor (opposition) aircraft.


[7] MIRAGE 2000-5 MARK 2

* Dassault the extended the improvements of the Mirage 2000-5 a bit further with the "Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2", an enhanced, fully multi-role version of the Mirage 2000-5. The Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2 featured:

    A Thales RDY-2 radar. The RDY-2 radar was similar in configuration to the original RDY, but featured two new air-to-ground modes, including a high-resolution "synthetic aperture radar (SAR)" imaging mode with a "moving target indicator (MTI)" capability to provide an all-weather, day / night ground attack capability. The radar featured "low probability of intercept (LPI)" operation, with the output pattern varying in a seemingly random pattern that prevented an adversary RWR from recognizing that it has been targeted.

The cockpit was updated as well, with the same general layout but with larger color displays and other modernizations. The Thales Topsight helmet-mounted display / sighting system was offered as an option. The Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2 also included a datalink for the targeting of MICA ER missiles and could carry the Damocles targeting pod.

* Abu Dhabi / UAE was the launch customer, ordering 32 new-build aircraft, including 20 single-seaters as the "Mirage 2000-9" and 12 two-seaters as the "Mirage 2000-9D". These featured a classified countermeasures system designated "IMEWS", and comparable to ICMS 3. Initial deliveries of the UAE Mirages were in the spring of 2003. 30 of Abu Dhabi's older Mirage 2000s were also upgraded to Mirage 2000-9 capability.

The UAE Mirage 2000-9s are well-equipped for the strike mission, since they are provided along with the "Shehab" laser targeting pod, a variant of the Damocles, and the Nahar navigation pod, complementing the air-to-ground modes of the RDY-2 radar. The UAE has also obtained the "Black Shahine" cruise missile, a variant of the APACHE.

* In 2000, Greece ordered a batch of 25 Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2 fighters. The order included 15 new-build aircraft and 10 upgrades from existing Greek Mirage 2000EGs, with aircraft featuring the SATURN secure radio. Apparently the Greek order did not include any upgrades of two-seaters.


Dassault also competed for a Brazilian deal with the "Mirage 2000 BR", another variant of the Mirage 2000-5 Mark 2, with the French company partnering with EMBRAER of Brazil on the deal. Unfortunately, Brazilian budget problems led to continuous extensions of the competition, and in the spring of 2005 the Brazilians finally decided to buy a dozen refurbished AA Mirage 2000Cs. The first were delivered in September 2006, with the last of the batch delivered in 2008. They didn't stay in service long, the Brazilian Mirage 2000 fleet being withdrawn in 2013.

Another piece of Rafale technology that has been ported to the Mirage 2000 is the Thales AIDA visual identification pod, which includes infrared and optical sensors for IFF and targeting. It is used by AA Mirage 2000-5Fs. Further development of the second-generation type is expected to include a GPS receiver, MIDS datalink, and unspecified long-range sensors.


To Discover

Inleiding

Omnirole by design

A fully optimized airframe

A wide range of smart and discrete sensors

The sheer power of multisensor data fusion

A full range of advanced weapons

Mission ready with low operating costs

"Combat proven"

The way ahead

Specifications and performance data

Manage my cookies

The Website and our partners use “required only” cookies in order to improve your browsing by securing your use of the Website and by optimizing its operation. These cookies do not involve obtaining your consent.

NAME OF COOKIE PETITIONER DOMAIN RETENTION PERIOD PURPOSE OF COOKIE
kook-inligting-kassie-nodig Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com 6 maande This cookie is used by the “GDPR Cookie Consent” cookie management module to record the status of the default button for the “Required” category.
cookielawinfo-checkbox-audience-measurement-siteimprove Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com 6 maande This cookie is used by the “GDPR Cookie Consent” cookie management module to record the status of the default button for the “Audience measurement (AT Internet)” category.
CookieLawInfoConsent Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com 6 maande This cookie is used by the “GDPR Cookie Consent” cookie management module to store a hash of the user’s preferences.
gekyk_koekie_beleid Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com 6 maande This cookie is used by the “GDPR Cookie Consent” cookie management module to record the user’s consent for using cookies.
cli_user_preference Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com 6 maande This cookie is used by the “GDPR Cookie Consent” cookie management module to store the user’s cookie consent status.
da-notif-fr-FR Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com 3 months This cookie is used by the “Notifications” module to store the number of active notifications from the website in French.
da-notif-fr-FR-update Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com Session This cookie is used by the “Notifications” module to specify the date of the latest update of notifications from the website in French.
da-notif-en-EN Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com 3 months This cookie is used by the “Notifications” module to store the number of active notifications from the website in English.
da-notif-en-EN-update Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com Session This cookie is used by the “Notifications” module to specify the date of the latest update of notifications from the website in English.
wp-mag Dassault Aviation www.dassault-aviation.com 10 days This cookie is used by the “Dassault Mag” module to keep the “Dassault Mag” area user session open.
__cfduid Dassault Aviation .dassault-aviation.tv 1 month This cookie is used by Dassault Aviation TV in the context of its use of CDN CloudFlare.
visid_incap Incapsula .dassault-aviation.com 1 jaar This cookie is used by the “Incapsula” firewall technical solution to help ensure the security of your use of the Website.
incap_ses Incapsula .dassault-aviation.com Session This cookie is used by the “Incapsula” firewall technical solution to help ensure the security of your use of the Website.
nlbi Incapsula .dassault-aviation.com Session This cookie is used by the “Incapsula” firewall technical solution to balance the server load.
__utm Incapsula .dassault-aviation.com 15 minute This cookie is used by the “Incapsula” firewall technical solution to help ensure the security of your use of the Website.
JSESSIONID New Relic .nr-data.net Session This cookie is used by New Relic to store a session ID enabling the technical performance of our Website to be monitored.
atuserid AT Internet www.dassault-aviation.com 13 months This cookie is used by AT Internet to store the visitor’s anonymous ID which is initiated upon the first visit to the website.
atid AT Internet www.dassault-aviation.com 13 months This cookie is used by AT Internet to list the numsites (unique IDs for a website) viewed by the visitor and storage of visitor IDs.
atauthority AT Internet www.dassault-aviation.com 13 months This cookie is used by AT Internet to save the visitor privacy mode.
Cookies directly implemented by Google and not configurable by Dassault Aviation.
1P_JAR Google reCaptcha .google.com 29 days This cookie is used by Google reCaptcha to display personalized ads on Google sites based on recent searches and previous interactions.
CONSENT Google reCaptcha .google.com 17 years 11 months 26 days This cookie is used by Google reCaptcha to provide information about the way in which the end user uses the website and about every ad that the end user was able to see before visiting said website.
NID Google reCaptcha .google.com 5 months 30 days This cookie is used by Google reCaptcha to display personalized ads on Google sites, based on recent searches and previous interactions.
_GRECAPTCHA Google reCaptcha .google.com 1 jaar This cookie is used by Google reCaptcha to prevent or discourage the sending of spam by users or spambots.

The Website and our partners use “not required” cookies for collecting statistics on the use of the Website, required for the operation of the “SiteImprove” tool. These cookies involve obtaining your prior consent.


Kyk die video: De ergste ruzies ooit op de Nederlandse TV (Januarie 2022).