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Afghanistan Nasionale lugvervoerstelsel: - Geskiedenis

Afghanistan Nasionale lugvervoerstelsel: - Geskiedenis


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Afghanistan

Afghanistan.Nasionale lugvervoerstelsel:
aantal geregistreerde lugrederye: 4
inventaris van geregistreerde vliegtuie wat deur lugrederye bestuur word: 20
jaarlikse passasiersverkeer op geregistreerde lugrederye: 1,929,907
jaarlikse vragverkeer op geregistreerde lugvervoerders: 33,102,038 mt-km (2015)
Landkode voorvoegsel vir burgerlike vliegtuie:
JA (2016)
Lughawens:
43 (2016)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 91
Lughawens - met geplaveide aanloopbane:
totaal: 25
oor 3.047 m: 4
2.438 tot 3.047 m: 4
1,524 tot 2,437 m: 14
914 tot 1 523 m: 2
onder 914 m: 1 (2017)
Lughawens - met aanloopbane:
totaal: 18
2.438 tot 3.047 m: 1
1,524 tot 2,437 m: 8
914 tot 1 523 m: 4
onder 914 m: 5 (2016)
Heliports:
9 (2013)
Pypleidings:
gas 466 km (2013)
Paaie:
totaal: 42.150 km
geplavei: 12 350 km
onverhard: 29 800 km (2006)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 86
Waterweë:
1 200 km; (hoofsaaklik Amu Darya, wat vaartuie tot 500 DWT hanteer) (2011)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 60
Hawens en terminale:
rivierhawe (s): Kheyrabad, Shir Khan


Afghanistan

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Afghanistan, 'n landlose multietniese land in die hartjie van Suid-Sentraal-Asië. Afganistan, wat langs belangrike handelsroetes lê wat Suid -en Oos -Asië verbind met Europa en die Midde -Ooste, is lankal 'n prys wat deur ryksbouers gesoek is, en duisende jare lank het groot leërs probeer om dit te onderdruk, wat spore van hul pogings in groot monumente laat bly het ondergang. Die land se verbiedende landskap van woestyne en berge het baie imperiale ambisies tot rus gebring, net soos die onvermoeide weerstand van sy vurig onafhanklike mense - so onafhanklik dat die land nie tot 'n nasie kon saamtrek nie, maar eerder lank as 'n lappie van volksstryd was faksies en steeds veranderende alliansies.

Die moderne grense van Afghanistan is aan die einde van die 19de eeu gevestig in die konteks van 'n wedywering tussen die keiserlike Brittanje en die tsaristiese Rusland wat Rudyard Kipling die 'Groot spel' noem. Moderne Afghanistan het 'n pion geword in stryd oor politieke ideologie en kommersiële invloed. In die laaste kwart van die 20ste eeu het Afghanistan die verwoestende gevolge van burgeroorlog gely wat baie vererger is deur 'n militêre inval en besetting deur die Sowjetunie (1979–89). In die daaropvolgende gewapende stryd het 'n oorlewende Afgaanse kommunistiese regime teen Islamitiese opstandelinge (1989–1992) opgehou, en na 'n kort reël deur mujahideengroepe, het 'n streng beweging van godsdienstige studente - die Taliban - opgestaan ​​teen die regerende partye en krygshere van die land en het 'n teokratiese regime ingestel (1996-2001) wat spoedig onder die invloed van 'n groep goed gefinansierde Islamiste geval het onder leiding van 'n verbanne Saoedi-Arabier, Osama bin Laden. Die Taliban-regime het in Desember 2001 in duie gestort ná 'n volgehoue ​​militêre veldtog wat deur die VSA oorheers is, gerig op die Taliban en vegters van bin Laden se al-Qaeda-organisasie. Kort daarna het anti-Taliban-magte ingestem tot 'n tydperk van oorgangsleierskap en 'n administrasie wat sou lei tot 'n nuwe grondwet en die totstandkoming van 'n demokraties verkose regering.

Die hoofstad van Afghanistan is die grootste stad, Kaboel. Kaboel, 'n rustige stad met moskees en tuine tydens die lang bewind van die keiser Bābur (1526–30), stigter van die Mughal -dinastie, en eeue lank 'n belangrike onderneming op die sypad, lê in puin ná die lang en gewelddadige Afghaanse oorlog. So ook het 'n groot deel van die land gevaar, sy ekonomie in skerwe en sy mense verstrooid en moedeloos. Teen die vroeë 21ste eeu het 'n hele generasie Afghanen volwassenheid bereik, maar niks anders as oorlog nie.

Afghanistan is heeltemal sonder land - die naaste kus lê langs die Arabiese See, ongeveer 480 kilometer suid - en vanweë sy afsondering en sy onbestendige politieke geskiedenis, bly dit steeds een van die gebiede wat die swakste ondersoek word ter wêreld . Dit word in die ooste en suide begrens deur Pakistan (insluitend die gebiede van Kasjmir wat deur Pakistan bestuur word, maar deur Indië geëis word), in die weste deur Iran en in die noorde deur die Sentraal -Asiatiese state Turkmenistan, Oezbekistan en Tadzjikistan. Dit het ook 'n kort grens met Xinjiang, China, aan die einde van die lang, smal Vākhān (Wakhan -gang), in die uiterste noordooste. Sy totale oppervlakte is ongeveer twee keer dié van Noorweë.


Afghanistan

Ahmad Shah DURRANI verenig die Pashtun -stamme en stig Afganistan in 1747. Die land was 'n buffer tussen die Britse en Russiese Ryk totdat dit in 1919 onafhanklikheid van die veronderstelde Britse beheer verkry het. 'N Kort eksperiment in verhoogde demokrasie het geëindig in 'n staatsgreep van 1973 en 'n 1978 kommunistiese teengroep. Die Sowjetunie het in 1979 binnegeval om die wankelende Afghaanse kommunistiese regime te ondersteun, wat 'n lang en vernietigende oorlog aan die gang sit. Die USSR onttrek in 1989 onder meedoënlose druk deur internasionaal gesteunde anti-kommunistiese mujahidin-rebelle. In 'n reeks daaropvolgende burgeroorloë het Kaboel uiteindelik in 1996 aan die Taliban geval, 'n hardnekkige Pakistan-geborgde beweging wat in 1994 ontstaan ​​het om die land se burgeroorlog en anargie te beëindig. Na die terreuraanvalle van 11 September 2001, het 'n Amerikaanse, geallieerde en anti-Taliban Noordelike Alliansie militêre optrede die Taliban omvergewerp omdat hulle Usama BIN LADIN beskut het.

'N VN-geborgde Bonn-konferensie in 2001 het 'n proses vir politieke heropbou tot stand gebring wat insluit die aanneming van 'n nuwe grondwet, 'n presidentsverkiesing in 2004 en die verkiesing van die Nasionale Vergadering in 2005. In Desember 2004 word Hamid KARZAI die eerste demokraties verkose president van Afghanistan , en die Nasionale Vergadering is die volgende Desember ingehuldig. KARZAI is in Augustus 2009 vir 'n tweede termyn herkies. Die presidentsverkiesing in 2014 was die eerste land in die land met 'n afloop, met die twee voorste stemme uit die eerste ronde, Abdullah ABDULLAH en Ashraf GHANI. Gedurende die somer van 2014 het hul veldtogte die resultate betwis en beskuldigings van bedrog betwis, wat gelei het tot 'n diplomatieke ingryping onder leiding van die VSA, wat 'n volledige stembesoek insluit, asook politieke onderhandelinge tussen die twee kampe. In September 2014 het GHANI en ABDULLAH ooreengekom om die regering van nasionale eenheid te vorm, met GHANI ingehuldig as president en ABDULLAH verhef tot die nuutgeskepte pos van uitvoerende hoof. Die dag na die inhuldiging onderteken die GHANI-administrasie die Amerikaanse-Afgaanse bilaterale veiligheidsooreenkoms en die NAVO-ooreenkoms oor status oor magte, wat die regsgrondslag bied vir die internasionale militêre teenwoordigheid in Afghanistan na 2014. Na twee uitstel is die volgende presidentsverkiesing in September 2019 gehou.

Die Taliban bly 'n ernstige uitdaging vir die Afghaanse regering in byna elke provinsie. Die Taliban beskou homself steeds as die regmatige regering van Afghanistan, en dit bly 'n bekwame en selfversekerde opstandsmag wat veg vir die onttrekking van buitelandse militêre magte uit Afghanistan, die instelling van sharia -wetgewing en die herskrywing van die Afghaanse grondwet. In 2019 het die onderhandelinge tussen die VSA en die Taliban in Doha hul hoogste vlak tot nog toe bereik, voortgebou op momentum wat aan die einde van 2018 begin het. Onderliggend aan die onderhandelinge is die onrustige toestand van die Afghaanse politiek, en die vooruitsigte vir 'n volhoubare politieke skikking bly onduidelik.

Besoek die bladsy Definisies en notas om 'n beskrywing van elke onderwerp te sien.


Die ekonomiese wins en verlies van Afghanistan uit die 'National Air Corridor Program'

Afganistan se nasionale lugloopprogram is moontlik nie volhoubaar nie, en toegang tot die Karachi -hawe behoort 'n prioriteit vir die Afghaanse regering te wees.

Ariana Nuusagentskap- Afghanistan ly al lank onder wat Paul Collier beskryf in sy boek The Bottom Billion as 'n & ldquolandlocked trap & rdquo & mdasha landlose situasie met slegte bure. Afwesigheid in Afghanistan en 'n gebrek aan direkte toegang tot die see en 'n wispelturige politieke verhouding met die naburige Pakistan het die land uit die internasionale handelsnetwerk gemarginaliseer en sodoende ekonomiese groei, toenemende werkloosheid en toenemende armoede belemmer.

Afganistan het die afgelope paar jaar 'n skerp afname in ekonomiese groei beleef. Die BBP -groei het aansienlik afgeneem van 14,5 persent in 2012 tot 2,6 persent in 2017, wat tot verbysterende 40 persent werkloosheid en 36 persent armoede gelei het. Sy handelstekort, aangespoor deur 'n uiters lae uitvoervolume (6 persent van die BBP in absolute terme), het aansienlik gegroei en van 31,6% van die BBP in 2016 tot 33,6 persent van die BBP in 2017 gestyg.

Pakistan bly dekades lank die grootste handels- en transito -vennoot in Afghanistan. Die totale handel tussen die twee lande het gedurende 2014-15 'n hoogtepunt van $ 2,7 miljard bereik. Afghaanse handelaars het Pakistan gebruik as 'n manier om toegang tot die reusagtige Indiese mark te verkry. As gevolg van 'n onstuimige politieke verhouding tussen die bure in Suid -Asië, het Pakistan die afgelope paar jaar egter verskeie oorbodige regulatoriese handelshindernisse opgelê en die grense tussen Chaman en Torkham gesluit. Sulke beleide het Pakistan se handelsverhoudinge met Afghanistan laat daal en die bilaterale handel tot $ 500 miljoen verminder, en mdashand belemmer Afgaanse handelaars en toegang tot die Indiese mark. Dit was dus noodsaaklik vir die Afghaanse regering om sy handelsvennote te diversifiseer en die indringende impak van Pakistan op die handel met Indië op te skort.

In Junie 2017 het die Afghaanse regering die & ldquoAfghanistan-India Air Corridor & rdquo geloods as 'n loodsprojek om die handel tussen Kaboel en Nieu-Delhi via lugvrag te vergemaklik. Ons doel is om Afghanistan na 'n uitvoerland te verander. Tensy ons 'n uitvoerland is, sal armoede en onstabiliteit nie uitgeskakel word nie, het die Afgaanse president, Ashraf Ghani, gesê tydens die bekendstellingseremonie. Sedertdien het Afghanistan 3,318 ton goedere uitgevoer deur 155 vlugte na die Indiese hoofstad. Die spesiale inspekteur -generaal vir heropbou in Afghanistan (SIGAR) het 'n toename van 28 persent in Afgaanse uitvoere van 2016 tot 2017 gerapporteer, wat dit grootliks toeskryf aan die aanvang van die lugloopprogram met Indië.

Na die sukses van die eerste lugkorridorprojek, het die Afghaanse regering dit met 'n indrukwekkende tempo uitgebrei na verskeie ander lande, wat dit as 'n nasionale lugkororridorprogram beskryf het. Tot dusver het die program die uitvoer van 3,643 MT goedere ter waarde van $ 63 miljoen vergemaklik deur middel van 244 vlugte na internasionale markte, waaronder Indië, Turkye, Saoedi -Arabië, die Europese Unie, Kazakstan en die VAE. Dit sluit bederfbare en nie-bederfbare goedere in, soos droë vrugte, vars vrugte, mediese kruie, handwerk en matte. As gevolg hiervan het Afghanistan en rsquos -luguitvoer gegroei van $ 230 miljoen in 2015 tot $ 391 miljoen in 2017, wat 'n toename van 70 persent in twee jaar beteken, volgens SIGAR.

Op 07 November 2018 het Afghanistan 'n nuwe luggang oopgemaak met China wat 20 ton dennepitte (ter waarde van $ 500,000) na Sjanghai gestuur het. Tydens die inhuldigingseremonie, het die Afgaanse president, Ashraf Ghani, gesê: & ldquoPynappel, pistache en komyn is die verborge skatte van Afghanistan, en die regering is daartoe verbind om sy volle potensiaal na vore te bring via handelskorridors. & Rdquo Na raming sal Afghanistan ongeveer 2000 MT uitvoer jaarliks ​​pynappels na die Chinese mark. Die Afghaanse regering het ook 'n MOU met die Turkish Airline onderteken om ander handelsware, soos groente, matte, minerale, handwerk en diereprodukte, na Sjanghai, Beijing en Guangzhou te vervoer.

Aan die ander kant dra die uitvoer via luggang 'n paar finansiële koste vir die Afghaanse regering. In 'n poging om lugvervoer vir die ondernemings meer bekostigbaar te maak en Afgaanse produkte mededingend te maak op die internasionale markte, verleen die regering 80 persent subsidie ​​in die afleweringskoste, tot $ 2 miljoen tot op hede. Die luggang -program is egter nog aan die gang.

Namate dit uitbrei en groter hoeveelhede goedere uitgevoer word, kan die finansiële las op die regering oorweldigend hoog wees. Byvoorbeeld, Ajmal Ahmady, president Ashraf Ghani & rsquos se senior ekonomiese adviseur, het onlangs getwiet, en ons skat die waarde van dennepitte is

$ 20k/MT in China. Dit beteken dat die totale waarde vir 22MT's $ 440 000 is (met behulp van eindmarkpryse). Ter vergelyking, die afleweringskoste is relatief laag

$ 3k/MT, of $ 66k vir alle 22MT's & rdquo. Met die huidige subsidiesyfer sal die regering jaarliks ​​meer as $ 17,5 miljoen moet bydra net vir die uitvoer van dennepitte van 2000 MT na China.

Alhoewel die National Air Corridor-program 'n goeie opsie vir die regering en die private sektor is in die status quo deur vinniger, veiliger en betroubaarder versendingswyse op die onmiddellike termyn aan te bied, is dit moontlik nie 'n lewensvatbare alternatief nie langtermyn as gevolg van die hoë koste van lugvrag. Die Amerikaanse regering het onlangs die ontwikkeling van die hawe van Chabahar vrygestel van die nuwe sanksies wat Iran ingevolge die Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act van 2012 opgelê het. Op lang termyn sal die hawe van Chabahar dus 'n nuwe deurgangroete vir die Afghaanse besighede oopmaak na vervoer goedere na Indië en ander internasionale markte via die seeroete.

Die Afghaanse regering moet ook die onlangse verbintenisse van Pakistan en rsquos benut om handel en vervoer vir Afghaanse handelaars te vergemaklik. Daarom moet die Afghaanse regering 'n prioriteit vir Afgaanse ondernemings wees om toegang tot die Karachi -hawe te bied.


Afghanistan

Ahmad Shah DURRANI verenig die Pashtun -stamme en stig Afganistan in 1747. Die land was 'n buffer tussen die Britse en Russiese Ryk totdat dit in 1919 onafhanklikheid van die veronderstelde Britse beheer verkry het. 'N Kort eksperiment in verhoogde demokrasie het geëindig in 'n staatsgreep van 1973 en 'n 1978 kommunistiese teengroep. Die Sowjetunie het in 1979 binnegeval om die wankelende Afghaanse kommunistiese regime te ondersteun, wat 'n lang en vernietigende oorlog aan die gang gesit het. Die USSR onttrek in 1989 onder meedoënlose druk deur internasionaal gesteunde anti-kommunistiese mujahidin-rebelle. In 'n reeks daaropvolgende burgeroorloë het Kaboel uiteindelik in 1996 aan die Taliban geval, 'n hardnekkige Pakistan-geborgde beweging wat in 1994 ontstaan ​​het om die land se burgeroorlog en anargie te beëindig. Na die terreuraanvalle van 11 September 2001, het 'n Amerikaanse, geallieerde en anti-Taliban Noordelike Alliansie militêre optrede die Taliban omvergewerp om Usama BIN LADIN te beskut. 'N VN-geborgde Bonn-konferensie in 2001 het 'n proses vir politieke heropbou ingestel wat die aanneming van 'n nuwe grondwet, 'n presidentsverkiesing in 2004 en verkiesings in die Nasionale Vergadering in 2005. In Desember 2004 word Hamid KARZAI die eerste demokraties verkose president van Afghanistan, en die nasionale vergadering is die volgende Desember ingehuldig. KARZAI is in Augustus 2009 vir 'n tweede termyn herkies. Die presidentsverkiesing in 2014 was die eerste land in die land met 'n afloop, met die twee voorste stemme uit die eerste ronde, Abdullah ABDULLAH en Ashraf GHANI. Gedurende die somer van 2014 het hul veldtogte die resultate betwis en beskuldigings van bedrog verhandel, wat gelei het tot 'n diplomatieke ingryping onder leiding van die VSA, wat 'n volledige stembesoek insluit, asook politieke onderhandelinge tussen die twee kampe. In September 2014 het GHANI en ABDULLAH ooreengekom om die regering van nasionale eenheid te vorm, met GHANI ingehuldig as president en ABDULLAH verhef tot die nuutgeskepte pos van uitvoerende hoof. Die dag na die inhuldiging onderteken die GHANI-administrasie die Amerikaanse-Afgaanse bilaterale veiligheidsooreenkoms en die NAVO-ooreenkoms oor status oor magte, wat die regsgrondslag bied vir die internasionale militêre teenwoordigheid na Afghanistan na 2014. Na twee uitstel is die volgende presidentsverkiesing in September 2019 gehou. Die Taliban bly 'n ernstige uitdaging vir die Afghaanse regering in byna elke provinsie. Die Taliban beskou homself nog steeds as die regmatige regering van Afghanistan, en dit bly 'n bekwame en selfversekerde opstandsmag wat veg vir die onttrekking van buitelandse militêre magte uit Afghanistan, die instelling van sharia -wetgewing en die herskrywing van die Afghaanse grondwet. In 2019 het die onderhandelinge tussen die VSA en die Taliban in Doha hul hoogste vlak nog bereik, voortgebou op momentum wat einde 2018 begin het. Onderliggend aan die onderhandelinge lê die onrustige toestand van die Afghaanse politiek, en die vooruitsigte vir 'n volhoubare politieke skikking bly onduidelik.

Ligging

Suid -Asië, noord en wes van Pakistan, oos van Iran

Geografiese koördinate

Kaartverwysings

totaal: 652 230 km²
land: 652 230 km²
water: 0 vierkante kilometer
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 42

Gebied - vergelykend

byna ses keer die grootte van Virginia, effens kleiner as Texas

Grondgrense

totaal: 5 987 km
grenslande (6): China 91 km, Iran 921 km, Pakistan 2670 km, Tadzjikistan 1357 km, Turkmenistan 804 km, Oezbekistan 144 km

Kuslyn

Maritieme eise

Klimaat

dor tot koue winters en warm somers

Terrein

meestal ruwe berge vlaktes in die noorde en suidweste

Hoogte

gemiddelde hoogte: 1,884 m
laagste punt: Amu Darya 258 m
hoogste punt: Noshak 7 492 m

Natuurlike hulpbronne

aardgas, petroleum, steenkool, koper, chromiet, talk, bariete, swael, lood, sink, ystererts, sout, edelgesteentes en halfedelstene, bewerkbare grond

Grondgebruik

landbougrond: 58,1% (geraamde 2016)
Bewerkbare grond: 11.8% (2016)/permanente gewasse: 0.3% (2016)/permanente weiding: 46% (2016)
bos: 2,07% (raming van 2016)
ander: 39% (2016)

Besproeiingsgrond

Bevolkingsverspreiding

bevolkings is geneig om aan die voetheuwels saam te trek, en die omtrek van die ruwe Hindoe -Kush -reeks kom in die algemeen in baie van die binnelandse valleie in die algemeen voor; die ooste is digter, terwyl die suide yl bevolk is.

Natuurlike gevare

skadelike aardbewings vind plaas in Hindoe Kush -berge wat droogtes oorstroom

Omgewing - huidige kwessies

beperkte natuurlike varswaterhulpbronne onvoldoende voorraad drinkwater grondafbraak oorgras ontbossing (baie van die oorblywende woude word vir brandstof en boumateriaal afgesny) verwoestyning lug- en waterbesoedeling in oorbevolkte stedelike gebiede

Omgewing - internasionale ooreenkomste

partytjie by: Biodiversiteit, klimaatsverandering, woestynvorming, bedreigde spesies, omgewingsaanpassing, mariene storting, osoonlaagbeskerming
geteken, maar nie bekragtig nie: Gevaarlike afvalstowwe, die wet van die see, mariene lewensbewaring

Aardrykskunde - let op

Die Hindoe Kush -berge wat noordoos tot suidwes loop, het die noordelike provinsies van die res van die land verdeel, die hoogste pieke in die noordelike Vakhan (Wakhan -gang)

Bevolking

34,940,837 (skatting Julie 2018)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 39

Nasionaliteit

selfstandige naamwoord: Afghaanse (s)
byvoeglike naamwoord: Afghaanse

Etniese groepe

Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Oezbeeks, ander (bevat kleiner getalle Baloch, Turkmeens, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arabies, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai en Kyrghyz) (2015)
let op: huidige statistiese gegewens oor die sensitiewe onderwerp van etnisiteit in Afghanistan is nie beskikbaar nie, en etnisiteitsdata van klein steekproewe van respondente op meningspeilings is nie 'n betroubare alternatief nie. , Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq en Pashai

Tale

Afghaanse Persies of Dari (amptelik) 77%(Dari funksioneer as die lingua franca), Pashto (amptelik) 48%, Oezbeeks 11%, Engels 6%, Turkmeens 3%, Oerdoe 3%, Pashayi 1%, Nuristani 1%, Arabies 1%, Balochi 1% (geraamde 2017)
let op: data verteenwoordig die mees gesproke tale, aandele beloop meer as 100% omdat daar baie tweetaligheid in die land is en omdat respondente meer as een taal kon kies let op: die Turkse tale Oezbeeks en Turkmeens, sowel as Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani en Pamiri is die derde amptelike tale in gebiede waar die meerderheid hulle praat

Godsdienste

Moslem 99,7% (Sunni 84,7 - 89,7%, Shia 10 - 15%), ander 0,3% (geskatte 2009)

Ouderdomstruktuur

0-14 jaar: 40,92%(manlik 7,263,716 /vroulik 7,033,427)
15-24 jaar: 21,85%(manlik 3,883,693 /vroulik 3,749,760)
25-54 jaar: 30,68%(manlik 5,456,305 /vroulik 5,263,332)
55-64 jaar: 3,95%(man 679 766 /vrou 699 308)
65 jaar en ouer: 2,61%(manlik 420,445 /vroulik 491,085) (skatting van 2018)
bevolkingspiramide:

Afhanklikheidsverhoudings

totale afhanklikheidsverhouding: 88,8 (geskatte 2015)
jeugafhanklikheidsverhouding: 84,1 (raming van 2015)
afhanklikheidsverhouding van bejaardes: 4,7 (raming van 2015)
potensiële ondersteuningsverhouding: 21.2 (raming van 2015)

Mediaan ouderdom

totaal: 19 jaar (geskatte 2018)
manlik: 19 jaar
vroulik: 19,1 jaar
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 203

Bevolkingsgroeikoers

2,37% (geraamde 2018)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 29

Geboortesyfer

37,5 geboortes/1 000 bevolking (beraamde 2018)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 12

Sterftesyfer

13,2 sterftes/1,000 bevolking (geraamde 2018)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 9

Netto migrasiekoers

-0,6 migrant (e)/1 000 bevolking (geraamde 2018)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 128

Bevolkingsverspreiding

bevolkings is geneig om aan die voetheuwels saam te trek, en die omtrek van die ruige Hindoe -Kush -reeks kom in die algemeen in baie van die binnelandse valleie van die land voor; die ooste is digter, terwyl die suide yl bevolk is.

Verstedeliking

stedelike bevolking: 25,8% van die totale bevolking (2019)
tempo van verstedeliking: 3.37% jaarlikse veranderingstempo (raming 2015-2020)

Groot stedelike gebiede - bevolking

4.114 miljoen KABUL (kapitaal) (2019)

Geslag verhouding

By geboorte: 1.05 manlik (s)/vroulik
0-14 jaar: 1.03 manlik (s)/vroulik
15-24 jaar: 1.04 man (s)/vrou
25-54 jaar: 1.04 man (s)/vrou
55-64 jaar: 0.97 manlik (s)/vroulik
65 jaar en ouer: 0,86 manlik (s)/vroulik
totale bevolking: 1.03 manlik (s)/vroulik (raming van 2018)

Ma se gemiddelde ouderdom met die eerste geboorte

19,9 jaar (geskatte 2015)
let op: mediaanouderdom by eerste geboorte onder vroue 25-29

Moedersterftesyfer

638 sterftes/100,000 lewende geboortes (raming van 2017)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 11

Kindersterftesyfer

totaal: 108,5 sterftes/1,000 lewende geboortes (beraamde 2018)
manlik: 115,7 sterftes/1 000 lewende geboortes
vroulik: 100,9 sterftes/1 000 lewende geboortes
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 1

Lewens verwagting by geboorte

totale bevolking: 52,1 jaar (geraamde 2018)
manlik: 50,6 jaar
vroulik: 53,6 jaar
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 223

Totale vrugbaarheidskoers

5,02 kinders gebore/vrou (beraamde 2018)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 11

Voorbehoedprevalentiteit

Drinkwaterbron

verbeter: stedelik: 78,2% van die bevolking
platteland: 47% van die bevolking
totaal: 55,3% van die bevolking
onverbeter: stedelik: 21,8% van die bevolking
platteland: 53% van die bevolking
totaal: 44,7% van die bevolking (geraamde 2015)

Huidige gesondheidsuitgawes

Dokters digtheid

0,28 dokters/1 000 bevolking (2016)

Hospitaalbed digtheid

0,5 beddens/1 000 inwoners (2014)

Toegang tot sanitasie

verbeter: stedelik: 45,1% van die bevolking (geraamde 2015)
platteland: 27% van die bevolking (geraamde 2015)
totaal: 31,9% van die bevolking (geraamde 2015)
onverbeter: stedelik: 54,9% van die bevolking (geraamde 2015)
platteland: 73% van die bevolking (geraamde 2015)
totaal: 68,1% van die bevolking (geraamde 2015)

MIV/vigs - die voorkoms van volwassenes

MIV/vigs - mense wat met MIV/vigs leef

7 200 (geraamde 2018)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 113

MIV/vigs - sterftes

Groot aansteeklike siektes

risiko risiko: intermediêr (2019)
voedsel- of watergedraagde siektes: bakteriële diarree, hepatitis A en tifus (2019)
vektorgedraagde siektes: Krim-Kongo hemorragiese koors, malaria (2019)

Vetsug - die voorkoms van volwassenes

5.5% (2016)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 176

Kinders onder die ouderdom van 5 jaar ondergewig

25% (2013)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 17

Onderwysuitgawes

4,1% van die BBP (2017)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 95

Geletterdheid

definisie: 15 jaar en ouer kan lees en skryf
totale bevolking: 43%
manlik: 55.5%
vroulik: 29.8% (2018)

Skoolleweverwagting (primêre tot tersiêre opleiding)

totaal: 10 jaar
manlik: 13 jaar
vroulik: 8 jaar (2014)

Werkloosheid, jeug tussen 15 en 24 jaar

totaal: 17.6%
manlik: 16.3%
vroulik: 21.4% (2017)
landvergelyking met die wêreld: 79

Land naam

konvensionele lang vorm: Islamitiese Republiek Afghanistan
konvensionele kort vorm: Afghanistan
plaaslike lang vorm: Jamhuri-ye Islami-ye Afghanistan
plaaslike kort vorm: Afghanistan
voormalige: Republiek Afghanistan
etimologie: die naam "Afghaan" het oorspronklik verwys na die Pashtun-mense (vandag word verstaan ​​dat dit alle etniese groepe van die land insluit), terwyl die agtervoegsel "-stan" "plek van" of "land" beteken, sodat Afghanistan letterlik die "land van die land" beteken Afghanen "

Regeringstipe

presidensiële Islamitiese republiek

Kapitaal

naam: Kaboel
geografiese koördinate: 34 31 N, 69 11 E
tyd's verskil: UTC+4.5 (9,5 uur voor Washington, DC, gedurende standaardtyd)
dagligbesparingstyd: neem nie die somertyd in ag nie
etimologie: vernoem na die Kaboelrivier, maar die naam van die rivier is van onbekende oorsprong

Administratiewe afdelings

34 provinsies (welayat, enkelvoud - welayat) Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamyan, Daykundi, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghor, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabul, Kandahar, Kapisa, Khost, Kunar, Kunduz, Laghman, Logar , Nangarhar, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, Paktiya, Panjshir, Parwan, Samangan, Sar-e Pul, Takhar, Uruzgan, Wardak, Zabul

Onafhanklikheid

19 Augustus 1919 (van die Britse beheer oor Afgaanse buitelandse aangeleenthede)

Nasionale vakansiedag

Onafhanklikheidsdag, 19 Augustus (1919)

Grondwet

geskiedenis: verskeie vorige jongste opgestel 14 Desember 2003 - 4 Januarie 2004, onderteken 16 Januarie 2004, bekragtig 26 Januarie 2004
wysigings: voorgestel deur 'n kommissie wat gevorm is deur 'n presidensiële besluit, gevolg deur die konvensie van 'n groot raad (Loya Jirga) wat deur die president aangeneem is, vereis ten minste twee derdes meerderheid van die Loya Jirga-lidmaatskap en goedkeuring deur die president (2017)

Regstelsel

gemengde regstelsel van burgerlike, gebruiklike en Islamitiese (sharia) reg

Internasionale regsorganisasie deelname

het nie 'n ICJ -jurisdiksieverklaring ingedien nie, aanvaar ICCt -jurisdiksie

Burgerskap

burgerskap by geboorte: geen
burgerskap slegs deur afkoms: ten minste een ouer moet in Afghanistan gebore gewees het - en voortdurend daar gewoon het
dubbele burgerskap erken: geen
verblyfvereiste vir naturalisasie: 5 jaar

Stemreg

18 jaar oud universeel

Uitvoerende tak

staatshoof: President van die Islamitiese Republiek Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (sedert 29 September 2014) uitvoerende hoof Abdullah ABDULLAH, dr. (Sedert 29 September 2014) Eerste vise -president Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (sedert 29 September 2014) Tweede vise -president Sarwar DANESH (sedert 29 September 2014 ) Eerste adjunk uitvoerende hoof Khyal Mohammad KHAN Tweede adjunk uitvoerende hoof Mohammad MOHAQQEQ nota - die president is beide staatshoof en regeringshoof
regeringshoof: President van die Islamitiese Republiek Afghanistan Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai (sedert 29 September 2014) uitvoerende hoof Abdullah ABDULLAH, dr. (Sedert 29 September 2014) Eerste vise -president Abdul Rashid DOSTAM (sedert 29 September 2014) Tweede vise -president Sarwar DANESH (sedert 29 September 2014 ) Eerste adjunk uitvoerende hoof, Khyal Mohammad KHAN, tweede adjunk uitvoerende hoof Mohammad MOHAQQEQ
kabinet: Die kabinet bestaan ​​uit 25 ministers wat deur die president aangewys is, goedgekeur deur die Nasionale Vergadering
verkiesings/aanstellings: president direk verkies met volstrekte meerderheid in 2 rondes indien nodig vir 'n verkiesing van 5 jaar (geskik vir 'n tweede termyn) laas op 28 September 2019 (volgende in 2024)
verkiesingsuitslae: NA

Wetgewende tak

beskrywing: tweekamer Nasionale Vergadering bestaan ​​uit:
Meshrano Jirga of Huis van Oudstes (102 sitplekke het 34 lede wat indirek verkies word met volstrekte meerderheidstem in 2 rondes indien distriksrade dit nodig het om termyne van 3 jaar te dien, 34 indirek verkies deur volstrekte meerderheidstem in 2 rondes indien dit deur provinsiale rade benodig word om 4 te dien jaarvoorwaardes en 34 wat deur die president aangestel is uit nominasies deur burgerlike groepe, politieke partye en die publiek, waarvan 17 vroue moet wees, 2 gestremdes moet verteenwoordig en 2 Kuchi-nomades wat presidensiële aanstellings dien vir 5 jaar termyn)
Wolesi Jirga of House of People (250 setels wat direk verkies word in kiesdistrikte met meerdere setels deur proporsionele verteenwoordiging stem vir 5 jaar)
verkiesings:
Meshrano Jirga - distriksrade - binne 5 dae na die installering
Wolesi Jirga - laas gehou op 20 Oktober 2018) (word volgende in 2023 gehou)
verkiesingsuitslae:
Meshrano Jirga - persentasie stemme per party - NA -setels per party - NA -samestelling - mans 84, vroue 18, persent van vroue 17,6%
Wolesi Jirga - persentasie stemme per party NA setels per party - NA samestelling - NA
let op: die grondwet stel die regering in staat om 'n konstitusionele Loya Jirga (Groot Raad) byeen te roep oor kwessies van onafhanklikheid, nasionale soewereiniteit en territoriale integriteit; dit bestaan ​​uit lede van die Nasionale Vergadering en voorsitters van die provinsiale en distriksrade, en Loya Jirga kan die bepalings van die grondwet en vervolg die president geen grondwetlike Loya Jirga is ooit gehou nie, en distriksrade is nog nooit verkies nie, die president het 34 lede van die Meshrano Jirga aangestel wat die distriksrade indirek moes verkies het

Geregtelike tak

hoogste howe: Hooggeregshof of Stera Mahkama (bestaan ​​uit die hoof van die hooggeregshof en 8 regters wat in kriminele, openbare veiligheid, burgerlike en kommersiële afdelings of dewans georganiseer is)
keuring van die beoordelaar en ampstermyn: hofhoof en regters wat deur die president aangestel is met die goedkeuring van die Wolesi Jirga hofhoof en regters dien enkele termyn van 10 jaar
ondergeskikte howe: Appèlhowe Laer howe Spesiale howe vir kwessies soos dwelms, sekuriteit, eiendom, familie en jeugdiges

Politieke partye en leiers

let op - die Ministerie van Justisie het vanaf April 2019 72 politieke partye gelisensieer

Internasionale organisasie deelname

ADB, CICA, CP, ECO, EITI (kandidaatland), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGO's), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol , IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (korrespondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NRO's), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OVSE (vennoot), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialooglid), VN, UNAMA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NRO's), WIE, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatieke verteenwoordiging in die VSA

Ambassadeur Roya RAHMANI (sedert 24 November 2018)
kanselary: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telefoon: [1] (202) 483-6410
FAKS: [1] (202) 483-6488
konsulaat (s) algemeen: Los Angeles, New York, Washington, DC

Diplomatieke verteenwoordiging uit die VSA

missiehoof: Ambassadeur John BASS (sedert Desember 2017)
telefoon: [00 93] 0700 108 001
ambassade: Bibi Mahru, Kaboel
posadres: Amerikaanse ambassade Kaboel, APO AE 09806
FAKS: [00 93] 0700 108 564

Vlagbeskrywing

drie gelyke vertikale bande van swart (takelkant), rooi en groen, met die nasionale embleem in wit in die middel van die rooi band en die ander twee bande effens oorvleuel, in die middel van die embleem 'n moskee met preekstoel en vlae aan weerskante, onder die moskee is Oos -Arabiese syfers vir die sonjaar 1298 (1919 in die Gregoriaanse kalender, die jaar van Afghaanse onafhanklikheid van die Verenigde Koninkryk), word hierdie sentrale beeld omring deur 'n grens wat bestaan ​​uit koringgrawe links en regs, in die boonste hoek -sentrum is 'n Arabiese inskripsie van die Shahada (Moslembelydenis) waaronder strale van die opkomende son oor die Takbir (Arabiese uitdrukking wat beteken "God is groot"), en in die middelste middel 'n boekrol met die naam Afghanistan swart dui op die verlede , rooi is vir die bloed wat gestort word vir onafhanklikheid, en groen kan hoop vir die toekoms, landbouvoorspoed of Islam verteenwoordig
let op: Afghanistan het in die 20ste eeu meer veranderinge aan sy nasionale vlag gehad - 19 met een telling - as in enige ander land, die kleure swart, rooi en groen verskyn op die meeste van hulle

Nasionale simbool (e)

leeu nasionale kleure: rooi, groen, swart

Nasionale volkslied

naam: "Milli Surood" (volkslied)
lirieke/musiek: Abdul Bari JAHANI/Babrak WASA
let op: het in 2006 die grondwet van 2004 van die post-Taliban-regering aangeneem dat 'n nuwe volkslied geskryf moet word met die frase "Allahu Akbar" (God is die Grootste) en die name van die etniese groepe in Afghanistan vermeld

Ekonomie - oorsig

Ten spyte van verbeterings in lewensverwagting, inkomste en geletterdheid sedert 2001, is Afghanistan uiters arm, sonder grond en baie afhanklik van buitelandse hulp. 'N Groot deel van die bevolking ly steeds aan 'n tekort aan behuising, skoon water, elektrisiteit, mediese sorg en werk. Korrupsie, onsekerheid, swak bestuur, gebrek aan infrastruktuur en die moeilikheid van die Afghaanse regering om regstaat na alle dele van die land uit te brei, stel uitdagings vir toekomstige ekonomiese groei. Die lewenstandaard van Afghanistan is van die laagste ter wêreld. Sedert 2014 het die ekonomie verlangsaam, grootliks as gevolg van die onttrekking van byna 100 000 buitelandse troepe wat die ekonomiese groei van die land kunsmatig laat opblaas het.Die internasionale gemeenskap bly verbind tot die ontwikkeling van Afghanistan en beloof meer as $ 83 miljard op tien skenkerskonferensies tussen 2003 en 2016. In Oktober 2016 het die skenkers tydens die konferensie in Brussel jaarliks ​​'n bykomende $ 3,8 miljard beloof aan ontwikkelingshulp van 2017 tot 2020. Selfs met hierdie hulp staar die regering van Afghanistan steeds 'n aantal uitdagings in die gesig, insluitend lae inkomste -insameling, anemiese werkskepping, hoë korrupsievlakke, swak regeringsvermoë en swak openbare infrastruktuur. In 2017 was Afganistan se groeikoers slegs effens hoër as die van die 2014-2016-gemiddelde. The drawdown of international security forces that started in 2012 has negatively affected economic growth, as a substantial portion of commerce, especially in the services sector, has catered to the ongoing international troop presence in the country. Afghan President Ashraf GHANI Ahmadzai is dedicated to instituting economic reforms to include improving revenue collection and fighting corruption. The government has implemented reforms to the budget process and in some other areas. However, many other reforms will take time to implement and Afghanistan will remain dependent on international donor support over the next several years.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$69.45 billion (2017 est.)
$67.65 billion (2016 est.)
$66.21 billion (2015 est.)
let op: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 101

GDP (official exchange rate)

GDP - real growth rate

2.7% (2017 est.)
2.2% (2016 est.)
1% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$2,000 (2017 est.)
$2,000 (2016 est.)
$2,000 (2015 est.)
let op: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 209

Gross national saving

22.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
25.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81.6% (2016 est.)
government consumption: 12% (2016 est.)
investment in fixed capital: 17.2% (2016 est.)
investment in inventories: 30% (2016 est.)
exports of goods and services: 6.7% (2016 est.)
imports of goods and services: -47.6% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

landbou: 23% (2016 est.)
bedryf: 21.1% (2016 est.)
dienste: 55.9% (2016 est.)
let op: data exclude opium production

Agriculture - products

opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins, poppies

Industries

small-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement handwoven carpets natural gas, coal, copper

Industrial production growth rate

-1.9% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181

Labor force

8.478 million (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61

Labor force - by occupation

landbou: 44.3%
bedryf: 18.1%
dienste: 37.6% (2017 est.)

Werkloosheidsyfer

23.9% (2017 est.)
22.6% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194

Population below poverty line

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 24% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

29.4 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 136

Budget

inkomste: 2.276 billion (2017 est.)
uitgawes: 5.328 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

11.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-15.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217

Public debt

7% of GDP (2017 est.)
7.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202

Fiscal year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

5% (2017 est.)
4.4% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Commercial bank prime lending rate

15% (31 December 2016 est.)
15% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Stock of narrow money

$6.644 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.192 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Stock of broad money

$6.945 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.544 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95

Stock of domestic credit

-$240.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192

Market value of publicly traded shares

Current account balance

$1.014 billion (2017 est.)
$1.409 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Uitvoer

$784 million (2017 est.)
$614.2 million (2016 est.)
let op: not including illicit exports or reexports
country comparison to the world: 171

Exports - partners

India 56.5%, Pakistan 29.6% (2017)

Exports - commodities

opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems, and medical herbs

Imports

$7.616 billion (2017 est.)
$6.16 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114

Imports - commodities

machinery and other capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners

China 21%, Iran 20.5%, Pakistan 11.8%, Kazakhstan 11%, Uzbekistan 6.8%, Malaysia 5.3% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$7.187 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$6.901 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85

Debt - external

$2.84 billion (FY/)
country comparison to the world: 144

Exchange rates

afghanis (AFA) per US dollar -
7.87 (2017 est.)
68.03 (2016 est.)
67.87 (2015)
61.14 (2014 est.)
57.25 (2013 est.)

Electricity access

population without electricity: 18,999,254 (2012)
electrification - total population: 84.1% (2016)
electrification - urban areas: 98% (2016)
electrification - rural areas: 79% (2016)

Electricity - production

1.211 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146

Electricity - consumption

5.526 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Electricity - imports

4.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Electricity - installed generating capacity

634,100 kW (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Electricity - from fossil fuels

45% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

52% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34

Electricity - from other renewable sources

4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110

Refined petroleum products - consumption

35,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124

Refined petroleum products - imports

34,210 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - production

164.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79

Natural gas - consumption

164.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Natural gas - proved reserves

49.55 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

9.067 million Mt (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 118,769 (2017 est.)
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 23,929,713
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 70 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51

Telephone system

general assessment: progress has been made on Afghanistan's first limited fixed-line telephone service and nationwide optical fibre backbone aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve swiftly the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90% of the population live in areas with access to mobile-cellular services (2018)
domestic: less than 1 per 100 for fixed-line teledensity 70 per 100 for mobile-cellular an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks (2018)
international: country code - 93 multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity (2019)

Broadcast media

state-owned broadcaster, Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA), operates a series of radio and television stations in Kabul and the provinces an estimated 174 private radio stations, 83 TV stations, and about a dozen international broadcasters are available (2019)

Internet country code

Internet gebruikers

totaal: 3,531,770
percent of population: 10.6 (July 2016 est.)

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

totaal: 16,810 (2017 est.)
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156

Military expenditures

0.99% of GDP (2018)
0.94% of GDP (2017)
0.89% of GDP (2016)
0.99% of GDP (2015)
1.33% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 116

Military and security forces

Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF) comprised of military, police, and other security elements: Afghan National Army ((ANA), Afghan Air Force, Afghan Special Security Forces, Afghanistan National Army Territorial Forces (ANA-TF)), Afghan National Police (Ministry of Interior), Afghan Local Police (Ministry of Interior), and the National Directorate of Security (2019)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service no conscription (2017)

Military - note

Since early 2015, the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan known as Resolute Support Mission (RSM) has focused on training, advising, and assisting Afghan government forces RSM includes 17,000 troops, including 8,500 US and 8,700 other troops from 38 countries (September 2019)

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 20 (2015)
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,929,907 (2015)
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 33,102,038mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

Airports

43 (2016)
country comparison to the world: 99

Airports - with paved runways

totaal: 25 (2017)
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1

Airports - with unpaved runways

totaal: 18 (2016)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2016)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2016)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2016)
under 914 m: 5 (2016)

Heliports

Pipelines

Roadways

totaal: 34,903 km (2017)
paved: 17,903 km (2017)
unpaved: 17,000 km (2017)
country comparison to the world: 92

Waterways

1,200 km(chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 58

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Terrorist groups - home based

al-Qa'ida (AQ): aim(s): eject Western influence from the Islamic world, unite the worldwide Muslim community, overthrow governments perceived as un-Islamic, and ultimately, establish a pan-Islamic caliphate under a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation: maintains established networks and a longtime operational presence in Afghanistan, especially in the south, northwest, and northeast near the Afghanistan-Pakistan border continues to view Afghanistan as a safe haven for its leadership (2019)
Islamic Jihad Union (IJU): aim(s): drive NATO forces out of Afghanistan and destabilize the country overthrow the Government of Uzbekistan
area(s) of operation: conducts attacks in collaboration with other extremist groups, including the Taliban and al-Qa'ida, against NATO and Afghan forces across the country, especially in the northern and eastern Paktika, Paktia, and Nangarhar provinces
let op: IJU is a splinter movement of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) IJU emerged in the early 2000s after internal splits over goals IMU is focused on Central Asia, but the IJU sought a more global focus (2019)
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU):
aim(s): enhance its networks and secure territory in Afghanistan to establish a secure presence from which it can pursue its historic goal of establishing an Islamic state in the Fergana Valley, a fertile valley spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and northern Tajikistan
area(s) of operation: operates mostly in the north along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border, with its heaviest presence in Badakhshan Province, where IMU has operated paramilitary training camps and bases
let op: the IMU is fractured and mostly supports ISIS-K although some members have continued working with the Taliban and al-Qa'ida (2019)
Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham-Khorasan (ISIS-K):
aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of Central Asia counter Westerners and Shia Muslims
area(s) of operation: strongholds in Nangarhar and Kunar provinces near the Afghanistan-Pakistan border and operating in Laghman, Jowzjan provinces with pockets of support throughout Afghanistan
let op: recruits from among the local population, Central Asian extremists in Afghanistan, and other militant groups, such as Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan, the Afghan Taliban, and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan ISIS-K and Afghan Taliban forces have fought sometimes over control of territory or because of political or differences (2019)
Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP):
aim(s): drive foreign troops from Afghanistan remove Pakistani forces from Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and, ultimately, overthrow the Pakistan Government to implement TTP's strict interpretation of sharia
area(s) of operation:
headquartered in several eastern Afghanistan provinces near the Afghanistan-Pakistan border operates primarily along the northeastern Afghanistan-Pakistan border, especially in Kunar and Paktika provinces, where TTP has established sanctuaries (2019)

Terrorist groups - foreign based

al-Qa'ida in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS): aim(s): unite local jihadist movements in the Indian subcontinent, pursue the overthrow of local governments, exacerbate tensions between Hindus and Muslims, establish an Islamic caliphate in the Indian subcontinent
area(s) of operation:
heaviest presence is in Afghanistan, especially in the eastern and southern regions, where most of the Afghan-based leaders are located
let op: targets primarily Afghan military and security personnel and US interests (2019)
Haqqani Taliban Network (HQN): aim(s): expel US and Coalition forces and replace the Afghan Government with an Islamic state operating according to a strict Salafi Muslim interpretation of sharia under the Afghan Taliban
area(s) of operation: stages attacks from Kurram and North Waziristan Agency in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) across from Afghanistan's southeastern border operational throughout the country, especially in Kabul and Paktiya and Khost provinces
let op: plays a leading role in planning and executing high-profile attacks against Afghan personnel, NATO's Resolute Support Mission, US and Coalition Forces, and other US and Western interests strong ties with al-Qa'ida (2019)
Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM): aim(s): enhance its networks and paramilitary training in Afghanistan and, ultimately, incorporate Kashmir into Pakistan establish an Islamic state in Kashmir
area(s) of operation: maintains paramilitary training camps in eastern Afghanistan (2019)
Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI): im(s): seeks the annexation of the state of Jammu and Kashmir and the expulsion of foreign forces from Afghanistan implement sharia in Afghanistan
area(s) of operation: operations throughout Afghanistan, targeting primarily Afghan Government personnel and Coalition forces has supplied fighters to the Taliban (2019)
Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps -- Qods Force (IRGC-QF): aim(s): initially supported anti-Taliban initiatives that complemented US goals in 2001, however, it gradually adopted an anti-NATO/anti-Afghan government strategy and began supplying financial assistance, training, and weapons to the Taliban
area(s) of operations: Taliban-dominated areas of Afghanistan (2019)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM): aim(s): annex the state of Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan and expel international forces from Afghanistan.
area(s) of operation: historically operated in Afghanistan's eastern provinces (2019)
Jaysh al Adl: aim(s): enhance its operational networks and capabilities for staging cross-border attacks into Iran
area(s) of operation: operational in the greater Balochistan area, where fighters stage attacks targeting Iranian security forces
let op: formerly known as Jundallah (2019)
Lashkar i Jhangvi (LJ): aim(s): enhance its networks and paramilitary training in Afghanistan exterminate Shia Muslims, rid the Afghanistan-Pakistan region of Western influence
area(s) of operation:
headquartered in the east operates paramilitary training camps near the Afghanistan-Pakistan border across from the central area of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) region operatives conduct operations mostly against targets in Pakistan, but also in Afghanistan ties with al-Qa'ida and the Taliban (2019)
Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT): aim(s): annex the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir to Pakistan and foment Islamic insurgency in India attack Western, Indian, and Afghan interests in Afghanistan support the Taliban's return to power enhance its recruitment networks and paramilitary training in Afghanistan, and, ultimately, install Islamic rule throughout South Asia
area(s) of operation:
mostly focused on Indian troops and civilian targets, particularly in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, but has also targeted Coalition forces in Afghanistan maintains several facilities, such as paramilitary training camps, medical clinics serving locals, and schools for youths targets Pashtun youth for recruitment in the Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) region (2019)

Disputes - international

Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps and since 2014 have met to discuss collaboration on the Taliban insurgency and counterterrorism efforts Afghan and Iranian commissioners have discussed boundary monument densification and resurvey Iran protests Afghanistan's restricting flow of dammed Helmand River tributaries during drought Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 72,194 (Pakistan) (2018)
IDPs: 2.598 million (mostly Pashtuns and Kuchis displaced in the south and west due to natural disasters and political instability) (2018)

Illicit drugs

world's largest producer of opium poppy cultivation increased 63 percent, to 328,304 hectares in 2017 while eradication increased slightly, it still remains well below levels achieved in 2015 the 2017 crop yielded an estimated 9,000 mt of raw opium, a 88% increase over 2016 the Taliban and other antigovernment groups participate in and profit from the opiate trade, which is a key source of revenue for the Taliban inside Afghanistan widespread corruption and instability impede counterdrug efforts most of the heroin consumed in Europe and Eurasia is derived from Afghan opium Afghanistan is also struggling to respond to a burgeoning domestic opiate addiction problem a 2015 national drug use survey found that roughly 11% of the population tested positive for one or more illicit drugs vulnerable to drug money laundering through informal financial networks illicit cultivation of cannabis and regional source of hashish (2018)


Opleiding

Future training to be undertaken at the Shindand air wing at Shindand Air Base in western Afghanistan. The base which has been refurbished and expanded by ISAF which tripled its size. A new 1.3 mile training runway was to begin construction in 2012 [57] but has been canceled. The seven candidates are all graduates of the National Military Academy of Afghanistan of Initial Officer Training held in the United Kingdom and have also undertaken English language training in the Kabul English Language Training Center. Students will be trained in both fixed-wing aircraft, namely the Cessna 182T and 208B and in rotary wing aircraft, the MD 530F. [58] About 6 MD 530F helicopters were delivered to Shindand in late 2011. The initial 6 helicopters have completed acceptance flights and can now be used to begin training Afghan Pilots, [59] although one was destroyed in 2013 by an IED. [60] The four-year contract could see as many as 54 other helicopters being supplied to the AAF. [61]

With the delivery of 20 Advanced fixed-wing light support aircraft, the A-29 Super Tucano Afghan pilots will have to undergo further training. This will significantly increase the level of knowledge and experience in the air force. [62]


Russian helicopters in Afghanistan

The Pentagon announced that the Mi-17 was the best helicopter for Afghanistan, and its pilots were well acquainted with the control elements of the Russian aircraft.

The Afghan National Security Council had previously expressed concern at the shortage of aircraft in its fleet. The Afghan authorities called on the US to equip their national air force as quickly as possible.

&ldquoThe Mi-17 is an excellent helicopter. But, frankly, Afghan helicopter pilots lack training and Afghanistan has practically no attack helicopters to provide cover for the Mi-17 military transport helicopter. The Taliban, however, have more than their fair share of portable missile launchers for shooting down any kind of helicopter,&rdquo said Peter Benchley, a British military expert.

The Mi-17 is an excellent helicopter. However, Afghanistan has practically no attack helicopters to provide cover for the Mi-17 military transport helicopter

Peter Benchley, military expert

Afghan authorities approved the decision to purchase the helicopters, saying that expanding the air fleet should help them deal with any threats to the country&rsquos security.

Afghan legislators believe the country will be on the brink of disaster after 2014 if the local national security forces do not have the necessary weapons.

In particular, Mohammad Abdu, MP, believes that the Afghan security forces &ldquodo not have the capacity to fight and independently carry out military operations&rdquo.

Moreover, due to the lack of equipment and training, there is no special medical aid for soldiers injured in the course of duty.

&ldquoThe Afghanistan National Security Forces are very weak and the international community has taken responsibility for supplying them with the necessary equipment. Afghanistan will have to face many problems after 2014 and if it does not have a strong air force, the nation is doomed,&rdquo said Mohammad Abdu.

The purchase agreement for a package of 30 modified multi-purpose Mi-17 helicopters was signed between the US Defense Department and Rosoboronexport on 16 June last year. The contract is worth USD 553.8 million.

These aircraft are destined for the Afghan Special Mission Wing which is to support local Special Forces operations these operations are currently carried out by the US and NATO.

The Russian helicopters will be used by the Afghanistan National Security Forces Special Mission Wing in anti-terrorism, anti-narcotics and special operation missions.

In 2010, NATO reached an agreement with Russia to purchase 21 specially modified Russian Mi-17 helicopters for use in Afghanistan. These have all been delivered. Last year, a training centre for Afghan helicopter technicians opened in Russia.


NTSB finds damage from inadequately secured cargo caused Boeing 747 crash in Bagram, Afghanistan

The National Transportation Safety Board found that a National Airlines Boeing 747 freighter crashed on takeoff from Bagram Airbase, Afghanistan, because the five large military vehicles it was carrying were inadequately restrained. This led to at least one vehicle moving rearward, crippling key hydraulic systems and damaging the horizontal stabilizer components, which rendered the airplane uncontrollable. All seven crewmembers were killed in the April 29, 2013 crash.

Contributing to the accident was the Federal Aviation Administration’s inadequate oversight of National Airlines’ (NAL’s) handling of special cargo loads, such as that being carried on the accident flight. The Boeing 747-400 freighter was carrying five mine-resistant ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles. There was no evidence found to suggest that the airplane was brought down by an explosive device or hostile acts.

The investigation found that National Airlines’ cargo operations manual not only omitted critical information from Boeing and from the cargo handling system manufacturer about properly securing cargo, but it also contained incorrect restraining methods for special cargo loads.

The Board recommended that the FAA create a certification process for personnel responsible for the loading, restraint, and documentation of special cargo loads on transport-category airplanes. Other recommendations call on the FAA to improve its ability to inspect cargo aircraft operations, specifically those involving special cargo loads.


Afghanistan National air transport system: - History

01:23. Air Crash Investigation S16E10 Afghan Nightmare Season 16. Discover how the crash of National Airlines Flight 102 became Bagram Airfield's worst ever civilian aviation accident. Prime Video The Four: Battle for Stardom Air Crash Investigation.

"N949CA, the aircraft involved in the accident, seen here in December 2012The aircraft was a Boeing 747-400 model Boeing assigns a unique code for each company that buys one of its aircraft, which is applied as an

Remember that National Air Cargo 747 crash in Bagram back in 2013?On 29 April 2013, just seconds after taking off from Bagram Airfield in Afghanistan, National Airlines Flight 102 stalls and crashes into the ground, killing all seven crew members on board. Air Crash Investigation. The CW Don't Talk to the Police - Duration: 46:39.

A cargo plane leaves Afghanistan's largest airfield with 207,000 pounds of military equipment. Waco If it's happening in commercial aviation, you'll get the information and opinions here first.

Find out when Air Crash Investigation is on TV, including Series 15-Episode 10: Afghan Nightmare. How Safe Are Our Planes.

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The subsequent investigation concluded that improperly secured cargo broke free during the take-off and At the time of the crash the airline had been operating between Camp Bastion and Dubai for a month.A thunderstorm was also in the vicinity of Bagram at the time of the crash and the wind changed direction by 120° during one hour commencing approximately 35 minutes before the crash.The captain was 34-year-old Bradley (Brad) Hasler, who had worked for the airline since 2004.

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Note: Episode links might be taken down. The investigation determined that the aircraft's cargo had shifted dangerously backwards, causing the loss of control.What we leave behind is not as important as how we've lived.

The Canadian TV series Mayday (also known as Air Disasters and Air Emergency in the US and Air Crash Investigation in the UK and the rest of the world) covered Flight 102 in episode 10 of series 16, called "Afghan Nightmare", first broadcast in 2017. Air Crash Investigation.

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Within seconds of takeoff, the pilots lose control of the aircraft.

We thank you for your support and hope you'll join the largest aviation community on the web. Seconds From Disaster S02E10 The Last Flight of TWA 800 HD. Corporate Black Lightning He had 6,000 flight hours, including 440 hours on the Boeing 747.The first officer was 33-year-old Jamie Lee Brokaw, who had worked for the airline since 2009. Most viewed.

Air Crash Investigation S16E10 Afghan Nightmare Season 16.

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What Caused the Deadly 747 Crash in Afghanistan?

The Afghanistan Ministry of Transportation and Commercial Aviation will lead the investigation as part of the U.S.-led coalition's policy of making Afghanistan govern itself. But it won't be working alone. Four investigators from the National Transportation Safety Board arrived in Afghanistan on May 2 with representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration and Boeing, which made the 747-400 cargo plane that went down. The doomed flight was scheduled to carry military vehicles and other cargo from Bagram Airbase to Dubai, a frequent stop for troops and equipment coming from and going to Afghanistan.

The first step will be to recover the flight and cockpit voice recorders and send them to the United States for analysis, one expert said. As in any crash, the flight recorders are expected to be invaluable. In the meantime, an unauthorized video possibly taken by a dashboard camera has gone viral after its posting on the LiveLeaks website. The video shows no evidence of Taliban fire, although the Associated Press and others have reported a Taliban claim of responsibility. Contractors working in Afghanistan are always concerned about insider attacks by rogue Afghans, but there is no evidence of that so far.

"It's a classic stall on takeoff," aviation safety expert Mary Schiavo says. "It goes up, loses its momentum, and falls off to the right."

Schiavo oversaw FAA responses to air crashes as inspector general at the Transportation Department in the 1990s. She said three things can cause a stall like the one seen on the video: first, a loss of engine power second, runaway trim in which the small stabilizer tabs on a 747-400's tail elevators are incorrectly set upward, either because of a malfunction or human error third, cargo sliding to the back of the plane on takeoff, upsetting its weight balance.

Investigators will try to determine whether the plane's fuel might have had water in it, which could have caused the engines to lose power, Schiavo said. They'll want to make sure the plane's takeoff speed was set to the correct velocity&mdashif it goes too slowly, the plane would stall. In one example, investigators believe an incorrect takeoff setting caused the 2004 crash of a 747-244 jet in Halifax, Nova Scotia. And, of course, they'll explore whether the load was secured and balanced correctly. The flight's loadmaster, whose role was to secure and balance the cargo, was an employee of National, company spokeswoman Shirley Kaufman said in an email. (Orlando-based National Airlines is a subsidiary of National Air Cargo Holdings.)

The U.S.-led military coalition is checking the circumstances of the crash, too: "We are taking a comprehensive look at the events surrounding the aircraft crash, to include the subsequent photo on Twitter and the video posted on LiveLeaks," spokesman Erin O. Stattel said via email. Base security rules forbid photography without special permission so that insurgents can't easily learn a base's pattern of life.

NTSB referred inquiries to the Afghanistan ministry, which could not immediately be reached for comment.