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Spaanse ontdekking en kolonisasie

Spaanse ontdekking en kolonisasie

Gedurende die 15de eeu het die Iberiese Skiereiland aan die westelike punt van die Middellandse See die fokuspunt geword van Europese pogings om die rykdom van Asië met 'n seeroete te bereik, eerder as om afhanklik te wees van die gevaarlike, duur en tydrowende ou handelsroetes deur Klein Portugal het die oorspronklike leier van hierdie poging geword. Die invloedrykste figuur in die toename in Portugese maritieme sterkte was Henry the Navigator, wat kundiges en inligting saamgestel het om 'n ryk te stig. Die nederlaag van die More het die monarge ook bevry om verkennende ondernemings, insluitend dié van Christopher Columbus, te ondersteun. homself nooit in Noord -Amerika gesetel nie. Teen die tyd dat die Engelse met aktiewe kolonisasie begin het, het die Spanjaarde reeds groot dele van Noord -Amerika verken, veral in die suide en suidweste.Die Spaanse ontdekkingsreisigers het drie groot beskawings in die nuwe wêreld teëgekom: die Inkas in die huidige Peru en die Maya's en Asteke in Mexiko en Sentraal-Amerika. Die veroweraars was werklik verbaas oor wat hulle gevind het - ontsaglike rykdom in goud en silwer, komplekse stede wat in Europa wedywer of oortref, en merkwaardige artistieke en wetenskaplike prestasies. , heerlikheid en evangelie. Die inboorlinge het malaria, pokke en masels van die Europeërs opgedoen, maar het sifilis aan die indringers oorgedra in 'n morbide ruil.In 1494, kort na Columbus se eerste reis, verdeel die pous die nuut ontdekte lande tussen Spanje en Portugal - beide Katolieke nasies, maar kwaai mededingers. Die grenslyn het deur die bult van Suid -Amerika gegaan. Die mees winsgewende Spaanse aktiwiteite in die Nuwe Wêreld het in die suidelike gedeeltes plaasgevind, terwyl minder lonende ondernemings in die noordelike gebiede plaasgevind het.


Sien kaart van Spaans -Amerika.


Nuwe Spanje en Spaanse kolonisasie

Gedurende die koloniale era, van 1492 tot 1821, het Spanje ontdekkingsreisigers, veroweraars en setlaars na die nuwe wêreld gestuur. Die gebiede wat deel geword het van die Spaanse ryk, is New Spain genoem. Op sy hoogtepunt het Nieu -Spanje die hele Mexiko, Sentraal -Amerika tot by die Isthmus van Panama ingesluit, die lande wat vandag die suidwestelike Verenigde State is en Florida , en baie van die Wes -Indiese Eilande (eilande in die Karibiese See). (Dit het ook die Filippyne, aan die kus van Suidoos -Asië, ingesluit.)

Nuwe Spanje is as 'n onderkoning regeer, 'n provinsie onder leiding van 'n verteenwoordiger van die koning of koningin van Spanje. Vanaf 1535 was die hoofstad Mexiko -stad. Gedurende die koloniale tydperk het Spanje ander gebiede in die Nuwe Wêreld in noordelike en westelike Suid -Amerika geëis. Die meeste van hierdie besittings val onder die onderkoning van Peru, wat apart van die onderkoning van Nieu -Spanje beheer word.


Spaanse ontdekking en kolonisering - Geskiedenis

Die eiland Hispaniola (La Isla Espa ola), wat vandag deur die nasies Haïti en die Dominikaanse Republiek beset word, was een van verskeie landings wat Christopher Columbus gemaak het tydens sy eerste reis na die nuwe wêreld in 1492. Columbus het 'n tydelike nedersetting gevestig aan die noordkus, wat hy Navidad (Kersfees) genoem het, na sy vlagskip, die Kersvader Mara, het 'n koraalrif getref en gestig naby die plek van die huidige Cap Hatien.

Die Taino -Indiese (of Arawak) inwoners het baie name na hul vaderland verwys, maar dit word die meeste gebruik Ayti, of Hayti (bergagtig). Hierdie inboorlinge was aanvanklik gasvry teenoor die Spanjaarde en het gewelddadig gereageer op die onverdraagsaamheid en mishandeling van die nuwelinge. Toe Columbus op sy tweede reis in 1493 na Hispaniola terugkeer, vind hy dat Navidad vernietig is en dat sy inwoners doodgemaak is. Maar die belangstelling van die Ou Wêreld in uitbreiding en sy strewe om die Rooms -Katolisisme te versprei, het nie maklik afgeskrik nie Columbus het 'n tweede nedersetting, Isabela, verder na die ooste gevestig.

Hispaniola, of Santo Domingo, soos dit onder Spaanse heerskappy bekend geword het, het die eerste buitepos van die Spaanse Ryk geword. Die aanvanklike verwagtinge van volop en maklik toeganklike goudreserwes was ongegrond, maar die eiland het steeds belangrik geword as 'n setel van koloniale administrasie, 'n beginpunt vir verowerings van ander lande en 'n laboratorium om beleid te ontwikkel vir die beheer van nuwe besittings. Dit was in Santo Domingo dat die Spaanse kroon die stelsel van repartimiento, waardeur peninsulares (Spaanse gebore persone wat in die Nuwe Wêreld woon) het groot grondtoelaes ontvang en die reg om arbeid te dwing van die Indiërs wat die land bewoon het.

Columbus, die eerste administrateur van Santo Domingo, en sy broer Bartolom Columbus val uit die guns van die meerderheid van die koloniste se koloniste, as gevolg van jaloesie en gierigheid, en dan ook met die kroon vanweë hul versuim om die orde te handhaaf. In 1500 het 'n koninklike ondersoeker beveel dat beide in 'n Spaanse gevangenis gevange gehou moet word. Die nuwe goewerneur van die kolonie, Nicolás de Ovando, het die grondslag gelê vir die ontwikkeling van die eiland. Gedurende sy ampstermyn het die repartimiento stelsel het plek gemaak vir die encomienda stelsel waaronder alle grond as die eiendom van die kroon beskou is. Die stelsel het ook bestuur van traktate verleen aan encomenderos, wat geregtig was om Indiese arbeid in diens te neem (of, in die praktyk, te verslaaf).

Die Taino -Indiese bevolking van Santo Domingo het swak gevaar onder koloniale bewind. Die presiese grootte van die eiland se inheemse bevolking in 1492 is nog nooit bepaal nie, maar waarnemers het destyds ramings gemaak wat wissel van etlike duisende tot etlike miljoene. 'N Skatting van 3 miljoen, wat byna seker 'n oordrywing is, word toegeskryf aan biskop Bartolomé de Las Casas. Volgens alle verslae was daar egter honderdduisende inheemse mense op die eiland. Teen 1550 het slegs 150 Indiërs op die eiland gewoon. Dwangarbeid, mishandeling, siektes waarteen die Indiane geen immuniteit gehad het nie en die groei van die mestizo (gemengde Europese en Indiese) bevolking het almal bygedra tot die uitskakeling van die Taino en hul kultuur.

'N Paar jaar voordat die Taino weg was, het Santo Domingo sy posisie as die vooraanstaande Spaanse kolonie in die Nuwe Wêreld verloor. Die gebrek aan minerale rykdom het dit veroordeel tot verwaarlosing deur die moederland, veral na die verowering van Nieu -Spanje (Mexiko). In 1535 het die onderkoning van Nieu -Spanje, wat Mexiko en die Sentraal -Amerikaanse landengte insluit, Santo Domingo opgeneem, waarvan die status nog verder afgeneem het na die verowering van die ryk koninkryk van die Inkas in Peru. Landbou het die steunpilaar van die eiland se ekonomie geword, maar die ongeorganiseerde aard van landbouproduksie het nie die soort intense produktiwiteit benader wat die kolonie onder Franse bewind sou kenmerk nie.


Koloniale tydperk

Die konsolidasie van die Spaanse beheer het voortgegaan. Die stad Quito was gedemp, en Almagro het vertrek om sy gebied van Chili te verower. Pizarro het 'n Spaanse munisipale regering vir Cuzco georganiseer en in 1535 'n nuwe stad, Lima, aan die kus gestig om kommunikasie met Panama te vergemaklik. Grond is toegeken aan die veroweraars, wat deur middel van toekennings van encomiendas, wat hulle in staat gestel het om hulde te bring van die inheemse mense in 'n spesifieke gebied.

Ernstige moeilikheid ontstaan ​​toe. 'N Onsuksesvolle opstand van inheemse mense onder leiding van Manco Capac II in 1536, is gevolg deur sy terugtog na die Vilcabamba -streek in die tropiese woud noord van Cuzco. Die jare na Manco se opstand is gevolg deur 'n oop konflik tussen die veroweraars oor die verdeling van die buit. Almagro, ontnugter deur die relatiewe armoede van Chili, wou Cuzco van die Pizarros in beslag neem. Almagro is in 1538 verslaan en tereggestel, maar sy aanhangers het steeds saamgesweer met sy seun, en hulle het daarin geslaag om Francisco Pizarro in 1541 te vermoor. Maar 'n agent van die Spaanse kroon, gestuur om orde te vestig, het geweier om die jonger Almagro te erken, wat is in 1542 gevang en tereggestel.

Die probleme het nietemin voortgeduur. Die koning van Spanje, aangedryf deur humanitarisme en uit vrees dat die encomienda stelsel kan die feodalisme bevorder, wat in 1542 die nuwe wette afgekondig het wat die bestaan ​​van die encomiendas wat so belangrik was vir die veroweraars. Toe Viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela in 1544 in Peru aankom om die Nuwe Wette af te dwing, het die veroweraars onder leiding van Gonzalo Pizarro in opstand gekom en die onderkoning tereggestel. Pizarro het twee jaar lank beheer behou totdat Pedro de la Gasca, 'n Spaanse agent, sy mag ondermyn het.

Dit was byna 'n dekade voordat onreëlmatige veroweraars onder die onderkoning Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza (1555–61) beheer was, en eers nadat die onder -regeringsadministrasie van Francisco de Toledo (1569–81) 'n stelselmatige beheer van die groot inheemse bevolking probeer het. Toledo het inheemse instellings aangepas by die doeleindes van die Spaanse gesag. Hy beveel inheemse hoofmanne om plaaslike inheemse aangeleenthede volgens inheemse gebruike en tradisies te administreer en maak hulle verantwoordelik vir die insameling van huldeblyk en die verskaffing van dwangarbeid. Spaanse agente (corregidores) aangestel is om die belange van beide kroon- en inheemse persone in die inheemse gemeenskappe te beskerm. Uit vrees dat die seun van Manco Capac II, Túpac Amaru, en die paar oorblywende “gratis” Incans in Vilcabamba en die woude noord van Cuzco gevaarlik kan wees vir die Spaanse gesag, beveel Toledo Spaanse troepe om die gebied binne te val en Túpac Amaru te verower, wat gelei het tot Amaru se onthoof in Cuzco in 1572.

Teen die einde van die administrasie van Toledo het die onderkoning van Peru die vorm aangeneem wat dit tot in die 18de eeu behou het. Sy gebied het die hele Suid -Amerika ingesluit, behalwe Venezuela en Portugees Brasilië. Hoewel boerdery, landbou en handel voortgegaan het, was die ontginning van edelmetale, veral silwer, die basiese bedryf, wat die kolonie die belangrikste in die Spaanse ryk gemaak het. Die ontdekking van die wonderlike Potosí -myne in 1545 is in 1563 gevolg deur die opening van die Huancavelica -myne, wat die kwik produseer wat noodsaaklik was vir doeltreffende verwerking van silwer. Omdat die minerale bronne van die onderkoning, behalwe die goud van New Granada (Colombia), in die regte Peru en Bo -Peru (Bolivia) was, het hierdie gebiede die hoogst ontwikkelde en rykste geword.

Die middelpunt van rykdom en mag vir die hele streek was die onderhoofse hoofstad van Lima. Daar, gedurende die 16de en 17de eeu, het 'n reeks viceroys oor die grootste deel van die Spaanse Suid -Amerika geheers. Die uitgebreide onderhof was die toppunt van 'n hoogs gestratifiseerde samelewing wat gebaseer is op gedwonge inheemse arbeid. Dit lok nie net die polities georiënteerde nie, maar ook die rykes, die artistieke en die intellektuele.

Lima was ook belangrik as setel van die audiencia, wat koninklike geregtigheid verleen het, en as 'n godsdienstige, kulturele en kommersiële sentrum. Die aartsbiskop van Lima was die hoof van die kerk in Peru. Baie godsdienstige ordes het daar kloosters en kloosters gevestig, en die tribunaal van die Inkwisisie het gewerk om godsdienstige kettery uit te wis. In Lima was ook die hoeksteen van die onderwysstelsel - die Universiteit van San Marcos. Die bevoorregte posisie wat sy handelaars onder die monopolistiese Spaanse handelsstelsel geniet, het tot die rykdom en belangrikheid van Lima gelei. Lima, met die nabygeleë hawe Callao, was die onderneming vir handel tussen Europa en die kommersiële sentrums van Suid -Amerika, wat wissel van Quito tot Chili aan die Stille Oseaan en tot Buenos Aires aan die Atlantiese Oseaan. Onder die Spaanse stelsel moes die grootste deel van die wettige handel na en van hierdie gebiede deur handelaars in Lima gaan.

Gedurende die latere 17de eeu het Peru probleme ondervind. Sommige hiervan, soos die toenemende smokkelhandel met nie-Spaanse handelaars, aanvalle deur seerowers en die groei van gesindheid onder regeringsamptenare, weerspieël die interne verval van Spanje en die agteruitgang van sy internasionale mag. Die afname in die produksie van edelmetale dra by tot die Peruaanse probleme.

'N Reeks regeringshervormings het Peru se probleme in die 18de eeu bemoeilik. Die Bourbon -dinastie, wat die Habsburgers in 1700 as heersers van Spanje vervang het, het gedurende die 18de eeu 'n hervormingsprogram onderneem om die ekonomiese ontwikkeling van hul kolonies te bevorder, koloniale verdediging te verbeter en meer doeltreffende regering te bied. Die eerste wat Peru ernstig raak Vir die volgende paar dekades het Bourbon -hervormings, tesame met die algehele uitbreiding van die ekonomie, die toestande in Peru verbeter. In 1777–1778 het die Spaanse regering egter nog 'n onderkoning opgerig, dié van Río de la Plata, wat hierdie keer die Peruaanse onderkoning gesag ontneem het oor Bo-Peru en die gebiede van die huidige Argentinië, Paraguay en Uruguay. Chili is hersaamgestel as 'n feitlik outonome kapteinskap -generaal. Na die rampspoedige verlies van die silwer myne van Bo -Peru, is die onderkoning van Peru nog meer verswak deur hervormings in die handelsstelsel, wat handelaars in hawens aan die Atlantiese Oseaan en die Stille Oseaan toegelaat het om direk met Spanje handel te dryf.

Interne twis het verdere komplikasies veroorsaak. Die inheemse mense wat sedert die verowering onderdrukkende belasting ondergaan het en arbeid afgedwing het, het in 1780 in opstand gekom onder Túpac Amaru II, 'n afstammeling van die laaste Inka -keiser en 'n man van rykdom en opvoeding. Die opstand het versprei oor Peru en na Bo -Peru en Ecuador. Alhoewel Túpac Amaru II in 1781 gevange geneem en tereggestel is, het die inheemse mense tot in 1783 met die Spanjaarde geveg, wat aansienlike ontwrigting veroorsaak het.

Tog het Peru aan die einde van die 18de en vroeë 19de eeu 'n tydperk van intellektuele ontwikkeling beleef wat die gevolg was van die invloed van die utilitaristiese idees van die Europese Verligting, wat in 1778 en 1793 deur boeke en deur Europese deelnemers aan wetenskaplike ekspedisies na Peru geneem is. Die belangrikste manifestasie was die stigting van 'n literêre en wetenskaplike klub in Lima, die Society of Friends of the Country.


Spaanse ontdekking en kolonisering - Geskiedenis

1570: Westelike halfrond (kaart #3: Ortelius, Americ & aelig sive novi orbis)
1595: Westelike halfrond (kaart #10: Mercator, Amerika gee India nova)

Binne 'n paar dekades na die vroegste kusverkennings in Noord -Amerika het Europese avonturiers die binneland binnegevaar. 'Avonturiers' is die gepaste woord hier, want meer versigtige mans sou nie by so 'n groot onbekende ingaan nie. En die onbekende het ellende veroorsaak deur intense koue en uitputtende hitte, uitgestrekte vlaktes en onverdraagbare riviere, teenstrydige Indiërs en wrede gidse, honger en dors, siektes en dood, en dikwels ongemaklike ontmoediging. Maar hulle het die landskap van hierdie nuwe wêreld geleer, waardeur hulle kon reageer op ondervinding wat swaar gewen is, eerder as fabels, drome en eenvoudige naumetjies.

  • HERNANDO DE SOTO het die suidoostelike streek van Noord -Amerika na Spanje verken, op soek na goud, 'n geskikte plek vir 'n kolonie en 'n landroete van Mexiko na die Atlantiese Oseaan. Van 1539 tot 1543, wat in Florida begin het met meer as 600 man, 200 perde, 300 varke en 'n pak aanvalhonde, het die ekspedisie duisende myl deur die binneland gekronkel. Op elke punt val die Spaanse Indiese dorpe aan, plunder, vermoor en gee kos, voorrade en gevangenes aan. Hulle het die Mississippirivier 'ontdek' en 'n groot uitdaging om oor te steek, en het weswaarts na Texas gegaan (sonder de Soto, wat aan koors aan die oewer van die rivier gesterf het). Uiteindelik bereik die oorlewende 300 man Mexiko sonder goud en geen kolonie nie, nadat hulle slegs die verharde antagonisme van die Indiane bymekaargemaak het. In hierdie keuses uit die verslag deur 'n Portugese lid van die ekspedisie, slegs bekend as die "Fidalgo (heer) van Elvas", lees ons kort uittreksels uit die hoofstukke waarin die vastelandsekspedisie van Florida na Mexiko vertel word.
    ['N Heer van Elvas, Rela & ccedil & atildeo Verdadeira dos Trabalhos. . . (Ware verband tussen die ondeugdes wat die goewerneur Don Hernando de Soto bygewoon het ...), 1557]
  • FRANCISCO CORONADO het twee jaar lank (1540-42) deur die suidweste getrek met meer as 300 soldate en 1 000 Indiërs vir "Glorie, God en goud." Terwyl hulle wel 'n paar Pueblo -Indiane tot die Christendom bekeer het, het hulle geen goud en geen glorie gevind nie (alhoewel hulle die Grand Canyon wel 'ontdek' het). Coronado het die Indiërs nie onderwerp nie, maar brutaal gereageer en 'n winterlange beleg op 'n stad gelê, weerstanders op die brandstapel verbrand, honderde tot slawe gemaak en baie Indiërs tot selfmoord gedryf (net soos de Soto). In sy verslag aan koning Charles I uit Tiguex (naby die huidige Albuquerque), erken Coronado dat hy ontsteld was oor die verneem dat die beroemde Cibola net 'dorpe met strooihuise' is, maar hy beskryf die streek naby Tiguex as 'n produktiewe grond vir vestiging.
    [Brief van Francisco Vazquez de Coronado aan sy majesteit. . . , 20 Oktober 1541]
  • PHELIPE DE ESCALANTE en HERNANDO BARRADO, soldate wat die ekspedisie van 1581-82 uit Mexiko vergesel het om New Mexico te verken, het hierdie verslag aan koning Philip II voorgelê om die Spaanse vestiging in die streek aan te moedig. Die nege mans, onder leiding van Francisco Chamuscado, het meer as sestig pueblos van die inheemse inwoners besoek en hul bevolking as meer as 130 000 geraam. Hulle het groot troppe "bultrugkoeie", winsgewende afsettings van silwer en sout gerapporteer, en "nog baie meer waarin God ons Here gedien kan word en die koninklike kroon kan toeneem." Hulle waarsku die koning in werklikheid dat die belofte en rykdom van hierdie streek verlore kan gaan as die gebied nie vinnig afgehandel word nie.
    [Escalante & Barrado, Kort en ware verslag van die verkenning van New Mexico, 1583]
  • GASPAR P & EacuteREZ DE VILLAGR & Aacute was die amptelike historikus van die eerste Spaanse ekspedisie om 'n skikking in New Mexico te probeer vind. Sestien jaar na die klein Chamuscado-ekspedisie vertrek vierhonderd soldate uit Mexico-stad om noordwaarts oor die Rio Norte (Rio Grande) te gaan, gelei deur die ambisieuse en eensgesinde Don Juan de O & ntildeate. Meer conquistador as koloniale amptenaar, is hy uiteindelik in skande teruggeroep na Mexico -stad, nadat hy die geïsoleerde setlaars verwaarloos het, die Indiane met sy wreedheid vervreem het en keiserlike hulpbronne vermors het deur tevergeefs na goud, silwer en die "westelike see" te soek. In 1610 publiseer P & eacuterez de Villagr & aacute 'n vier-en-dertig-kanto epiese gedig om die ekspedisie se doelwitte, ontberinge, moedige soldate en veral die oorlogvoering en brutaliteit onder leiding van O & ntildeate te beskryf. Beskou as die eerste epiese gedig wat deur Europeërs in Noord -Amerika geskep is, Die geskiedenis van New Mexico is 'n politieke instrument sowel as 'n literêre weergawe, want Villagra se bedoelde gehoor-van-een is die koning van Spanje met sy beheer oor die beurs van die ryk. (In hierdie vertaling word die kanto's in prosa weergegee. Daar is geen toestemming verleen om die vertaling van 1992 in vers te haal nie.)
    [Villagr & aacute, Historia de la Nueva M & eacutexico, 1610]
  1. Kenmerk die Spaanse verkenning van die binneland van Noord -Amerika. Wat het jou verbaas? Wat pas by jou verwagtinge?
  2. Hoe reageer die ontdekkingsreisigers op die omgewing, die Indiane en die ontberings van hul ekspedisies?
  3. Hoe definieer hulle sukses of mislukking in die ekspedisies? Wat soek hulle vir?
  4. Watter uitwerking het leierskap op die ekspedisies? beplanning en mat & eacuteriel? of dit vir 'n spesifieke doel aangepak is of bloot om 'n gebied te herken?
  5. Hoe eindig die ekspedisies?
  6. Aan wie rig die kroniekskrywers hul rekeninge? Hoe is die rekeninge politieke 'tekste'?
  7. Vergelyk die vertellings van die binnelandse ontdekkingsreisigers met dié van die vroeë kusverkenners. Wat leer hulle, en wat leer hulle soek?
  8. Hoe verteenwoordig die kaartmakers die Europese teenwoordigheid en wedywering in Noord -Amerika? Hoe is die kaarte politieke "tekste"?
  9. Hoe vergelyk die twee kaarte van die westelike halfrond uit die latere 1500's met dié wat vroeër in die eeu geproduseer is (onderwerp I: KONTAK)? Hoe openbaar dit die Europese ingesteldheid vir toekomstige verkenning en kolonisasie?
  10. Wat blyk die Nuwe Wêreld teen 1600 teen Europa te bied?
  11. Wat bied die Europeërs aan die inheemse inwoners?

Parallelle geskiedenis: Spanje, die Verenigde State en die Amerikaanse grens, van die Library of Congress, die National Library of Spain en die Biblioteca Colombina y Capitular van Sevilla

Kaart: Spaanse ontdekkingsreisigers se roetes, van American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of American Exploration and Settlement (Wisconsin Historical Society) (PDF)

De Soto -ekspedisie, kaart en kort oorsig in Parallel Histories/Historias Paralelas: Spanje, die Verenigde State en die Amerikaanse grens, van die Library of Congress, die National Library of Spain, et al.

Ware verhouding van die ondeugdes . . . , volledige teks van die "Gentleman of Elvas" -verslag van die de Soto -ekspedisie, van American Journeys

Coronado -ekspedisie, kort oorsig in Parallel Histories/Historias Paralelas

Die reis van Coronado, volledige teks deur Pedro de Casta & ntildeeda, uit American Journeys

Escalante & Barrado -rekening, van American Journeys
-Agtergrond
-Verwysingskaart (PDF)

Zoom in op kaarte en beklemtoon die 1570 Ortelius -kaart van die westelike halfrond, uit die Library of Congress


Die pouslike bul "Inter Caetera", uitgereik deur pous Alexander VI op 4 Mei 1493, het 'n sentrale rol gespeel in die Spaanse verowering van die Nuwe Wêreld. Die dokument ondersteun Spanje & rsquos -strategie om sy eksklusiewe reg op die lande te verseker wat Columbus die vorige jaar ontdek het. Dit het 'n afbakeningslyn honderd ligas wes van die Azore en Kaap Verde -eilande gevestig en Spanje die uitsluitlike reg gegee om territoriale besittings te bekom en handel te dryf in alle lande wes van die lyn. Alle ander is verbied om die lande wes van die lyn te benader sonder spesiale lisensie van die heersers van Spanje. Dit het Spanje effektief 'n monopolie op die lande in die Nuwe Wêreld gegee.

Die Bull het verklaar dat enige land wat nie deur Christene bewoon is nie, deur Christelike heersers kan ontdek, geëis en geëxploiteer word en verklaar dat die Katolieke geloof en die Christelike godsdiens verhewe en oral toegeneem en versprei word, dat die gesondheid van siele versorg moet word want en dat barbaarse nasies omvergewerp en tot geloof self gebring word. "Hierdie" Ontdekkingsleer "het die basis geword van alle Europese aansprake in die Amerikas sowel as die grondslag vir die westelike uitbreiding van die Verenigde State. In die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof in die saak van 1823 Johnson teen McIntosh, Meen hoofregter John Marshall en rsquos se mening in die eenparige besluit dat die ontdekkingsbeginsel die Europese nasies 'n absolute reg op lande van die nuwe wêreld gegee het.

Die Bull Inter Caetera het gedurende die negentigerjare en in 2000 weer opslae gemaak toe baie Katolieke 'n versoekskrif aan pous Johannes Paulus II versoek het om dit formeel te herroep en die menseregte van inheemse & nie-Christelike volke te erken. & Quot

'N Engelse vertaling is beskikbaar.

Uittreksel

Daarom, soos wat Katolieke konings en vorste geword het, het u, na die ernstige oorweging van alle aangeleenthede, veral die opkoms en verspreiding van die Katolieke geloof, soos u voorvaders, konings met 'n bekende geheue, voorgeneem het ten gunste van goddelike genade bring die genoemde vasteland en eilande saam met hul inwoners en inwoners onder u beheer en bring hulle na die Katolieke geloof. Daarom, vermaan ons u hartlik in die Here van u heilige en lofwaardige doel en begeerlik dat dit behoorlik bereik sal word en dat die naam van ons Verlosser in daardie streke ingedra word, u in die Here ernstig en deur die ontvangs van die heilige doop waardeur u gebonde is aan ons apostoliese gebooie en deur die ingewande van die barmhartigheid van onse Here Jesus Christus, geniet dit ten volle, dat u, met die ywer van die ware geloof wat u beplan om hierdie ekspedisie toe te rus en te stuur, ook is u plig om die mense wat op die eilande en lande woon, te lei om die Christelike godsdiens te omhels of te laat dat gevare of ontberinge u daarvan afskrik, met die sterk hoop en vertroue in u harte dat die almagtige God u onderneming sal bevorder. En sodat u so 'n groot onderneming kan aangaan met 'n groter bereidwilligheid en hartlikheid toegerus met voordeel van ons apostoliese guns, ons uit eie beweging, nie op u of op verzoek van iemand anders in u verband, maar uit ons eie enigste grootheid en sekere kennis en uit die volheid van ons apostoliese krag, deur die gesag van die Almagtige God wat ons verleen is in die geseënde Petrus en die predikant van Jesus Christus, wat ons op aarde het, doen deur tenor van hierdie geskenke, as een van die genoemde eilande deur u gesante en kapteins gevind is, gee, verleen en ken u en u erfgename en opvolgers, konings van Castilië en Leon, vir ewig toe, saam met al hul heerskappye, stede, kampe, plekke en dorpe , en alle regte, jurisdiksies en toebehore, alle eilande en vastelande wat gevind word en gevind moet word, ontdek en ontdek moet word in die weste en suide, deur 'n lyn te trek en te vestig van die Noordpool tot by die Antarktiese pool , na in die suide, ongeag of die genoemde vasteland en eilande in die rigting van Indië of in die rigting van enige ander kwartaal gevind word, die lyn is honderd ligas in die weste en suide van enige van die algemeen bekende eilande as die Azore en Kaap Verde. Met hierdie voorbehoud egter dat geen van die eilande en vastelande, wat gevind en gevind word, ontdek en ontdek sal word, buite die genoemde lyn na die weste en suide, in werklike besit is van enige Christelike koning of prins tot en met die verjaardag van ons Here Jesus Christus pas verby, waaruit die huidige jaar duisend vierhonderd drie en negentig begin. En ons maak, stel en deputeer u en u genoemde erfgename en opvolgers van hulle met volle en vrye mag, gesag en jurisdiksie van elke aard, met die voorbehoud dat hierdie geskenk, toekenning en toewysing geen reg verkry deur Elke Christelike prins, wat in werklikheid in besit is van die genoemde eilande en vastelande voor die genoemde verjaardag van ons Here Jesus Christus, moet hierby verstaan ​​word dat hy teruggetrek of weggeneem word. Boonop beveel ons u uit hoofde van heilige gehoorsaamheid dat ons, met inagneming van die nodige omsigtigheid op die terrein, soos u ook belowe, twyfel of u daaraan voldoen, in ooreenstemming met u lojaliteit en koninklike grootheid van gees, en dat u op die voornoemde vasteland en eilande waardig moet wees, God -vresende, geleerde, bekwame en ervare mans om voormelde inwoners en inwoners in die Katolieke geloof te onderrig en hulle in goeie sedes op te lei. Boonop verbied ons ten strengste alle persone van enige rang, selfs imperiaal en koninklik, of van enige boedel, graad, orde of toestand, sonder straf van ekskommunikasie en quotlate sententie & quotipso facto, & quot spesiale vergunning of die van u voorgenoemde erfgename en opvolgers, om vir die doeleindes van handel of om enige ander rede na die eilande of vasteland te gaan, gevind en gevind, ontdek en ontdek te word, na die weste en suide, deur te teken en te vestig a line from the Arctic pole to the Antarctic pole, no matter whether the mainlands and islands, found and to be found, lie in the direction of India or toward any other quarter whatsoever, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south, as is aforesaid, from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde apostolic constitutions and ordinances and other decrees whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. We trust in Him from whom empires and governments and all good things proceed, that, should you, with the Lord&rsquos guidance, pursue this holy and praiseworthy undertaking, in a short while your hardships and endeavors will attain the most felicitious result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom.


Exploration and Colonization of the North America

In 1493, an explorer in Spanish service named Christopher Columbus changed the course of world history when he unexpectedly discovered two entirely new continents during an expedition to reach Asia by sailing West from Europe. Over the following decades, Spanish and Portuguese discoveries in Central and South America astounded residents of the Old World. New foodstuffs like tomatoes, chili peppers, chocolate, and corn brought from the Americas radically altered cuisines around the globe. The gold, silver and other precious metals looted from the civilizations encountered there transformed Spain, only recently united through the marriage of Isabelle of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, into one of the wealthiest kingdoms in Europe, fueling the Habsburg Dynasty’s increasingly lavish court life as well as their political and military ambitions. The desire to check Habsburg power and increase their own prestige in the process, therefore, became a prime motivation for Spain’s rivals to begin colonization efforts of their own in the New World, and while these rival powers grabbed whatever bits of the Caribbean and South America they could manage, much of their focus lay in exploring and settling the relatively unknown lands of North America.

Naturally, however, the first European explorers of the northern continent were still the Spanish, and while much of the lands they claimed remained unsettled for centuries, the writ of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (which also included Mexico and the Philippines) extended throughout much of the southern half of the modern United States, from Florida to the Pacific Coast. These early Spanish explorers, called conquistadors, privately financed their expeditions after acquiring royal authorization, and their objectives were much the same as their counterparts in Mesoamerica and Peru: finding gold to loot, souls to convert, and “devil-worshippers” to kill if they refused to do so. Their identities and outlook on the world was essentially medieval, based on religious and martial traditions developed over the years back home during the Reconquista, or effort to drive the Muslim Moors from the Iberian Peninsula, such as the hidalgo (meaning “Somebody”), the ideal landless aristocrat, which many of these explorers were, who comes into prosperity with plunder taken through force of arms against the infidels. According to historian Charles Hudson in his book Knights of Spain, Warriors of the Sun, these conquistadors “never doubted their own superiority over the native peoples they encountered in the New World. They saw themselves as specially favored people who were carrying out a divine mission,” and this attitude certainly affected Spanish behavior towards the “Indians.” Prominent conquistadors who launched expeditions into North America include Juan Ponce de Leon, the governor of Puerto Rico who gave the name La Florida to the peninsula that bears it today, Hernando de Soto, the first European to document and cross the Mississippi River before dying along its banks in 1541, and Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, one of the few survivors of a failed expedition, who wandered for eight years throughout the Southwestern United States before finally returning to Mexico City in 1536. He later chronicled his travels and the various peoples he encountered with a surprising amount of scholarly objectivity, and he is often referred to as one of the first modern anthropologists.

Private military expeditions were not the only tool of the Spanish colonial project, however. As one might expect from a society that so intensely identified with the Catholic Church, missionary efforts played an enormous role in the spread of Christianity throughout Latin America. Their methods varied wildly by monastic or priestly order, but in general, these new missions consisted of semi-autonomous communities centered around a town built along European models run by the clergy who provided religious education, often in local languages, in exchange for manual labor. Defenders of this system claimed that it was an effective barrier against indigenous exploitation, and many missions did clash with the colonial government over such issues, but it was certainly not free from abuse, and could often lead to rebellion if the clergy treated their charges too harshly or went too far in suppressing native cultural practices. Such was the case during the 1680 Pueblo Revolt that took place in modern-day New Mexico, where an alliance of Pueblo tribes rose up against the abuses of the missionaries and drove off more than 2,000 Spanish settlers from their homeland for more than a decade. Many mission communities survived, however, and today cities such as Pensacola, San Antonio and San Francisco all have their roots as either missionaries or Spanish military garrisons.

Though the Kingdom of France shared Spain’s Catholic faith, dynastic politics and constant military clashes over Italy had left them fierce rivals, and so King Francis I did not wait long to commission his own expeditions to North America after Spanish conquests on the mainland. Conflicts between both hostile natives and Spanish colonists prevented French adventurers from setting up permanent settlements throughout the 16th century, however, until Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 and claimed the surrounding area. Decades later, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle explored the Mississippi River Delta, claiming the entire river valley for France and naming it Louisiana after Louis XIV. In spite of the huge amount of territory claimed, settlement in French North America remained sparsely populated, requiring the support of allied Natives for both defense as well as securing sources for the fur trade and other commodities, for which they competed fiercely with both Europeans as well as the powerful Iroquois Confederacy the course of the 17th century during the so-called Beaver Wars. To maintain ties with their allies, as they lacked the capacity to subjugate them as the Spanish could in Latin America, the French also authorized missionary activities, typically Jesuit priests, to convert Indians to Catholicism. These priests faced strong competition with native religious traditions and were often blamed for misfortunes, particularly the European diseases that continued to ravage native communities, and so found little success with their official duties, but many acted effectively as explorers and diplomats. One such man, Father Jacques Marquette, was one of the first Europeans to travel through modern-day Illinois and Michigan, for example. Explorers from the Dutch Republic also settled in North America around this time, most famously founding the city of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later New York City, as well as other settlements along the Hudson River Valley. For the Dutch, exploration in the New World coincided with their War of Independence against Habsburg Spain, and so as a relatively new state, colonization initiatives were not just a source of enrichment, but also to mark its legitimacy to imperial rivals. Like the French, the Dutch mainly sought to profit from the fur trade, and though they were far less successful in this regard, their provincial capital of New Amsterdam proved to be far better located geographically than Quebec, giving it better access to markets in across the Caribbean and spurring economic development that continued well after its annexation by England.

Jamestown, Virginia

Many other European states also attempted to found colonies in the New World during the 17th century, including Sweden in Delaware as well as Russia, which actually arrived in Alaska from the East, but by far the most successful to settle North America proved to be England, another Protestant rival of Spain, which founded colonies across the Atlantic coast. The first successful English expedition to North America, which founded the tiny settlement of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, originally sought only to find precious metals and other valuable materials that could allow its main patron, the Virginia Company of London, to make a return on their investment. As such, many of the colonists consisted mostly of gentry and artisans with very few experienced farmers, and there were no women amongst them until the next year. Furthermore, relations with the neighboring Powhatan Confederacy were icy at the best of times, and the location the settlers had chosen for their new home was swampy and mosquito-ridden, making agriculture even more difficult and disease a constant threat. These combined factors did make a recipe for success, and for their first few years the settlers faced one unmitigated disaster after another. Fortunes finally turned around when settler John Rolfe convinced his fellow colonists to switch emphasis from exporting precious metals to cash crops, starting with tobacco in 1613. This success in Virginia was soon repeated by future colonies in the Chesapeake and southern Atlantic Coast but also brought the first African slaves to British North America in 1619. Far to the north, however, English colonies took on a rather different character. Starting with the famous landing of the Mayflower at Plymouth Rock, the colonies of New England characterized themselves not economic ventures but places of refuge, specifically for Separatists and Puritan dissenters who believed that the Church of England had not gone far enough in upholding the ideals of the Protestant Reformation, and so left Europe to create their vision of an ideal Christian community in the New World, formally organized as the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. As in Jamestown, the early settlers in New England faced a myriad of challenges, with many dying off in the first few years and others later deciding that living amidst what they saw as a “savage wilderness” was simply too much of a struggle and to return home, but those who remained continued to persevere and grow and attract further immigrants from Europe, though the colony continued to struggle with civil and external instability. As in Virginia, New England settlers did not seek close connections with surrounding Native American groups. Though they adopted many of their survival techniques, Massachusetts residents made very little official overtures to their indigenous neighbors, believing that their constant displays of English civility and Christian virtue, “A City Upon a Hill” as colony founder John Winthrop put it, could naturally win them over in contrast to Spanish tyranny. This failed to materialize, however, and tensions between natives and colonists remained high before exploding into armed conflicts, such as during King Philips’ War of 1675. The colony’s theocratic government also caused a great deal of internal strife over ideas of religious liberty, as dissenters from the official Puritan theology could face exile, which sometimes led to the founding of several neighboring colonies, or even death, culminating in the infamous Witch Trials of 1692.

Towards the end of the 17th century, there was little doubt in regards to Britain’s success in colonizing North America. Though they started much later than their imperial rivals and had claimed far less territory than either Spain or France, the settlements they did create were far more developed and populous than their neighbors, giving Britain a distinct edge in any future struggles over control of the new continent


The Spanish period

Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago.

The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan headed the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he made landfall on Cebu in March 1521 a short time later he met an untimely death on the nearby island of Mactan. After King Philip II (for whom the islands are named) had dispatched three further expeditions that ended in disaster, he sent out Miguel López de Legazpi, who established the first permanent Spanish settlement, in Cebu, in 1565. The Spanish city of Manila was founded in 1571, and by the end of the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas from Luzon to northern Mindanao were under Spanish control. Friars marched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversion to Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration. But the Muslims of Mindanao and Sulu, whom the Spanish called Moros, were never completely subdued by Spain.

Spanish rule for the first 100 years was exercised in most areas through a type of tax farming imported from the Americas and known as the encomienda. But abusive treatment of the local tribute payers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos (collectors of the tribute), as well as frequent withholding of revenues from the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the end of the 17th century. The governor-general, himself appointed by the king, began to appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly.

Central government in Manila retained a medieval cast until the 19th century, and the governor-general was so powerful that he was often likened to an independent monarch. He dominated the Audiencia, or high court, was captain-general of the armed forces, and enjoyed the privilege of engaging in commerce for private profit.

Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital. The galleon trade with Acapulco, Mex., assured Manila’s commercial primacy as well. The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community. The Chinese, despite being the victims of periodic massacres at the hands of suspicious Spanish, persisted and soon established a dominance of commerce that survived through the centuries.

Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. The governor-general was civil head of the church in the islands, but the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy. In the late 17th and 18th centuries the archbishop, who also had the legal status of lieutenant governor, frequently won. Augmenting their political power, religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and bishops acquired great wealth, mostly in land. Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants.

The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. The priests and friars had a command of local languages rare among the lay Spanish, and in the provinces they outnumbered civil officials. Thus, they were an invaluable source of information to the colonial government. The cultural goal of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization and Hispanization of the Filipino. In the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed old practices were not tolerated. But as the Christian laity grew in number and the zeal of the clergy waned, it became increasingly difficult to prevent the preservation of ancient beliefs and customs under Roman Catholic garb. Thus, even in the area of religion, pre-Spanish Filipino culture was not entirely destroyed.

Economic and political institutions were also altered under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the religious realm. The priests tried to move all the people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches. But the dispersed demographic patterns of the old barangays largely persisted. Nevertheless, the datu’s once hereditary position became subject to Spanish appointment.

Agricultural technology changed very slowly until the late 18th century, as shifting cultivation gradually gave way to more intensive sedentary farming, partly under the guidance of the friars. The socioeconomic consequences of the Spanish policies that accompanied this shift reinforced class differences. Die datus and other representatives of the old noble class took advantage of the introduction of the Western concept of absolute ownership of land to claim as their own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct. These heirs of pre-Spanish nobility were known as the principalia and played an important role in the friar-dominated local government.


Spanish Exploration and Colonization

Gain instant access to this beautifully designed Unit on The West, where kids will learn all about the Geography of the West, Early History of the West, On the Pacific Ocean, and more. Access 3 different reading levels perfect for Grades 3-8. Written by subject experts, aligns with standards.

Cartophiles will want to pour over the many historic maps and paintings of the &ldquoNew World,&rdquo while kids interested in the who/when/where will happily take in portraits of the explorers, along with excerpts from primary source documents of the time. Kids help hoist the sails and endure the hard life aboard a 16th-century ship as they search for the Northwest Passage. An exciting &ndash and dangerous &ndash life, indeed! Future historians will want to follow the trail of European exploration of the region, from the continuing search for a Northwest Passage to the founding of San Francisco in 1776.

No narrative of this period would be complete without an exploration of the missions &ndash their goal, where they were located, the way they were organized, and the effect they had on Native Americans. In this unblinking portrait, kids take a deep dive into life at the missions, from the point of view of Native Americans as well as the missionaries. What strategies did the missionaries use to win over the Indians? What role did Indians play in the missions? How did the missions affect their lives and culture? How did they change the economic activity of the region? Thought-provoking questions lead kids to consider the life and consequences of these significant religious settlements.

8 Topics in this unit

Why Did People Explore?

Imagine setting out on a trip to a place where nobody you know has ever been. You don&rsqu .

Early Explorers

The early European explorers set out for what is now California with high hopes. They hope .

Native Californians and the Missions

Imagine you&rsquore a ten-year-old California Indian living in a mission around 1800. Wha .

Pacific Trade Routes

Think about the clothes you&rsquore wearing right now. Do you know where in the world the .

Inside a California Mission

Mission San Diego de Alcalá was the first mission founded in Alta California.

Colonization of California

In the 1500s, the Spanish explored California looking for treasure and safe harbors, but t .

A New Overland Route

What happens when new people arrive in a place? Things change.

The Mission System

Have you ever done something you thought was good, but later you found out that it hurt so .


Native Weapons

Indigenous people had no answer for these weapons and armor. At the time of the conquest, most Native cultures in North and South America were somewhere between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age in terms of their weaponry. Most foot soldiers carried heavy clubs or maces, some with stone or bronze heads. Some had rudimentary stone axes or clubs with spikes coming out of the end. These weapons could batter and bruise Spanish conquistadors, but only rarely did any serious damage through the heavy armor. Aztec warriors occasionally had a macuahuitl, a wooden sword with jagged obsidian shards set in the sides: it was a lethal weapon, but still no match for steel.

Indigenous people had some better luck with missile weapons. In South America, some cultures developed bows and arrows, although they were rarely able to pierce armor. Other cultures used a sort of sling to hurl a stone with great force. Aztec warriors used the atlatl, a device used to hurl javelins or darts at great velocity.

Native cultures wore elaborate, beautiful armor. The Aztecs had warrior societies, the most notable of which were the feared Eagle and Jaguar warriors. These men would dress in Jaguar skins or eagle feathers and were very brave warriors. The Incas wore quilted or padded armor and used shields and helmets made of wood or bronze. Their armor was generally intended to intimidate as much as protect: it was often very colorful and beautiful. Nevertheless, eagle feathers provide no protection from a steel sword and Indigenous peoples' armor was of very little use in combat with conquistadors.


European Exploration and Colonial Period

Fort Toulouse In 1540, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto and his forces first set foot in what is now Alabama. His arrival marked the beginning of a dramatic cultural shift in the Southeast. From the mid-sixteenth century to the end of the eighteenth century, Spain, France, and England vied for control of the region. Native American groups used trade and warfare to play one group against the other, with varying degrees of success. By 1820, Spain, the last of the three contenders, had yielded to the United States. Native American groups, by and large, were in the process of being forced off their lands by the federal government at the urging of white settlers. Hernando de Soto Route Map In a province of the Mabila Indians controlled by Chief Tascaluza, an elaborately plumed chieftain refused Soto's request for bearers and was kept hostage during Soto's stay. Capture of a town leader would become Soto's standard method of ensuring cooperation from the town's inhabitants while he and his men travelled through tribal territories. Understandably, such a tactic aroused great resentment at one point two Spaniards were slain in an ambush while building rafts to cross the river. Soto held Chief Tascaluza responsible. On the morning of October 18, 1540, Soto's troops reached the Mabila tribal capital, a palisaded town, presided over by Chief Tascaluza. An encounter between a Spanish officer and a Mabila inhabitant turned violent when the officer perceived that the Indian did not offer him due respect, ending with the Indian's arm being severed. In the melee that followed, Soto's men set fire to the town and burned both the town and many of its occupants. Fernández de Biedma, King Carlos I's agent for the expedition, recorded in his journal, "We killed them all either with fire or the sword." Soto then continued on to new conflicts in Mississippi, pursuing the legendary gold-filled town of El Dorado until his death on the Mississippi River on March 21, 1542. Senkaitschi, Yuchi Leader After a long period of disinterest in the northern Gulf Coast, the Spaniards resumed their explorations in 1686 in an effort to find and destroy a French colony established by Robert Cavelier de La Salle somewhere on the Gulf Coast. In February, a voyage captained by Juan Enríquez Barroto ran the coast from the Florida Keys and dropped anchor off Mobile Point. The men then spent two weeks exploring Mobile Bay. This expedition was followed by that of Marcos Delgado, who was charged by the Spanish governor of Florida with finding the French colony, believed to be located on the lower Mississippi River. Delgado's force marched past Apalache, then turned away from the coast, hacking its way through tangled wilderness past present-day Dothan, Houston County, and the Spring Hill neighborhood of Mobile County. The men reached a Chacato Indian town called Aqchay along the Alabama River near present-day Selma, Dallas County, then travelled upstream to the Alabama Indian towns of Tabasa and Culasa. After spending time in Yuchi, Choctaw, and Cherokee towns, Delgado made contact with Mabila chiefs. He claimed to have effected peace among the various tribes before turning back. Fort Maurepas Diagram A storm prior to his return to France emphasized to Iberville the need for a more secure anchorage. After additional exploration, his men found a deeper passage between present-day Dauphin Island and Mobile Point that had been overlooked on the initial reconnaissance. Iberville had left orders for further exploration of the Mobile River with a view to relocating the Fort Maurepas settlement farther inland. His younger brother, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, second in command of Fort Maurepas, explored the Mobile and Tombigbee rivers, seeking a suitable site. He settled on a location approximately 25 miles inland on a bluff on the Mobile River's west bank. He then oversaw construction of Fort Louis de La Louisiane, which stood from 1702 to 1711, when the colony relocated to present-day Mobile. During this period, Henri de Tonti, who had been La Salle's lieutenant in Illinois, made peace overtures to leaders of nearby Tomeh, Choctaw, and Chickasaw Indian towns in an effort to counter a growing English influence. The early French presence in the region was recorded in some detail in ship's carpenter André Pénigaut's Annals of Louisiana from 1698 to 1722. Fort Tombecbe, 1737 Additional surveys were carried out by Thomas Hutchins and Bernard Romans. Hutchins, assisting the chief engineer of the British army in North America, began work in 1766. He inspected military installations at Mobile and Pensacola. Romans charted and mapped the coasts and offshore islands of British West Florida, traveling northwest on horseback from Mobile to Chickasaw country in Mississippi. He later recounted his travels in a book that included maps of the region as well as drawings of the region's flora. In 1776, botanist William Bartram made a solitary trip from Tensaw Bluff to the Tombigbee River and the bluff that held the ruins of what he identified merely as "the old French fort," evidently the short-lived Fort Tombecbe established by Bienville among the Choctaw. Bernardo de Gálvez In May 1779, Spain entered the Revolutionary War on the side of the American colonies. Bernardo de Gálvez, the governor of Spanish Louisiana, overran British posts along the Mississippi River and reclaimed Mobile and Pensacola. It was from his efforts that Spain was able to reclaim the territory east of the Mississippi, which it had lost previously to Great Britain. In 1783, Spain formally organized its colony of West Florida (Florida Occidental in Spanish), with garrisons throughout the contemporary Southeast sites in present-day Alabama included Fort Confederation in Livingston, Sumter County, and for San Esteban in St. Stephens, Washington County. Gálvez's forces experienced repeated maritime disasters, resulting in part from a lack of accurate maps. While attempting to enter Mobile Bay, for example, his flagship and five other vessels grounded on a sandbar. Such incidents doubtless influenced his call for a new coastal reconnaissance—a task given to José de Evia, an experienced pilot who had taken part in the capture of Mobile. Reaching Mobile Bay in May 1784, Evia visited Mobile Point and Dauphin Island, where he observed the ruins of the French fort. By the time his task was finished in 1786, he had surveyed the coast between the Florida Keys and Tampico, Mexico.

During the three centuries of European occupation, Alabama had been claimed by three different nations, each of which contributed to the exploration of its territory. As the eighteenth century drew to a close, so did the era of European rule. Within two decades, the territory would be ceded to the United States, which would then determine its future course.

Bartram, William. The Travels of William Bartram. 1791. New York: Dover, 1951.


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