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Hel op aarde? Lê die WARE ligging van die Antieke Onderwêreld reg voor ons?

Hel op aarde? Lê die WARE ligging van die Antieke Onderwêreld reg voor ons?

Die mite van die onderwêreld, net soos die mite van die verlore paradys en die wêreldwye stortvloed, is universeel. Kulture van oor die hele wêreld, in die verlede en die hede, wyd geskei en met skynbaar geen historiese kontak nie, het geglo in hierdie geheimsinnige koninkryk waarna die geeste van die oorledene na die dood gegaan het. Hel, die Christelike weergawe van die mite en Sjeool, die Joodse variant, is baie bekend in die Westerse samelewing, maar die Grieke, Egiptenare en Maya het almal geglo in hul eie weergawe van hierdie mite. In Atlantis: Die Antediluviaanse wêreld , Het Ignatius Donnelly aangevoer dat die universele mite van die verlore paradys na 'n werklike en fisiese plek verwys, maar dat hy nie die onderwêreld genoem het nie. In hierdie artikel sal ek die tesis van Donnelly uitbrei en 'n diepgaande analise doen van die onderwêreld en waar dit moontlik was, en hoe 'n werklike en fisiese plek tot die laaste rusplek kon verander van siele wat vertrek het in die fisiese en die mitologiese vlakke.

Ryk van die Geeste

Die Grieke het geglo dat die onderwêreld 'n werklike plek is waarheen die gelukkiges, wat deur die gode geseën is, dit kan waag. Ulysses het byvoorbeeld in die strewe na die terugkeer na sy vrou en familie op die eiland Ithaca na die Trojaanse Oorlog die onderwêreld besoek en die geeste van sy vader en die dooie Achilles ontmoet.

Orpheus en Eurydice in die onderwêreld, 1806.

Boonop het hulle geglo dat die onderwêreld in die verre weste was, anderkant die pilare van Herakles, êrens waar die son bly skyn nadat dit reeds oor Griekeland self gegaan het. Hesiodos het die onderwêreld in Oceanus, die westelike see of die Atlantiese Oseaan geplaas en dit Hades genoem.

Hel op aarde?

Hades is deur hedendaagse geleerdes en die antieke Grieke self geïnterpreteer as 'n ondergrondse wêreld. Kon hulle albei 'n fout gemaak het? Kon die onderwêreld in werklikheid nie 'n wêreld gewees het wat letterlik onder ons voete was nie, maar 'n land wat so opvallend laag was in vergelyking met ander lande dat dit die benaming van 'n onderwêreld verdien het?

Alhoewel daar 'n miljoen woorde in die Engelse taal is, is daar geen woorde wat die idee van 'n land onder seevlak beskryf nie. Selfs hoogte en hoogte, die woorde wat gebruik word om die hoogte van 'n plek bo 'n gegewe vlak te beskryf, neem aan dat die plek wat bespreek word bo seevlak .

Mark Twain, veral bekend vir sy romans, was ook een van die mees aanhaalbare skrywers van sy tyd. Onder sy onvergeetlike aanhalings is een wat veral relevant kan wees vir die onthulling van die ware aard van die onderwêreld:

"Die verskil tussen die byna regte woord en die regte woord is regtig 'n groot saak, want dit is die verskil tussen die weerlig en weerlig."

Kan dit wees dat die woord 'onderwêreld' presies die regte woord is vir 'n land onder seevlak?

  • Toe ou meesters die aarde regeer: die geheimsinnige dieptes van die Saint Croix -kom
  • Die hel van Tartarus, antieke Griekse gevangenis van die verdoemdes
  • Ragnarok: Noorse verslag van vreemde en wonderlike grond wat tot vernietiging gedoem is - Deel I

Daar is verskeie voordele vir hierdie interpretasie van die onderwêreld. Eerstens is daar sterk bewyse wat daarop dui dat 'n droë en bewoonbare wasbak onder die seevlak tegelyk met die gedragsmoderne mens bestaan ​​het, naamlik die Karibiese Eilande. Tweedens, die Karibiese Eilande is presies die plek waar die Antieke Grieke die onderwêreld geplaas het - êrens in die verre weste, oorkant die Atlantiese Oseaan, omdat Ulysses 'die verre grense van Oceanus' of die ander kant van die Atlantiese Oseaan bereik het sy odyssee aan die onderwêreld. Ten derde sal ek aantoon dat 'n onderwêreld wat 'n wasbak onder seespieël is in plaas van 'n ondergrondse koninkryk natuurlik en elegant die transformasie van Hades van 'n land van die lewendes in die land van die dooies is. Uiteindelik bevat die Karibiese wasbak 'n sloot wat sterk lyk soos 'n sekere oorspronklike afgrond wat in baie Griekse mites prominent voorkom.

'N Land van lewe en 'n land van dood

In die Odyssee, 'n mite wat dateer uit die heroïese tydperk van Griekeland, beeld Homeros die onderwêreld uit as 'n somber koninkryk van gestorwe geeste en skakerings. In mites wat gebeure in die verre verlede uitbeeld, word Hades egter beskryf as 'n woonplek vir die lewendes. Byvoorbeeld, in die mite van die Titanomachy, of die oorlog tussen die Titans en die Olimpiërs, het Zeus, die seun van Kronus, in opstand gekom teen sy vader en die Titans, die oudste ras van gode, en het hy as 'n tienjarige oorwinnaar uit die stryd getree. oorlog. By sy oorwinning het Zeus die verslaan Titans in Tartarus gevange gehou. Daar word geen melding gemaak van geeste, skakerings en spoke in hierdie weergawe van Hades nie, en as Hesiodos Hades en Tartarus met 'n ander naam genoem het, sou 'n mens amper nie vermoed dat die oorlog tussen die Titans en die Olimpiërs op enige manier 'n geestelike gebied.

Val van die Titans, 1588.

In 'n ander mite was Persephone, die dogter van Zeus en Demeter, besig om blomme te versamel toe Hades, die heer van die onderwêreld, na die aarde opklim om haar na sy koninkryk te bring, waar hy haar sy koningin gemaak het. Demeter het in haar hartseer oor die verlies van haar dogter 'n hongersnood oor die aarde gestuur. Op hierdie stadium het Zeus ingegryp en Hermes, die boodskappergod, na die onderwêreld gestuur om die vrylating van Persephone te verseker. Later het hy verklaar dat Persephone 'n deel van die jaar saam met Hades in die onderwêreld en die res van die jaar saam met haar ma Demeter op die berg Olympus sou deurbring. Hades word duidelik in hierdie mite uitgebeeld as 'n werklike en fisiese land, geskik vir bewoning, in plaas van as 'n land van die dooies. In die Odyssey, soos vroeër gesê, word Hades egter uitgebeeld as 'n land nie van die lewendes nie, maar 'n land van die dooies.

Die terugkeer van Persephone.

Kan dit wees dat hierdie transformasie van Hades van die lewensteryk na die doderyk in die mitologie en literatuur ooreenstem met 'n werklike verandering in die fisiese gebied?

John Martin's The End of the World, wat die 'vernietiging van Babilon en die materiële wêreld deur natuurlike rampe' uitbeeld.

As Hades of die Griekse onderwêreld en die Karibiese wasbak dieselfde was, vind hierdie dramatiese verskuiwing in die manier waarop Hades uitgebeeld word 'n natuurlike verklaring - dit was 'n land van die lewendes voor die rampspoed wat die Karibiese See gevorm het en die land geword het. van die dooies daarna. Op hierdie manier geïnterpreteer, was Hades oorspronklik 'n werklike en fisiese plek wat 'n verskriklike rampspoed beleef het waarin ontelbare siele hul dood ondergaan het. Met verloop van tyd, met die verloop van geslagte, is die ware aard van Hades as die rusplek van die siele wat in hierdie ramp vergaan het, vergete en het dit tot die laaste rusplek van almal siele.

Kaart van die Karibiese See en die bekken

Die moontlike liggings van Tartarus en Hades. (Kaartkrediet: Google Earth, 2017)

Die Groot Afgrond op Aarde

Maar selfs al word aanvaar dat Hades inderdaad 'n wasbak onder seespieël was, hoe kan u dan definitief vasstel dat Hesiodos spesifiek na die Karibiese bekken verwys, in teenstelling met ander wasbakke onder die seevlak wat moontlik in die verre verlede bestaan ​​het?

Hesiodos bied ook 'n interessante beskrywing van hierdie geheimsinnige koninkryk van Hades. Hy het naamlik Tartarus geleë, die oorspronklike afgrond of kloof waarin Zeus die verslaande Titane in die tronk sit, binne Hades, en het gesê dat 'n aambeeld wat van die aarde afgeval het, nege dae sou neem om by Hades te val, en nog nege om uiteindelik Tartarus te bereik. Ook in die Ilias, Sê Zeus dat Tartarus so ver onder Hades is as wat die hemel bo die aarde is.

As ons Hades, die Griekse onderwêreld, gelykstel met die Karibiese wasbak, kan 'n mens die kriptiese beskrywing van Hesiodos van die vallende aambeeld interpreteer om eenvoudig te beteken dat Tartarus 'n veral 'n lae plek binne die Karibiese wasbak, 'n reeds diep, onder seevlak. Die vraag wat natuurlik volg, is of hierdie wasbak 'n besonder lae plek bevat. Dit doen dit beslis, want dit bevat 'n sloot wat duisende voet dieper is as die gemiddelde diepte van die wasbak - die Cayman -sloot. Die Cayman -loopgraaf bereik 'n maksimum diepte van meer as 7620 meter, terwyl die gemiddelde diepte van die Karibiese wasbak net meer as 2134 meter is. Tartarus is nie net analoog aan die Cayman -loopgraaf in sy uitermate diepte nie, dit word ook letterlik beskryf as 'n kloof en afgrond deur niemand anders nie as die groot filosoof Plato, wat in wese identies is aan 'n loopgraaf. Plato, in syne Phaedo, skryf:

'Een van die klowe van die aarde
gebeur toevallig groter as die res
en is verveeld oor die hele aarde,
dit waarvan Homerus self sê,

'Ver weg, waar die diepste onder die aarde 'n afgrond is;'
en wat elders
hy en baie ander digters het Tartarus genoem.

Want al die riviere vloei saam in hierdie kloof
en vloei weer daaruit;
en elkeen word so,
as die aarde waardeur dit ook vloei. ”

Water stroom oor 'n rotsagtige rand en onder in die valkom. ( CC BY-ND 2.0 )

Kan dit wees dat Hades nie net deur 'n verskriklike rampspoed van 'n woonplek tot die woning van die dooies verander is nie, maar dat Hades voor die ramp ook 'n ware paradys was? Dit wil sê, mag die hemel hê word Hel? Die antieke Grieke en Feniciërs het geglo dat die tuine van die Hesperides, net soos Hades, ook in die afgeleë Weste geleë is. Vreemd genoeg lyk die tuin ook baie na die geografie van die Karibiese wasbak. Haal Ignatius Donnelly aan Atlantis: Die Antediluviaanse wêreld :

'Volgens die tradisies van die Feniciërs was die tuine van die Hesperides in die verre weste ... Die Griekse mitologie vertel van die tuin van die Hesperides, ons dat 'die buitekant van die tuin effens gelig is, sodat die water nie kan instroom en die land kan oorstroom nie.'

Die tuin van Hesperides, bewaak deur die slang.

Soos in 'n vorige artikel aangetoon is, kon 'n droë Karibiese wasbak slegs bestaan ​​as daar 'n aaneenlopende ketting grond gelykmatig bo seespieël gestyg het, wat 'n versperring vorm, 'n reuse erdam so te sê, om die Stille Oseaan en die Atlantiese Oseaan weg te hou . Die ooreenkoms is veral nie net een daarvan nie struktuur deurdat sowel die Gardens of the Hesperides as 'n droë Karibiese wasbak 'n verhoogde grens gehad het, maar ook van funksie, want beide die "buitenste rand van die tuin" en die "deurlopende landketting" dien as 'n versperring wat verhoed dat die water in die onderskeie lande vloei.

  • Afkoms na die onderwêreld: die min bekende praktyke en simbole in die antieke mitologie van die Grote hieronder
  • Die soeke na 'n legendariese land: rus die waarheid van Plato se Atlantis op 'n skuifende seebodem?
  • Die buitengewone onderwaterstad Kuba: 'n nuwe teorie oor sy oorsprong - Deel I
  • Lei Bimini Road tot die verlore beskawing van Atlantis?

Kan so 'n groot ooreenkoms tussen die Karibiese wasbak en die tuine van Hesperides as 'n toeval afgemaak word? Toe Christopher Columbus sy derde reis naby die monding van die Orinocorivier op die Suid -Amerikaanse vasteland sit, het hy geglo dat hy die tuin van Eden, die verlore paradys, gevind het. Miskien was die admiraal van die Oseaan tog nie ver van die punt nie, en boonop het hy nie net The Garden of Eden gevind nie, maar ook Hades self ...

Brad Yoon is 'n sagteware -ingenieur en skrywer. Hy voltooi 'n Bachelor of Science -graad in Toegepaste Wiskunde en 'n minor in antropologie aan UCLA. Hy ondersoek en skryf oor verlore beskawings en ander ou geheimenisse.

Brad het sy teorieë aangebied met Ancient Origins Premium in 'n reeks gesprekke oor antieke legendes, wetenskap en geologie:

  • Geheimsinnige dieptes en hul verbinding met die prehistoriese Karibiese See en Atlantis en
  • Antieke vloede en paalverskuiwing: legendes van die onderwêreld '

Kyk nou na hierdie fassinerende praatjies - slegs by AO Premium!

--


Stull, Kansas en mdash en veral die begraafplaas en mdashhas het 'n berugte reputasie gekry vir sataniese, okkulte en paranormale aktiwiteite. Die legende sê dat die duiwel self op hierdie plek verskyn en dat die begraafplaas een van die poorte na die hel is.

Sommige inwoners het al geslagte lank oor hierdie verhale gepraat asof dit 'n feit is eerder as 'n stedelike legende. Dit lyk asof hulle in die sewentigerjare momentum kry, met die oorsprong van die moderne legendes wat voortspruit uit 'n broederskaps -grap.

Daar was egter vreemde aktiwiteite in Stull. Geboue het geheimsinnig aan die brand geslaan sonder dat daar 'n duidelike oorsaak was. Vreemde stemme is gehoor en soms op bandopnemers opgeneem, veral die stem van 'n ou vrou.

Daar is ook legendes, veral onder die jong mense wat daar gedrink het, dat as jy bottels teen die ou kerk gooi, hulle nie sou breek nie. Nadat die kerk verwoes is te midde van die vrees dat die verouderde mure sou ineenstort en een van die opwindende soekers sou benadeel, is 'n hoë heining om die begraafplaas opgerig.

Die klein dorpie is nog meer verewig toe Slasher Films die verskriklike fliek vrystel Niks meer om te vrees in 2013. Die fliek was gebaseer op die legendes van Stull.


17 Seven Gates of Hell, Pennsylvania

Kom ons begin met 'n voor die hand liggende keuse, of hoe? Dit is nie net duidelik vanweë die naam nie, maar dit lyk ook nogal onheilspellend. Ek kon maklik sien dat dit 'n ingang na die onderwêreld was. Daar is twee legendes in York County, Pennsylvania, wat sê dat daar sewe poorte van die hel is. Beide legendes is dit eens dat daar sewe poorte na die hel in 'n beboste gebied is en dat elkeen wat deur al sewe gaan, reguit afkom om Hades self te ontmoet.

Hellam Township, waar die hekke in die bos gevind kan word, is in 1793 gestig. Volgens die legende het 'n ou kranksinnige asiel daar afgebrand en die dolle het ontsnap. Sommige was vasgekeer in hierdie hekke, om nooit weer gesien te word nie. Hulle spook tot vandag toe by die hekke. Die verhaal sê ook dat niemand nog ooit deur die vyfde hek was nie en teruggekeer het om daaroor te vertel. Ek weet nie van jou nie, maar hierdie 'poorte van die hel' is 'n bietjie te naby vir troos, as iemand wat in 'n staat woon wat aan Pennsylvania grens. Grillerig!


Argeoloë vind 'n klassieke ingang na die hel

Die poort na die hel is bedek met marmer, nie net goeie bedoelings nie.

In antieke Griekeland en Rome was gode deel van die daaglikse lewe - selfs so baie dat hulle u dogter of geliefde kon steel, u kon help om 'n oorlog te wen of u siekte te genees. Sommige legendariese helde het selfs die koninkryk van die god van die onderwêreld besoek, wat deur die Grieke Hades en Pluto deur die Romeine genoem is.

Maar waarheen kan u gaan om die onderwêreld te betree? Die berg Olympus was 'n ware berg op die Griekse vasteland, vermoedelik kan u die huis van die gode besoek as u hoog genoeg stap. En as u te ver gegaan het, te midde van die aktiewe geologie van die Middellandse See en sy vele vulkane, het 'n paar swaelopeninge op die aarde toegang tot die onderwêreld belowe.

Nou het Italiaanse argeoloë wat op die Grieks-Romeinse terrein van die antieke Hierapolis (hedendaagse Pamukkale) in Turkye werk, die stad se poort na die onderwêreld ontbloot. Pelgrims van regoor die klassieke wêreld het na Hierapolis gekom om te bad in sy warmwaterbronne en te aanbid by die Ploutonion - 'n tempelgebied gebou oor 'n grot en ondergrondse termiese gebied.

Deur die pad van die warmwaterbronne deur die ou plek te spoor, het die span van die Universiteit van Salento, onder leiding van Francesco D'Andria, die ingang van die grot ontbloot. 'N Gegraveerde toewyding aan Pluto bokant die ingang het die identifikasie van die hek bevestig.

Die antieke Griekse geograaf Strabo, wat verhale van sy reise in Klein -Asië in die laaste jare vC opgeteken het, noem die 'eiesoortige eienskappe' van die Ploutonion en sê 'dit is 'n opening van voldoende grootte om 'n man toe te laat, maar daar is 'n afkoms tot groot diepte. [Die] ruimte is gevul met 'n troebel en donker damp, so dig dat die bodem amper nie waargeneem kan word nie. Diere wat binnekom, sterf onmiddellik. Selfs bulle val, as hulle daarin gebring word, neer en word dood gehaal . Ons het self mossies ingegooi wat onmiddellik leweloos geval het. "

Die eunugpriesters van Pluto sou hul mag bewys deur die gasspleet binne te gaan en lewendig uit te kom (vermoedelik deur asem op te hou en voordeel te trek uit bekende sakke veilige lug in die grot), terwyl voëls wat te naby gevlieg het, dikwels deur die gif neergeval is. . Tydens die moderne opgrawings het dooie voëls op die terrein gehelp om die argeologiese span te oortuig dat hulle die werklike 'poort na die hel' gevind het.

Toekomstige opgrawings sal fokus op die boonste gebied, waar hulle verwag om 'n massiewe tempel vir Pluto te vind.

Die ou mense het 'n heel ander konsep van hel as die Christendom gehad - dit was nie net 'n plek waarheen slegte mense gegaan het toe hulle gesterf het nie. In plaas daarvan was dit 'n land waar almal, goed en sleg, beland het. Verskillende kulture regoor die wêreld het verskillende teorieë: In die ou Egipte kon die onderwêreld 'n lieflike plek wees met 'n rietveld en 'n groot rivier soortgelyk aan die Nyl. Solank 'n dooie persoon behoorlik voorberei was vir die hiernamaals (herenig met die verskillende dele van die siel en met 'n 'oopgemaakte' mond om behoorlik in die onderwêreld te eet), sou die dood nie so erg wees nie. Vir die onvoorbereide was dit egter 'n donker en somber plek vol struikelblokke, veral vir diegene wat nie goed was terwyl hulle gelewe het nie.

'N Besoek aan die onderwêreld verskyn in sommige van die eerste skrywes ooit. 'N Sumeriese legende geskryf in spykerskrif op kleitablette voor 1900 v.C. vertel van die godin Inanna, ook bekend as Ishtar, en haar besoek aan die land van dood. Reise na of deur die onderwêreld was die verandering van seisoene onder die Grieke, die ritme van nag en dag onder die Egiptenare, en die oorsprong van die wêreld onder die Maya's.

Ander kulture het hul eie "poorte na die hel". Hier is 'n voorbeeld:

Griekeland en Turkye. Ander plesiere is rondom die Griekse oostelike Middellandse See gevind, dikwels op plekke waar ondergrondse gasse ontsnap het, waaronder een by Eleusis. Die Acheronrivier in die noordweste van Griekeland was ook verbind met die onderwêreld (Charon was die veerman van die dooies).

Italië. Op Sicilië, naby Enna, lê die kloof waardeur Hades self gerugte het dat Persephone na die onderwêreld gebring het, waar sy ses granaatpitte geëet het en sodoende die aarde tot ses maande winter elke jaar gedoem het. Daar word gesê dat die Romeinse held Aeneas die onderwêreld binnegekom het deur of naby die meer van Avernus in die vulkaniese landskap naby Napels, 'n ander legende van Odysseus noem dieselfde plek vir sy afkoms.

Israel. Die Twins -grot in die Judese heuwels buite Jerusalem het bewyse onthul van heidense rituele wat met die onderwêreld verband hou en is vermoedelik 'n toegangspunt vir Persephone se reis na die onderwêreld.

Meso -Amerika. Die Masaya -vulkaan in Nicaragua is deur die Spanjaarde, wat dit in die 16de eeu raakgeloop het, die 'mond van die hel' genoem. (Vulkane regoor die wêreld het om ooglopende redes 'n spesiale verhouding met die hel gehad.) Die vele kalksteengrotte en grotte -netwerke van die Yucatan het die Maya betower, en hulle het ritueel waardevolle besittings neergelê en mense opgeoffer aan die gode van die waterige grotonderwêreld. Die Maya -skeppingsmite vertel die verhaal van die tweeling van die hel wat die bose gode van die onderwêreld, Xibalba, oorwin het en die mindere gode daar vrygelaat het om na vore te kom en ons leefwêreld daarbo te begin.

Is daar 'n ingang na die onderwêreld naby u? As dit die geval is, laat weet ons dit in die kommentaar hieronder.


3. Fengdu City of Ghosts

CHONGQING, CHINA

'N Heeltemal ander helpoort kan gevind word in die hartjie van China en 'n stad van spoke met noue bande met Naraka, die onderwêreld van die Chinese mitologie. Besoekers aan Fengdu kry 'n seldsame blik op die werking van die hel.

Hierdie 2 000 jaar oue nedersetting is geleë op Ming Hill, aan die noordelike punt van die Yangtze-rivier. Die Fengdu “City of Ghosts ”, gestig tydens die Han-dinastie (206 vC-220 nC), baseer sy erfenis op die verhaal van twee afvallige amptenare wat hierheen gevlug het om aan die keiser te ontsnap. Hulle name, Yin en Wang, is later aangepas om 'n titel te vorm vir een van die heersers van die hel: “Qinguang Wang Jiang. ”

Fengdu is bekend vir sy treffende, tradisionele argitektuur en uitgebreide vakmanskap. Sy strate en pleine is gevul met beelde van spoke en demone, asook aangrypende herinneringe aan die strawwe wat die goddeloses in die volgende lewe wag. Die meeste van die stad se landmerke is gekoppel aan helse temas: “ Host Torturing Pass, ” “ Nothing-to-be-Done Bridge, ” en “ Last Blance at Home Tower. ”

Miskien is die opvallendste van alles egter: Die spookkoning, 'n reuse, gesnede gesig met 'n rotswand wat na die stad kyk. Met 'n hoogte van 138 meter (ongeveer 452 voet) en 217 meter (ongeveer 712 voet), is Fengdu ’s “Ghost King ” die grootste rotsbeeld in die wêreld.


6 Pergusa -meer

Sicilië is die tuiste van die Etna, nog 'n vurige vulkaan met 'n reputasie as 'n ingang na die hel. Maar dit is ook die plek waar Hades Persephone, dogter van die oesgodin, na sy huis in die onderwêreld gesleep het. Die digter Ovidius het geskryf oor hoe Persephone by die nabygeleë Pergusa -meer gespeel het toe Hades haar gryp. Omdat haar dogter vermis is, sou Ceres niks toelaat om te groei nie. Daar is 'n kompromie aangegaan waarin Persephone, herfs en winter, ses maande bo die grond, in die lente en somer, en ses daaronder saam met haar nuwe man sou vertoef.

Elke jaar in die lente staan ​​Persephone op uit die hel en kom deur die Perusameer. In die nabygeleë Etna was daar eens 'n tempel vir Ceres waar die godin sou wag op die terugkeer van haar dogter.


Shiwang

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Shiwang, (Chinees: "Ten Kings") Romanisering van Wade-Giles Shih Wang, in die Chinese mitologie, die 10 konings van die hel, wat voorsit oor vaste streke waar die dooies gestraf word deur fisiese marteling wat geskik is vir hul misdade. Die Chinese hel (diyu 'Aarde -gevangenis') is hoofsaaklik 'n Boeddhistiese konsep wat deur Daoïsme en inheemse volksoortuigings aangepas is, en die vele bestaande beskrywings verskil in besonderhede.

Die eerste koning ontvang die dooies en bepaal of hulle straf benodig of nie, en indien wel, na watter streek hulle gestuur moet word. Voorheen was die pos as eerste regter beklee deur Yanluo Wang ('n Chinese vorm van die Indiese doodsheer, Yama), maar weens sy toegeeflikheid is hy na die vyfde hof gedaal. Die tweede koning het jurisdiksie oor die streek wat oneerlike go-betweens, bedrieglike trustees en onkundige dokters straf. Die derde koning straf onregverdige mandaryne, valsers, lasteraars en spitsmakers. Die vierde koning straf die ellendig ryk, oneerlike handelaars, en diegene wat weet, genees, maar dit nie bekend maak nie. Die vyfde koning straf godsdienstige sondaars, moordenaars, jagters, vissers en wellustiges. Die sesde koning straf diegene wat aan heiligmaking skuldig is. Die sewende koning straf oortreders van grafte en verkopers en verbruikers van menslike vlees. Die agtste koning straf diegene wat nie in vroomheid is nie. Die negende straf brandstigters, aborsioniste en onwelvoeglike skilders en skrywers en hul kliënte en hou toesig oor die stad van die dooies per ongeluk (insluitend selfmoorde), waaruit niemand wedergebore word nie, tensy hy 'n ander slagoffer kan vind om sy plek in te neem. Die 10de koning draai die wiel van transmigrasie wat die dooies na hul nuwe bestaan ​​bring as gode, mense op aarde of in die hel, goeie of slegte demone of diere.

Die 10 konings en die streke waaroor hulle voorsit, word gereeld voorgestel in tempels van Cheng Huang, die stadsgod.

Hierdie artikel is onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur Matt Stefon, assistent -redakteur.


Daar is baie ink oor die hel gemors. Deur die geskiedenis van die Christendom het die konsep van die hel baie verander, nie net die aard daarvan nie, maar wie daarin beland en die kriteria vir hulle om daarheen te gaan. Selfs nou verskil baie denominasies hieroor. Maar hier praat ons oor die vroeë Christendom en die oorsprong van die helteologie. Dit verg 'n bietjie taalkunde en literêre verwysings.

Nuwe Testament: Drie woorde

  1. & gamma & epsilon & lsquo & epsilon & nu & nu & alpha (gehenna): 'N Helleniseerde weergawe van die Hebreeus Hinnom, wat beide 'n naam en 'n plek in die Levant is. Dit was hier waar koning Agas sy kinders in vuur verbrand en ander goddelose offers gebring het, waarvoor YHWH sy nederlaag gereël het (2 Ch 28: 1-5). Dikwels word na hierdie vallei verwys as die vallei van die seuns van Hinnom, en#8221 of Ben-Hinnom in Hebreeus. Verwysings na Gehenna sinspeel dus oor die algemeen op die vuur van godslasterlike offergawes. Die implikasie is dat iemand wat in Gehenna verbrand word, aan 'n ander God of aan geen God aangebied word nie. Dit is die woord wat die meeste in die Nuwe Testament gebruik word as “hell. ” Let daarop dat in die antieke Judaïsme, selfs in die gehelleniseerde Judaïsme van die 1ste eeu, die misdaad van koning Ahas nog steeds met 'n mate van afgryse beskou is. , is die naam van Gehenna met angs en vrees behandel.
  2. & lsquo & alfa & delta & eta & sigmaf (hades): Dit is die naam van die Griekse god van die onderwêreld, sowel as die naam van sy onderwêreld. Die god Hades word meestal gesien as die onderwêreldse ekwivalent van Zeus, wat ten minste teoreties bo die grond regeer het. Daar blyk egter dele van die onderwêreld buite sy beheer te wees, of waarmee hy hom nie betrek nie. In die Hellenistiese literatuur die woord hades Dit word gebruik om 'n verskeidenheid dinge te beteken: 'n graf of 'n graf op die domein van dooies, dooies, gesamentlik (byvoorbeeld die voorouers of voorvaders) of wat dit oorspronklik beteken het, die plek waar dooie geeste beland nadat hulle gesterf het. In terme van die Nuwe Testament blyk dit 'n graf, of meer spesifiek, 'n doodse einde ” te beteken (geen woordspeling bedoel nie).
  3. & tau & alpha & rho & tau & alpha & rho & omicron & sigmaf (tartare): Dit is 'n deel van die onderwêreld waarin die paar dooies wat veral die gode tydens die lewe beledig het, vasgevang is in ewige pyniging. Hier vind u Tantalus, Sisyphus en ander wat sulke lotgevalle verduur. Hierdie woord verwys verseker na ewige straf, presies soos vir die Grieke wat mites oor Tantalus en die res vertel het. Net soos met die naam Gehenna, het Tartarus 'n nogal gruwelike konnotasie gehad, wat dui op ewige marteling.

Ou Testament: een woord

In die Ou Testament is daar slegs een woord wat enigiets naby die hel aandui, en dit is (in transliterasie) seël. Dit blyk oorspronklik dat dit die Hebreeuse weergawe van die Sumeriese en Babiloniese was Irkalla, of Netherworld, ook meer poëties na verwys as “the House of Dust and Darkness. ” Vir al die dooies, goed, sleg, tussenin was dit 'n onaangename plek waar siele gelaat is om net op stof te eet en in 'n onophoudelike asem te leef. Dit was die heersende siening van die hiernamaals in die hele Nabye Oosterse wêreld. Slegs in Egipte het sommige paar die farao's en die allerhoogste van aristokrate aan hierdie lot ontkom, en hulle het dit net op uitgebreide maniere gedoen: deur gemummifiseer te word, deur lang rituele wat gelei het tot en na die dood, en selfs dan was hulle in aanmerking hiervoor slegs as gevolg van goddelike verbindings (dws die farao word as 'n god-op-aarde beskou, en sy offisiere en agente is soms ook vergoddelik, of bloot behandel asof hulle spesiale goddelike guns het as gevolg van hul ampte) . Die eertydse Hebreërs het nie 'n ontwikkelde gevoel van die hiernamaals gehad nie, ten minste nie meer ontwikkel as ander kulture in hul milieu nie.

Selfs nou het Judaïsme nie 'n goed ontwikkelde konsep van die hiernamaals nie. Daar bestaan ​​'n vermoede van lewe na die dood, sowel as 'n moontlike opstanding gedurende die Messiaanse tydperk, maar die aard daarvan word nie in die Christelike Ou Testament onthul nie, wat hier ter sprake is.

Ou vertalings

Die Septuaginta, of Judaïese geskrifte wat in Grieks weergegee word, vertaal seël as hades. Dit dui sterk daarop dat in die tyd toe die Christendom begin het, die twee woorde dieselfde ding, of ten minste, iets naby beteken.

As ons na ander antieke vertalings van die Skrif gaan, gee die Targumim (Aramese vertalings van die Joodse skrif) en Peshitta (Aramese vertaling van die meeste Nuwe -Testamentiese boeke) die vier woorde vir “Hell ” byna altyd soos ars & rsquo, wat 'n verskeidenheid betekenisse gehad het, maar veral “grave ” of “bed, ” of metafories, “ rusplek. ”

In Kopties is Hades vertaal as amet & eacute, 'n naam van Egiptiese afleiding wat gelykstaande was aan Grieks hades (as sodanig in ander literatuur gebruik). Gehenna is in Kopties vertaal as ti-gehenn in wese was dit 'n oordrag van die naam (die voorvoegsel is 'n grammatiese apparaat wat 'n plek aandui) Tartarus is op dieselfde manier oorgedra.

In Latyn het St Jerome Hades vertaal as infernus, die Romeinse naam vir die onderwêreld en dus 'n presiese verwantskap. Hy laat Gehenna en Tartarus onvertaal.

Gebruik van die Griekse name van die hel

Gehenna word gevind in 12 verse: Matteus 5:22, 29, 30 10:28, 18: 9, 23:15, 33 Markus 9:43, 45, 47 Lukas 12: 5 Jakobus 3: 6. Hades word gevind in 10 verse: Matteus 11:23, 16:18 Lukas 10:15 16:23 Handelinge 2:27 1 Korintiërs 15:55 Openbaring 1:18 6: 8 20:13, 14. Tartarus kom slegs in een voor vers, 2 Petrus 2: 4.

Die verse waarin Gehenna gevind word, noem dit byvoorbeeld 'n straf vir goddeloosheid of wangedrag, die eerste drie Matteusverse is:

Maar ek sê vir julle dat elkeen wat kwaad is vir sy broer, skuldig sal wees voor die hof en elkeen wat vir sy broer sê, “Julle het niks, ” sal skuldig wees voor die hooggeregshof en elkeen wat sê: & #8220Jou dwaas, en#8221 sal skuldig genoeg wees om die vurige hel binne te gaan. As jou regteroog jou laat struikel, skeur dit uit en gooi dit van jou af, want dit is beter dat jy een van die dele van jou liggaam verloor as dat jou hele liggaam in die hel gegooi word. As jou regterhand jou laat struikel, sny dit af en gooi dit van jou af, want dit is beter dat jy een van die dele van jou liggaam verloor as dat jou hele liggaam in die hel gaan. (Mt 5:22, 29, 30)

Die verse wat Hades gebruik, praat daarvan as 'n onderwêreld, en metafories beteken dit vernietiging, byvoorbeeld die vers 10 van Lukas:

En jy, Kapernaum, sal tog nie tot in die hemel verhef word nie? U sal na Hades gebring word! (Lukas 10:15)

Tartarus is, soos opgemerk, slegs in een vers, en dit is 'n plek van ewige pyniging vir die sondige engele ”:

Want as God die engele nie gespaar het toe hulle gesondig het nie, maar hulle in die hel gewerp het en hulle in die kuile ​​van duisternis toegewy het, wat vir die oordeel gereserveer was (2 Pt 2: 4)

Ons kan dus gerus sê dat die woord Tartarus nie bedoel was om op mense van toepassing te wees nie.

Spesiale geval: Openbaring

Openbaring gebruik Hades uitsluitlik, maar daar word dit duidelik gebruik om 'n plek van pyniging vir die goddelose te beteken (soos Gehenna in die ander Nuwe -Testamentiese boeke is). Die probleem met Openbaring is egter dat dit 'n hoogs figuurlike en gestileerde werk is. In baie gevalle kan dit nie op sigwaarde geneem word nie. This is quite obvious from the fact that it&rsquos totally unlike the rest of the New Testament books. We might expect, then, that it would use a word such as Hades in a manner not used with the others.

The “Bosom of Abraham”

A complication is presented by Luke 16:23. The entire passage involved, a parable, is as follows:

Now there was a rich man, and he habitually dressed in purple and fine linen, joyously living in splendor every day. And a poor man named Lazarus was laid at his gate, covered with sores, and longing to be fed with the crumbs which were falling from the rich man&rsquos table besides, even the dogs were coming and licking his sores. Now the poor man died and was carried away by the angels to Abraham&rsquos bosom and the rich man also died and was buried. In Hades [the rich man] lifted up his eyes, being in torment, and saw Abraham far away and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried out and said, &ldquoFather Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus so that he may dip the tip of his finger in water and cool off my tongue, for I am in agony in this flame.&rdquo But Abraham said, &ldquoChild, remember that during your life you received your good things, and likewise Lazarus bad things but now he is being comforted here, and you are in agony. And besides all this, between us and you there is a great chasm fixed, so that those who wish to come over from here to you will not be able, and that none may cross over from there to us.&rdquo

What&rsquos interesting about this, is that it introduces a two-tier afterlife or underworld a pleasant one, the “bosom of Abraham,” and an unpleasant one, Hades, a place of torment. Jesus uses this tale to illustrate the value of compassion and that a lack of compassion will send a person to perdition. While this was an element of the verses in Matthew chapter 5, extolling virtue and condemning the unrighteous, the addition of the bosom of Abraham adds a wrinkle. The “bosom of Abraham” is perhaps the earliest mention of a paradisical (or semi-paradisical) afterlife for the virtuous, and contributed to the notion of “heaven” — along the lines of the older Hellenic “Elysian fields” — in Christianity. The use of Abraham as the sentinel of this pleasant afterlife was likely a way of hooking the the Hellenic Elysian fields in with Judaic tradition.

Hell in the Apocrypha

Hell is mentioned in many of the books of the Apocrypha, in ways similar to the above. For instance, the Ascension of Isaiah, composed in Greek in the late 1st century, uses the word Sheol and speaks of it as an underworld similar to the Judaic view of that time. (Yes, even though it was in Greek, the name Sheol was preserved.) The Book of Enoch (also called 1 Enoch), written in the late 2nd century BCE in Aramaic, also used the word Sheol, but spoke of it not only as an underworld realm but as a place from which forces of destruction emanated. There is a bit of an apocalyptical element in it which compares with the usage in Revelation.

Later Works

Perhaps the most spectacular early discussion of Hell is in the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, which was actually a medieval document (from the 6th century or so). It was in Latin, but its first half was in Greek and was an older 2nd century work called the Acts of Pilate (Acta Pilati). Thus, most references to the Gospel of Nicodemus usually mention this work. The second half of this resurrection gospel, in Latin and written in the 6th century, includes a tour of Hell as seen by Christ after his crucifixion but prior to his resurrection. In Hell (called infernus in the original Latin, just as was in the Vulgate), Christ gathered Adam and other righteous souls, taking them to paradise and delivering them to the care of the archangel Michael. (Note that, just as John the Baptist had heralded Jesus&rsquo arrival on earth, after his death, he heralded Jesus&rsquo eventual arrival to deliver them from Hell.) While this gospel was never considered canon, and in fact was known by Church scholars as a late work and never taken as authoritative, it had a tremendous effect on medieval thought about Hell. It painted a vivid picture of Hades (the personification of Hell) as lamenting his own defeat at the moment of Christ&rsquos arrival, and of Jesus gathering up the righteous to take them to paradise. Medieval artworks depict various elements of Jesus&rsquo trip to Hell.

Hell in Early Christianity

The notion of Hell in early Christianity likely followed the lines of Greco-Roman thought a very, very few righteous and favored souls came to a pleasant afterlife, similar to the Elysian fields, while the rest, the vast majority, lingered in a non-descript, shadowy, relatively unpleasant afterlife. The stories told of it being a punishment for the wicked, are found in two places: in Jesus&rsquo stories extolling the virtue of compassion and selflessness, in which those who did not follow these rules ended up in torment and in Revelation, something of an epic in which all of God&rsquos enemies ended up in eternal perdition. Both cases, then, are illustratief in nature. Early Christians did not write extensively on Hell and appear not to have taken these as literally as many do, today.

Later Hell Theology

The theology of Hell actually grew probably starting in the 5th century, or perhaps later, in western Europe. The Gospel of Nicodemus, a grand early advanced vision of Hell, was in Latin and thus likely written in the central or western Empire. Many changes entered Christianity when it expanded westward, such as a greater emphasis on the priesthood and hierarchy. The great eastern Church Fathers, on the other hand, were relatively unconcerned with it. We see mention of Hell in works such as those of Tertullian (especially in De spectaculis), but we must remember he was a Carthaginian, or central-empire Christian, and not from the east as so many others were.


Caesarea Philippi, which stood in a lush area near the foot of Mount Hermon, was a city dominated by immoral activities and pagan worship.

Caesarea Philippi stood only twenty-five miles from the religious communities of Galilee. But the city's religious practices were vastly different from those of the nearby Jewish towns.

In Old Testament times, the northeastern area of Israel became a center for Baal worship. In the nearby city of Dan, Israelite king Jeroboam built the high place that angered God and eventually led the Israelites to worship false gods. Eventually, worship of the baals was replaced with worship of Greek fertility gods.

Caesarea Philippi, which stood in a lush area near the foot of Mount Hermon, became the religious center for worship of the Greek god, Pan. The Greeks named the city Panias in his honor.

Years later, when Romans conquered the territory, Herod Philip rebuilt the city and named it after himself. But Caesarea Philippi continued to focus on worship of Greek gods. In the cliff that stood above the city, local people built shrines and temples to Pan.

Interestingly, Jesus chose to deliver a sort of "graduation speech" to his disciples at Caesarea Philippi. In that pagan setting, he encouraged his disciples to build a church that would overcome the worst evils.

To the pagan mind, the cave at Caesarea Philippi created a gate to the underworld, where fertility gods lived during the winter. They committed detestable acts to worship these false gods.

Caesarea Philippi's location was especially unique because it stood at the base of a cliff where spring water flowed. At one time, the water ran directly from the mouth of a cave set in the bottom of the cliff.

The pagans of Jesus' day commonly believed that their fertility gods lived in the underworld during the winter and returned to earth each spring. They saw water as a symbol of the underworld and thought that their gods traveled to and from that world through caves.

To the pagan mind, then, the cave and spring water at Caesarea Philippi created a gate to the underworld. They believed that their city was literally at the gates of the underworld%u2014the gates of hell. In order to entice the return of their god, Pan, each year, the people of Caesarea Philippi engaged in horrible deeds, including prostitution and sexual interaction between humans and goats.

When Jesus brought his disciples to the area, they must have been shocked. Caesarea Philippi was like a red-light district in their world and devout Jews would have avoided any contact with the despicable acts committed there.

It was a city of people eagerly knocking on the doors of hell.

Jesus presented a clear challenge with his words at Caesarea Philippi: He didn't want his followers hiding from evil: He wanted them to storm the gates of hell.

Standing near the pagan temples of Caesarea Philippi, Jesus asked his disciples "Who do you say that I am?" Peter boldly replied, "You are the Son of the living God." The disciples were probably stirred by the contrast between Jesus, the true and living God, and the false hopes of the pagans who trusted in "dead" gods.

Jesus continued, "You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it" (see Matt. 16:13-20).

Though Christian traditions debate the theological meaning of those words, it seems clear that Jesus? words also had symbolic meaning. His church would be built on the "rock" of Caesarea Philippi%u2014a rock literally filled with niches for pagan idols, where ungodly values dominated.

Gates were defensive structures in the ancient world. By saying that the gates of hell would not overcome, Jesus suggested that those gates were going to be attacked.

Standing as they were at a literal "Gate of Hades," the disciples may have been overwhelmed by Jesus' challenge. They had studied under their rabbi for several years, and now he was commissioning them to a huge task: to attack evil, and to build the church on the very places that were most filled with moral corruption.

Jesus presented a clear challenge with his words at Caesarea Philippi: He didn't want his followers hiding from evil: He wanted them to storm the gates of hell.

Jesus' followers cannot successfully confront evil when we are embarrassed about our faith.

After Jesus spoke to his disciples about storming the gates of hell, he also gave them another word of caution: "If anyone is ashamed of me and my words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when he comes in his glory" (Luke 9:26).

Jesus knew that his followers would face ridicule and anger as they tried to confront evil. And his words came as a sharp challenge: no matter how fierce the resistance, his followers should never hide their faith in God.

Jesus taught with passion, even when bystanders may have thought him a fool. And at Caesarea Philippi, he challenged everyone within hearing: "What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, and yet lose or forfeit his very soul?" (v. 25).

In a city filled with false idols, Jesus asked his followers to commit to the one true God. While false gods promised prosperity and happiness, they would ultimately fail to deliver. Jesus didn't promise an easy life, but he delivered on the promise of salvationthe only kind of prosperity that really matters.

Today, Christians must heed the words of our Rabbi, especially when we are tempted to hide our faith because of embarrassment or fear. Our world is filled with those who have "gained the world" but lost their souls. If we hide our faith, they may never find the salvation they need.

As we listen to Jesus' challenge today, we as Christians should ask ourselves the important question: When it comes to the battle against evil, are we on defense or offense?

In a culture that embraces diversity, it is offensive to suggest that there are certain truths that apply to everyone. Pointing out sin isn't popular and many Christians are labeled as "intolerant" for refusing to accept certain behaviors and ideas.

Unfortunately, many people have embraced a distorted Christianity that tries to be "politically correct." They don't want to offend anyone, so they accept sin rather than confronting it. Ultimately, their words of "love" ring empty because they accept sins that ruin people's lives.

Other Christians just try to avoid sinful culture altogether. They have been taught to go on the defense%u2014to hide in their churches, schools, and homes and to shut the door on the evil influences of culture.

But Jesus challenged his followers to be on the offense%u2014to proclaim the truth without shame.

Our schools and churches should become staging areas rather than fortresses places that equip God's people to confront a sinful world instead of hiding from it. Jesus knows that the pagan world will resist, but he challenges us to go there anyway, and to build his church in those very places that are most morally decayed.

As we listen to Jesus' challenge today, we as Christians should ask ourselves the important question: Are we on defense or offense?


As pointed out by Dr. Thomas Horn and “Into the Multiverse” host Josh Peck in the internationally-acclaimed books On The Path Of The Immortals (FREE IN OFFER HERE) en Abaddon Ascending, when the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) first started up on September 10, 2008, director for research and scientific computing at CERN, Sergio Bertolucci, provoked a whirlwind of speculation with his enigmatic remark that the LHC might open a door to another dimension. During a regular briefing at CERN headquarters, he told reporters, “Out of this door might come something, or we might send something through it.” [i] The notion of higher dimensional beings traversing such doorways conjures up the denizens of legend, orcs, ogres, elves, fairies, dwarves, and giants. A British military analyst later quipped:

We’re looking here at an imminent visit from a race of carnivorous dinosaur-men, the superhuman clone hive-legions of some evil genetic queen-empress, infinite polypantheons of dark mega-deities imprisoned for aeons and hungering to feast upon human souls, a parallel-history victorious Nazi globo-Reich or something of that type. [ii]

While that was amusing, more serious researchers like Richard Bullivant had already connected the dots:

The most plausible explanation the next time Bigfoot or a lizard man or a flying dragon is sighted—or perhaps even a UFO ascending into the earth and disappearing into the side of a hill—surely has to be that it is evidence that portals to parallel worlds are serving as doorways where strange beings, vehicles and entities occasionally stumble into our universe—and sometimes we in turn stumble into theirs. [iii]

It did not help that the LHC was named after the Hindu destroyer of worlds “Shiva”, a fact that prompted a teenage girl in India, Madhya Pradesh, to commit suicide. [iv] Whether the scientists responsible for the name believe it or not, wormhole portals are studied very seriously.

Now, it is recycling in the news again that researchers at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider are confident they will soon “make contact with a parallel universe.” They have since opening hoped to actually open a door into another reality with the astoundingly complex LHC “atom-smasher” at CERN, as it is fired up to its maximum energy levels in an endeavor to identify—or perhaps generate—tiny black holes that will serve as doorways.

Mir Faizal, one of the three-strong group of physicists behind this experiment, said a while back: “Just as many parallel sheets of paper, which are two-dimensional objects [breadth and length] can exist during a dimension [height], parallel universes can even exist in higher dimensions […]

“If successful a very new universe is going to be exposed—modifying completely not only the physics books but the philosophy books too.

“It is even probable that gravity from our own universe may ‘transfer’ into this parallel universe…

“If we do detect mini black holes at this energy, then we are going to know that… additional dimensions are correct.”[v]

In 1935, Albert Einstein and his student, Nathan Rosen, proposed that connecting two black holes would form a tube-like gateway between two regions. This passageway is called an Einstein-Rosen Bridge. The math works. Traversable wormholes provide a valid solution to field equations of general relativity. [vi] According to theory, one could enter a black hole and exit a white hole in another universe. A white hole is a region of space-time that cannot be entered from the outside, but from which matter and light may escape. Thus, a black hole serves as the entry portal and a white hole marks the exit portal. Yet, prior to the discovery of spinning Kerr black holes, traversing the magic sphere meant being obliterated down to the atomic level by the enormous gravitational force. Consequently, during Einstein’s day, no one took the possibility of traveling through such a gate very seriously.

But what’s really behind CERN’s interest in making contact with a parallel universe?

The laboratory we know as CERN was born in 1952, not long after World War II and the emergence of the nuclear bomb. Since that time, some of the research at CERN has entered the public lexicon and nearly become a household word. This European facility began as a post-war physics project and blossomed into an international cabal searching for nothing less than God.

CERN is a French acronym based on the name of the working committee that imagined the possibilities for a physics laboratory governed by another emerging body, the Common Market, which would eventually rise as the revived Roman Empire, the European Union. The name for the committee was the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research). Just two years later, in 1954, the working committee disbanded, the formal organization commenced work, and the official name was changed to Organisation Européenn pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research). [vii] Oddly enough, when the official name changed, the acronym should have changed as well—after all, the earlier “committee” had been a temporary entity that had helped birth a major research laboratory the CERN acronym and the French designation Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire hadn’t yet propagated enough that renaming it would have proven problematic. So why didn’t the founders change the acronym along with the name?

Enter Werner Karl Heisenberg, a renowned German Nobel laureate physicist who is often called “the founder of quantum mechanics.” He served as head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute during World War II, heading up the Nazi push to create an atomic weapon. Many in the West say that the Allies owed much to Heisenberg, for it is believed that he actually stalled and intentionally misled the Nazis, hoping the Allies would win the race to “find the bomb.” Lew Kowarski, one of Heisenberg’s colleagues, claims that Heisenberg had inexplicably insisted that the original acronym CERN remain in effect.

Werner Heisenberg understood quite well what quantum physics implied for humanity. Inherent within this theoretical realm, populated by obtuse equations and pipe-smoking scientists, lies what I call the “Babylon Potential.” This is the “secret knowledge”—the scientific imperative, informed and driven by spiritual advisers—that the Bible cites as the key to opening a gateway for the “gods.” It is Entemenanki, Baba-alu, the opening of the Abzu, the doorway to Hell.

How is the Babylon Potential related to a simple acronym—CERN? Here’s the answer: CERN is an abbreviated title for the ancient god worshipped by the Celts: Cernnunos. The name means “horned one,” and his stern image appears in various forms, usually wearing “stag’s horns” upon his head, and he is oftentimes accompanied by a ram-headed serpent. His worshippers celebrated Cernunnos’ birth in December during the winter solstice. As the Celtic god of the underworld, he parallels Hades and Pluto. Cernunnos controls the shadows, and he is a dying/rising god after the order of Osiris and Horus who was so elaborately summoned by CERN occultists during the June 1, 2016 Gotthard Rail Tunnel Opening Ceremony. Cernunnos alternates control of the world with the moon goddess Danu (another form of Diana/Isis/Semiramis). This intertwined and sometimes antagonistic relationship is similar to that of Shiva and Kali—an important point to make because it is Shiva’s statue that welcomes visitors to CERN’s headquarters in Geneva.

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WATCH TOM HORN & JOSH PECK DESCRIBE WHAT’S HAPPENING AT CERN CONNECTED TO OCCULT RITUALS MEANT TO OPEN END-TIMES GATEWAYS!

The Shiva statue depicts the Hindu god in his “nataraja” position, a cosmic dance that destroys the old universe in favor of a new creation. [viii] This ritual is performed on the back of a demon named Apasmara who is said to represent ignorance. Much like the mystery religions and secret societies (of which Freemasonry is a prime example), the initiates receive hidden knowledge that is passed down from mentor to apprentice, and each level achieved brings with it additional clarification as to the true purpose of the organization (or cult). Members are considered “enlightened,” while all those who do not belong are mundane and walk in darkness. We are ignorant. Therefore, the Shiva dance illustrates the superposition of the enlightened over the backs and souls of the blind. Of course, to the Illuminati, the truly ignorant are the foolish Christians. As I’ve said many times in my previous books, the lowest-level members of these mystery religions and secret societies rarely know the truths reserved for the few who actually run the show.

Shiva has been compared to Dionysus, [ix] another fertility god associated with vegetation, forest, streams, and dancing—powers also attributed to Cernunnos. All three have dominion over the underworld: Dionysus, the son of Zeus and the mortal Semele, is a type of beast-god (one who inspires his followers to behave as “beasts”—witness the Maenads, the mad women who followed and tended to the needs of Dionysus, who is called Bacchus in the Roman pantheon. The Maenads danced and drank themselves into an ecstatic frenzy, usually dressing in fawn skins (something the followers of Cernunnos also do), carrying a long stick or staff adorned with a pine cone (symbol of the pineal gland, itself considered a doorway into another realm). As with Osiris and Nimrod, Dionysus journeyed to the underworld—in this case, to rescue his mother. Semele is yet another moon goddess, and she fits the Semiramis/Isis/Danu/Diana model.

It also seems fair to examine indigenous spiral petroglyphs (described elsewhere in this book) that very often feature horned humanoid figures in close proximity to a vortex. While scholars admit to speculating as much as anyone else, they typically interpret these spirals as symbolizing the portal to a long journey. [x] Could these ancient petroglyphs also be omens of the horned beast god emerging from a vortex spiral?

What is my point? With its name and by placing a bronze Shiva sculpture prominently in front of its headquarters, CERN is indicating to those with “eyes to see” that the collider’s true purpose is to open a portal to the underworld—to create a stargate or “god-gate,” which would serve as a doorway between worlds. Ordo ab chao, “order out of chaos,” has been the plan for millennia, and the invasion commences when the Abyss is finally opened, and its monstrous inhabitants are set free.

Location, Location, Location

Saint-Genis-Pouilly is a township within the county of Ain in eastern France. It lies on the border with Switzerland, nestled into the foothills of the Jura Mountains and Lake Geneva (Lac du Leman to the French)—and, because of its unique location, it is governed by the cross-border area of Geneva.The ALICE, ATLAS, and MERYN experiments lie within this region. The township consists of four towns: Saint-Genis (sometimes spelled Saint-Genix), Pouilly, Pregnin, and Flies. “Jura,” in Old Norse, means “beast.” Dionysus, Cernunnos, and, to a degree, Osiris are all “beast” gods. Osiris, with his “green” skin, reflects the forest nature of Cernunnos and Dionysus. But, more to the point, if this CERNunnos Illuminati experiment succeeds, it will open the gateway to a beast. However, the term “Jura” also refers to the Latin word for “law.” This is another reflection of the ancient goddess Columbia, Athena, Maat, Themis, Dike, and all those who are “Lady Justice,” a deity that weighs our souls in the balance. The Jura Mountains loom over the CERN campus like ancient judges who oversee the construction and implementation of the new Babylon Portal. Die boek Zenith 2016 explains the occult significance of these deities with Lady Justice:

According to Virgil and the Cumaean Sibyl, whose prophecy formed the novus ordo seclorum of the Great Seal of the United States, the New World Order begins during a time of chaos when the earth and oceans are tottering—a time like today. This is when the “son” of promise arrives on earth—Apollo incarnate—a pagan savior born of “a new breed of men sent down from heaven” when “heroes” and “gods” are blended together. This sounds eerily similar to what the Watchers did during the creation of the nephilim and to what scientists are doing this century through genetic engineering of human-animal chimeras. But to understand why such a fanciful prophecy about Apollo, son of Jupiter, returning to Earth should be important to you: In ancient literature, Jupiter was the Roman replacement of Yahweh as the greatest of the gods—a “counter-Yahweh.” His son Apollo is a replacement of Jesus, a “counter-Jesus.” This Apollo comes to rule the final New World Order, when “Justice returns, returns old Saturn’s [Satan’s] reign.” The ancient goddess Justice, who returns Satan’s reign (Saturnia regna, the pagan golden age), was known to the Egyptians as Ma’at and to the Greeks as Themis, while to the Romans she was Lustitia. Statues and reliefs of her adorn thousands of government buildings and courts around the world, especially in Washington D.C., as familiar Lady Justice, blindfolded and holding scales and a sword. She represents the enforcement of secular law and is, according to the Sibyl’s conjure, the authority that will require global compliance to the zenith of Satan’s dominion concurrent with the coming of Apollo. What’s more, the Bible’s accuracy concerning this subject is alarming, including the idea that “pagan justice” will require surrender to a satanic system in a final world order under the rule of Jupiter’s son. [XI]

This excerpt from Zenith 2016 and the CERN relationship with the Jura Mountains becomes even clearer when we examine the second of the towns mentioned earlier—Pouilly, established by the Romans as Apolliacum, which reportedly served as the location for a temple to Apollo. Apollo, or Apollyon, is listed in the book of Revelation as belonging to the king of the hybrid-fallen angel creatures that rise up from the pit—Abyss—when it is unsealed. It should also be mentioned that at the time of the Roman occupation of the area, the predominant inhabitants were the Celts, which takes us back to Cernunnos. In a roundabout way, pun intended, the rings of CERN encompass a variety of ancient deities who are all connected to the underworld:

And the fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star fallen from heaven to earth, and he was given the key to the shaft of the bottomless pit.

He opened the shaft of the bottomless pit, and from the shaft rose smoke like the smoke of a great furnace, and the sun and the air were darkened with the smoke from the shaft.

Then from the smoke came locusts on the earth, and they were given power like the power of scorpions of the earth.

They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any green plant or any tree, but only those people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads.

They were allowed to torment them for five months, but not to kill them, and their torment was like the torment of a scorpion when it stings someone.

And in those days people will seek death and will not find it. They will long to die, but death will flee from them.

In appearance the locusts were like horses prepared for battle: on their heads were what looked like crowns of gold their faces were like human faces,

their hair like women’s hair, and their teeth like lions’ teeth

they had breastplates like breastplates of iron, and the noise of their wings was like the noise of many chariots with horses rushing into battle.

They have tails and stings like scorpions, and their power to hurt people for five months is in their tails.

They have as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit. His name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he is called Apollyon. (Revelation 9:1–11)

Both Apollyon (Greek) and Abaddon (in the Hebrew) mean “the destroyer,” just as Shiva is the destroyer. These “gods,” these fallen angels from the pit, intend to set up a new world order on the ash heap of the old—on the backs of “ignorant dwarves” like you and me. Peter Goodgame sheds further light on the identity of this “king” locust:

And just who is this Greek god Apollyon who makes his strange appearance in the book of Revelation? Charles Penglase is an Australian professor who specializes in ancient Greek and Near Eastern religion and mythology. In sy boek, Greek Myths and Mesopotamia: Parallels and Influence in the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod, Penglase carefully and methodically demonstrates that the Greek myths and legends of Apollo were simply Greek retellings of the Babylonian myths involving the rise to power of the god Marduk, which were themselves based on earlier legends of the Sumerian hunter/hero known as Ninurta. Furthermore, according to David Rohl, the original name for Ninurta was in fact Nimurda, whose historical identity can be traced back to King Enmerkar of Uruk, the very same figure who is known in the Bible as Nimrod. [xii]

Is it not astonishing that, following upon the heels of two world wars in which millions upon millions of human lives were sacrificed—and upon the discovery of a mighty weapon that changed history forever, that being the atomic bomb—the victors in both wars would come together to form a scientific endeavor that would unlock the secrets of the universe? And is it not even more astonishing that this collective of the world’s finest minds mirrors one of the darkest events in biblical history, that of the Tower of Babel?

It is said that one possible location for the tower was directly over the presumed location of the Abzu, the Abyss! Was Nimrod actually trying to unleash the locusts in defiance of God’s ultimate timing? Nimrod, deified as Apollo by the Greeks and Osiris by the Egyptians, is considered by many theologians to be the same “spirit” that will return to earth in the last days as the Antichrist. In fact, in the New Testament, the identity of the god Apollo (repeat-coded on the Great Seal of the United States as the Masonic “messiah” who returns to rule the earth in a new Golden Age), is the same spirit—verified by the same name—that will inhabit the political leader of the end-times New World Order. Again, from Zenith 2016 we read:

According to key Bible prophecies, the Antichrist will be the progeny or incarnation of the ancient spirit, Apollo. Second Thessalonians 2:3 warns: “Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition [Apoleia Apollyon, Apollo]” (emphasis added). Numerous scholarly and classical works identify “Apollyon” as the god “Apollo”—the Greek deity “of death and pestilence,” and Webster’s Dictionary points out that “Apollyon” was a common variant of “Apollo” throughout history. An example of this is found in the classical play by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus, The Agamemnon of Aeschylus, in which Cassandra repeats more than once, “Apollo, thou destroyer, O Apollo, Lord of fair streets, Apollyon to me.” Accordingly, the name Apollo turns up in ancient literature with the verb apollymi of apollyo (destroy), and scholars including W. R. F. Browning believe apostle Paul may have identified the god Apollo as the “spirit of Antichrist” operating behind the persecuting Roman emperor, Domitian, who wanted to be recognized as “Apollo incarnate” in his day. Such identifying of Apollo with despots and “the spirit of Antichrist” is consistent even in modern history. For instance, note how Napoleon’s name literally translates to “the true Apollo.”

Revelation 17:8 likewise ties the coming of Antichrist with Apollo, revealing that the Beast shall ascend from the bottomless pit and enter him:

The Beast that thou sawest was, and is not and shall ascend out of the Bottomless Pit, and go into perdition [Apolia, Apollo]: and they that dwell on the Earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the Book of Life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is. [xiii]

Many prophecy scholars equate Nimrod with Gilgamesh, the hero of the ancient Sumerian creation story composed circa 2000 BC. Gilgamesh claimed to be two-thirds “god,” which seemed impossible until today, when babies are born every day with three parents (a process where one “parent” is a woman who donates her enucleated ovum as carrier for the DNA of the other two parents). But Genesis refers to Nimrod as a man who “began to be a mighty one in the earth” (Genesis 10:8 emphasis added). The Hebrew word translated as “began to be” is khalal, which implies sexual profanity or genetic pollution—and a process. Nimrod was word a Gibbowr (mighty one), which is most often used when referring to giants. Nimrod most likely was a product of a profane mating of fallen angel (god) and human. He is Apollo, Cernunnos, Abaddon, Osiris, and Horus, and he is returning as king of the locusts (hybrid fallen angels) from the pit! And CERN may be the stargate that will open this unholy portal very soon.

[i] Lewis Page, “Something May Come through Dimensional ‘Doors’ at LHC,” The Register, November 11, 2009, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/11/06/lhc_dimensional_portals/ (accessed September 5, 2014).

[iii]Richard Bullivant, Beyond Time Travel—Exploring Our Parallel Worlds: Amazing Real Life Stories in the News (Time Travel Books, 2014) Kindle Edition, 781–785.

[iv]“Girl Suicide ‘Over Big Bang Fear,’” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7609631.stm (accessed September 20, 2014).

[vii] CERN’s official names and founding information come from the Wikipedia entry, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CERN (accessed January 12, 2015).

[viii]“The Nataraja Dance of Shiva,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nataraja (accessed January 20, 2015).

[ix]Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty, History of Religions Vol. 20, No. 1/2, Twentieth Anniversary Issue (Aug.–Nov., 1980), 81–111, (University of Chicago Press) available online via JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1062337?sid=21105662919083&uid=4&uid=3739640&uid=2&uid=3739256 (accessed January 20, 2015).

[x]D. Lewis-Williams (2002), .A Cosmos in Stone: Interpreting Religion and Society through Rock Art (Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press) 39.