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Eerste vrou senator - Geskiedenis

Eerste vrou senator - Geskiedenis


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Hattie Wyatt Caraway het die eerste vrou geword wat tot die Amerikaanse senaat verkies is. Sy is eers in die senaat aangestel om die termyn van haar man in 1931 in te vul. In 1932 is sy in 'n spesiale verkiesing verkies. Sy is herkies en het tot 1944 gedien.

Martha Hughes Cannon: die eerste vrouestaatsenator

Martha Hughes Cannon (1857-1932) kom uit 'n Wallies-gebore immigrantegesin wat saam met die Kerk van Jesus Christus van die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae na die Weste reis om hulle in 1860 in Utah te vestig. Nadat sy 'n mediese graad behaal en as dokter gewerk het, het sy die vierde van ses vroue in 'n poligame Mormoonse huwelik. Tydens 'n nasionale stryd teen poligamie, moes sy met haar eerste kind op die 'Mormon Underground' na Engeland vlug om hofgetuienis teen haar man en ander Mormoonse vaders te vermy. In 1888 stig sy die eerste verpleegskool in Utah. In 1896 word Cannon verkies tot die land se eerste vroulike staatsenator, en verslaan sy haar eie man wat ook op die stembrief was. Sy was 'n leier in die vrouestembeweging in Utah en het gehelp om die stemreg vir vroue in die grondwet van die staat in te sit, die eerste raad van gesondheid van Utah en 'n skool vir dowes en blindes.

Ondervraes: Jenny Reeder, spesialis in geskiedenis vir vroue in die Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ’Church History Department en voormalige Amerikaanse verteenwoordiger vir Utah se vierde kongresdistrik, Mia B. Liefde, die eerste swart vroulike Republikein wat tot die kongres verkies is, en lid van die Kerk van Jesus Christus van die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae.

Mattie Hughes Cannon was die eerste vrou wat verkies is tot 'n senaat in die Verenigde State van Amerika.

Sy het wetsontwerpe voorgestel aan die wetgewer wat vandag steeds Utah beïnvloed.

1872, Salt Lake City, Utah -gebied. Die vyftienjarige Martha 'Mattie' Hughes het as setter gewerk vir The Women's Exponent, 'n koerant wat deur vrouelede van die Kerk van Jesus Christus van die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae gedruk is.

Mattie Hughes het in die modderstrate van Salt Lake City gaan werk.

Sy dra mansstewels aan en trek haar romp vas sodat sy nie modderig word nie.

In die koerant lees Hughes dat die Universiteit van Michigan sy mediese skool vir vroue geopen het. Sy besluit om 'n dokter te word.

'Laat ons daarna streef om intellektuele vroue te word en probeer om 'n bietjie goed te doen terwyl ons in hierdie langdurige glans, die lewe, leef.' Martha Hughes is in 1857 in Wallis gebore, uit 'n gesin wat tot die nuwe godsdiens van Mormonisme oorgegaan het.

Hulle emigreer na die VSA toe sy twee jaar oud was, op soek na godsdiensvryheid, en het by kerknedersettings in die Rocky Mountains aangesluit.

Hulle het die see oorgesteek, wat altyd 'n verraderlike reis was en in New York aangekom.

Hulle het 'n onderdakwa gehaal om oor die vlaktes te kom.

Mattie het haar babasussie sien sterf.

Sy sien haar pa sterf drie dae nadat hulle in Salt Lake City aangekom het.

En sy het in hierdie vroeë nedersetting van Utah gesien dat baie vroue en kinders sterf.

En ek dink dit was 'n groot invloed op haar besluit om 'n dokter te word.

Nadat hy chemie aan die Desert University gestudeer het, het Hughes die mediese skool in Michigan bygewoon en 'n gegradueerde program aan die Universiteit van Pennsylvania.

Sy was die enigste vrou in 'n klas van 75 en sy is gereeld gevra om los te sit van haar manlike eweknieë, om dit nie af te lei nie.

Hughes keer terug na Salt Lake City met haar mediese grade in 1882, en op 25 -jarige ouderdom, open sy 'n privaat praktyk uit haar ma se huis.

Vroue in Utah het gou besef dat hulle 'n ruimte nodig het waar hulle medisyne kan beoefen en vir vroue kan sorg, en daarom het hulle die Desert -hospitaal geskep, saam met vroulike dokters en vroulike verpleegsters.

In 1882 word Martha Hughes die hoofchirurg.

Sy het ook vroedvrou beoefen, en sy het die vinnigste perd wat sy kon kry, sodat sy so vinnig as moontlik by vroue kon kom.

'Ek sou een van die moeilikste en mees robuuste vroue in die Rocky Mountains wees.' Martha het grootgeword in 'n tyd waarin stemme aan Utah -vroue in 1870 tydens plaaslike verkiesings gegee is.

Dit was die tweede gebied wat vroue stemreg gegee het. Wyoming was die eerste.

Die Weste het vroue verskillende ervarings gegee in die sin dat hulle hul grense, hul nedersettings, van nuuts af bou.

Hughes was verlief op 'n prominente kerkleier wat in die bestuur van die hospitaal gedien het, wat reeds drie vroue en 21 kinders gehad het.

Angus Cannon was 23 jaar ouer as sy, en sy was met hom getroud as sy vierde vrou.

Mormoonse vroue, omdat hulle poligame was, kon hulle van hul huishoudelike pligte ontslae raak en hulle sustervroue toelaat om meer openbare en burgerlike en politieke dinge te doen.

'' N Meervoudige vrou is nie die helfte soveel slaaf as 'n alleenstaande vrou nie.

As haar man vier vroue het, het sy elke maand drie weke vryheid. '. Slegs 30% van die bevolking in Utah beoefen eintlik poligamie.

Maar meervoudige huwelike in hierdie tyd was 'n moeilike ding vir die Mormone. Terwyl hulle hul reg op godsdiensvryheid stewig verkondig het, het federale wetgewing ernstige gevolge vir poligamie gehad.

In 1882 het die VSA die Edmunds Act goedgekeur, wat poligamie tot 'n misdaad van vyf jaar gevangenisstraf gemaak het.

As gevolg hiervan, toe Mattie in 1884 getroud was, moes sy dit in die geheim doen. Sy kon dit nie eers vir haar ouers vertel nie.

As deel van 'n federale stryd teen poligame gesinne is Cannon in 1885 gearresteer en tereggestel. Hughes, vyf maande swanger, is ontbied om te getuig teen hom en ander Mormoonse vaders wie se kinders sy geboorte gegee het.

'Ek word as 'n belangrike getuie beskou.

En as dit bewys kan word dat hierdie kinders werklik in die wêreld gekom het, sal hulle vaders tronk toe gestuur word. '. Sy wou nie teen haar man getuig nie, en die manier om dit teë te werk, was om weg te kruip of wat bekend staan ​​as 'die ondergrondse'. In 1886 vlug Hughes met haar dogtertjie na Engeland onder 'n vals naam, Maria Munn, terwyl haar man sy tronkstraf uitdien.

Sy het twee jaar lank weggekruip onder ander ballingskapsmormone.

Gedurende hierdie tyd sterf haar dogter byna drie keer aan waterpokkies, skarlakenkoors en longontsteking.

'U sou my huidige situasie nooit kon besef nie, tensy u skielik 7 000 myl verban is, u identiteit verlore is, bang is om u eie naam hoorbaar te fluister.

My senuweestelsel het 'n skok gekry dat dit nooit heeltemal sal herstel van my vrees nie. '. Sy het ook deur middel van letters, altyd in gekodeerde woorde, geleer dat haar man Angus beide 'n vyfde vrou en later 'n sesde vrou geneem het.

Sy was baie moedeloos in haar huwelik.

'Ek word hartlik siek en walg van poligamie.

Ek moes die hele meervoudstelsel 'n breë kooi gegee het.

As 'n man na 'n huwelik van byna vier jaar nie 'n vrou en kind 'n huis kan voorsien nie, is dit nie die moeite werd om te hê nie. ' Ondanks haar ambivalensie oor poligamie, hervat Hughes haar huwelik met Canonn by haar terugkeer uit Engeland in 1888.

Maar sy het weer kortliks weggekruip toe hul tweede kind gebore is.

In 1887 het die federale regering sy druk op die kerk verhoog deur meer wetgewing teen poligamie te aanvaar.

Hierdie daad het eintlik die stemreg van alle vroue in Utah verwyder, ongeag of hulle meervoudige vroue was of nie, en het ernstige gevolge vir almal wat poligamie beoefen het.

Om sy eie voortbestaan ​​te beskerm en die gebied van Utah te help om staatskaping te bereik, het die kerk poligamie amptelik verwerp.

Die manifest van 1890 verbied nuwe meervoudige huwelike, maar het bestaande poligamiste toegelaat om meer openlik te leef.

Hughes het weggekruip en haar toegewy aan sosiale hervorming.

Stemreg is nog steeds nie aan Utah -vroue teruggegee nie, daarom het Mattie Hughes aktief betrokke geraak by die Utah Women's Suffrage Association.

'Een van die belangrikste redes waarom vroue moet stem, is dat alle mans en vroue vry en gelyk is.

Alle persone moet die reg hê om gelyk te wees aan mekaar. '. In 1896 word Utah die 45ste deelstaat van die vakbond.

Die grondwet het poligamie verbied en vroue se stemreg heringestel.

Die staat Utah het baie bygedra tot ons land en tot ons samelewing.

As die eerste en enigste swart republikeinse vrou wat ooit in die kongres verkies is, dink ek steeds by myself: 'Hoe is dit dat ek die enigste is?'

My naam is Mia Love. Ek is 'n dogter van immigrante uit Haïti.

Ek behoort tot die Kerk van Jesus Christus van die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae.

Ek is die voormalige verteenwoordiger van Utah se vierde kongresdistrik.

Ek was die enigste Republikein in die Congressional Black Caucus.

Daar was baie uitdagings. Daar is telkens vir my gesê: 'Wel, sy is nie genoeg opgevoed nie. Sy is nie slim genoeg nie. ' Ek, as vrou, moet twee keer so hard werk om die respek van my kollegas te verkry.

In 1896 het Hughes hom beywer vir 'n sitplek in Utah se eerste verkose wetgewer.

In 'n vreemde wending van die noodlot is sy op haar stembrief teen haar man neergesit.

Mattie Hughes Cannon was 'n demokraat. Interessant genoeg het haar man as Republikein opgetree.

Demokrate het die meeste stemme gewen, wat beteken dat Martha Hughes Cannon haar man verslaan het.

Sy het gehelp om die weg te baan vir vroue om by die politiek betrokke te raak.

'Dit het die wêreld bewys dat 'n vrou nie 'n hulpmaat by die vuur is nie, maar as sy dit toegelaat word, kan sy die sterkste word in die sake van die regering.' Op 3 November 1896 het Martha Hughes Cannon die land se eerste vroulike senator geword.

Nadat sy die amp aangeneem het, het sy die eerste raad van gesondheid van Utah gestig.

Martha het die staatskool vir dowes en blindes vir gestremdes gestig, en sy het gewerk om dokters te sertifiseer.

Sy het opgetree om die gesondheid van vroue te beskerm, wat op daardie stadium baie progressief was.

'Vroue sal die politiek suiwer.

Vroue is beter as mans en sal die politiekwêreld goed doen. '. Net toe Martha se politieke loopbaan aan die toeneem was, het sy swanger geword met haar derde kind. Vir 'n staat wat poligamie verbied het, het dit haar politieke loopbaan beëindig.

Angus Cannon, wat steeds onwettige poligame huwelike met ses vroue onderhou het, is in hegtenis geneem.

Hughes het uit die politiek getree kort nadat hul derde kind gebore is.

'Die lewe bestaan ​​uit wins en verlies, en dit lyk asof verlies tans die heersende element in my loopbaan is.' En die feit dat sy net vir een termyn gedien het, vertel dat dit nie gemaklik is nie, omdat u die norm verander. Maar daar is altyd vir my gesê dat leiers hulself op moeilike plekke bevind en gemaklik voel op daardie plekke.

Hughes verhuis in 1904 saam met haar kinders na Kalifornië en werk weer as dokter.

Sy sterf in 1932, in die ouderdom van 75, aan kanker in Los Angeles.

Mattie was 'n gretige vrou wat die noodsaaklikheid erken het om te praat en hard te praat, om die dinge waarvoor sy omgee, te beskerm.

Sy inspireer vroue om vir die amp te staan.

Sy inspireer vroue om te stem, en sy herinner ons daaraan dat daar 'n prys was om vir al hierdie dinge te betaal.

'N Standbeeld van Martha Hughes Cannon staan ​​sedert 1996 in die staatskapitaal van Utah, en planne is aan die gang om een ​​in Washington, D.C.

Ek was deel van die poging om haar standbeeld na die Amerikaanse kongres te bring.

Sy is 'n goeie herinnering daaraan om nie op te gee nie.

'Ek is gewillig en nie bang om die paaie van my lot te stap nie, of dit nou ruig is of glad is. Ek is nie spyt nie. '


Voetnote

1 Kongresrekord, Huis, 79ste Cong., 2de sess. (24 Julie 1946): A4378 – A4379.

2 Oor die werk van ouers, Mary Kaptur, Women of Congress: 'n Odyssey van die twintigste eeu (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1996): 85.

3 "Rep. Clyde H. Smith van Maine, Was 63," 9 April 1940, New York Times: 29.

4 Aangehaal in Janann Sherman, Geen plek vir 'n vrou nie: die lewe van senator Margaret Chase Smith (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2000): 42.

5 "Mevrou Smith om manlief te soek," 9 April 1940, Washington Post: 9 "Clyde Smith's Widow Files", 16 April 1940, New York Times: 15.

6 "Rep. Clyde Smith's Widow Genomineer deur Maine G.O.P.", 14 Mei 1940, Washington Post: 1.

7 Patricia Schmidt, Margaret Chase Smith: Beyond Convention (Orono: University of Maine Press, 1996): 108–113 Sherman, Geen plek vir 'n vrou nie: 47.

8 Sherman, Geen plek vir 'n vrou nie: 44–45.

9 Kantoor van die klerk, Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers, "Verkiesingsstatistiek, 1920 tot hede."

10 Susan Tolchin, Vroue in die kongres (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1976): 75.

11 Kaptoer, Vroue van die kongres: 86.

12 David M. Kennedy, Vryheid van vrees (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 776.

13 Schmidt, Margaret Chase Smith: 163.

14 Harry S. Truman, “Executive Order 9981,” Truman Presidential Museum and Library, besoek op 12 Februarie 2020, https://www.trumanlibrary.gov/library/execut-orders/9981/execut-order-9981.

15 Hope Chamberlin, 'N Minderheid lede: vroue in die Amerikaanse kongres (New York: Praeger, 1973): 143.

16 Helen Henley, "Maine GOP nomineer mev. Smith vir senator," 22 Junie 1948, Christian Science Monitor: 5 Josephine Ripley, "Women Hail Smith Victory in Maine," 23 Junie 1948, Christian Science Monitor: 7.

17 Schmidt, Margaret Chase Smith: 181–182.

18 "Verkiesingsstatistiek, 1920 tot hede."

19 Die ruimtewedloop het begin toe die Russe die eerste satelliet met sukses die ruimte in gelanseer het. Sputnik I wentel om die aarde in Oktober 1957. Die Russiese satelliet is gevolg deur die Amerikaanse Explorer I, 'n klein satelliet wat in Januarie 1958 gelanseer is om wetenskaplike data te versamel (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "Sputnik and the Dawn of the Space Age, ”Besoek op 12 Februarie 2020, https://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/).

20 Kongresrekord, Senaat, 81ste Cong., 2de ses. (1 Junie 1950): 7894–7895.

21 Sherman, Geen plek vir 'n vrou nie: 117–118.

22 Chamberlain, 'N Minderheid lede: 146.

23 Kongresrekord, Senaat, 87ste Kong., 1ste ses. (23 September 1961): 20626.

24 Tolchin, Vroue in die kongres: 76.

25 "Die verkiesings van 1964" Congress and the Nation, 1945–1964, Vol. 1 – A (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1965): 54.

26 "Verkiesingsstatistieke, 1920 tot hede."

27 Richard Severo, “Margaret Chase Smith Is Dead at 97 Maine Republican Made History Twice,” 30 Mei 1995, New York Times: B6 Richard Pearson, "Margaret Chase Smith sterf GOP -senator uit Maine," 30 Mei 1995, Washington Post: B6.


Vroue in die Senaat

Senator Linda Collins-Smith verteenwoordig distrik 19 van 2015 tot en met 2018. Sy was ondervoorsitter van die regterlike komitee van die senaat gedurende haar vier jaar in die senaat.

Sy dien twee jaar in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers, in 2011 en 2012.

Senator Collins-Smith, 'n boorling van Pocahontas, was 'n sakevrou en entrepreneur, met besigheidservaring in vaste eiendom en verblyf. Sy was 'n voormalige president van die Arkansas Lodging Association.

Sy was 'n leeftyd lid van die NRA en stigterslid van die Friends of the NRA in Hardy. Sy dien in die Arkansas Ethics Commission en die Lower Mississippi Delta Development Council. Sy was trots om die waardes van die Ozarkberge en die plattelandse Arkansas voor te stel.

In 2015 is sy aangestel om te dien as die staatsdirekteur van Arkansas vir die National Foundation for Women Legislators (NFWL), wat die oudste organisasie van die land is wat die behoeftes van verkose vroue op alle regeringsvlakke aanspreek.

Senator Collins-Smith het twee kinders gehad. Sy was lid van die Sutton Free Will Baptist Church in Pocahontas. Haar ontydige dood in Junie 2019 was 'n skok vir haar familie, haar vriende en haar kollegas.

Senator Mary Anne Salmon

Senaat van Arkansas: 2003-2012

Senator Mary Anne Salmon verteenwoordig North Little Rock in die Senaat van Arkansas vir 10 jaar, van 2003 tot 2012. Voorheen dien sy vier jaar in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers, van 1999 tot 2002.

In die 88ste Algemene Vergadering was sy mede-voorsitter van die Senaat van die Wetgewende Raad. Sy was invloedryk in die skryf van wetgewing vir die lotery in Arkansas, wat universiteitsbeurse finansier.

Senator Salmon was destydse goewerneur Bill Clinton as staatsdirekteur vir sy presidensiële veldtogte in 1992 en 1996. Gedurende die 1980's is sy deur die goewerneur Clinton aangestel as die personeelkoördineerder van aanstellings in staatsrade en kommissies. Sy is ook 'n voormalige kommissaris van die Lakewood Improvement District in North Little Rock.
Senator Salmon was baie aktief in gemeenskapsake en dien in die direksies van die Metro
YMCA, Baptist Health Systems, Central Arkansas Radiation Therapy (CARTI) Foundation en Centennial Bank Board of Trustees.

Sy is 'n voormalige voorsitter van die Arkansas Tech University Board of Trustees en lid van die Arkansas Tech Foundation Board, sowel as die Pulaski Technical College Foundation Board. Boonop was sy lid van die handelskamers in die North Little Rock, Maumelle en Sherwood.

Senator Salmon het talle gemeenskaps- en dienspryse ontvang. Onlangs is sy aangewys as Pulaski Technical College Business of Art Honoree. In 2008 is sy deur AY Magazine aangewys as die uitstaande vrouepolitici van die jaar.

In 2003 is sy deur die Arkansas Circuit Judges Association as senator van die jaar aangewys, en sy is deur die Arkansas Police Chiefs Association in 2003 en 2005 aangewys as senator van die jaar. Sy is deur die Metro YMCA -direksie vereer met die Johnny Heflin Humanitarian van die Jaar -toekenning en deur United Cerebral Palsy met die Reason to Believe -toekenning.

Sy is opgeneem in die Alumni Hall of Distinction aan die Arkansas Tech University, waar die Student Government Room ter ere van haar vernoem is.

Senator Salmon, gebore in Fort Smith, is grootgemaak in Waldron en studeer aan die Arkansas Tech University. Sy is 'n voormalige sake -eienaar en 'n afgetrede musiekonderwyseres van die Pulaski County Special School District.

Sy en haar man, Don, het twee volwasse dogters en vier kleinkinders en is lid van die Immanuel Baptist Church in Little Rock.

Senator Sue Madison

Senaat van Arkansas: 2003-2012

Senator Sue Madison verteenwoordig Fayetteville in die Senaat van Arkansas vir 10 jaar, van 2003 tot 2012. Voorheen was sy ses jaar lid, van 1995 tot 1998, en 'n vrederegter in Washington County vir vier jaar, van 1991 tot 1994.

Sy was voorsitter van die Komitee vir Staatsagentskappe en Regeringsake tydens die 88ste Algemene Vergadering. Sy was voorsitter van die Senaatskomitee vir Stad, Provinsie en Plaaslike Sake tydens die 87ste Algemene Vergadering. Sy was ondervoorsitter van die tussentydse komitee vir kinders en jeug tydens die 86ste Algemene Vergadering.

Sy is gebore in Uchitomori, Okinawa, wat deur die Amerikaanse weermag beset is. Haar ouers was Roy en Lyda Wood van Amite, Louisiana in die gemeente Tangipahoa. Sy is die kleindogter van wyle Fred en Camille Yates van die San Pedro Community in Washington Parish en wyle Eustace en Ada Lee Wood van die Bonner Creek Community in Washington Parish.

Sy is getroud met Bernard Madison, professor in wiskunde aan die Universiteit van Arkansas in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Sy studeer aan die Lakes High School naby Fort Lewis, Washington, waar haar pa as 'n weermagbataljon as 'n weermagluitenant -kolonel bevelvoer.

Madison behaal 'n baccalaureusgraad en meestersgraad, beide in die plantkunde, en albei aan die Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Madison en haar man het twaalf jaar in Baton Rouge gewoon voordat hulle na Arkansas verhuis het.

Nadat sy die Huis van Verteenwoordigers verlaat het, werk sy kortliks in Washington, DC, vir die kongreslid Mike Ross as 'n wetgewende korrespondent. Madison is 'n demokraat.

Haar beroep is eiendomsbelegger en bestuurder.

Haar senaatsdistrik in Washington County het Fayetteville, West Fork, Elkins, Groenland en Farmington ingesluit.

Senator Ruth Whitaker

Senaat in Arkansas: 2001-2012

Senator Ruth Whitaker van Cedarville was 'n politieke aktivis en politieke konsultant wat aan die Hendrix College gegradueer het.

Senator Whitaker het 'n spesiale verkiesing in 2000 gewen en dien tot en met 2012, sy was die eerste plek in senioriteit in die Arkansas Senaat en was voorsitter van die Senaatreëlskomitee.

In die senaat verteenwoordig sy Crawford County en dele van Franklin en Washington Counties.

Voor haar verkiesing tot die Senaat was sy 'n stadsraadslid in Cedarville en 'n AETN -kommissaris. Sy was getroud met dr T.J. Whitaker. Hulle het twee kinders gehad.

In 2003 was sy 'n stigterslid van die Arkansas Legislative Sportsmen's Caucus, wat hom bekommer oor kwessies rakende jag, visvang en ander buitelugaktiwiteite.

Senator Whitaker ondersteun wetgewing om die wild- en viskommissie te befonds, dieremishandeling te straf, die verkoopbelasting uit kruideniersware te verwyder, die bees- en wynverwerkingsbedrywe in Arkansas te bevorder en grootouers te besoek, ongeag ouerlike toesig.

Sy was 'n voormalige PTA -president en aktivis vir die Arkansas Heart Association, March of Dimes en organisasies wat sistiese fibrose en spierdistrofie ondersteun.

Senator Whitaker was aktief in die Republikeinse Party. Sy was 'n lid van die Arkansas Federasie van Republikeinse Vroue en voormalige president van die Women's Auxiliary aan die American Medical Association of Sebastian County. Sy is verkies tot sekretaris van die Arkansas State Republican Party van 1992-1994 en het ander afsprake in die staatsparty gehou, waaronder ondervoorsitter en parlementariër.

Sy was 'n leeftyd lid van die American Legion Auxiliary, Van Buren Chamber of Commerce en die Raad van Main Street USA, Van Buren. Senator Whitaker was 'n lid van Alden Kindred of America wat haar afstamming teruggevoer het na die eerste setlaars aan boord van die Mayflower.

Senator Whitaker behaal 'n Bachelor of Arts -graad aan die Hendrix College in Conway. Sy was getroud met dr T.J. Whitaker. Sy het 'n dogter, een seun en twee kleinkinders gehad.

Sy is gebore op 13 Desember 1936 in Blytheville, Arkansas, en is in 2014 op 77 -jarige ouderdom oorlede. Sy was 'n presbiteriaan.

Senator Barbara Horn

Senaat in Arkansas: 2001-2010

Senator Barbara Horn dien 10 jaar lank in die senaat, van 2001 tot 2010. In die 87ste Algemene Vergadering was sy voorsitter van die Senaat Versekerings- en Handelskomitee.

Voorheen het sy in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers van Arkansas gedien van 1993 tot 2000. Sy het die termyn van haar oorlede man, Hoye Horn, vervul.

Senator Horn is 'n sakevrou wat die Horn Insurance Agency van Ashdown bestuur het. Sy is 'n voormalige president van die Little River Chamber of Commerce.

Ter erkenning van haar werk vir die burgers van die suidweste van Arkansas, is 'n gedeelte van snelweg 41 in en naby Foreman vernoem na senator Horn.

In 2009 het meer as 200 mense die groot opening van die Barbara Horn Civic Center op die Little River -kampus van die Cossatot Community College van die Universiteit van Arkansas gevier. Sy is sedert die opening in 1996 'n aktiewe ondersteuner van die Little River -kampus.

In 2019 is sy bekroon met die rang van emeritus -lid van die UA Cossatot -raad. Senator Horn was die afgelope 17 jaar lid van die UA Cossatot Board of Visitors, waartydens sy grootliks verantwoordelik was vir die verkryging van die nodige finansiering om die huidige ligging van UA Cossatot se Ashdown -kampus.

Die direksie het erken dat senator Horn die normale plig verby was om as 'n jarelange raadslid van UA Cossatot te dien. Raadslede het hul waardering uitgespreek vir haar toegewyde diens en haar volgehoue ​​vriendskap.

Sy is 'n boorling van Mountain Pine, in Garland County.

Haar oorlede man, Hoye Horn, was regter van Little River County, veteraan van die Koreaanse oorlog en lid van die Huis van Verteenwoordigers in Arkansas. Hulle het drie kinders.

Senator Horn se wetgewende prioriteite sluit in ondersteuning vir openbare onderwys, toegang tot bekostigbare gesondheidsorg en 'n belastingbeleid om ekonomiese ontwikkeling en werkskepping te bevorder. Sy het wetgewing geborg of mede-geborg om:

  • die hervorming van die skade in Arkansas tot stand bring,
  • die Red River Compact Commission voldoende finansier,
  • opstel van verpleegkundige programme,
  • openbare biblioteke en museums finansieel ondersteun,
  • laat verbruikers groter keuses toe om voorskrifmedisyne te koop,
  • gesondheidsversekeringsnetwerke oop te maak vir meer dokters, klinieke, apteke en hospitale, en sodoende toegang tot mediese sorg uit te brei,
  • hersien die Arkansas Anatomical Gift Act om tred te hou met moderne tegniese prosedures en om te verseker dat orgaanskenkers en orgaanontvangers ooreenstem,
  • hersiening van verpleeginrigtings te hersien
  • voldoende befondsing vir groei aan die Universiteit van Arkansas Cossatot.
  • om immuniteit te bied aan verskaffers van gesondheidsorg wat as barmhartige Samaritane optree in noodsituasies.

Senator Sharon Trusty

Arkansas Senaat: November 2000 - September 2009

Senator Sharon Trusty, die president en eienaar van Trusty and Associates, Inc., verteenwoordig Russellville en dele van Pous en Logan Counties in die Senaat van Arkansas van 2000 tot 2009.

Sy is gebore in Oregania, Ohio, en het drie dogters. Sy is getroud met Fritz Kronberger. Sy was aktief in die Arkansas Republican Party en was in 1984 medevoorsitter van die Arkansas Republican Party.

Sy was voorsitter van 'n senaatspaneel wat geld ingesamel het vir 'n kunstenaar om 'n borsbeeld te beeldhou van die voormalige luitenant -goewerneur Winthrop "Win" Rockfeller, wat in 2006 oorlede is, in die Arkansas State Capitol.

Nadat sy uit die senaat bedank het, is sy aangestel in die staatsetiekkommissie en in 2017 deur die kommissie as ondervoorsitter verkies.

Sy was 'n Charter -lid van die Arkansas Workforce Education Board, 'n lid van die Arkansas Economic Development Commission, 'n lid van die Governor's Next Step Foundation en 'n lid van die St Mary's Regional Medical Center Board of Trustees, lid van die Russellville Chamber of Handel en die Raad van Direkteure, Simmons First Bank.

Voor haar senaatloopbaan in 1984 was sy medevoorsitter van die Arkansas Republican Party en het sy outeur geword. Haar boek, "Weduwee: weer persoonlik en finansieel begin", is in 1999 gepubliseer.

Tydens haar loopbaan in die senaat was sy ondervoorsitter van die senaatskomitee oor vervoer, tegnologie en wetgewende aangeleenthede, en lid van die wetgewende raad, die gesamentlike begrotingskomitee, die gesamentlike prestasiebeoordelingskomitee, die senaat se inkomste- en belastingkomitee en die senaatkomitee oor Stad, Provinsie en Plaaslike Sake.

Senator Irma Hunter Brown

Senaat van Arkansas: 2003-2008

Senator Brown van Little Rock was die eerste Afro-Amerikaanse vrou wat verkies is tot die Huis van Verteenwoordigers in Arkansas en dien van 1980 tot 1998. Daarna word sy die eerste Afro-Amerikaanse vrou wat in die geskiedenis van die Arkansas Senaat dien nadat sy verkies is in 2002. Sy dien ses jaar in die senaat en word voorsitter van die senaatskomitee oor stad, provinsie en plaaslike aangeleenthede.

Sy was 'n boorling van Tampa, Florida, en was lid van die African Methodist Episcopal Church. Sy en haar man, dr. Roosevelt Brown, het twee kinders grootgemaak.

Sy het Shorter Junior College bygewoon en studeer magna cum laude aan die voormalige Arkansas AM & ampN University, wat nou die Universiteit van Arkansas in Pine Bluff is. Sy het die Memphis State University en die voormalige DC Teachers College bygewoon, wat later Federal State University in Washington, DC geword het.

Sy was 'n onderwyser in Memphis en Washington, DC en daarna direkteur van voedingsopvoeding in Little Rock. Sy het vir die onderwysdepartement gewerk en was van 1998 tot 2001 president van Shorter College.

Senator Brown was lid van die NAACP en die North Little Rock Rotary Club.

Gedurende haar loopbaan het sy die ACLU Humanitarian of the Year -toekenning ontvang. Sy behoort aan die Alpha Kappa Alpha -soriteit en ontvang 'n eredoktorsgraad van Shorter Junior College en 'n genoot aan die Institute of Politics aan Hendrix College in Conway.

Senator Brenda Gullett

Arkansas Senaat: 2001-2004

Senator Brenda Gullett verteenwoordig Pine Bluff en gedeeltes van die suidooste van Arkansas vir vier jaar, van 2001 tot 2004.

In die 84ste Algemene Vergadering was sy voorsitter van die Senaat se tussentydse komitee oor kinders en jeug en ondervoorsitter van die Senaat se opvoedingskomitee.

In die 83ste Algemene Vergadering was sy ondervoorsitter van die Senaatskomitee oor Openbare Gesondheid, Welsyn en Arbeid en was hy gereeld voorsitter van die subkomitee oor befondsing van verpleeginrigtings. Sy het ook in die gesamentlike begrotingskomitee gedien, wat alle staatsagentskappe se bestedingsversoeke deeglik hersien voordat die hele senaat dit oorweeg.

Een van haar wetgewende prioriteite was die uitbreiding van toegang tot kwaliteit gesondheidsorg, veral in landelike, geïsoleerde gebiede van Arkansas wat medies onder diens is.

Gullett was die hoofborg van wetgewing wat deur die staat se korrektiewe departement versoek is om die werking van staatsgevangenisse te moderniseer en te stroomlyn. Sy het 'n pakket wette geborg wat mense teen diskriminasie beskerm op grond van die resultate van genetiese toetse en DNS -bemonstering.

Gullett was medeborg vir 'n wet om die batetoets vir kinders te verwyder om in aanmerking te kom vir Medicaid-gesondheidsdekking. Sy was die borg van die Senaat van wetgewing om rompslomp in die lisensievereistes vir verskaffers van respiratoriese sorg uit te skakel.

Gullett is vereer deur die Arkansas Nurses Association, wat haar die vereniging se "Friend of Nursing" toegeken het vir haar pogings om die groeiende tekort aan verpleegsters in Arkansas die hoof te bied.

Sy word erken as 'n vriend van die vragmotors omdat sy wetgewing geborg het wat duidelik maak dat verhoogde boetes wat teen vragmotors opgelê word vir spoed slegs toegelaat word op snelweë waar die verskillende spoedgrense vir vragmotors geplaas word.

Voor haar verkiesing tot die Senaat dien sy 'n termyn in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en drie termyne in die Jefferson County Quorum Court.

Senator Gullett, gebore in Houston, is 'n seminaarleier en spreker by Brenda Gullett and Associates. Sy behaal 'n B.A. graad in Engels en mondelinge kommunikasie aan die Universiteit van Houston.

Sy en haar man, dr. Robert R. Gullett, Jr., het twee seuns.

Senator Judy Pridgen

Senaat van Arkansas: Julie 2002 - Januarie 2003

Senator Judy Pridgen het slegs ongeveer sewe maande in die Arkansas Senaat gedien. Sy het senator Doyle Webb se sitplek (distrik 14) beklee toe hy bedank om 'n pos te neem vir die personeel van luitenant -goewerneur Win Rockefeller. Senator Pridgen het senator Webb se komitee -opdragte oorgeneem.

Sy het in die komitees van die regterlike en staatsagentskappe en regeringsake gedien.

Sy wou nie herkies nie, want sy het gesê sy wil nie teen Shane Broadway, wat die verkiesing in November 2003 gewen het, deelneem nie.

Voordat senator Pridgen in die Arkansas -senaat diens gedoen het, het sy in 1992 die eerste vroulike balju in die deelstaat Arkansas geword vir Saline County.

Senator Peggy Jeffries

Senaat van Arkansas: 1995-1998

Senator Peggy Jeffries verteenwoordig Fort Smith vir vier jaar in die Senaat van Arkansas, van 1995 tot 1998.

Sy was 'n lid van die Onderwyskomitee van die Senaat en die Komitee vir Vervoer, Veroudering en Wetgewing. Sy het ook gedien in die komitee vir openbare aftree- en sosiale sekerheidstelsels en die gesamentlike ouditkomitee.

Tydens die wetgewingsessies 1995 en 1997 was sy die enigste vrou in die senaat.

Sy was 'n komiteelid van die Republikeinse Nasionale Komitee wat aktief was in die Arkansas -hoofstuk van die Eagle Forum, en het gewerk vir die presidensiële veldtog van senator Ted Cruz van Texas.

Senator Charlie Cole Chaffin

Arkansas Senaat: 1984-1994 (Fotogalery)

Senator Charlie Cole Chaffin is verkies in 'n spesiale verkiesing in 1984 na die dood van senator James Teague. Sy is verkies tot Senaat Distrik 16 wat dele van die provinsies Saline en Perry dek.

Tydens Senator Chaffin se eerste (75ste) Algemene Vergadering in 1985 was sy lid van die Onderwyskomitee van die Senaat. Senator Chaffin took part in five legislative sessions and in four of them she was the only woman.

Senator Gladys Watson joined Senator Chaffin for the 77th General Assembly (1989-1990.)

After serving in the Arkansas Senate she went to work for the Arkansas School for Mathematics, Sciences and the Arts.

Senator Gladys Watson

Arkansas Senate: 1989-1990 (Photo Gallery)

Senator Gladys Watson was elected in a special election in 1988 to her husband’s seat. Senator Thomas “Tom” Watson passed away while still serving out this term as state senator for District 5.

Senator Watson served in the 77th General Assembly where the other woman in the Senate was Senator Charlie Cole Chaffin. Senator Watson served on the Senate Public Transportation committee. Senator Watson served in only one session for the Arkansas Senate.

She passed away on January 11, 1996 and is buried in the Monette Memorial Cemetery, in Monette, Arkansas.

Senator Vada Sheid

Arkansas Senate: 1977–1984 (Photo Gallery)

Senator Vada Sheid was elected to the Arkansas Senate in 1976. She was the first woman to be elected who had not succeeded through the death of a husband.

Senator Sheid served in the Senate from 1977 to 1984 when she was defeated by Steve Leulf. She represented Arkansas Senate District 20 which covered Baxter, Marion, Boone, Newton and Searcy counties. Senator Sheid was first elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 1967 before she came to the upper chamber. She was instrumental in sponsoring legislation creating Arkansas State University – Mountain Home and North AR Community College in Harrison. She also sponsored numerous highway projects including North Fork Lake Bridge, previously only accessible by ferry.

Senator Sheid died on February 11, 2008 at the age of 91. She is buried at Baxter Memorial Gardens in Mountain Home, Arkansas.

Senator Dorathy Allen

Arkansas Senate: 1964–1974

Senator Dorathy Allen was elected to the Arkansas Senate in 1964 in a special election. She took her husband’s (Senator Tom Allen) seat after he passed in the previous year (1963).

Senator Dorathy Allen represented District 26 which at the time included Monroe, Lee, Arkansas and Phillips counties. Senator Allen was the first woman to be elected to the Arkansas Senate.

She served until 1974. During the 69th General Assembly (1973) Senator Allen served as the chair of the Legislative Affairs and she was a member of the Public Health, Welfare and Labor committee. Following her senate tenure she served as a senate clerk in 1975 and 1976.

Senator Dorathy Allen passed away on May, 12, 1990 and is buried at Oakland Cemetery in Brinkley, Arkansas.


Paulette Jordan is running to become the first Native American woman in the U.S. Senate

Idaho native and politician Paulette Jordan is hoping to bring a lot of change to her home state this November.

As the Democratic nominee for Idaho's Senate seat up for election this year, Jordan, is hoping to defeat long-term Republican incumbent, Sen. Jim Risch, who is running for a third six-year term. If Jordan wins, she will be Idaho's first female senator and the first Native American woman in U.S. Senate history. Jordan's victory will also mark the first time in more than 40 years that Idaho has had a Democratic senator.

A member of the Coeur Dɺlene Tribe, Jordan, 40, grew up on a reservation in Idaho where she learned about leadership and protecting her community's land and resources at a young age. Both of her grandparents, she tells CNBC Make It, were chiefs, and they led negotiations on government affairs and executive orders for members of her tribe. Some of these negotiations, she says, included "protecting our sovereign rights to access natural resources" and protecting her tribe's land bases.

"Really, it's all about tribal sovereignty, independence and protecting our way of life," she explains. "I was raised up with the mindset of being very driven to be economically sovereign and having this sovereign voice when it comes to protecting our land and having our natural resources be stewards of the environment."

After graduating from the University of Washington in 2003, Jordan followed in her family's footsteps and was elected to the Coeur dɺlene Tribal Council in 2008, making her the youngest person to hold that role. In 2014, she set out to serve the broader Idahoan community when she ran to represent the 5th district in the Idaho House of Representatives. Unseating incumbent Republican Rep. Cindy Agidius, Jordan won the seat and successfully ran for a second two-year term in 2016.

In 2018, Jordan continued her political journey by becoming the Democratic nominee for governor of Idaho, making her the first woman nominated to the position by a major party in the state and the first Native American woman nominated for governor in U.S. history. Though Jordan lost the election to Republican nominee Brad Little, she earned nearly 40% of the votes in that election.

Jordan, who currently serves as senior executive board representative and finance chair and energy initiative chair for the National Indian Gaming Association, is now setting out to serve her state in a new way by taking over the Senate seat. If elected, she plans to focus on a number of key issues, starting with health care.

"Health care is going to be the number one issue when it comes to facing this pandemic," she says. "And this is a challenge for those who contract Covid-19 and can barely afford health care."

Jordan explains that when you look at the most economically depressed communities in this country, Native Americans are often near the top of the list and they're being disproportionately impacted by Covid-19. In June, the Navajo Nation had the highest infection rate in the country, greater than that of New York at the time, according to the Center for American Progress. In New Mexico, where Native people make up only about one-tenth of the population, the Center for American Progress reported that they accounted for more than 55% of coronavirus cases. This disproportionate impact is linked to the "limited health services, broken infrastructure and above-average rates of immunocompromising diseases" that Native people face, reports the Center for American Progress.

To address this health-care crisis, Jordan says she will work to expand affordable health care to all Idaho citizens and she will work to guarantee health care coverage to citizens with pre-existing health conditions. During her first year in the Idaho House of Representatives, she explains that she promoted expanding Medicaid throughout the state. Though that attempt was unsuccessful, the young politician worked to gain more support during her second term, helping to take the issue to a ballot initiative in 2018 where more than 61% of Idaho voters voted in favor of the expansion.

In addition to health care, Jordan says today's economic crisis is another key issue she will focus on as senator for Idaho. "I want to see our economy turn in favor of working class families and make sure that we are defending economically suppressed communities that no one is looking out for," she says. "We have so many people facing evictions and in the homeless line to get into homeless shelters and we have so many food insecure families. It's unfortunate, but this is the reality and there is an opportunity to turn this economic crisis that we face around to benefit everyone."

Though the state's unemployment rates have improved from 11% earlier this year when stay-at-home orders were in place to 4.2% as of early October, Jordan says there is still a lot more work that needs to be done in response to the current health and economic crisis.

As of early October, Idaho had one of the worst positive Covid-19 test rates in the country considering its population size, having reached 500 deaths, reports to the Associated Press. In July, a report released by the nonprofit organization United Way of Treasure Valley also found that 40% of Idahoans are not financially stable. The report referred to these individuals who are financially unstable as "ALICE," which stands for asset limited, income constrained, employed. Many of these people, according to Nora Carpenter, president of United Way of Treasure Valley, are grocery store clerks, truck drivers and daycare providers who were struggling to keep up with the state's rising costs of living even before the pandemic.

Beyond the health and economic crisis of today, Jordan says she will continue to fight to protect the sovereignty of tribal communities "and their right to make their own decisions." That's why, she says, "I believe in local control and local governance because really it's the people at the local level who know best for the decisions they should make on behalf of their own communities, their neighbors and their friends."

"There is opportunity for [tribes] to be sovereign in all ways possible," she adds. "But, when you don't have leadership that is educated on what sovereignty means or what that relationship really looks like and what it is intended to be, then you're going to be at a loss where tribes are constantly fighting for recognition of that sovereignty."

If elected in November, the mom of two says she understands the impact that her historical win will have as she reflects back on the history of Native American people in this country.

"Many people ask, 'Well, why in the 21st century have we never seen a Native American woman like yourself in the Senate,'" she says. "And I remind them that we not only went through this mass genocide that the country still hides, but a lot of our education, you know from the relationship between the first peoples of this land to what is now the United States, is not taught in our history books. It's not taught in the public education system."

Therefore, she says, with a lack of education, people often forget about the struggles that Native Americans have faced in this country and they often forget that it wasn't until 1962 when Native Americans were finally granted the right to vote in all states.

"So we're like the last to really come to the table to be able to have a voice," she says. "And now that we are starting to build into this practice of voting and participating in the national electoral process, we're also recognizing that we can not only now vote, but we can also run and become a voice."


History-Making Congresswoman

In 2012, Duckworth took a second shot at a seat in Congress, as a Democrat representing Illinois, and won. Her victory was twofold: Not only did Duckworth now have the platform to advance her political agenda, but she also became a living example for fellow female veterans, as the first disabled woman ever to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. 

During her time in the House of Representatives, Duckworth worked in a number of committees including the House Committee on Armed Services, the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, as well as the House Select Committee on the Events, Surrounding the 2012 Terrorist Attack in Benghazi. In 2013, during a House hearing, she made headlines when she took Virginia CEO Braulio Castillo to task for fraudulently representing himself as a disabled military vet and receiving millions of dollars in federal contracts. "Shame on you. You may not have broken any laws … [but] you broke the trust of veterans.” Duckworth added, “Twisting your ankle in prep school is not defending or serving this nation.”

In 2016, Duckworth successfully ran for the U.S. Senate against incumbent Mark S. Kirk, thereby becoming the second female Asian American to win a Senate seat (California&aposs Kamala Harris soon became the third) and the first disabled woman to accomplish the task. An outspoken Democrat, she railed against President Donald Trump during the brief government shutdown in January 2018, saying, "I will not be lectured about what our military needs by a five-deferment draft dodger."


Women of the Senate Oral History Project

To commemorate the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, ratified on August 18, 1920, and to recognize the first woman to serve in the U.S. Senate, Rebecca Felton, who took the oath of office on November 21, 1922, the Senate Historical Office is conducting oral histories with former senators, officers, and staff. The interviews included in this ongoing project document women&rsquos impact on the institution and its legislative business. By recording and preserving their stories, we hope to develop a fuller, richer understanding of women&rsquos role in the Senate and in governing the nation.

Just 58 women have served in the Senate since the first woman took the oath of office in 1922. This collection of interviews captures some of their varied experiences, the challenges they faced, their unique perspectives on social and political issues of the day, and their impact on the institution and the country. From their decision to run for office to their committee assignments to their bonds with other senators, their stories are central to understanding Senate history.

Often working behind the scenes, Senate staff provide support that is essential to the institution&rsquos operation. These interviews represent a diverse group of personalities who experienced firsthand the many challenges of life on Capitol Hill. Their recollections offer unique perspectives on the evolving role of women in the Senate, highlight their work on committees and in members&rsquo offices, and bring attention to their countless other contributions.


Kamala Harris makes history as projected vice president-elect

Before Harris made history in the ivory halls of Congress and on the Democratic presidential ticket, her sharp debate skills and understanding of her multiracial heritage were honed at Howard University, one of the most prestigious historically Black colleges in the country.

Harris, a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha, the historically Black sorority she joined while at Howard, will also be the first vice president from a historically Black Greek-letter organization.

Harris’ mother, Shyamala Gopalan, who immigrated to the United States at the age of 19 to pursue a doctorate in nutrition and endocrinology at the University of California, Berkeley, had an immense impact on Harris and her sister, Maya. The senator has spoken about how Gopalan, a civil rights activist, was a role model for her despite the challenges she faced as an immigrant and later as a single mother, forging a life in the United States.

Gopalan met Harris’ father, Donald, while participating in civil rights protests. They eventually divorced, with her raising the children on her own. Gopalan was cognizant that most people would see her children as Black and was “determined to make sure we would grow into confident, proud Black women,” Harris wrote in her autobiography, “The Truths We Hold.” However, Gopalan also made efforts to nurture her children’s Indian heritage.

Picking Harris also provided the ticket with generational diversity. Biden, who will turn 78 later this month, is the oldest president-elect in U.S. history.

This election is about so much more than @JoeBiden or me. It’s about the soul of America and our willingness to fight for it. We have a lot of work ahead of us. Let’s get started.pic.twitter.com/Bb9JZpggLN

— Kamala Harris (@KamalaHarris) November 7, 2020

The Democratic Party and the campaign argued that the ticket could bring together a racially diverse coalition of voters to take back the White House to rescue the economy and protect American lives as the coronavirus pandemic shows no signs of slowing down. The ticket also promised to heal racial and partisan divides.

Harris, who was also a 2020 presidential hopeful, garnered attention early in the primary when she clashed with Biden over racial issues during the first Democratic debate. Biden later said the clash was surprising because, as attorney general, Harris worked closely with her Delaware counterpart, Biden’s son Beau Biden.

But it was no shock when Biden tapped her to be his running mate. Political observers have noted that Harris' place on the ticket resonated with voters of color, and was also indicative of the power and influence Black women have as a voting bloc in the country and particularly in the Democratic Party.

Harris’ record as a prosecutor, especially on issues such as marijuana convictions and truancy, was seen as both an asset and a liability both during her own unsuccessful run for the Democratic nomination and when Biden tapped her to be his running mate. A prosecutor’s polish was helpful as she campaigned and participated in debates, but her record was a source of concern to younger, more progressive voters, particularly young Black voters.

During both her primary run and as the vice presidential nominee, Harris touched on the legacy of Black women who paved the way for her. She gave her acceptance speech during the Democratic National Convention around the time of the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote. Harris noted, however, that right came much later for most Black women, who helped secure that victory but were still barred from voting.

Laai die NBC News -app af vir nuus en politiek

Black and female lawmakers Saturday noted the trailblazing moment.

"4 years ago, @KamalaHarris became the first South Asian American woman ever elected to the Senate," Rep. Pramila Jayapal, D-Wash., tweeted . "Now, she's the Vice President-Elect of the United States!! We've not only shattered ceilings, but we've constructed a different path for millions as they imagine their own futures."

"Now more than ever, our country’s leadership is more reflective of our diverse and dynamic country," said Rep. Jim Clyburn, D-S.C., whose endorsement was widely considered to have been instrumental to Biden's securing the Democratic nomination.

"I feel like our ancestors are rejoicing," Sen. Cory Booker, D-N.J., tweeted. "For the first time, a Black and South Asian woman has been elected Vice President of the United States. My sister has made history and blazed a trail for future generations to follow. We love you, @KamalaHarris."

Verwante

Gallery Photos: Celebrations spread with news of Biden victory

Andra Gillespie, an associate professor of political science at Emory University, told NBC News in a phone interview that Harris' election shows Black women taking their "rightful places of leadership within the party, given how important they are to Democratic victories around the country."

"I think that's actually really important because it is centering women of color in the history and story of women in the United States in ways that they haven't been before," she said.

Gillespie added, "Now it becomes a question of, who else does she open doors for?"

Dartunorro Clark covers politics, including the Covid-19 recovery, for NBC News.


Kamala Harris

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Kamala Harris, tenvolle Kamala Devi Harris, (born October 20, 1964, Oakland, California, U.S.), 49th vice president of the United States (2021– ) in the Democratic administration of Pres. Joe Biden. She was the first woman and the first African American to hold the post. She had previously served in the U.S. Senate (2017–21) and as attorney general of California (2011–17).

Who is Kamala Harris?

Kamala Harris, 49th vice president of the United States, is the first Black woman to have been elected vice president. She represented California in the U.S. Senate from 2017 to 2021 and served as the state’s attorney general from 2011 to 2017.

What political party is Kamala Harris a member of?

Kamala Harris is a member of the Democratic Party.

Did Kamala Harris run for president?

Kamala Harris sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 2020. The nomination was secured by Joe Biden, who chose Harris as his running mate.

Where was Kamala Harris born?

Kamala Harris was born in Oakland, California, on October 20, 1964.

Where did Kamala Harris go to college?

Kamala Harris earned a B.A. in political science and economics from Howard University in 1986 and a law degree from Hastings College in 1989.

Her father, who was Jamaican, taught at Stanford University, and her mother, the daughter of an Indian diplomat, was a cancer researcher. Her younger sister, Maya, later became a public policy advocate. After studying political science and economics (B.A., 1986) at Howard University, Kamala earned a law degree (1989) from Hastings College.

She subsequently worked as a deputy district attorney (1990–98) in Oakland, earning a reputation for toughness as she prosecuted cases of gang violence, drug trafficking, and sexual abuse. Harris rose through the ranks, becoming district attorney in 2004. In 2010 she was narrowly elected attorney general of California—winning by a margin of less than 1 percent—thus becoming the first female and the first African American to hold the post. After taking office the following year, she demonstrated political independence, rejecting, for example, pressure from the administration of Pres. Barack Obama for her to settle a nationwide lawsuit against mortgage lenders for unfair practices. Instead, she pressed California’s case and in 2012 won a judgment five times higher than that originally offered. Her refusal to defend Proposition 8 (2008), which banned same-sex marriage in the state, helped lead to it being overturned in 2013. Harris’s book, Smart on Crime (2009 cowritten with Joan O’C. Hamilton), was considered a model for dealing with the problem of criminal recidivism.

In 2012 Harris delivered a memorable address at the Democratic National Convention, raising her national profile. Two years later she married attorney Douglas Emhoff. Widely considered a rising star within the party, she was recruited to run for the U.S. Senate seat held by Barbara Boxer, who was retiring. In early 2015 Harris declared her candidacy, and on the campaign trail she called for immigration and criminal-justice reforms, increases to the minimum wage, and protection of women’s reproductive rights. She easily won the 2016 election.

When she took office in January 2017, Harris became the first Indian American in the Senate and just the second Black woman. She began serving on both the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Judiciary Committee, among other assignments. She became known for her prosecutorial style of questioning witnesses during hearings, which drew criticism—and occasional interruptions—from Republican senators. In June she drew particular attention for her questions to U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions, who was testifying before the intelligence committee on alleged Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election she had earlier called on him to resign. Harris’s memoir, The Truths We Hold: An American Journey, was published in January 2019.

Shortly thereafter Harris announced that she was seeking the Democratic presidential nomination in 2020. From the outset she was seen as one of the leading contenders, and she drew particular attention when, during a primary debate, she had a contentious exchange with fellow candidate Joe Biden over his opposition to school busing in the 1970s and ’80s, among other race-related topics. Although Harris’s support initially increased, by September 2019 her campaign was in serious trouble, and in December she dropped out of the race. She continued to maintain a high profile, notably becoming a leading advocate for social-justice reform following the May 2020 death of George Floyd, an African American who had been in police custody. Her efforts silenced some who had criticized her tenure as attorney general, alleging that she had failed to investigate charges of police misconduct, including questionable shootings. Others, however, felt that her embrace of reform was a political maneuver to capitalize on the increasing public popularity of social change. As racial injustice became a major issue in the United States, many Democrats called on Biden, the party’s presumptive nominee, to select an African American woman—a demographic that was seen as pivotal to his election chances—as his vice presidential running mate. In August Biden chose Harris, and she thus was the first Black woman to appear on a major party’s national ticket. In November she became the first Black woman to be elected vice president of the United States.

In the ensuing weeks Trump and various other Republicans challenged the election results, claiming voter fraud. Although a number of lawsuits were filed, no evidence was provided to support the allegations, and the vast majority of the cases were dismissed. During this time Harris and Biden began the transition to a new administration, announcing an agenda and selecting staff. By early December all states had certified the election results, and the process then moved to Congress for final certification. Amid Trump’s repeated calls for Republicans to overturn the election, a group of congressional members, which notably included Senators Josh Hawley (Missouri) and Ted Cruz (Texas), announced that they would challenge the electors of various states. Shortly after the proceedings began on January 6, 2021, a mob of Trump supporters stormed the Capitol. It took several hours to secure the building, but Biden and Harris were eventually certified as the winners. She later denounced the siege—which many believed was incited by Trump—as “an assault on America’s democracy.” On January 18 she officially resigned from the Senate. Two days later, amid an incredible security presence, Harris was sworn in as vice president.


Sarah McBride makes history as 1st transgender state senator in US

McBride is the nation's highest-ranking openly transgender elected official.

Election 2020: Notable races outside the presidential election

Sarah McBride has won a seat in the Delaware state Senate Tuesday night, making history by becoming the first openly transgender state senator in the United States.

McBride, 30, will also be the nation's highest-ranking openly transgender elected official.

She defeated her Republican opponent, Steven Washington, 73% to 27%, with all precincts reporting.

McBride tweeted Tuesday night, "I hope tonight shows an LGBTQ kid that our democracy is big enough for them, too."

The Human Rights Campaign, for which McBride is a spokesperson, took to Twitter to congratulate her.

"We're so proud of you for this historic win," the group wrote.

This is not the first time McBride has made history.

She interned with President Barack Obama’s administration in 2012, becoming the first openly transgender person to work at the White House, according to The New York Times.

In 2016, McBride gave a speech at the Democratic National Convention, becoming the first transgender person to speak at a major party's national convention.

McBride also has a connection to former Vice President Joe Biden -- she worked for his late son, Beau Biden, when he was Delaware's attorney general.

Joe Biden wrote the foreword to McBride’s 2018 book, "Tomorrow Will Be Different: Love, Loss, and the Fight for Trans Equality."



Kommentaar:

  1. Tygolabar

    Ek is jammer, maar na my mening is jy verkeerd. Ek is in staat om dit te bewys.

  2. Dusho

    Watter woorde ... wetenskapfiksie

  3. Troyes

    so baie geluk... =)

  4. Whitlock

    Tema Rulit



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